Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A
Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.
Cook, Karon F; Keefe, Francis; Jensen, Mark P; Roddey, Toni S; Callahan, Leigh F; Revicki, Dennis; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Salem, Rana; Amtmann, Dagmar
Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E
Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schloss, Heather M; Haaga, David A F
Experiential avoidance and distress intolerance play a central role in novel behavior therapies, yet they appear to overlap considerably the REBT concept of low frustration tolerance. Using baseline data from 100 adult cigarette smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation therapies, the present study evaluated the convergent validity of common questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; AAQ; Hayes et al. 2004, and Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale: AIS; Gifford et al. 2004) and behavioral measures of distress tolerance (computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task: MTPT-C: Strong et al. 2003; computerized Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT-C; Lejuez et al. 2003). The distress tolerance measures correlated significantly (r = .29) with one another. However, the questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance did not correlate with each other, nor with the behavioral measures. Further research is needed on the validity of measuring experiential avoidance by self-report and of the overlap versus distinctiveness of seemingly similar constructs such as experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, and frustration tolerance.
Burkhart, B R; Green, S B; Harrison, W H
Examined the predictive validity and construct equivalence of the three major procedures used to measure assertive behavior: Self-report, behavioral role-playing, and in-vivo assessment. Seventy-five Ss, who spanned the range of assertiveness, completed two self-report measures of assertiveness, the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) and the College Self-Expression Scale (CSES); two scales from the Endler S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness, the interpersonal and general anxiety scales; eight role-playing situations that involved the expression of positive and negative assertiveness; and a telephone in-vivo task. In general, the study revealed the following: (1) assertiveness measures are task-dependent in that there was more overlap within task than between tasks; (2) there is a moderate degree of correspondence between self-report and role-playing measures, although this was true only for negative assertion; (3) positive and negative assertion do not appear to have the same topography of responding; and (4) there appears to be no consistent relationship between the in-vivo measure and any other type of assertiveness measure.
Hall, Nathaniel J; Liu, Jingwen; Kertes, Darlene A; Wynne, Clive D L
Despite the prevalence of dogs as family pets and increased scientific interest in canine behavior, few studies have investigated characteristics of the child or dog that influence the child-dog relationship. In the present study, we explored how behavioral and self-report measures influence a child's reported feelings of attachment to their dog, as assessed by the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). We tested specifically whether children ( N = 99; Age: M= 10.25 years, SD= 1.31 years) reported stronger attachment to dogs that were perceived as being more supportive (measured by a modified version of the Network of Relationships Inventory), to dogs that are more successful in following the child's pointing gesture in a standard two-object choice test, or to dogs that solicited more petting in a sociability assessment. In addition, we assessed whether children's attachment security to their parent, and whether being responsible for the care of their dog, influenced reported feelings of attachment to the dog. Overall, perceived support provided by the dog was highly predictive of all subscales of the LAPS. The dog's success in following the child's pointing gesture and lower rates of petting during the sociability assessment were associated with higher ratings on the general attachment subscale of the LAPS, but not of other subscales of the LAPS. Caring for the dog did not predict the child's reported attachment to dog, but did predict the dog's behavior on the point following task and petting during the sociability task. If the child cared for the dog, the dog was more likely to be successful on the pointing task and more likely to be petted. These results indicate a dyadic relationship in which the child's care for the dog is associated with the dog's behavior on the behavioral tasks, which in turn is related to the child's reported feelings of attachment. The direction of influence and nature of this dyad will be a fruitful area for future research.
Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin
The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.
Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.
Burkhart, Barry R.
Seventy-five subjects, who spanned the range of assertiveness, completed two self-report measures of assertiveness, eight role-playing situations involving positive and negative assertiveness, and a telephone in-vivo task. Correlations between the three measurement methods were examined. (Author/SJL)
Scanlon, Elizabeth M.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The internal consistency and validity of three new scales for measuring assertiveness in children were tested. Two of the scales were able to "unbind" aggressive from assertive behavior, while the third was able to "unbind" submissive from assertive behavior. At present, a combination of the three scales is recommended. (KH)
Classen, Sherrilene; Wen, Pey-Shan; Velozo, Craig A; Bédard, Michel; Winter, Sandra M; Brumback, Babette; Lanford, Desiree N
We investigated the psychometric properties of the 68-item Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) with 80 older drivers, 80 caregivers, and 2 evaluators from two sites. Using Rasch analysis, we examined unidimensionality and local dependence; rating scale; item- and person-level psychometrics; and item hierarchy of older drivers, caregivers, and driving evaluators who had completed the SDBM. The evidence suggested the SDBM is unidimensional, but pairs of items showed local dependency. Across the three rater groups, the data showed good person (≥3.4) and item (≥3.6) separation as well as good person (≥.93) and item reliability (≥.92). Cronbach's α was ≥.96, and few items were misfitting. Some of the items did not follow the hypothesized order of item difficulty. The SDBM classified the older drivers into six ability levels, but to fully calibrate the instrument it must be refined in terms of its items (e.g., item exclusion) and then tested among participants of lesser ability. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Groot, M.; Prins, P.J.M.
Assessed the psychometric qualities of R. H. Deluty"s (see record 1980-02381-001) Children"s Action Tendency Scale (CATS) and L. Michelson and R. Wood"s (1982) Children"s Assertive Behavior Scale (CABS) with 157 Dutch children (aged 8 yrs 9 mo-13 yrs 3 mo). Both instruments were designed to assess
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…
K. Paige Harden
Full Text Available The dual systems model posits that adolescent risk-taking results from an imbalance between a cognitive control system and an incentive processing system. Researchers interested in understanding the development of adolescent risk-taking use a diverse array of behavioral and self-report measures to index cognitive control and incentive processing. It is currently unclear whether different measures commonly interpreted as indicators of the same psychological construct do, in fact, tap the same underlying dimension of individual differences. In a diverse sample of 810 adolescent twins and triplets (M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.4 years from the Texas Twin Project, we investigated the factor structure of fifteen self-report and task-based measures relevant to adolescent risk-taking. These measures can be organized into four factors, which we labeled premeditation, fearlessness, cognitive dyscontrol, and reward seeking. Most behavioral measures contained large amounts of task-specific variance; however, most genetic variance in each measure was shared with other measures of the corresponding factor. Behavior genetic analyses further indicated that genetic influences on cognitive dyscontrol overlapped nearly perfectly with genetic influences on IQ (rA = −0.91. These findings underscore the limitations of using single laboratory tasks in isolation, and indicate that the study of adolescent risk taking will benefit from applying multimethod approaches.
Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Martinez-Gomez, David; Sallis, James F; Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Fernández-Santos, Jorge; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Veiga, Oscar L
To examine the associations of (i) objectively measured and self-reported sedentary behavior during leisure time with academic performance and (ii) patterns of sedentary behavior with academic performance. This study was conducted with 1146 youth aged 12.5±2.5years in Spain during 2011-2012. Leisure-time sedentary behavior during out-of-school hours was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Academic performance was assessed through school grades. Objectively measured sedentary leisure-time was not significantly associated with academic performance. Time spent in Internet surfing, listening to music, and sitting without doing anything were negatively associated with all academic performance indicators (β ranging from -0.066 to -0.144; all pacademic indicators (β ranging from -0.085 to -0.148; all pacademic indicators (β ranging from 0.063 to 0.105; all pleisure-time, but not objectively measured sedentary leisure time, may influence academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ostacher, Michael J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gold, Alexandra K; Shesler, Leah W; Ketter, Terence A; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Friedman, Edward S; Iosifescu, Dan V; Thase, Michael E; Leon, Andrew C; Trivedi, Madhukar H
People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide, but no clinically useful scale has been validated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties in bipolar disorder of the 7- and 12-item versions of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a scale measuring suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms. The CHRT was administered to 283 symptomatic outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder who were randomized to receive lithium plus optimized personalized treatment (OPT), or OPT without lithium in a six month longitudinal comparative effectiveness trial. Participants were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews, clinician-rated assessments, and self-report questionnaires. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) was 0.80 for the 7-item CHRT-SR and 0.90 for the 12-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and three independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, hopelessness, and perceived lack of social support) for the 7-item version. CHRT-SR scores are correlated with measures of depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania scores. The 7- and 12-item CHRT-SR both had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of symptomatic subjects with bipolar disorder. The scale is highly correlated with depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania. Future research is needed to determine whether the CHRT-SR will be able to predict suicide attempts in clinical practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…
McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…
Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Phillips, Beatrice; Hoerr, Sharon L; Greene, Geoffrey
This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18-24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to obese (30 to obese (≥ 35). Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = .97; P students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A growing number of studies have linked facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) with various antisocial or violent behavioral tendencies. However, those studies have predominantly been laboratory based and low powered. This work reexamined the links between fWHR and behavioral tendencies in a large sample of 137,163 participants. Behavioral tendencies were measured using 55 well-established psychometric scales, including self-report scales measuring intelligence, domains and facets of the five-fa...
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Connor, Jane M.; And Others
Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…
Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove
BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...
between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...
Anna E. Saw
Full Text Available The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335 had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively.
A growing number of studies have linked facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) with various antisocial or violent behavioral tendencies. However, those studies have predominantly been laboratory based and low powered. This work reexamined the links between fWHR and behavioral tendencies in a large sample of 137,163 participants. Behavioral tendencies were measured using 55 well-established psychometric scales, including self-report scales measuring intelligence, domains and facets of the five-factor model of personality, impulsiveness, sense of fairness, sensational interests, self-monitoring, impression management, and satisfaction with life. The findings revealed that fWHR is not substantially linked with any of these self-reported measures of behavioral tendencies, calling into question whether the links between fWHR and behavior generalize beyond the small samples and specific experimental settings that have been used in past fWHR research.
Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita
Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.
Huitink, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Veerman, J.W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninetynine care staff
Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green, Samuel B.; And Others
Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…
Background It remains unclear what people are attempting to communicate, in terms of objectively monitored behavior, when describing their physical activity and sedentary behavior through self-report. The purpose of this study was to examine various objectively monitored accelerometer variables (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], steps/day, sedentary time, etc.) across categories of self-reported MVPA (activity (UODA; “mostly sitting” vs. “stand, walk, lift, or carry”), and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB; ≥ 3 vs. behavior between categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. Results On average, adults reporting compliance with physical activity guidelines (≥ 150 minutes/week of MVPA) accumulated more objectively measured physical activity and similar amounts of sedentary time relative to those reporting not achieving guidelines. Adults reporting their daily UODA as “mostly sitting” or accruing ≥ 3 hours/day of LTSB accumulated less objectively monitored physical activity and more sedentary time than those who described their UODA as “stand, walk, lift, or carry” or accrued active cross-classified category (7,935 steps/day; ≥ 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, “stand, walk, lift, or carry” UODA, and active cross-classified category (3,532 steps/day; physical activity indicators varied significantly between self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB categories, while objectively monitored sedentary time only varied between UODA and LTSB categories. Cross-classifications of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB responses depict a greater range of physical activity than viewing dichotomous responses for these variables one-at-a-time. PMID:24215625
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59% among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17 were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors.
Stewart, Susan M; Bing, Mark N; Davison, H Kristl; Woehr, David J; McIntyre, Michael D
Because employees may be reluctant to admit to performing deviant acts, the authors of this study reexamined the commonly used self-report measure of workplace deviance developed by R. J. Bennett and S. L. Robinson (2000). Specifically, the self-report measure was modified into a non-self-report measure based on multiple other-reported assessments to address methodological concerns with self-reported information regarding deviant workplace behaviors. The authors assessed the psychometric properties of this new measure by first conducting an exploratory factor analysis, which indicated a 3-factor structure (production deviance, property deviance, and personal aggression). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis on a different sample verified these findings. Taken together, the results suggest that the content and psychometric qualities of this non-self-report measure of workplace deviance closely represent S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennett's (1995) original typology of workplace deviance. The potential usefulness of this measure in organizational studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Wolf E Mehling
Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding
Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Man, Dong; Xu, Xunnan
Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers become carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has raised great concern in China. This study aims to provide initial insight into the self-reported driving behaviors and simulated driving performance of Chinese carless young drivers. Thirty-three carless young drivers and 32 young drivers with their own cars (as a comparison group) participated in this study. A modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) with a 4-factor structure (errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses) was used to study carless young drivers' self-reported driving behaviors. A simulated driving experiment using a low-cost, fixed-base driving simulator was conducted to measure their simulated driving performance (errors, violations, attention lapses, driving maintenance, reaction time, and accidents). Self-reported DBQ outcomes showed that carless young drivers reported similar errors, more attention lapses, fewer memory lapses, and significantly fewer violation behaviors relative to young drivers with their own cars, whereas simulated driving results revealed that they committed significantly more errors, attention lapses, and violation behaviors than the comparison group. Carless young drivers had a lower ability to maintain the stability of speed and lane position, drove more cautiously approaching and passing through red traffic lights, and committed more accidents during simulated driving. A tendency to speed was not found among carless young drivers; their average speed and speeding frequency were all much lower than that of the comparison group. Lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of carless young drivers' self-reported violations, simulated violations
Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H
this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.
Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley
Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.
Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H
This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.
Janaina Maria Setto
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Life habits such as physical activity, leisure, eating habits, stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption can directly affect individuals' health. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health behaviors and diseases self-reported by employees of a federal public university in southeastern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 815 employees, of whom 347 were teachers and 468 were technical-administrative staff, aged between 20 and 65 years old. Data from this study were collected from a secondary database, from the Health Questionnaire (self-reported health conditions by teachers and technical-administrative employees, and from the institution's Vice Dean of Community Affairs. Among the variables assessed, the relationship between eating habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported illnesses (chronic diseases and infectious and parasitic diseases diagnosed by a doctor within the last 12 months was analyzed. Results: The mean prevalence of these diseases among teachers and technical-administrative staff was 3.1 and 2.9, respectively. This study showed a statistically significant association between unhealthy diet and cerebrovascular accidents; between irregular performance of physical activity/sedentary lifestyle and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic and digestive diseases; between overweight and cardiovascular diseases, endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension; and between smoking and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: We suggest the adoption of preventative measures and the control of risk behaviors among these employees.
Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F
The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E
This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.
Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J
The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.
Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.
Fleenor, John W.; Taylor, Sylvester
Relations were examined among the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT), the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; a style measure of behavioral preference) for samples of 431 to 12,115 managers. KAI scores were related to CPI-CT and MBTI-CI creativity levels. (SLD)
Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J
Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and
Korn, Liat; Weiss, Yossi; Rosenbloom, Tova
The purposes of this study are to characterize Israeli undergraduate students' driving violations in the terms of problem behavior theory and to identify whether there is any relationship between driving violations and health risk behaviors, daring behaviors, excitement seeking, and health promotion behaviors. This study is based on a structured self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to undergraduate students in an academic institution. The sample included 533 undergraduate students (374 females and 159 males). The mean age was 23.4 (SD = 1.4, range = 5). A higher prevalence of self-reported driving violations was found among males in comparison to females. All substance use measures were positively related to driving violations; for example, use of cigarettes (OR = 4.287, P driving violations. The strongest predictive factors for the frequent driving violations group were alcohol consumption-related variables: binge drinking (OR = 2.560, P driving violations group and selling or dealing drugs (12.143, P driving violations group was physical confrontation due to verbal disagreement (3.439, P driving violations was higher for subjects who reported intense physical workout regimens (OR = 1.638, P driving violations. This study shows that bachelors tend to be more involved in risk behaviors, such as substance use, excitement-seeking behaviors, and daring behaviors and are active physically and thus constitute a risk group for driving violations. As such, intervention resources should be directed toward this group.
Jessica R Andrews-Hanna
Full Text Available Adolescence is commonly characterized by impulsivity, poor decision-making, and lack of foresight. However, the developmental neural underpinnings of these characteristics are not well established.To test the hypothesis that these adolescent behaviors are linked to under-developed proactive control mechanisms, the present study employed a hybrid block/event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Stroop paradigm combined with self-report questionnaires in a large sample of adolescents and adults, ranging in age from 14 to 25. Compared to adults, adolescents under-activated a set of brain regions implicated in proactive top-down control across task blocks comprised of difficult and easy trials. Moreover, the magnitude of lateral prefrontal activity in adolescents predicted self-report measures of impulse control, foresight, and resistance to peer pressure. Consistent with reactive compensatory mechanisms to reduced proactive control, older adolescents exhibited elevated transient activity in regions implicated in response-related interference resolution.Collectively, these results suggest that maturation of cognitive control may be partly mediated by earlier development of neural systems supporting reactive control and delayed development of systems supporting proactive control. Importantly, the development of these mechanisms is associated with cognitive control in real-life behaviors.
Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.
Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…
Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan
Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.
Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John
Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…
Dick, M-L B; Bain, C J; Purdie, D M; Siskind, V; Molloy, D; Green, A C
This study aimed to explore the meaning and potential use of women's self-reported difficulties in conceiving as a measure of infertility in epidemiological studies, and to compare women's stated reasons for infertility with information in their medical records. Data were available from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer involving 1638 women. The sensitivity and specificity of women's self-reported infertility were calculated against their estimated fertility status based on detailed reproductive histories. Self-reported reasons for infertility were compared with diagnoses documented in women's medical records. The sensitivity of women's self-reported difficulty in conceiving was 66 and 69% respectively when compared with calendar-derived and self-reported times taken trying to conceive; its specificity was 95%. Forty-one (23%) of the 179 women for whom medical records were available had their self-reported fertility problem confirmed. Self-reported infertility causes could be compared with diagnoses in medical records for only 22 of these women. Self-reported difficulty conceiving is a useful measure of infertility for quantifying the burden of fertility problems experienced in the community. Validation of reasons for infertility is unlikely to be feasible through examination of medical records. Improved education of the public regarding the availability and success rates of infertility treatments is proposed.
Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.
Nelson, Helen J; Kendall, Garth E; Burns, Sharyn K; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A
Bullying in schools is a major health concern throughout the world, contributing to poor educational and mental health outcomes. School nurses are well placed to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of bullying prevention strategies. To evaluate the effect of such strategies, it is necessary to measure children's behavior over time. This scoping review of instruments that measure the self-report of aggressive behavior and bullying by children will inform the evaluation of bullying interventions. This review aimed to identify validated instruments that measure aggression and bullying among preadolescent children (age 8-12). The review was part of a larger study that sought to differentiate bullying from aggressive behavior by measuring the self-report of power imbalance between the aggressor and the child being bullied. The measurement of power imbalance was therefore a key aspect of the scoping review.
Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J
Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.
III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.
Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical me...
Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma
The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751
Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita
The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.
Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A
The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
Girard, Beverly Lawler
This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…
Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Lewis, Ioni; Algie, Jennifer; White, Melanie J
Self-report measures are typically used to assess the effectiveness of road safety advertisements. However, psychophysiological measures of persuasive processing (i.e., skin conductance response [SCR]) and objective driving measures of persuasive outcomes (i.e., in-vehicle Global Positioning System [GPS] devices) may provide further insights into the effectiveness of these advertisements. This study aimed to explore the persuasive processing and outcomes of 2 anti-speeding advertisements by incorporating both self-report and objective measures of speeding behavior. In addition, this study aimed to compare the findings derived from these different measurement approaches. Young drivers (N = 20, M age = 21.01 years) viewed either a positive or negative emotion-based anti-speeding television advertisement. While viewing the advertisement, SCR activity was measured to assess ad-evoked arousal responses. The RoadScout GPS device was then installed in participants' vehicles for 1 week to measure on-road speed-related driving behavior. Self-report measures assessed persuasive processing (emotional and arousal responses) and actual driving behavior. There was general correspondence between the self-report measures of arousal and the SCR and between the self-report measure of actual driving behavior and the objective driving data (as assessed via the GPS devices). This study provides insights into how psychophysiological and GPS devices could be used as objective measures in conjunction with self-report measures to further understand the persuasive processes and outcomes of emotion-based anti-speeding advertisements.
Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi
The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J
Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...
Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale
Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A
The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.
Genevieve Fridlund Dunton
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers, these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and intervention studies will increasingly have smartphones, which are miniature computers with built-in motion sensors. Methods: This paper describes the design and development of a smartphone application (app called Mobile Teen that combines objective and self-report assessment strategies through (1 sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA and (2 sensor-assisted end-of-day recall.Results: The Mobile Teen app uses the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor to automatically detect likely bouts of phone non-wear, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. The app then uses transitions between these inferred states to trigger CS-EMA self-report surveys measuring the type, purpose, and context of activity in real time. The end of the day recall component of the Mobile Teen app allows users to interactively review and label their own physical activity data each evening using visual cues from automatically-detected major activity transitions from the phone’s built-in motions sensors. Major activity transitions are identified by the app, which cues the user to label that chunk, or period, of time using activity categories.Conclusions: Sensor-driven CS-EMA and end-of-day recall smartphone apps can be used to augment physical activity data collected by objective activity monitors, filling in gaps during non-wear bouts and providing additional real-time data on environmental, social, and emotional correlates of behavior. Smartphone apps such as these have potential for affordable deployment in large scale epidemiological and intervention studies.
Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Nguyen, Trung Giang; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin
Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors. The unconscious users underestimate their usage time by 40%, in spite of 15% more use in the actual usage. Messengers are most-used application regardless of their self-report, and significant preference to SNS applications was observed in addict group. The actual hourly pattern is consistent with the reported one. College students use more in the afternoon, when they have more free time and cannot use PCs. No significant difference in hourly pattern is observed between the measured and self-report. The result shows there are significant cognitive bias in actual usage patterns exists in self report of smartphone addictions. Clinicians are recommended to utilize measurement tools in diagnosis and treatment of smartphone overusing subjects.
Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip. R.
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents’ adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review over 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278
Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Phillip B; Wilhelm, Kay A; Malhi, Gin S
To examine the association between an early inhibited temperament and lifetime anxiety disorders, we studied a sample of patients with major depression who were not selected on the basis of comorbid axis I anxiety disorders. One-hundred eighty-nine adults (range = 17-68 years) referred to a tertiary depression unit underwent structured diagnostic interviews for depression and anxiety and completed two self-report measures of behavioral inhibition, the retrospective measure of behavioural inhibition (RMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005] and the adult measure of behavioural inhibition (AMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005]. Patients' scores were classified into "low," "moderate," or "high" inhibition. While groups did not differ in terms of depression severity, there were differences across groups in clinically diagnosed nonmelancholic status and age of onset of first episode. Those reporting a high degree of childhood inhibition were significantly more likely to qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia, and this association was independent of their scores on the AMBI. Findings are discussed in light of the existing risk-factor literature and support the hypothesis that an early inhibited temperament may be a significant precursor to later anxiety, especially social anxiety disorder. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Wilson, B
The Go For Health Program included classroom health education and environmental changes in school lunch and physical education to foster healthful diet and exercise among elementary school children. Interventions were based on social learning theory and implementation was based on an organizational change strategy for school innovations. Two schools were assigned to intervention and two to control conditions. Cognitive measures (behavioral capability, self-efficacy, behavioral expectations) and self-reported diet and exercise behavior were assessed at baseline and following intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the student and then the school as the unit of analysis. Statistically significant changes were observed for diet behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and behavioral expectations, use of salt, and exercise behavioral capability (fourth grade), self-efficacy (fourth grade) and frequency of participation in aerobic activity. The results provide evidence for program impact on learning outcomes and student behavior.
Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…
Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching
Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M
Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J
This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.
Tremblay Mark S
Full Text Available Abstract While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds", we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the objectively measured accelerometry data shows little difference between the groups. Further, in at least one instance the difference between groups was of the opposite direction when using objective measures, as opposed to the self-report measures used in the published analysis. Thus, we caution the authors from making conclusions based on their self-report data, and propose that they re-analyze their data using their objectively measured data instead.
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westra, Henny A
Self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety have been weakly and inconsistently related to outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). While clients may not be able to accurately report their motivation, ambivalence about change may nonetheless be expressed in actual therapy sessions as opposition to the direction set by the therapist (i.e., resistance). In the context of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study compared the ability of observed in-session resistance in CBT session 1 and two self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety (the Change Questionnaire & the Client Motivational for Therapy Scale) to (1) predict client and therapist rated homework compliance (2) predict post-CBT and one-year post-treatment worry reduction, and (3) differentiate those who received motivational interviewing prior to CBT from those who received no pre-treatment. Observed in-session resistance performed very well on each index, compared to the performance of self-reported motivation which was inconsistent and weaker relative to observed resistance. These findings strongly support both clinician sensitivity to moments of client resistance in actual therapy sessions as early as session 1, and the inclusion of observational process measures in CBT research. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen
The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.
This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…
Tailce K M Leite
Full Text Available A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654, which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.
Leite, Tailce K M; Fonseca, Rômulo M C; de França, Nanci M; Parra, Esteban J; Pereira, Rinaldo W
A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.
Steene-Johannessen, J.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Donnelly, A.E.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.
Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; ?stergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gende...
Díaz-García, J; González-Zapata, L I; Estrada-Restrepo, A
The objectives of this study were to evaluate self-reporting of weight, height, and waist circumference, and to compare that perception with the real measurements in college students of the MESPYN cohort--Medellin, Salud Pública y Nutrición--from the University of Antioquia (UdeA), Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted starting with the first measurement of the MESPYN Cohort 2009-2010. The sample included volunteer students from different academic areas. Self-perception of weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded before the real measurements were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all the variables, and an alpha of 0.05 was used. The concordance between real measurements and self-referred values was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. 424 volunteer students were included. The average real weight (kg) in males was 67.4 +/- 10.4 and self-reported: 67.0 +/- 11.0; in females the real value was 55.7 +/- 10.1 and self-reported: 55.0 +/- 9.0. The average real height (m) in males was 1.73 +/- 6.1 and self-reported: 1.73 +/- 6.0; in females the real value was 1.60 +/- 5.9 and self-reported: 1.61 +/- 6.0. In males, the average real waist circumference (cm) was 76.6 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 75.0 +/- 14.0; in females the real value was 69.9 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 70.0 +/- 9.0. Weight ICC: 0.956, 95% CI (0.95; 0.97), (p < 0.01); height ICC: 0.953, 95%IC (0.91; 0.97), (p < 0.01), and waist circumference ICC: 0.593, 95% IC (0.55; 0.65), (p < 0.01). In conclusion, anthropometric nutritional evaluation of UdeA students can be performed with self-reported data for weight and height, but the evaluation of abdominal obesity requires direct measurement of waist circumference.
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.
Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena
The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.
Sheeler, Robert D; Mundell, Tim; Hurst, Samia A; Goold, Susan Dorr; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Tilburt, Jon C; Danis, Marion
Rationing is a controversial topic among US physicians. Understanding their attitudes and behaviors around rationing may be essential to a more open and sensible professional discourse on this important but controversial topic. To describe rationing behavior and associated factors among US physicians. Survey mailed to US physicians in 2012 to evaluate self-reported rationing behavior and variables related to this behavior. US physicians across a full spectrum of practice settings. A total of 2541 respondents, representing 65.6 % of the original mailing list of 3872 US addresses. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of physician attitudes and self-reported behaviors, with neutral language representations of the behaviors as well as an embedded experiment to test the influence of the word "ration" on perceived responsibility. Overall percentage of respondents reporting rationing behavior in various contexts and assessment of attitudes toward rationing. In total, 1348 respondents (53.1 %) reported having personally refrained within the past 6 months from using specific clinical services that would have provided the best patient care, because of health system cost. Prescription drugs (n = 1073 [48.3 %]) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 922 [44.5 %]) were most frequently rationed. Surgical and procedural specialists were less likely to report rationing behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95 % CI], 0.8 [0.9-0.9] and 0.5 [0.4-0.6], respectively) compared to primary care. Compared with small or solo practices, those in medical school settings reported less rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.4 [0.2-0.7]). Physicians who self-identified as very or somewhat liberal were significantly less likely to report rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.7 [0.6-0.9]) than those self-reporting being very or somewhat conservative. A more positive opinion about rationing tended to align with greater odds of rationing. More than one-half of respondents engaged in
Greene, Barbara A.
Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…
Fulmer, Sara M.; Frijters, Jan C.
Within psychological and educational research, self-report methodology dominates the study of student motivation. The present review argues that the scope of motivation research can be expanded by incorporating a wider range of methodologies and measurement tools. Several authors have suggested that current study of motivation is overly reliant on…
Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.
Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…
Kuis, E.; Goossensen, M.A.; van Dijke, J.; Baart, A.J.
Background: The concept of ‘presence’ appears frequently in the literature and seems to be a highly relevant concept in discussing and evaluating quality of relations in healthcare practices. However, no existing self-report measure of presence for health professionals was found. Purpose: The
Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.
Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response
Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar
Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…
Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf
Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.
Eileen O. Dareng
Full Text Available BackgroundStudies assessing risk of sexual behavior and disease are often plagued by questions about the reliability of self-reported sexual behavior. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of self-reported sexual history among urbanized women in a prospective study of cervical HPV infections in Nigeria.MethodsWe examined test–retest reliability of sexual practices using questionnaires administered at study entry and at follow-up visits. We used the root mean squared approach to calculate within-person coefficient of variation (CVw and calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC using two way, mixed effects models for continuous variables and (κ^ statistics for discrete variables. To evaluate the potential predictors of reliability, we used linear regression and log binomial regression models for the continuous and categorical variables, respectively.ResultsWe found that self-reported sexual history was generally reliable, with overall ICC ranging from 0.7 to 0.9; however, the reliability varied by nature of sexual behavior evaluated. Frequency reports of non-vaginal sex (agreement = 63.9%, 95% CI: 47.5–77.6% were more reliable than those of vaginal sex (agreement = 59.1%, 95% CI: 55.2–62.8%. Reports of time-invariant behaviors were also more reliable than frequency reports. The CVw for age at sexual debut was 10.7 (95% CI: 10.6–10.7 compared with the CVw for lifetime number of vaginal sex partners, which was 35.2 (95% CI: 35.1–35.3. The test–retest interval was an important predictor of reliability of responses, with longer intervals resulting in increased inconsistency (average change in unreliability for each 1 month increase = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.07–0.38, p = 0.005.ConclusionOur findings suggest that overall, the self-reported sexual history among urbanized Nigeran women is reliable.
Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein Atle; Gülcan, Ferda
Understanding factors that affect dental attendance behavior helps in constructing effective oral health campaigns. A socio-cognitive model that adequately explains variance in regular dental attendance has yet to be validated among younger adults in Norway. Focusing a representative sample of younger Norwegian adults, this cross-sectional study provided an empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) augmented with descriptive norm and action planning and estimated direct and indirect effects of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control and action planning on intended and self-reported regular dental attendance. Self-administered questionnaires provided by 2551, 25-35 year olds, randomly selected from the Norwegian national population registry were used to assess socio-demographic factors, dental attendance as well as the constructs of the augmented TPB model (attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, intention, action planning). A two-stage process of structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the augmented TPB model. Confirmatory factor analysis, CFA, confirmed the proposed correlated 6-factor measurement model after re-specification. SEM revealed that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and descriptive norms explained intention. The corresponding standardized regression coefficients were respectively (β = 0.70), (β =0.18), (β = - 0.17) and (β =0.11) (p planning and action planning (β =0.19) predicted dental attendance behavior (p behavioral control on behavior through action planning and through intention and action planning, respectively. The final model explained 64 and 41% of the total variance in intention and dental attendance behavior. The findings support the utility of the TPB, the expanded normative component and action planning in predicting younger adults' intended- and self-reported dental attendance. Interventions targeting young adults' dental
Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F
The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R
For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women?s Health Initiative
Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Tinker, Lesley F; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; McCann, Susan E; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Curb, J David; Prentice, Ross L
Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women?s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food rec...
Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Pałkowska, Ewelina; Bartnikowska, Elżbieta; Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Biecek, Przemysław; Skrobowski, Andrzej; Gielerak, Grzegorz
There is an ongoing debate about factors affecting the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle especially in the population without coronary artery disease (CAD) symptoms and with one or several risk factors. The study was aimed at describing self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Consecutive patients with an outpatient diagnosis of MetS admitted to our cardiology department underwent clinical examination and cardiovascular risk assessment based on the SCORE scale. Self-reported intensity of pro-healthy behaviors was described using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) developed by Juczynski. Diet quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method, diet history questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). A total of 113 patients were recruited (90 males, mean age 48 ± 9 years) including 85% of patients with at least moderate cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥ 1%). Central obesity was confirmed in 100%, family history of CAD in 75%, LDL exceeding 115 mg/dL in 68% of the patients. A total of 66% of the patients had already been on antihypertensive and 30% on lipid-lowering treatment without previous counselling on lifestyle modification. Most patients reported high or medium level health-related behaviors (23% and 45%, respectively). However, 91% led sedentary lifestyle and none of the patients followed cardioprotective diet recommendations. According to the HEI, 73% required partial and 27% complete diet modification. There is a significant discrepancy between health perception and medical recommendations in patients with MetS. Effective patient education, taking into account a revision of the patient's knowledge on the principles of prophylaxis, may form the fundament for the changes in patient behavior, and cardiovascular risk reduction.
Sjöberg, Lennart; Engelberg, Elisabeth
This is a study of emotional intelligence (EI). EI was measured by performance and self-report tasks. Data were also obtained on basic values, some standard personality dimensions such as those specified in the five-factor model, social adjustment and several scales of impression management. Criteria were loneliness, work-family life balance and Internet addiction, and also measures of emotional and value deviance. Participants were college students in a business education program who partici...
Hafner, Brian J.; Morgan, Sara J.; Askew, Robert L.; Salem, Rana
Documentation of clinical outcomes is increasingly expected in delivery of prosthetic services and devices. However, many outcome measures suitable for use in clinical care and research have not been psychometrically tested with prosthesis users. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, mode-of-administration (MoA) equivalence, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) of standardized, self-report instruments that assess constructs of impo...
Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769
Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self-reported
Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.
Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H
Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including
Full Text Available Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004, a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency, we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial
Belcher, Britni R; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W; Atienza, Audie A; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Berrigan, David
Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth. Data came from 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma. In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14-0.21; girls: r = 0.07-0.11; P girls, there were no significant associations between biomarkers and any measures of physical activity. Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.
Nielsen, Louise M.; Kirkegaard, Hans; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen
Background Assessment of functional ability in elderly patients is often based on self-reported rather than performance-based measures. This study aims to compare self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in a population of elderly patients at an emergency department (ED)...
Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C
Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the
Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie
We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...
Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses
Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan
As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture
Harding, Anna K; Stone, David L; Cardenas, Andres; Lesser, Virginia
Although surfers have high incidental exposure to marine waters, no studies have investigated if surfer risk behaviors (such as surfing during advisories, near an outfall, during a rain event, or use of personal protective equipment) increase or decrease the risk of acquiring waterborne illnesses. We used a web-based survey to assess the association between risk-based behaviors and self-reported illnesses among Pacific Northwest surfers. Commonly reported illnesses include: ear infection or discharge (38%), sore throat or a cough (28%), diarrhea (16%), fever (10.5%), and vomiting (7%). Surfing often during rain events was associated with an increased likelihood of diarrhea (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.47), sore throat (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-2.05), and ear infection (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-2.32). Surfing during a health advisory was associated with increased likelihood of diarrhea (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.03-4.64) and sore throat (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.23-4.40). Other behaviors associated with increased illnesses include body surfing, surfing near an outfall, frequency of surfing, and use of ear plugs. Approximately 40% of surfers were unaware if they had surfed during an active health advisory and 29% knowingly surfed during advisories, suggesting the need to engage this population about potential harm and behaviors that may increase health risk.
Newman, Michelle G.; Holmes, Marilyn; Zuellig, Andrea R.; Kachin, Kevin E.; Behar, Evelyn
This study examined the Panic Disorder Self-Report (PDSR), a new self-report diagnostic measure of panic disorder based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). PDSR diagnoses were compared with structured interview diagnoses of individuals with generalized anxiety…
vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.
To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.
Berry, Christopher M; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Barratt, Clare L
Much of the recent research on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) has used multi-item self-report measures of CWB. Because of concerns over self-report measurement, there have been recent calls to collect ratings of employees' CWB from their supervisors or coworkers (i.e., other-raters) as alternatives or supplements to self-ratings. However, little is still known about the degree to which other-ratings of CWB capture unique and valid incremental variance beyond self-report CWB. The present meta-analysis investigates a number of key issues regarding the incremental contribution of other-reports of CWB. First, self- and other-ratings of CWB were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. Second, with some notable exceptions, self- and other-report CWB exhibited very similar patterns and magnitudes of relationships with a set of common correlates. Third, self-raters reported engaging in more CWB than other-raters reported them engaging in, suggesting other-ratings capture a narrower subset of CWBs. Fourth, other-report CWB generally accounted for little incremental variance in the common correlates beyond self-report CWB. Although many have viewed self-reports of CWB with skepticism, the results of this meta-analysis support their use in most CWB research as a viable alternative to other-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.
Muhammad Imran Qadeer
Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3 and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479 with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003. This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2 of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression.
Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés
Injury to pedestrians is a major safety hazard in many countries. Since the beginning of the last century, modern cities have been designed around the use of motor vehicles despite the unfavourable interactions between the vehicles and pedestrians. This push towards urbanization resulted in a substantial number of crashes and fatalities involving pedestrians every day, all over the world. Thus, improving the design of urban cities and townships is a pressing issue for modern society. The study presented here provides a characterization of pedestrian safety problems, with the emphasis on signalized crosswalks (i.e. traffic signal) design solutions. We tested the impact of seven different traffic light configurations (steady [green, yellow, and red], flashing [green, yellow, and red], and light off) on pedestrian self-reported road-crossing behavior, using a 11-point scale -ranging from 0 ("I never cross in this situation") to 10 ("I always cross in this situation"). Results showed that mandatory solutions (steady green vs. steady red) are the best solutions to avoid unsafe pedestrian behaviors while crossing controlled intersections (frequency of crossing: Mgreen = 9.4 ± 1 vs. Mred = 2.6 ± 2). These findings offer important guidelines for the design of future traffic signals for encouraging a pedestrian/transit-friendly environment.
de Jonge, Jan; Peeters, Maria C W
Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's behaviors. Theoretical framework is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model, which proposes in general that specific job resources should match specific job demands to reduce deviant behavioral outcomes such as CWB. To test the extent to which job incumbent self-report and coworker report of CWB in health care work converge, and the extent to which job incumbent-reported work-related antecedents (i.e., job demands and job resources) similarly predict both self-reported and coworker-reported behaviors (in line with DISC theory). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted, using data from two different sources (self-reports and coworker reports). A large organization for residential elderly care in the Northern urban area in The Netherlands. Self-report and coworker questionnaires were distributed to 123 health care workers, of which 73 people returned the self-report questionnaire (59% response rate). In addition, 66 out of 123 coworker questionnaires were returned (54% coworker response rate). In total 54 surveys of job incumbents and coworkers could be matched. Next to descriptive statistics, t-test, and correlations, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Correlations and a t-test demonstrated significant convergence between job incumbent and coworker reports of CWB. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both job incumbent and coworker data consistently demonstrated CWB to be related to its work-related antecedents. Specifically, findings showed that both physical and emotional job resources moderated the relation between physical job demands and CWB. The current findings provide stronger evidence
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.
Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376
Mayville, Stephen B; Williamson, Donald A; White, Marney A; Netemeyer, Richard G; Drab, Danae L
Muscle dysmorphia has recently been described as a variant of body dysmorphic disorder that involves an intense preoccupation with one's perceived lack of muscle size. Currently, no assessment measures specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of the construct of muscle dysmorphia have been published. To address this need, the authors developed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a brief 19-item self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Psychometric evaluation of the MASS across two samples of male weight lifting participants (total N = 372) revealed a stable five-factor structure. An evaluation of factor content resulted in the following factor labels: Bodybuilding Dependence, Muscle Checking, Substance Use, Injury, and Muscle Satisfaction. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were established with the MASS total score and its subscales. The authors believe the MASS will be a useful measure for research and applied work relating to muscle dysmorphia.
Duong, Tuyen-Van; Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, I-Feng; Lin, Ying-Chin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Peter Wushou
The role of health-related behaviors in the association between age and health literacy has not been well-elucidated. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the interactions between age and health-related behaviors in 942 women in Taiwan between February and October 2013. Women aged 18-78 years were randomly sampled and recruited from the national administrative system. Self-reported health literacy was measured by the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in Mandarin, asking about sociodemographics and essential health-related behaviors (watching health-related television, community involvement). The interviews were conducted confidentially by well-trained interviewers after having participants' consent. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for education attainment, self-perceived social status, ability to pay for medication, and health-related behaviors, health literacy was significantly negatively related to age (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = (-0.07; 0.00); p = .03). The lower health literacy among older women was significantly modified by watching health-related television programs (from "rarely/not-at-all", B = -0.08 (-0.12, -0.04), p women's health literacy and likely their health.
Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S
To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....
Droulers, Olivier; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu
The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing th...
Batra, Peter; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate pharmacy staff perspectives of a 2-year pharmacy intervention aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy in 18- to 30-year-old women. Pharmacy staff completed a 48-item, self-administered paper survey consisting of scaled and open-ended questions. 55 community pharmacies in 12 Iowa counties. All pharmacy staff participated, including pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and other pharmacy employees. Online continuing education (CE) training was made available to all pharmacy staff. Promotional materials including posters, brochures, and shelf talkers were displayed in all of the pharmacies. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to displaying posters, brochures, and shelf talkers in their pharmacies and providing contraceptive information and counseling to patients/customers. A total of 192 (43% return rate) pharmacy staff responded. Only 44% of respondents consistently provided contraceptive information and counseling, yet more than 90% felt that talking with patients/customers about contraceptives was easy, and more than 50% could do so privately. The study showed increased pharmacy staff desire to make this topic a priority. Community pharmacy staff can play a key role in educating and counseling young adult women about contraceptive health and pregnancy planning. This study indicates that staff are comfortable providing this service and that patients/customers are open to receiving guidance from pharmacists. However, pharmacy staff are missing additional opportunities to provide information and counseling. There is also a need for greater attention to provision of nonprescription contraceptive education.
Eadie, Tanya L; Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R
The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication-the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R2 = .76-.79). Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise.
Obling, Kirstine H.; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Overgaard, Kristian
fitness level were cross-tabulated and agreement was quantified by Kappa statistics. Gender differences within categories were investigated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data from 996 men and 1017 women were analyzed (excluded, n = 303). In both men and women a higher self-reported fitness level......AIM: To investigate the association between self-reported physical fitness level obtained by a single-item question and objectively measured fitness level in 30- to 49-year-old men and women. METHODS: From the Danish 'Check Your Health Preventive Program' 2013-2014 fitness level was assessed...... in 2316 participants using the Aastrand test. Additionally, participants rated their physical fitness as high, good, average, fair or low. The association of self-reported- with objectively measured fitness level was analyzed by linear regression. Categories of self-reported- and objectively measured...
Chiarovano, Elodie; Wang, Wei; Reynolds, Pam; MacDougall, Hamish G
Dizziness and imbalance are very common complaints in clinical practice. One of the challenges is to evaluate the 'real' risk of falls. Two tools are available: the patient's self-report and the measure of the patient's balance. We evaluated the relationship between these methods using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and measures of balance while visual inputs are perturbed with Virtual Reality (VR). 90 consecutive patients underwent the DHI questionnaire and the balance test. The DHI questionnaire was used to measure the subject's perception of handicap associated with dizziness. The balance test measured the postural sway in several visual conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and with an unpredictable visual perturbation using VR at several amplitudes of movement. No correlation was found between the DHI score and the balance measurement. The visual perturbations allow us to characterize patients into three groups: one group with a high DHI score who did not fall on the balance test (5.5%), one group with a low DHI score who failed eyes closed on a compliant surface (9.0%), and one group of the remaining patients (85.5%). The correlation between the DHI score and the balance performance became significant on the remaining group of patients. Both subjective self-report and objective measure are important to characterize a patient. The use of VR visual perturbations allowed us to define three important groups of patients. VR visual perturbations provided additional information that helps explain the lack of correlation between DHI and objective test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ, designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and Eating Disorder (ED (n = 108 and normal controls (n = 295. Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C and Uncertainty (RFQ_U about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends
Bergeron, Jacques; Paquette, Martin
The role of cannabis consumption in traffic crashes is unclear and the causal link between cannabis and collisions is still to be demonstrated. While cannabis use is very likely to impair driving ability, there is as yet no overwhelming evidence that cannabis use in isolation contributes more to collisions than other characteristics inherent to cannabis users. As noted in a growing body of literature, individuals driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style putting them at higher risk to be involved in traffic crashes. This study aims at investigating the relationship between self-reported DUIC and reckless driving by means of self-reported measures and direct observations made in a driving simulator. Participants (n=72) were required to be between 18 and 25 years of age, to hold a valid driver's license, and to drive at least twice a week. They completed standard driving simulation tasks recreating everyday on-road trivial conditions. Results show that people admitting that they commit more real-life dangerous driving behaviors reached higher maximum speed and demonstrated more reckless driving behaviors on the driving simulation tasks. Self-reported DUIC is associated with a risky driving style including a broad range of reckless on-road behaviors and support the problem driving behavior theory. Moreover, beyond confounding factors, both self-report DUIC and observed dangerous behaviors are associated with real-life traffic violations. Since DUIC appears to be related to an overall reckless style of driving, it is proposed that public safety policies should be more holistic, simultaneously targeting multiple on-road dangerous behaviors for intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DaSilveira, Amanda; DeSouza, Mariane L.; Gomes, William B.
This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale). Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analyzed as follows: (1) correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2) factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3) factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between SCSs, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants’ inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than 100 years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious. PMID:26191030
Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; Villeneuve, Paul J; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara
To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18-79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep. Conclusions are based on WTN levels averaged over 1 y and, in
Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Eun Jung; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Soo-Yeon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for studies published in Korean nursing journals. Of 424 Korean nursing articles initially identified, 168 articles met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the measurements used in the studies and interpretability were assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. It consists of items on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity including structural validity, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity, and responsiveness. For each item of the COSMIN checklist, measurement properties are rated on a four-point scale: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Each measurement property is scored with worst score counts. All articles used the classical test theory for measurement properties. Internal consistency (72.6%), construct validity (56.5%), and content validity (38.2%) were most frequently reported properties being rated as 'excellent' by COSMIN checklist, whereas other measurement properties were rarely reported. A systematic review of measurement properties including interpretability of most instruments warrants further research and nursing-focused checklists assessing measurement properties should be developed to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies.
Neacsiu, Andrada D; Tkachuck, Mathew A
Emotion dysregulation is a critical transdiagnostic mental health problem that needs to be further examined in personality disorders (PDs). The current study examined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills use, emotion dysregulation, and dysfunctional coping among adults who endorsed symptoms of cluster B PDs and psychopathy. We hypothesized that skills taught in DBT and emotion dysregulation are useful for adults with PDs other than borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a self-report questionnaire, we examined these constructs in three groups of community adults: those who reported symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 29), those who reported symptoms consistent with any other cluster B PD (N = 22), and those with no reported cluster B PD symptoms (N = 77) as measured by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + . Both PD groups reported higher emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping when compared to the no PD group. Only the BPD group had significantly lower DBT skills use. DBT skills use was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but only before accounting for emotion dysregulation. When added to the regression model, emotion dysregulation was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but DBT skills use no longer had a significant effect. Across all groups, DBT skills use deficits and maladaptive coping, but not emotion dysregulation, predicted different facets of psychopathy. Emotion dysregulation and use of maladaptive coping are problems in cluster B PDs, outside of BPD, but not in psychopathy. Inability to use DBT skills may be unique to BPD. Because this study relied exclusively on self-report, this data is preliminary and warrants further investigation.
Leng, Yue; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Covinsky, Kenneth; Yaffe, Kristine
Despite the widespread belief that napping is common among older adults, little is known about the correlates of napping. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported and objectively measured napping among very old women. We studied 2,675 community-dwelling women (mean age 84.5 ± 3.7 years; range 79-96). Self-reported napping was defined as a report of regular napping for ≥1 hour per day. Individual objective naps were defined as ≥5 consecutive minutes of inactivity as measured by actigraphy and women were characterized as "objective nappers" if they had at least 60 minutes of naps per day. Seven percent of the women only had self-reported napping, 29% only had objective napping, and 14% met the criteria for both. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the independent correlates of "both subjective and objective napping" were age (per 5 year odds ratio [OR] = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.31-1.93), depressive symptoms (per SD of score, OR = 1.53; 1.32-1.77), obesity (OR =1.93; 1.42-2.61), current smoking (OR = 3.37; 1.56-7.30), heavier alcohol drinking (OR = 0.49; 0.34-0.71), history of stroke (OR = 1.56; 1.08-2.26), diabetes (OR = 2.40; 1.61-3.57), dementia (OR = 3.31; 1.27-8.62), and Parkinson's disease (OR = 7.43; 1.87-29.50). Besides, having objective napping alone was associated with age and diabetes, whereas subjective napping was associated with stroke and myocardial infarction. These associations were independent of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation. Daytime napping is very common in women living in their ninth decade and both subjective and objective napping were significantly related to age and comorbidities. Future studies are needed to better understand napping and its health implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey; Smith, Jamie; Santistevan, Dominique; Simmons, Jeremiah
Dieting is often recommended as a means of weight loss, yet research consistently shows that self-reported dieting does not result in weight loss. Toward resolving this discrepancy, this study assessed the daily dietary intake and weight control strategies of people who self-identified as dieting. College women (N = 266) provided a report of their eating pattern (dieting, "watching what I eat," and/or "eating healthy") followed by three daily diaries (24-hour recalls of dietary intake and weight control strategies) elicited on randomly selected days during a one-month period. Dieters were expected to report fewer daily calories, more daily exercise, and more weight control strategies than non-dieters. At baseline, 122 participants (45.9%) endorsed both "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Concerned Eaters") while 55 (20.7%) endorsed current dieting along with "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Dieters"). Just 3 (1.1%) endorsed dieting only, and 31 (11.7%) endorsed no eating pattern ("Unconcerned Eaters"). Dieters' mean BMI was in the overweight range; the mean BMIs of other groups were in the normal weight range. Dieters did not consistently endorse dieting across diaries. Nevertheless, Dieters reported fewer daily calories, and more overall weight control strategies, including more healthy weight control strategies, than Concerned Eaters. Across groups, participants' weights did not change significantly during the study. Dieters appear to engage in weight control strategies which could result in weight loss; however, their reports of whether they are dieting vary across days, suggesting a need for more consistent behavior. These results have clinical and research implications in the area of weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P measure for use in monitoring outcomes of men with PE.
Ravaghi, Vahid; Underwood, Martin; Marinho, Valeria; Eldridge, Sandra
This study investigated health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes among adolescents. The role of oral health behaviors and psychological factors in explaining oral health inequality was investigated using the hypothesis of mediation. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-completed questionnaires. This study sampled 639 (315 male and 324 female) 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (second and third grade high school students) of both sexes in the city of Sanandaj in the province of Kurdistan, western Iran. Socioeconomic indicators of the study were subjective socioeconomic status, wealth index, and parental education. Oral health behaviors were measured as toothbrushing frequency, dental flossing frequency, and dental visits. Psychological factors were self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Self-reported oral health outcomes were single item self-rated oral health and the experience of dental pain. Regression analysis was used to test four conditions for the hypothesis of mediation. The results showed that the inequality is present in oral health for some pairs of relationships between socioeconomic status and oral health outcomes. Adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors, individually and simultaneously, led to loss of statistical significance for some pairs of the relationships. However, adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors led to only small changes in the associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study found a graded oral health inequality, but no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that oral health behaviors and psychological factors mediate oral health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...
Jonge, de J.; Peeters, M.C.W.
Background Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's
Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Wiley, J Preston; Walker, Richard E A; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Emery, Carolyn A
Study Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy validation study. Background Engaging clinicians for diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy in large surveillance studies is often impracticable. A self-report measure, the Oslo Sports Research Trauma Centre patellar tendinopathy (OSTRC-P) Questionnaire, an adaptation of the OSTRC Questionnaire may provide a viable alternative. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the OSTRC-P Questionnaire in detecting patellar tendinopathy in youth basketball players when compared to clinical evaluation. Methods Following the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines, 208 youth basketball players (aged 13-18 years) were recruited. Participants completed the OSTRC-P Questionnaire (index test) prior to a clinical evaluation (reference standard) by a physiotherapist blinded to OSTRC-P Questionnaire results. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (PVs), likelihood ratios (LRs) and posttest probabilities were calculated. Linear regression was used to examine the association between OSTRC-P Questionnaire severity score and patellar tendinopathy severity rating during single leg decline squat (SLDS). Results The final analysis included 169 players. The OSTRC-P Questionnaire had a sensitivity of 79% (95%CI: 65%, 90%), specificity of 98% (95%CI: 94%, 100%), positive PV of 95%, negative PV of 92%, positive LR of 48 and negative LR of 0.21. The posttest probabilities were 95% and 8% given positive and negative results, respectively. A positive association was found between OSTRC-P Questionnaire and SLDS rating [(β = .08 (95%CI: .03, .12) (p = .001)]. Conclusions The OSTRC-P Questionnaire is an acceptable alternative to clinical evaluation for self-reporting patellar tendinopathy and grading its severity in settings involving youth basketball players. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 27 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8088.
Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.
Chapman, L Kevin; Petrie, Jenny M; Richards, Allyn
Empirical literature pertaining to anxiety in African Americans has been relatively sparse. More recent studies indicate that the construct of social fear is different in African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Although some of these studies have examined factor structure utilizing self-report measures of anxiety in African American samples, none to date have examined the clinical utility of these measures in predicting anxiety diagnoses, particularly social phobia. A total of sixty-five African American adults from the community completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II), Social Anxiety Interaction Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV) was administered to all participants to specify differential diagnoses of anxiety and related disorders. Twenty-three African American adults were diagnosed with social phobia leaving 42 diagnostic controls. Results suggest that the social anxiety factors were highly predictive of a social phobia diagnosis (AUC=.84 to .90; CI .73-.98, p<.01) and sensitivity and specificity rates revealed optimal cutoff scores for each measure. The optimal cutoff scores reveal the clinical utility of the social fear factor from these measures in screening for social phobia in African Americans. Future direction and implications are discussed. Psychinfo, PubMed, Medline. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hernan, Andrea; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Dunbar, James A
Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004-05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = -0.226, p-value recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.
Wick, Katharina; Faude, Oliver; Schwager, Susanne; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars
Whether occupational physical activity (PA) will be assessed via questionnaires or accelerometry depends on available resources. Although self-reported data collection seems feasible and inexpensive, obtained information could be biased by demographic determinants. Thus, we aimed at comparing self-reported and objectively measured occupational sitting, standing, and walking times adjusted for socio-demographic variables. Thirty-eight office employees (eight males, 30 females, age 40.8 ± 11.4 years, BMI 23.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) supplied with height-adjustable working desks were asked to report sitting, standing, and walking times using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire during one working week. The ActiGraph wGT3X-BT was used to objectively measure occupational PA during the same week. Subjectively and objectively measured data were compared computing the intra-class correlation coefficients, paired t tests and Bland-Altman plots. Furthermore, repeated-measurement ANOVAs for measurement (subjective vs. objective) and socio-demographic variables were calculated. Self-reported data yielded a significant underestimation of standing time (13.3 vs. 17.9%) and an overestimation of walking time (12.7 vs. 5.0%). Significant interaction effects of age and measurement of standing time (F = 6.0, p = .02, ηp(2) = .14) and BMI group and measurement of walking time were found (F = 3.7, p = .04, ηp(2) = .17). Older employees (>39 years) underestimated their standing time, while underweight workers (BMI < 20 kg/m(2)) overestimated their walking time. Self-reported PA data differ from objective data. Demographic variables (age, BMI) affect the amount of self-reported misjudging of PA. In order to improve the validity of self-reported data, a correction formula for the economic assessment of PA by subjective measures is needed, considering age and BMI.
Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hafner, Brian J; Morgan, Sara J; Askew, Robert L; Salem, Rana
Documentation of clinical outcomes is increasingly expected in delivery of prosthetic services and devices. However, many outcome measures suitable for use in clinical care and research have not been psychometrically tested with prosthesis users. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, mode-of-administration (MoA) equivalence, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) of standardized, self-report instruments that assess constructs of importance to people with lower limb loss. Prosthesis users (n = 201) were randomly assigned to groups based on MoA (i.e., paper, electronic, or mixed-mode). Participants completed two surveys 2 to 3 d apart. Instruments included the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions-Applied Cognition/General Concerns, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Profile, and Socket Comfort Score. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated all instruments are appropriate for group-level comparisons and select instruments are suitable for individual-level applications. Several instruments showed evidence of possible floor and ceiling effects. All were equivalent across MoAs. SEM and MDC were quantified to facilitate interpretation of outcomes and change scores. These results can enhance clinicians' and researchers' ability to select, apply, and interpret scores from instruments administered to prosthesis users.
Garner, Kimberly K; Dubbert, Patricia; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H
The Measuring What Matters initiative of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association identified documentation of a surrogate decision maker as one of the top 10 quality indicators in the acute hospital and hospice settings. To better understand the potential implementation of this Measuring What Matters quality measure #8, Documentation of Surrogate in outpatient primary care settings by describing primary care patients' self-reported identification and documentation of a surrogate decision maker. Examination of patient responses to self-assessment questions from advance health care planning educational groups conducted in one medical center primary care clinic and seven community-based outpatient primary care clinics. We assessed the concordance between patient reports of identifying and naming a surrogate decision maker and having completed an advance directive (AD) with presence of an AD in the electronic medical record. Of veterans without a documented AD on file, more than half (66%) reported that they had talked with someone they trusted and nearly half (52%) reported that they had named someone to communicate their preferences. Our clinical project data suggest that many more veterans may have initiated communications with surrogate decision makers than is evident in the electronic medical record. System changes are needed to close the gap between veterans' plans for a surrogate decision maker and the documentation available to acute care health care providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L
The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.
Kratz, Anna L; Schilling, Stephen G; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A
Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In study 1, a nationwide (U.S.) sample of 1,035 adults with FM (age range = 18-82, 95.2% female) completed 2 cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI and a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = -.82). This paper presents the MISCI, a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in FM, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil
Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Leite, Tailce K. M.; Fonseca, Rômulo M. C.; de França, Nanci M.; Parra, Esteban J.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.
A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported “color”, but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to “color” is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported “color”, according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported “color” and skin pigmentation, self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three “color” groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the “color” categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different “color”, and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker “color” category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported “color”, such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with
Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…
Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.
Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…
Gerritsen, Debby Lydia; Steverink, Nardi; Ooms, Marcel E.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Ribbe, Miel W.
Measuring quality of life is a necessity for adequate interventions. This paper concerns the usefulness of six self-report measures for overall quality of life for nursing home residents with various levels of cognitive impairment. It was investigated which proportion of residents from four
LeBlanc, Allana G; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S
Demographic, family, and home characteristics play an important role in determining childhood sedentary behaviour. The objective of this paper was to identify correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and correlates of self-reported screen time (ST) in Canadian children. Child- and parent-reported household, socio-demographic, behavioural, and diet related data were collected; directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were also collected for each child. Participants with complete demographic, anthropometric, and either SED (n=524, 41% boys) or ST (n=567, 42% boys) data from the Canadian site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) were included in analysis. Sixteen potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel general linear models, adjusting for sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socio-economic status. All explanatory variables moderately associated (peducation, and unhealthy eating pattern score and negatively associated with healthy eating pattern score, and weekend breakfast consumption. Few common correlates existed between boys and girls. Several factors were identified as correlates of SED and/or of ST in Canadian children; however, few correlates were common for both SED and ST, and for both boys and girls. This suggests that a single strategy to reduce SED and ST is unlikely to be effective. Future work should examine a variety of other, non-screen based sedentary behaviours and their potential correlates in the hopes of creating tailored public health messages to reduce SED and ST in both boys, and girls.
Johnson, Katandria L; Carroll, Joan F; Fulda, Kimberly G; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Cardarelli, Roberto
Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH), a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Hispanic participants (n = 135), as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97). Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.
Fulda Kimberly G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH, a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Methods Hispanic participants (n = 135, as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Results Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97. Conclusions Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals
Monnette, Alisha; Zhang, Yichen; Shao, Hui; Shi, Lizheng
As medication adherence continues to be a prevalent issue in today's society, the methods used to monitor medication-taking behaviors are constantly being re-evaluated and compared in search of the 'gold standard' measure. Our review aimed to assess the current literature surrounding the correlation between self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and electronic monitoring devices to determine if these measures produce similar results. We performed a literature search from 2009 to 2017 using PubMed, PubMed In-Process and Non-Indexed, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process. A keyword search using the terms 'patient compliance', 'treatment compliance', 'medication adherence', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance', and 'medications' was done to capture all articles. We included articles measuring adherence using both monitoring devices and SRQs. Thirty-five articles were included in this review. The average difference in measured adherence rates between the two measures was 9.2% (range -66.3 to 61.5). A majority (62.7%) of articles reported moderate (n = 12; 27.9%), high (n = 5, 11.6%), or significant (n = 10, 23.3%) correlations between SRQs and monitoring devices. Results from our review are consistent with previous studies, as we found that many of our studies produced moderate to high correlation between both SRQs and monitoring devices [Farmer, Clin Ther 21(6):1074-90 (1999), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Avoidable costs in US health care (2012), Patel et al., Respirology 18(3):546-52 (2013), Siracusa et al., J Cyst Fibros 14(5):621-6 (2015), Smith et al., Int J Cardiol 145(1):122-3 (2010)]. Our findings demonstrate that self-reported adherence produces comparable results to electronic monitoring devices. As there is not yet a 'gold standard' measure for monitoring patient adherence, SRQs and Medication Event Monitoring Systems
Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael
To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)
Loza, Wagdy; Loza-Fanous, Amel; Heseltine, Karen
Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…
Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.
The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…
Full Text Available To determine whether behavioral factors differ among metabolic conditions and self-reported health, and to determine whether self-reported health is a valid predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 2997 individuals (≥40 years old were selected from four biennial U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007–2014. A set of weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIsIndividuals with light physical activity are more likely to have MetS and report poor health than those with vigorous physical activity with OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 2.23, 4.66 and 4.52 (95% CI: 2.78, 7.33, respectively. Individuals eating poor diet have greater odds of developing MetS and reporting poor health with OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.66 and 3.13 (95% CI: 2.46, 3.98. The aforementioned relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic status. A potential intervention strategy will be needed to encourage individuals to aggressively improve their lifestyle to reduce MetS and improve quality of life. Despite the significant association between self-reported health with MetS, a low sensitivity indicated that better screening tools for MetS, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are essential.
Grajal, Alejandro; Luebke, Jerry F; Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Matiasek, Jennifer; Clayton, Susan; Karazsia, Bryan T; Saunders, Carol D; Goldman, Susan R; Mann, Michael E; Stanoss, Ricardo
The global biodiversity crisis requires an engaged citizenry that provides collective support for public policies and recognizes the consequences of personal consumption decisions. Understanding the factors that affect personal engagement in proenvironmental behaviors is essential for the development of actionable conservation solutions. Zoos and aquariums may be some of the only places where many people can explore their relations with wild animals and proenvironmental behaviors. Using a moderated-mediation analysis of a survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium visitors (n = 3588), we explored the relationship between the sense of connection to animals and self-reported engagement in proenvironmental behaviors related to climate change and how this relationship is affected by certainty that climate change is happening, level of concern about climate change, and perceptions of effectiveness in personally addressing climate change. We found a significant, directional relationship between sense of connection to animals and self-reported proenvironmental behaviors. Political inclination within the conservative to liberal spectrum did not affect the relationship. We conclude that a personal sense of connection to animals may provide a foundation for educational and communication strategies to enhance involvement in proenvironmental actions. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.
Durel, L A; Carver, C S; Spitzer, S B; Llabre, M M; Weintraub, J K; Saab, P G; Schneiderman, N
DBP reactivity than women during the video game. The present findings indicate that self-reports on anger/hostility measures and cardiovascular responses to behavioral tasks differ as a function of race but that relationships between anger and BP regulation need to take into account possible race-sex interactions and selection of anger/hostility measures.
Hebert, J R; Clemow, L; Pbert, L; Ockene, I S; Ockene, J K
Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social desirability or social approval thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. These constructs produce response set biases, which are evident when testing in domains characterized by easily recognizable correct or desirable responses. Given the social and psychological value ascribed to diet, assessment methodologies used most commonly in epidemiological studies are particularly vulnerable to these biases. Social desirability and social approval biases were tested by comparing nutrient scores derived from multiple 24-hour diet recalls (24HR) on seven randomly assigned days with those from two 7-day diet recalls (7DDR) (similar in some respects to commonly used food frequency questionnaires), one administered at the beginning of the test period (pre) and one at the end (post). Statistical analysis included correlation and multiple linear regression. Cross-sectionally, no relationships between social approval score and the nutritional variables existed. Social desirability score was negatively correlated with most nutritional variables. In linear regression analysis, social desirability score produced a large downward bias in nutrient estimation in the 7DDR relative to the 24HR. For total energy, this bias equalled about 50 kcal/point on the social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range. The bias was approximately twice as large for women as for men and only about half as large in the post measures. Individuals having the highest 24HR-derived fat and total energy intake scores had the largest downward bias due to social desirability. We observed a large downward bias in reporting food intake related to social desirability score. These results are consistent with the theoretical constructs on which the hypothesis is based. The effect of social desirability bias is discussed in terms of its influence on epidemiological estimates of effect. Suggestions are made for future work
Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette
The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…
Gaševic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pardo, Abelardo; Dawson, Shane
The use of analytic methods for extracting learning strategies from trace data has attracted considerable attention in the literature. However, there is a paucity of research examining any association between learning strategies extracted from trace data and responses to well-established self-report instruments and performance scores. This paper…
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…
Bon de Sousa, Teresa; Santos, Carolina; Mateus, Ceu; Areal, Alain; Trigoso, Jose; Nunes, Carla
This study aims to characterize Portuguese car drivers in terms of demographic characteristics, driving experience, and attitudes, opinions, and behaviors concerning road traffic safety. Furthermore, associations between these characteristics and self-reported involvement in a road traffic accident as a driver in the last 3 years were analyzed. A final goal was to develop a final predictive model of the risk of suffering a road traffic accident. A cross-sectional analytic study was developed, based on a convenience sample of 612 car drivers. A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers, embracing various topics related to road safety such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems, and the transport infrastructure and environment (European Project SARTRE 4, Portuguese version). From the 52 initial questions, 19 variables were selected through principal component analysis. Then, and in addition to the usual descriptive measures, logistic binary regression models were used in order to describe associations and to develop a predictive model of being involved in a road traffic accident. Of the 612 car drivers, 37.3% (228) reported being involved in a road traffic accident with damage or injury in the past 3 years. In this group, the majority were male, older than 65, with no children, not employed, and living in an urban area. In the multivariate model, several factors were identified: being widowed (vs. single; odds ratio [OR] = 3.478, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.159-10.434); living in a suburban area (vs. a rural area; OR = 5.023, 95% CI, 2.260-11.166); having been checked for alcohol once in the last 3 years (vs. not checked; OR = 3.124, 95% CI, 2.040-4,783); and seldom drinking an energetic beverage such as coffee when tired (vs. always do; OR = 6.822, 95% CI, 2.619-17.769) all suffered a higher risk of being involved in a car accident. The results obtained with
Hartley, Stefanie; Garland, Suzanne; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis
participants returned complete data. Comparisons between the MAAS and IPAQ questionnaires (n=52) showed moderate agreement for both categorical (kappa=.48, Padvantage over questionnaires of avoiding overreporting of self-reported physical activity, while being highly acceptable to participants.
Elbers, Roy G.; Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Verhoef, John; Kramer, Sharon F.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kwakkel, Gert
Purpose To critically appraise, compare and summarize the measurement properties of self-report fatigue questionnaires validated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus were searched. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. A qualitative data synthesis was performed to rate the mea...
Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D
Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.
Social desirability bias in self-reported dietary, physical activity and weight concerns measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls: results from the Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies (GEMS).
Klesges, Lisa M; Baranowski, Tom; Beech, Bettina; Cullen, Karen; Murray, David M; Rochon, Jim; Pratt, Charlotte
Social desirability (SocD) may bias children's self-reported health behaviors and attitudes and confound relationships with health outcome measures. Ninety-five, 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls completed dietary recalls, a physical activity checklist, psychosocial questionnaires related to diet, and physical activity; and 3 days of physical activity monitoring. Potential SocD construct bias was investigated by comparing designated criterion measures of physical activity, beverage intake, and body mass index (BMI) with respective self-reported measures related to activity, beverage preferences, and body image and weight concerns in cross-sectional regression models. Potential confounding by SocD of associations between self-reported behaviors with BMI was assessed using change-in-coefficient regression analyses. Controlling for age and BMI, overestimates of self-reported activity (P = 0.02), underestimates of sweetened beverage preferences (P = 0.02), and lower ratings of weight concerns and dieting behaviors (P's diet and physical activity and confound associations between BMI and self-reported physical activity and energy intake. Methods to measure and control SocD bias are needed to reduce potential distortion of relationships between diet and physical activity and health outcomes.
Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.
Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085
Skinner, T. C.; Blick, J.; Dudgeon, P.
Introduction:This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude.Method:Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized...... order.The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head...... correlated with the IAT,(r=.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure....
Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M
A brief multidimensional measure of adult picky eating (PE) behavior was developed using a large U.S. adult sample. In addition, the study explored associations between specific aspects of adult PE behavior and psychosocial impairment in effort to support the inclusion of adults in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The study included 3 phases of qualitative and quantitative data collection. Participants were 1,663 U.S. adults who completed online surveys. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop PE subscales. Associations among the PE subscales and measures of psychosocial impairment were examined. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 16-item 4-factor model of adult PE that included subscales of meal presentation, food variety, meal disengagement, and taste aversion. The measure also demonstrated convergence with previous measures of PE. The meal disengagement and meal presentation subscales demonstrated significant associations with social eating anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, eating related quality of life (QOL), and psychological flexibility. Meal disengagement alone was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ) demonstrated sound psychometric properties and may be used to further investigate adult PE behavior. The relationships between adult PE and psychological impairment, particularly social anxiety, support the inclusion of ARFID in the DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Augustine, Adam A; Vazire, Simine; Holtzman, Nicholas; Gaddis, Sam
Abstract Despite the enormous popularity of Online Social Networking sites (OSNs; e.g., Facebook and Myspace), little research in psychology has been done on them. Two studies examining how personality is reflected in OSNs revealed several connections between the Big Five personality traits and self-reported Facebook-related behaviors and observable profile information. For example, extraversion predicted not only frequency of Facebook usage (Study 1), but also engagement in the site, with extraverts (vs. introverts) showing traces of higher levels of Facebook activity (Study 2). As in offline contexts, extraverts seek out virtual social engagement, which leaves behind a behavioral residue in the form of friends lists and picture postings. Results suggest that, rather than escaping from or compensating for their offline personality, OSN users appear to extend their offline personalities into the domains of OSNs. PMID:21254929
Gosling, Samuel D; Augustine, Adam A; Vazire, Simine; Holtzman, Nicholas; Gaddis, Sam
Despite the enormous popularity of Online Social Networking sites (OSNs; e.g., Facebook and Myspace), little research in psychology has been done on them. Two studies examining how personality is reflected in OSNs revealed several connections between the Big Five personality traits and self-reported Facebook-related behaviors and observable profile information. For example, extraversion predicted not only frequency of Facebook usage (Study 1), but also engagement in the site, with extraverts (vs. introverts) showing traces of higher levels of Facebook activity (Study 2). As in offline contexts, extraverts seek out virtual social engagement, which leaves behind a behavioral residue in the form of friends lists and picture postings. Results suggest that, rather than escaping from or compensating for their offline personality, OSN users appear to extend their offline personalities into the domains of OSNs.
Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.
Thyregod, Mimi; Bodtger, Uffe
The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) in patients with COPD, as well as the methods of their assessment, are well known and described. As objective measures of PA, such as the use of motion sensors, video recordings, exercise capacity testing, and indirect calorimetry, are not easily...... objectively by activity monitors; however, more studies are needed to rely solely on the use of PA questionnaires in COPD patients. The most accurate and valid questionnaires appear to be the self-completed Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the interviewer-completed Stanford Seven-Day Physical...... obtained in the daily clinical life, the reliability of the more accessible self-reported measurements of PA is important. In this review, we systematically identified original studies involving COPD patients and at least one parameter of self-reported and objective exercise testing, and analyzed every...
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Östergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors. PMID:24999121
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.
Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed.
Bardeen, Joseph R; Fergus, Thomas A
The Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondriacal Traits (MIHT) is a self-report measure that assesses four interrelated domains of health anxiety (i.e., Cognitive, Behavioral, Perceptual, Affective). Prior research has supported a correlated four-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model, in which each of the four factors load onto the higher order health anxiety construct. However, a bifactor modeling approach has yet to be used to examine the factor structure of the MIHT. Results supported a bifactor model of the MIHT in three different samples (i.e., unselected based on current medical status [ n = 824], and those with [ n = 348] and without [ n = 354] a self-reported medical condition). The MIHT appears to be strongly multidimensional, with three of the four subscales providing substantive value. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural and metric/scalar invariance of the bifactor model between those with and without a self-reported medical condition. Results provide support for a bifactor conceptualization of the MIHT and the invariance of that model across levels of current health status.
Hackworth, Rhonda S.
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
Lilienfeld, S O; Andrews, B P
Research on psychopathology has been hindered by persisting difficulties and controversies regarding its assessment. The primary goals of this set of studies were to (a) develop, and initiate the construct validation of, a self-report measure that assesses the major personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations and (b) clarify the nature of these traits via an exploratory approach to test construction. This measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), was developed by writing items to assess a large number of personality domains relevant to psychopathy and performing successive item-level factor analyses and revisions on three undergraduate samples. The PPI total score and its eight subscales were found to possess satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In four studies with undergraduates, the PPI and its subscales exhibited a promising pattern of convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, psychiatric interview, observer rating, and family history data. In addition, the PPI total score demonstrated incremental validity relative to several commonly used self-report psychopathy-related measures. Future construct validation studies, unresolved conceptual issues regarding the assessment of psychopathy, and potential research uses of the PPI are outlined.
Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma
The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…
Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais
Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. This systematic review will provide an extensive review of the measurement
Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais
Introduction Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This systematic review will
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Harris Hyun-soo
Much evidence suggests that social capital (e.g. networks, trust, organizational memberships) has a significant effect on self-reported health. Previous research, however, has focused primarily on Western countries. The current research seeks to remedy this problem by investigating the association between multiple social capital indicators and subjective health in a novel empirical setting. The data come from the Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries (1999-2006) which consists of probabilistic samples from Muslim majority nations. Three-way multilevel analysis is used to examine the social determinants of health. Statistical results from hierarchical linear modeling shows that frequent contact with strong and intermediate ties (i.e. family members and friends, respectively) is significant, while interaction with weak ties (coworkers) has no association. General trust and trust in the central government are also significantly related to subjective health, as is trust in religious authority, albeit in an inverse way. This study calls for a more contingent view of the relationship between social capital and self-reported health. Future research needs to take this into consideration in hypothesizing and testing the potential health benefits of social capital.
Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Magasi, Susan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Semik, Patrick; Hammel, Joy; Heinemann, Allen W
To describe the development of new self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental facilitators or barriers to the participation of people with disabilities in society. A mixed-methods approach included a literature review; item classification, selection, and writing; cognitive interviews and field testing of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or stroke; and rating scale analysis to evaluate initial psychometric properties. General community. Individuals with SCI, TBI, or stroke participated in cognitive interviews (n=9); community residents with those same conditions participated in field testing (n=305). None. Self-report item pool of social attitudes that act as facilitators or barriers to people with disabilities participating in society. An interdisciplinary team of experts classified 710 existing social environment items into content areas and wrote 32 new items. Additional qualitative item review included item refinement and winnowing of the pool prior to cognitive interviews and field testing of 82 items. Field test data indicated that the pool satisfies a 1-parameter item response theory measurement model and would be appropriate for development into a calibrated item bank. Our qualitative item review process supported a social environment conceptual framework that includes both social support and social attitudes. We developed a new social attitudes self-report item pool. Calibration testing of that pool is underway with a larger sample to develop a social attitudes item bank for persons with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K
The aim of this study was to assess differences in self-reported health status, body mass index (BMI), and healthy lifestyle behaviors between Baby Boomer and Generation X faculty and staff at a southeastern university. Data were drawn from employee health risk assessment and BMI measures. A total of 730 Baby Boomer and 765 Generation X employees enrolled in a university health promotion and screening program were included in the study. Ordered logistic regressions were calculated separately for BMI, perceived health status, and three healthy lifestyle behaviors. After covariates such as job role, gender, race, education, and income were controlled, Baby Boomers were more likely than Generation X employees to report better health status and dietary habits. Baby Boomers were also more likely to engage in weekly aerobic physical activity (p generational differences when developing health promotion programs. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard
The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement behaviors, being key modifiable lifestyle risk factors with long-term implications for eye health.
Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen
Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan
Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources. PMID:29324823
Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.
Shen, Biying; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan
Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.
Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Zhou, Hongli; Xu, Jiaojing; Dong, Guangheng
Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users’ affect, cognition, and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The aim of this study is to develop a Qu...
Rosenbloom, Tova; Wultz, Boaz
The present study aims to compare differences in reported risky driving behaviors of drivers - males and females - having and not having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), by using a checklist of driving behaviors based on the Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Unlike the studies which employ the DBQ by asking the subjects to fill the questionnaire once, in this present study, the participants were asked to report their behaviors on a daily basis for 30 consequent days. The checklist included two factors of risky driving behavior: Violation and Faults. Thirty-eight drivers - 10 males and 9 females with ADHD, and 9 males and 10 females without ADHD (N-ADHD) as control groups - participated in the study. The results showed that the mean of the unsafe behaviors of ADHD was higher, i.e., less safe driving, compared to that of N-ADHD. However, a statistically significant effect was found only between male ADHD and male N-ADHD for the Faults. In order to check the effect of the length of the study, the 30 days duration of the research was divided into three consecutive periods. The reported driving habits of the female ADHD showed safer behaviors than those of the males. Unlike the findings of N-ADHD of both genders, which showed a tendency towards safer driving reports in the three periods, both genders of the ADHD showed higher rates of Faults, i.e., a decrease in safety driving reports, in the three periods. The findings suggest that ADHD drivers differ from the N-ADHD drivers in making driving mistakes, i.e., Faults, due to their lack of sustained attention, but not in making Violations. However, some of the results in the present study were not very strong. Possible explanations for this as well as methodological considerations are discussed, and further research is suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sano, Akane; Taylor, Sara; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Barger, Laura K; Klerman, Elizabeth; Picard, Rosalind
Wearable and mobile devices that capture multimodal data have the potential to identify risk factors for high stress and poor mental health and to provide information to improve health and well-being. We developed new tools that provide objective physiological and behavioral measures using wearable sensors and mobile phones, together with methods that improve their data integrity. The aim of this study was to examine, using machine learning, how accurately these measures could identify conditions of self-reported high stress and poor mental health and which of the underlying modalities and measures were most accurate in identifying those conditions. We designed and conducted the 1-month SNAPSHOT study that investigated how daily behaviors and social networks influence self-reported stress, mood, and other health or well-being-related factors. We collected over 145,000 hours of data from 201 college students (age: 18-25 years, male:female=1.8:1) at one university, all recruited within self-identified social groups. Each student filled out standardized pre- and postquestionnaires on stress and mental health; during the month, each student completed twice-daily electronic diaries (e-diaries), wore two wrist-based sensors that recorded continuous physical activity and autonomic physiology, and installed an app on their mobile phone that recorded phone usage and geolocation patterns. We developed tools to make data collection more efficient, including data-check systems for sensor and mobile phone data and an e-diary administrative module for study investigators to locate possible errors in the e-diaries and communicate with participants to correct their entries promptly, which reduced the time taken to clean e-diary data by 69%. We constructed features and applied machine learning to the multimodal data to identify factors associated with self-reported poststudy stress and mental health, including behaviors that can be possibly modified by the individual to improve
Palmer, Mary H; Willis-Gray, Marcella G; Zhou, Fang; Newman, Diane K; Wu, Jennifer M
To describe toileting behaviors working women habitually use and investigate behaviors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary urgency with or without leakage. Non-pregnant female employees of a large academic medical center 18 years and over were eligible to complete an online survey about bladder health and toileting behaviors. One hundred eighty-two women participated in the survey. The majority were white (83.52%), married (52.49%), had ≥1 pregnancy (54.40%), and in excellent health (93.41%). The average age and body mass index were 47.28 ± 13.56 years and 27.92 ± 6.78, respectively. The sample was further sub-divided into two groups: urinary urgency (N = 119) or no urinary urgency symptoms (N = 51). Habitual toileting behaviors for these groups (N = 170) included: sitting to urinate at home (98.24%), emptying the bladder completely (88.82%), emptying the bladder before leaving home (80.00%), and sitting to urinate when away from home (68.82%). Logistic regression analysis showed age increased the odds of urinary urgency (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09). Women who waited too long to urinate at work (aOR 7.85, 95%CI 1.57-39.24) and wore panty liners for urinary leakage (aOR 2.86, 95%CI 1.25-6.56) had greater odds of urinary urgency than women who did neither. Most habitual toileting behaviors were not associated with urinary urgency except waiting too long to urinate when at work. Logistic regression revealed significant relationships among health-related factors, personal characteristics, behaviors, and urinary urgency. LUTS in women is both a women's health and occupational health issue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik
. In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...
Latorre-Marco, I; Acevedo-Nuevo, M; Solís-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Sánchez, L; López-López, C; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Wojtysiak-Wojcicka, M; de Las Pozas-Abril, J; Robleda-Font, G; Frade-Mera, M J; De Blas-García, R; Górgolas-Ortiz, C; De la Figuera-Bayón, J; Cavia-García, C
To assess the psychometric properties of the behavioral indicators of pain scale (ESCID) when applied to a wide range of medical and surgical critical patients. A multicentre, prospective observational study was designed to validate a scale measuring instrument. Twenty Intensive Care Units of 14 hospitals belonging to the Spanish National Health System. A total of 286 mechanically ventilated, unable to self-report critically ill medical and surgical adult patients. Pain levels were measured by two independent evaluators simultaneously, using two scales: ESCID and the behavioral pain scale (BPS). Pain was observed before, during, and after two painful procedures (turning, tracheal suctioning) and one non-painful procedure. ESCID reliability was measured on the basis of internal consistency using the Cronbach-α coefficient. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were measured. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ESCID and BPS. A total of 4386 observations were made in 286 patients (62% medical and 38% surgical). High correlation was found between ESCID and BPS (r=0.94-0.99; p<0.001), together with high intra-rater and inter-rater concordance. ESCID was internally reliable, with a Cronbach-α value of 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). Cronbach-α coefficients for ESCID domains were high: facial expression 0.87 (95%CI 0.84-0.89), calmness 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87), muscle tone 0.80 (95%CI 0.75-0.84), compliance with mechanical ventilation 0.70 (95%CI 0.63-0.75) and consolability 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). ESCID is valid and reliable for measuring pain in mechanically ventilated unable to self-report medical and surgical critical care patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01744717. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against
Alcaide, Maria L; Ramlagan, Shandir; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan; Peltzer, Karl; Weiss, Stephen M; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Jones, Deborah L
Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence is essential to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study compared self-reported adherence versus ARV detection in dried blood spots (DBS) among N = 392 HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa (SA). Women completed two self-reported adherence measures [visual analog scale (VAS), AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence (ACTG)]. Adherence was 89% (VAS), 80% (ACTG), and 74% (DBS). Self-report measures marginally agreed with DBS (VAS: Kappa = 0.101, Area under the ROC curve (AUROC) = 0.543; ACTG: Kappa = 0.081, AUROC = 0.538). Self-reported adherence was overestimated and agreement with DBS was poor. Validation of self-reported ARV adherence among pregnant HIV+ women in SA is needed.
Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David
This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pAboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.
Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma
The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.
Simonsick, E M; Guralnik, J M; Fried, L P
To determine how severity of walking difficulty and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors influence walking behavior in disabled older women. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS). An urban community encompassing 12 contiguous zip code areas in the eastern portion of Baltimore City and part of Baltimore County, Maryland. A total of 920 moderately to severely disabled community-resident women, aged 65 years and older, identified from an age-stratified random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Walking behavior was defined as minutes walked for exercise and total blocks walked per week. Independent variables included self-reported walking difficulty, sociodemographic factors, psychological status (depression, mastery, anxiety, and cognition), and health-related factors (falls and fear of falling, fatigue, vision and balance problems, weight, smoking, and cane use). Walking at least 8 blocks per week was strongly negatively related to severity of walking difficulty. Independent of difficulty level, older age, black race, fatigue, obesity, and cane use were also negatively associated with walking; living alone and high mastery had a positive association with walking. Even among functionally limited women, sociocultural, psychological, and health-related factors were independently associated with walking behavior. Thus, programs aimed at improving walking ability need to address these factors in addition to walking difficulties to maximize participation and compliance.
Ferguson, Robert J; Sigmon, Sandra T; Pritchard, Andrew J; LaBrie, Sharon L; Goetze, Rachel E; Fink, Christine M; Garrett, A Merrill
Long-term chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) affects a large number of cancer survivors. To the authors' knowledge, to date there is no established treatment for this survivorship problem. The authors herein report results of a small randomized controlled trial of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT), compared with an attention control condition. Both treatments were delivered over a videoconference device. A total of 47 survivors of female breast cancer who reported CRCD were randomized to MAAT or supportive therapy and were assessed at baseline, after treatment, and at 2 months of follow-up. Participants completed self-report measures of cognitive symptoms and quality of life and a brief telephone-based neuropsychological assessment. MAAT participants made gains in perceived (self-reported) cognitive impairments (P = .02), and neuropsychological processing speed (P = .03) compared with supportive therapy controls. A large MAAT effect size was observed at the 2-month follow-up with regard to anxiety concerning cognitive problems (Cohen's d for standard differences in effect sizes, 0.90) with medium effects noted in general function, fatigue, and anxiety. Survivors rated MAAT and videoconference delivery with high satisfaction. MAAT may be an efficacious psychological treatment of CRCD that can be delivered through videoconference technology. This research is important because it helps to identify a treatment option for survivors that also may improve access to survivorship services. Cancer 2016;122:1782-91. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Srilatha, Adepu; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Madupu Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth
Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W; Priest, Jeff S; Etter, Jean-Francois; Budney, Alan J; Sigmon, Stacey C
Tobacco use or abstinence may increase or decrease reward sensitivity. Most existing measures of reward sensitivity were developed decades ago, and few have undergone extensive psychometric testing. We developed a 58-item survey of the anticipated enjoyment from, wanting for, and frequency of common rewards (the Rewarding Events Inventory-REI). The current analysis focuses on ratings of anticipated enjoyment. The first validation study recruited current and former smokers from Internet sites. The second study recruited smokers who wished to quit and monetarily reinforced them to stay abstinent in a laboratory study and a comparison group of former smokers. In both studies, participants completed the inventory on two occasions, 3-7 days apart. They also completed four anhedonia scales and a behavioral test of reduced reward sensitivity. Half of the enjoyment ratings loaded on four factors: socializing, active hobbies, passive hobbies, and sex/drug use. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were all ≥0.73 for overall mean and factor scores. Test-retest correlations were all ≥0.83. Correlations of the overall and factor scores with frequency of rewards and anhedonia scales were 0.19-0.53, except for the sex/drugs factor. The scores did not correlate with behavioral tests of reward and did not differ between current and former smokers. Lower overall mean enjoyment score predicted a shorter time to relapse. Internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the enjoyment outcomes of the REI are excellent, and construct and predictive validity are modest but promising. The REI is comprehensive and up-to-date, yet is short enough to use on repeated occasions. Replication tests, especially predictive validity tests, are needed. Both use of and abstinence from nicotine appear to increase or decrease how rewarding nondrug rewards are; however, self-report scales to test this have limitations. Our inventory of enjoyment from 58 rewards appears to be reliable and valid as well as
Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Zhou, Hongli; Xu, Jiaojing; Dong, Guangheng
Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users' affect, cognition, and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The aim of this study is to develop a Questionnaire on Internet Search Dependence (QISD) and test its reliability and validity. We first proposed a preliminary structure and items of the QISD based on literature review, supplemental investigations, and interviews. And then, we assessed the psychometric properties and explored the factor structure of the initial version via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The EFA results indicated that four dimensions of the QISD were very reliable, i.e., habitual use of Internet search, withdrawal reaction, Internet search trust, and external storage under Internet search. Finally, we tested the factor solution obtained from EFA through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of CFA confirmed that the four dimensions model fits the data well. In all, this study suggests that the 12-item QISD is of high reliability and validity and can serve as a preliminary tool to measure the features of Internet search dependence.
Full Text Available Internet search has become the most common way that people deal with issues and problems in everyday life. The wide use of Internet search has largely changed the way people search for and store information. There is a growing interest in the impact of Internet search on users’ affect, cognition and behavior. Thus, it is essential to develop a tool to measure the changes in psychological characteristics as a result of long-term use of Internet search. The present study aimed to develop a Questionnaire on Internet Search Dependence (QISD, and test its reliability and validity. We first proposed a preliminary structure and items of the QISD based on literature review, supplemental investigations, and interviews. And then, we assessed the psychometric properties and explored the factor structure of the initial version via exploratory factor analysis (EFA. The EFA results indicated that four dimensions of the QISD were very reliable, i.e., habitual use of Internet search, withdrawal reaction, Internet search trust and external storage under Internet search. Lastly, we tested the factor solution obtained from EFA through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results of CFA confirmed that the four dimensions model fits the data well. In all, the present study suggests that the 12-item QISD is of high reliability and validity, and can serve as a preliminary tool to measure the features of Internet search dependence.
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.
Droulers, Olivier; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu
The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate), image size (40% vs. 75%) and pack type (plain vs. branded). A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers' emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal) and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.). They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc.).
Droulers, Olivier; Lacoste-Badie, Sophie; Lajante, Mathieu
The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used–for the first time in this context–to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate), image size (40% vs. 75%) and pack type (plain vs. branded). A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers’ emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal) and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.). They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc.). PMID:28910317
Full Text Available The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging would improve their effectiveness. A within-subjects experiment was conducted. Three variables were manipulated: health warning threat level (high vs. moderate, image size (40% vs. 75% and pack type (plain vs. branded. A convenience sample of 48 French daily smokers participated. They were exposed to eight different packs of cigarettes in a research lab at the University of Rennes. Smokers' emotions and behavioral intentions were recorded through self-reports. Emotions were also evaluated using psychophysiological measurements: electrodermal activity and facial electromyography. The results revealed that TVWs with a high threat level are the most effective in increasing negative emotions (fear, disgust, valence, arousal and behavioral intentions conducive to public health (desire to quit, etc.. They also highlight the appeal of increasing the size of the warnings and displaying them on plain packs, because this influences emotions, which is the first step toward behavioral change. Increasing the threat level of TVWs from moderate to high seems beneficial for public health. Our results also confirm the relevance of recent governmental decisions to adopt plain packaging and larger TVWs (in the UK, France, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hungary, etc..
Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C
Although a number of studies have examined the impact of invalid MMPI-2 (Butcher et al., 2001) response styles on MMPI-2 scale scores, limited research has specifically explored the effects that such response styles might have on conjointly administered collateral self-report measures. This study explored the potential impact of 2 invalidating response styles detected by the Validity scales of the MMPI-2, overreporting and underreporting, on scores of collateral self-report measures administered conjointly with the MMPI-2. The final group of participants included in analyses was 1,112 college students from a Midwestern university who completed all measures as part of a larger study. Results of t-test analyses suggested that if either over- or underreporting was indicated by the MMPI-2 Validity scales, the scores of most conjointly administered collateral measures were also significantly impacted. Overall, it appeared that test-takers who were identified as either over- or underreporting relied on such a response style across measures. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.
Balsamo, Michela; Cataldi, Fedele; Carlucci, Leonardo; Fairfield, Beth
With increasing numbers of older adults in the general population, anxiety will become a widespread problem in late life and one of the major causes of health care access contributing to high societal and individual costs. Unfortunately, the detection of anxiety disorders in late life is complicated by a series of factors that make it different from assessment in younger cohorts, such as differential symptom presentation, high comorbidity with medical and mental disorders, the aging process, and newly emergent changes in life circumstances. This review covers commonly and currently used self-report inventories for assessing anxiety in older adults. For each tool, psychometric data is investigated in depth. In particular, information about reliability, validity evidence based on data from clinical and nonclinical samples of older adults, and availability of age-appropriate norms are provided. Finally, guidance for clinical evaluation and future research are proposed in an effort to highlight the importance of clinical assessment in the promotion of clinically relevant therapeutic choices. PMID:29670342
Cor, M Ken
Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brodey, Benjamin; Purcell, Susan E; Rhea, Karen; Maier, Philip; First, Michael; Zweede, Lisa; Sinisterra, Manuela; Nunn, M Brad; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brodey, Inger S
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care. First, study staff drafted approximately 1200 self-report items representing individual granular symptoms in the diagnostic criteria for the 8 primary SCID-CV modules. An expert panel iteratively reviewed, critiqued, and revised items. The resulting items were iteratively administered and revised through 3 rounds of cognitive interviewing with community mental health center participants. In the first 2 rounds, the SCID was also administered to participants to directly compare their Likert self-report and SCID responses. A second expert panel evaluated the final pool of items from cognitive interviewing and criteria in the DSM-5 to construct the SAGE-SR, a computerized adaptive instrument that uses branching logic from a screener section to administer appropriate follow-up questions to refine the differential diagnoses. The SAGE-SR was administered to healthy controls and outpatient mental health clinic clients to assess test duration and test-retest reliability. Cutoff scores for screening into follow-up diagnostic sections and criteria for inclusion of diagnoses in the differential diagnosis were evaluated. The expert panel reduced the initial 1200 test items to 664 items that panel members agreed collectively represented the SCID items from the 8 targeted modules and DSM criteria for the covered
Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P
An array of self-reported, clinician-rated, and performance-based measures has been used to assess motivation in schizophrenia; however, the convergent validity evidence for these motivation assessment methods is mixed. The current study is a series of meta-analyses that summarize the relationships between methods of motivation measurement in 45 studies of people with schizophrenia. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.27, k = 33) was significant, positive, and approaching medium in magnitude, and the overall effect size between performance-based and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.21, k = 11) was positive, significant, and small in magnitude. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and performance-based motivation measures was negligible and non-significant (r = -0.001, k = 2), but this meta-analysis was underpowered. Findings suggest modest convergent validity between clinician-rated and both self-reported and performance-based motivation measures, but additional work is needed to clarify the convergent validity between self-reported and performance-based measures. Further, there is likely more variability than similarity in the underlying construct that is being assessed across the three methods, particularly between the performance-based and other motivation measurement types. These motivation assessment methods should not be used interchangeably, and measures should be more precisely described as the specific motivational construct or domain they are capturing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sauer, Christina; Sheppes, Gal; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Arens, Elisabeth A; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Barnow, Sven
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). So far, many studies have tested the consequences of the implementation of certain emotion regulation (ER) strategies, but there have been no investigations about ER choices in BPD. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate habitual ER choices by self-report questionnaires and experimentally by testing the preference to select between distraction and reappraisal when facing different emotional intensities (high vs. low) and contents (borderline-specific vs. unspecific negative) in patients with BPD (n=24) compared with clinical controls (patients with major depression, n=19) and a healthy control group (n=32). Additionally, heart rate (HR) responses were continuously assessed. Main results revealed that both patient groups showed maladaptive self-reported ER choice profiles compared with HC. We found, however, no differences between the groups in the choice of distraction and reappraisal on the behavioral level and in HR responses. In BPD, within-group analyses revealed a positive correlation between symptom severity and the preference for distraction under high-intensity borderline-specific stimuli. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of ER choices in BPD and show the robustness of the choice effect in patients with affective disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.
This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709
Corsenac, Philippe; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Hoy, Damian; Roth, Adam; Rouchon, Bernard; Capart, Isabelle; Taylor, Richard
To estimate the overweight (OW) and obesity (Ob) prevalence and associated socio-demographic risk factors in New Caledonian adults aged 18-67years. From a randomly selected cross-sectional population survey, self-reported (n=2513) and measured (n=736) height and weight data were collected. Separate linear regression analyses for measured weight and height were performed, using cases with both self-reported weight and height and socio-demographic variables. The final weight and height assigned to each case was either measured or predicted from the regression (n=2075). OW prevalence was defined as: Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 and F) OW was 26% (95% CI: 23-28), Ob 34% (95% CI: 31-37) and OW-Ob 60% (95% CI: 57-63). Compared to Melanesians (OR=1.0) for male/female: Polynesians had the highest prevalence of OW (1.7/1.5), Ob (4.7/3.5), and OW-Ob (3.0/2.5); New Caledonian-born Europeans had greater OW, Ob and OW-Ob (0.3/0.4) than immigrant Europeans (0.2/0.2). Findings contribute to obesity comparisons with other Pacific Islands, and they establish trends in New Caledonia for targeting policies and strategies of prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Dong, Birong
To analyze the contents and formats of general self-reported questionnaires on disability that are designed for and/or are widely applied in the elderly population to depict a complete picture of this field and help researchers to choose proper tools more efficiently. A broad systematic literature search was performed in September 2013 and included the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PROQOLID. The publication language was limited to English and Chinese. Two review authors independently performed the study selection and data extraction. All of the included instruments were extracted and classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Of 5569 articles retrieved from the searches and 156 articles retrieved from the pearling, 22 studies (including 24 questionnaires) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these, 42 different domains and 458 items were extracted. The most frequently used questionnaire was the Barthel Index followed by the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living, respectively. The contents and formats of the questionnaires varied considerably. Activities and participation were the most commonly assessed dimensions. In addition, the Activities of Daily Living, mobility and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were the most common domains assessed among the included questionnaires. Among the 24 included questionnaires, the most frequently used questionnaires were the Barthel Index, Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living. The content and format of the questionnaires varied considerably, but none of the questionnaires covered all essential dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Schwei, Rebecca J; Johnson, Timothy P; Matthews, Alicia K; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health-care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship; and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health-care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African-American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health-care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health-care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor's degree or above (OR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.01-8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.11-3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR: 3.58, 95%CI: 1.66-7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health-care experience. Of these people, 88% reported 'sometimes/always' changing at least one health-seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health-care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However, those who avoided care due to cost were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative experience more often. Our findings suggest that the
Schwei, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Timothy; Matthews, Alicia K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.
Objectives Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. Principal Findings More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor’s degree or above (OR; 2.95,95%CI:1.01–8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR:1.84,95%CI:1.11–3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR:3.58,95%CI:1.66–7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health care experience. Of these people, 88% reported “sometimes/always” changing at least one health seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Conclusions Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However those who avoided care due to cost, were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative
Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond
Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…
Wisniewski, Lucene; Hernandez Hernandez, Maria Elena; Waller, Glenn
Research has shown that clinicians underuse or omit techniques that constitute an essential part of evidence-based therapies. However, it is not known whether this is the case in DBT for eating disorders. The aims of this study were; 1) exploring the extent to which DBT techniques were used by self-identified DBT clinicians treating eating disorders; 2) determining whether therapists fell into distinct groups, based on their usage of DBT techniques; and 3) examining whether clinician characteristics were related to the use of such techniques. Seventy-three clinicians offering DBT for eating disorders completed an online survey about their use of specific DBT techniques. They also completed measures of personality and intolerance of uncertainty. In relation to the first aim, the pattern of use of DBT techniques showed a bimodal distribution - most were used either a lot or a little. Considering the second aim, clinicians fell into two groups according to the techniques that they delivered - one characterized by a higher use of DBT techniques and the other by a higher use of techniques that were specific to the treatment of eating disorders, rather than DBT methods. Finally, more experienced clinicians were more likely to be in the 'DBT technique-focused' group. DBT clinicians are encouraged to implement both sets of techniques (DBT techniques and standard techniques for the treatment of eating disorders) in an integrated way. Training, supervision and the use of manuals are recommended to decrease therapist drift in DBT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Health impairments can result in disability and changed work productivity imposing considerable costs for the employee, employer and society as a whole. A large number of instruments exist to measure health-related productivity changes; however their methodological quality remains unclear. This systematic review critically appraised the measurement properties in generic self-reported instruments that measure health-related productivity changes to recommend appropriate instruments for use in occupational and economic health practice. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, Econlit and Embase were systematically searched for studies whereof: (i) instruments measured health-related productivity changes; (ii) the aim was to evaluate instrument measurement properties; (iii) instruments were generic; (iv) ratings were self-reported; (v) full-texts were available. Next, methodological quality appraisal was based on COSMIN elements: (i) internal consistency; (ii) reliability; (iii) measurement error; (iv) content validity; (v) structural validity; (vi) hypotheses testing; (vii) cross-cultural validity; (viii) criterion validity; and (ix) responsiveness. Recommendations are based on evidence syntheses. Results This review included 25 articles assessing the reliability, validity and responsiveness of 15 different generic self-reported instruments measuring health-related productivity changes. Most studies evaluated criterion validity, none evaluated cross-cultural validity and information on measurement error is lacking. The Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) was most frequently evaluated with moderate respectively strong positive evidence for content and structural validity and negative evidence for reliability, hypothesis testing and responsiveness. Less frequently evaluated, the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) showed strong positive evidence for internal consistency and structural validity, and moderate positive evidence for hypotheses testing and criterion validity. The
Goudriaan, A E; Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van Den Brink, W
Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. This study investigated the effect of both self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity, and neurocognitively assessed disinhibition and decision-making under conflicting contingencies, on relapse in a group of 46 pathological gamblers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that longer duration of the disorder and neurocognitive indicators of disinhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time) and decision-making (Card Playing Task) were significant predictors of relapse (explaining 53% of the variance in relapse), whereas self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity did not significantly predict relapse. Overall classification accuracy was 76%, with a positive classification accuracy of 76% and a negative classification accuracy of 75%. Duration of the disorder and neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making are powerful predictors of relapse in pathological gambling. The results suggest that endophenotypical neurocognitive characteristics are more promising in the prediction of relapse in pathological gambling than phenotypical personality characteristics. Neurocognitive predictors may be useful to guide treatment planning of follow-up contacts and booster sessions.
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Alexander, Angel M; Flynn, Kathryn E; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Keefe, Francis J; Reeve, Bryce B; Schultz, Wesley; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Shelby, Rebecca A; Weinfurt, Kevin P
There is a significant gap in research regarding the readability and comprehension of existing sexual function measures. Patient-reported outcome measures may use terms not well understood by respondents with low literacy. This study aims to test comprehension of words and phrases typically used in sexual function measures to improve validity for all individuals, including those with low literacy. We recruited 20 men and 28 women for cognitive interviews on version 2.0 of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®) ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures. We assessed participants' reading level using the word reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Sixteen participants were classified as having low literacy. In the first round of cognitive interviews, each survey item was reviewed by five or more people, at least two of whom had lower than a ninth-grade reading level (low literacy). Patient feedback was incorporated into a revised version of the items. In the second round of interviews, an additional three or more people (at least one with low literacy) reviewed each revised item. Participants with low literacy had difficulty comprehending terms such as aroused, orgasm, erection, ejaculation, incontinence, and vaginal penetration. Women across a range of literacy levels had difficulty with clinical terms like labia and clitoris. We modified unclear terms to include parenthetical descriptors or slang equivalents, which generally improved comprehension. Common words and phrases used across measures of self-reported sexual function are not universally understood. Researchers should appreciate these misunderstandings as a potential source of error in studies using self-reported measures of sexual function. This study also provides evidence for the importance of including individuals with low literacy in cognitive pretesting during the measure development. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Hebert, James R; Hurley, Thomas G; Peterson, Karen E; Resnicow, Ken; Thompson, Frances E; Yaroch, Amy L; Ehlers, Margaret; Midthune, Doug; Williams, Geoffrey C; Greene, Geoffrey W; Nebeling, Linda
Data collected at 4 Behavioral Change Consortium sites were used to assess social desirability bias in self-reports derived from a dietary fat screener (PFat), a dietary fruit and vegetable screener (FVS), and a 1-item question on fruit and vegetable intake. Comparisons were made with mean intakes derived from up to 3 24-h recall interviews at baseline and follow-up (at 12 mo in 3 sites, 6 mo in the fourth). A social-desirability-related underestimate in fat intake on the PFat relative to the 24HR (percentage energy as fat) was evident in women [baseline b = -0.56 (P = 0.005); follow-up b = -0.62 (P diet and health outcomes and for developing methods to control for such biases.
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.
Hart, Katie C.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Evans, Steven W.; Manos, Michael J.; Hannah, Jane N.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.
This study examined elementary and middle school teachers' self-reported use of behavioral supports for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a national sample of teachers. This information is important given increased attention and emphasis on universal and targeted strategies within problem-solving models in schools.…
Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Riha, Renata L; Morrison, Ian; Hsu, Chung-Yao
To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on napping behavior in adults aged 60 and older with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Retrospective cohort study using questionnaires. Sleep center. Individuals starting CPAP treatment between April 2010 and March 2012 (mean age 65.2 ± 4.7; M:F = 3.9:1; N = 107). All subjects underwent sleep studies, clinical reviews, and CPAP adherence checks and completed a questionnaire regarding CPAP adherence, current employment status, sleep patterns before and after CPAP, and factors affecting their current sleep patterns. CPAP treatment duration was 82.7 ± 30.0 weeks, and objective adherence was 5.4 ± 2.0 hours per night overall. Daytime nap frequency before CPAP treatment was higher in those with a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Both sexes had a significant reduction in daytime napping (men, P napping (men, P nap duration (men, P nap duration was associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, P = .04), a decrease in ESS score (OR = 1.20, P = .03), and longer self-reported daily nap duration at baseline (OR = 31.52, P nap frequency and daily nap duration. Aging or shorter baseline daily nap duration may attenuate this effect. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Laura Elizabeth Downie
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional, therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas.A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242. Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior.A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%. Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05 less likely to enquire about patients' smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05. Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2% and dry eye disease (63.9%. The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners' nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications.These findings
Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A
Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Jensen Jette N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a frequent health complaint among health care personnel. Several work tasks and working postures are associated with an increased risk of LBP. The aim of this study was to compare two self-reported measures of physical demands and their association with LBP (the daily number of patient handling tasks and Hollmann's physical load index. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 535 hospital employees in a psychiatric and an orthopedic ward in a Danish hospital. Of these 411 (77% filled in and returned the questionnaire. Only the 373 respondents who had non-missing values on both measures of physical demands were included in the analyses. The distribution of physical demands in different job groups and wards are presented, variance analysis models are employed, and logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the association between measures of physical demands and LBP. Results In combination, hospital ward and job category explained 56.6% and 23.3% of the variance in the self-reported physical demands measured as the daily number of patient handling tasks and as the score on the physical load index, respectively. When comparing the 6% with the highest exposure the prevalence odds ratio (POR for LBP was 5.38 (95% CI 2.03–14.29 in the group performing more than 10 patient handling tasks per day and 2.29 (95% CI 0.93–5.66 in the group with the highest score on the physical load index. Conclusion In specialized hospital wards the daily number of patient handling tasks seems to be a more feasible measure of exposure when assessing the risk of LBP compared to more advanced measures of physical load on the lower lumbar spine.
Hildebrand, Martin; Wibbelink, Carlijn J M; Verschuere, Bruno
Self-report measures provide an important source of information in correctional/forensic settings, yet at the same time the validity of that information is often questioned because self-reports are thought to be highly vulnerable to self-presentation biases. Primary studies in offender samples have provided mixed results with regard to the impact of socially desirable responding on self-reports. The main aim of the current study was therefore to investigate-via a meta-analytic review of published studies-the association between the two dimensions of socially desirable responding, impression management and self-deceptive enhancement, and self-report measures with content of dynamic risk factors using the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) in offender samples. These self-report measures were significantly and negatively related with self-deception (r = -0.120, p impression management (r = -0.158, p impression management effect with the trim and fill method indicating that the relation is probably even smaller (r = -0.07). The magnitude of the effect sizes was small. Moderation analyses suggested that type of dynamic risk factor (e.g., antisocial cognition versus antisocial personality), incentives, and publication year affected the relationship between impression management and self-report measures with content of dynamic risk factors, whereas sample size, setting (e.g., incarcerated, community), and publication year influenced the relation between self-deception and these self-report measures. The results indicate that the use of self-report measures to assess dynamic risk factors in correctional/forensic settings is not inevitably compromised by socially desirable responding, yet caution is warranted for some risk factors (antisocial personality traits), particularly when incentives are at play. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer
Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Waddell, Kimberly J; Lang, Catherine E
To compare self-reported with sensor-measured upper limb (UL) performance in daily life for individuals with chronic (≥6mo) UL paresis poststroke. Secondary analysis of participants enrolled in a phase II randomized, parallel, dose-response UL movement trial. This analysis compared the accuracy and consistency between self-reported UL performance and sensor-measured UL performance at baseline and immediately post an 8-week intensive UL task-specific intervention. Outpatient rehabilitation. Community-dwelling individuals with chronic (≥6mo) UL paresis poststroke (N=64). Not applicable. Motor Activity Log amount of use scale and the sensor-derived use ratio from wrist-worn accelerometers. There was a high degree of variability between self-reported UL performance and the sensor-derived use ratio. Using sensor-based values as a reference, 3 distinct categories were identified: accurate reporters (reporting difference ±0.1), overreporters (difference >0.1), and underreporters (difference sensor-based assessment. Participants did not consistently or accurately self-report UL performance when compared with the sensor-derived use ratio. Although self-report and sensor-based assessments are moderately associated and appear similar conceptually, these results suggest self-reported UL performance is often not consistent with sensor-measured performance and the measures cannot be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Natamba, Barnabas K; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A
The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight recommendations are tailored to women's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Limited evidence exists on methods for estimating women's pre-pregnancy BMI, particularly for women living in low and middle income countries. Using data from collected among Peruvian pregnant women, we compared the concordance between self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI with BMI measured at the earliest prenatal study visit. Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study (PrOMIS), a cohort of pregnant women at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. 2605 women aged 18 to 49 years (mean ± SD gestational age = 10.9 ± 3.3 weeks) were included in the study. Self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and measured weight and height were collected at the first prenatal study contact. We assessed the concordance between measured and self-reported BMI; and, the agreement among indicators of nutritional status obtained using measured and self-reported BMI. On average, weight measured at the first prenatal study visit was 0.27 kg higher than self-reported pre-pregnancy weight (p overweight or obese BMI categories tended to be lower when using self-reported BMI (38.2 %) than when using measured BMI (47.7 %). Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI was strongly correlated with BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact. The findings potentially suggest that, in this context, there is minimal change between pre-pregnancy BMI and BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact; or, that women in this study just recalled their most recent measured anthropometrics (including values obtained during the index pregnancy but before enrollment in the PrOMIS study).
Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed
Busscher, B.; De Vliegher, D.; Ling, Y.; Brinkman, W.P.
Using virtual reality technology for exposure therapy to treat patients with anxiety disorders is attracting considerable research attention. The ability to monitor patient anxiety level helps therapists to set appropriate anxiety arousing situations. Physiological measures have been put forward as
Brekke, Anders Falk
Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...
Full Text Available The basic anthropometric data describing a person in the broadest context are body weight and height, two of the most frequently analyzed somatometric parameters. The same is true I in relation to clinical patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the self-reported and actual body weight, height and BMI in patients suffering from coronary artery disease and undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. The study sample consisted of 100 patients treated for coronary artery disease. The patients were asked to state their body weight and height. At the same time a three-person study team took measurements, which were later the basis for verification and objective assessment of the data provided by the patients. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistics 11.0 PL software. The analysis of mean results for the assessed group of patients has shown the presence of statistically significant differences between declared and actual data. The differences were observed for both male and female study population. It has been proven that the subjects declare greater body height (mean value 1.697 m vs. 1.666 m and lower body weight (80.643 kg vs. 82.051 kg. Based on the data from surveys and direct measurements, the body mass index for the self-reported and actual data was calculated. A comparison of these values has shown considerable statistically significant differences. The differences between declared and actual data point to highly subjective self-assessment, which disqualifies the declared data in the context of monitoring of treatment and rehabilitation processes. The authors believe that actual data should be used in direct trial examination of patients suffering from coronary artery disease who presented with acute coronary syndrome.
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia
To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P depressive disorder. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J; Commins, John M; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J; Moler, James E; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Prentice, Ross L; Rhodes, Donna; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F; Tinker, Lesley F; Willett, Walter; Kipnis, Victor
Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for dietary measurement error treat an individual's usual intake as a fixed quantity. However, usual intake, if defined as average intake over a few months, varies over time. We describe a model that accounts for such variation and for the proximity of biomarker measurements to self-reports within the framework of a meta-analysis, and apply it to the analysis of data on energy, protein, potassium, and sodium from a set of five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers as reference instruments. We show that this time-varying usual intake model fits the data better than the fixed usual intake assumption. Using this model, we estimated attenuation factors and correlations with true longer-term usual intake for single and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and compared them with those obtained under the "fixed" method. Compared with the fixed method, the estimates using the time-varying model showed slightly larger values of the attenuation factor and correlation coefficient for FFQs and smaller values for 24HRs. In some cases, the difference between the fixed method estimate and the new estimate for multiple 24HRs was substantial. With the new method, while four 24HRs had higher estimated correlations with truth than a single FFQ for absolute intakes of protein, potassium, and sodium, for densities the correlations were approximately equal. Accounting for the time element in dietary validation is potentially important, and points toward the need for longer-term validation studies.
Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H
Background. Gait characteristics extracted from trunk accelerations during daily life locomotion are complementary to questionnaire- or laboratory-based gait and balance assessments and may help to improve fall risk prediction. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify gait characteristics that are associated with self-reported fall history and that can be reliably assessed based on ambulatory data collected during a single week. Methods. We analyzed 2 weeks of trunk acceleration data (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts) collected among 113 older adults (age range, 65-97 years). During episodes of locomotion, various gait characteristics were determined, including local dynamic stability, interstride variability, and several spectral features. For each characteristic, we performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the participants' self-reported number of falls in the preceding year as outcome. Reliability of gait characteristics was assessed in terms of intraclass correlations between both measurement weeks. Results. The percentages of spectral power below 0.7 Hz along the vertical and anteroposterior axes and below 10 Hz along the mediolateral axis, as well as local dynamic stability, local dynamic stability per stride, gait smoothness, and the amplitude and slope of the dominant frequency along the vertical axis, were associated with the number of falls in the preceding year and could be reliably assessed (all P 0.75). Conclusions. Daily life gait characteristics are associated with fall history in older adults and can be reliably estimated from a week of ambulatory trunk acceleration measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gozzi, T; Flück, Ce; L'allemand, D; Dattani, M T; Hindmarsh, P C; Mullis, P E
An impressive discrepancy between reported and measured parental height is often observed. The aims of this study were: (a) to assess whether there is a significant difference between the reported and measured parental height; (b) to focus on the reported and, thereafter, measured height of the partner; (c) to analyse its impact on the calculated target height range. A total of 1542 individual parents were enrolled. The parents were subdivided into three groups: normal height (3-97th Centile), short (97%) stature. Overall, compared with men, women were far better in estimating their own height (p Women of normal stature underestimated the short partner and overestimated the tall partner, whereas male partners of normal stature overestimated both their short as well as tall partners. Women of tall stature estimated the heights of their short partners correctly, whereas heights of normal statured men were underestimated. On the other hand, tall men overestimated the heights of their female partners who are of normal and short stature. Furthermore, women of short stature estimated the partners of normal stature adequately, and the heights of their tall partners were overestimated. Interestingly, the short men significantly underestimated the normal, but overestimated tall female partners. Only measured heights should be used to perform accurate evaluations of height, particularly when diagnostic tests or treatment interventions are contemplated. For clinical trails, we suggest that only quality measured parental heights are acceptable, as the errors incurred in estimates may enhance/conceal true treatment effects.
Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P
This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.
Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan J. T.
This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective
Sheila Rizzato Stopa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetes in older people and the adopted control measures. METHODS Data regarding older diabetic individuals who participated in the Health Surveys conducted in the Municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, ISA-Capital, in 2003 and 2008, which were cross-sectional studies, were analyzed. Prevalences and confidence intervals were compared between 2003 and 2008, according to sociodemographic variables. The combination of the databases was performed when the confidence intervals overlapped. The Chi-square (level of significance of 5% and the Pearson’s Chi-square (Rao-Scott tests were performed. The variables without overlap between the confidence intervals were not tested. RESULTS The age of the older adults was 60-69 years. The majority were women, Caucasian, with an income of between > 0.5 and 2.5 times the minimum salary and low levels of schooling. The prevalence of diabetes was 17.6% (95%CI 14.9;20.6 in 2003 and 20.1% (95%CI 17.3;23.1 in 2008, which indicates a growth over this period (p at the limit of significance. The most prevalent measure adopted by the older adults to control diabetes was hypoglycemic agents, followed by diet. Physical activity was not frequent, despite the significant differences observed between 2003 and 2008 results. The use of public health services to control diabetes was significantly higher in older individuals with lower income and lower levels of education. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is a complex and challenging disease for patients and the health systems. Measures that encourage health promotion practices are necessary because they presented a smaller proportion than the use of hypoglycemic agents. Public health policies should be implemented, and aimed mainly at older individuals with low income and schooling levels. These changes are essential to improve the health condition of older diabetic patients.
Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Schoenborn Charlotte A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Body Mass Index (BMI based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI" in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Methods Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Results Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55, gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. Conclusion BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases
Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A
The Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI") in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55), gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the survey
Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S
Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer H
To acknowledge the clinical significance of manic features in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for a mixed features specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 mixed features specifier. More than 1100 psychiatric outpatients with MDD or bipolar disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 mixed features specifier (CUDOS-M). To examine discriminant and convergent validity the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, agitation, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-M twice. We compared CUDOS-M scores in patients with MDD, bipolar depression, and hypomania. The CUDOS-M subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, was more highly correlated with another self-report measure of mania than with measures of depression, anxiety, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger, and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of agitation and irritability than anxiety and depression. CUDOS-M scores were significantly higher in hypomanic patients than depressed patients, and patients with bipolar depression than patients with MDD. The study was cross-sectional, thus we did not examine whether the CUDOS-M detects emerging mixed symptoms when depressed patients are followed over time. Also, while we examined the correlation between the CUDOS-M and clinician ratings of agitation and irritability, we did not examine the association with a clinician measure of manic symptomatology such as the Young Mania Rating Scale In the
Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana
The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…
Matarese, Maria; Lommi, Marzia; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
The aims of this study were as follows: to identify instruments developed to assess self-care in healthy adults; to determine the theory on which they were based; their validity and reliability properties and to synthesize the evidence on their measurement properties. Many instruments have been developed to assess self-care in many different populations and conditions. Clinicians and researchers should select the most appropriate self-care instrument based on the knowledge of their measurement properties. Systematic review of measurement instruments according to the protocol recommended by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Studies testing measurement properties of self-report instruments assessing self-care in healthy adults, published in the English language and in peer review journals were selected. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the studies with the COSMIN checklist and the quality of results using specific quality criteria. Twenty-six articles were included in the review testing the measurement properties of nine instruments. Seven instruments were based on Orem's Self-care theory. Not all the measurement properties were evaluated for the identified instruments. No self-care instrument showed strong evidence supporting the evaluated measurement properties. Despite the development of several instruments to assess self-care in the adult population, no instrument can be fully recommended to clinical nurses and researchers. Further studies of high methodological quality are needed to confirm the measurement properties of these instruments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Although highly debated, the notion of the existence of an adaptive side to psychopathy is supported by some researchers. Currently, 2 instruments assessing psychopathic traits include an adaptive component, which might not cover the full spectrum of adaptive psychopathic traits. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ; Durand, 2017 ) is a 41-item self-reported instrument assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. In this study, I investigated in 2 samples (N = 263 and N = 262) the incremental validity of the DAPTQ over the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF) and the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using multiple criterion measures. Results showed that the DAPTQ significantly increased the predictive validity over the PPI-SF on 5 factors of the HEXACO. Additionally, the DAPTQ provided incremental validity over both the PPI-SF and the TriPM on measures of communication adaptability, perceived stress, and trait anxiety. Overall, these results support the validity of the DAPTQ in community samples. Directions for future studies to further validate the DAPTQ are discussed.
Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom
AIMS: To study the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and objectively measured PA, resting heart rate, and physical fitness. METHODS: During 2007-08, 5017 men and 5607 women aged 30-69 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Self-reported PA during leisure......-time and work were assessed and resting heart rate was measured. In a sub-study, the activity study, PA (Actigraph LLC) and physical fitness (VO₂(max)) were objectively measured among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years. RESULTS: Self-reported leisure PA was significantly correlated with VO₂(max) (ml...... women than men met the international recommendations of 10,000 step counts/day (27% vs. 22%) and the recommendation of at least 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensities (30% vs. 22 %). CONCLUSIONS: The Tromsø physical activity questionnaire has acceptable validity and provides valid estimates...
Yaseen, Zimri S.; Zhang, Xian; Muran, J. Christopher; Winston, Arnold; Galynker, Igor I.
Objectives: The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has been the gold standard of attachment assessment, but requires special training. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) is a widely used self-report measure. We investigate how each correlates with brain activity during appraisal of subjects’ mothers. Methods: Twenty-eight women were scored on the AAI, RSQ, and mood measures. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects viewed their mothers in neutral-, valence-, and salience-rating conditions. We identified regions where contrasts in brain activity between appraisal and neutral viewing conditions correlated with each measure of attachment after covarying for mood. AAI and RSQ measures were then compared in terms of the extent to which regions of correlating brain activity overlapped with “default mode network” (DMN) vs. executive frontal network (EFN) masks and cortical vs. subcortical masks. Additionally, interactions with mood were examined. Results: Salience and valence processing associated with increased thalamo-striatal, posterior cingulate, and visual cortex activity. Salience processing decreased PFC activity, whereas valence processing increased left insula activity. Activity correlating with AAI vs. RSQ measures demonstrated significantly more DMN and subcortical involvement. Interactions with mood were observed in the middle temporal gyrus and precuneus for both measures. Conclusion: The AAI appears to disproportionately correlate with conscious appraisal associated activity in DMN and subcortical structures, while the RSQ appears to tap EFN structures more extensively. Thus, the AAI may assess more interoceptive, ‘core-self’-related processes, while the RSQ captures higher-order cognitions involved in attachment. Shared interaction effects between mood and AAI and RSQ-measures may suggest that processes tapped by each belong to a common system. PMID:27014022
Carlos A Celis-Morales
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 317 adults by 7-day accelerometry and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Fasting blood was taken to determine insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations and homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR. Waist circumference, BMI, body fat percentage and blood pressure were also measured. RESULTS: For both accelerometer-derived sedentary time (50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived measure (p<0.0001 for both interactions. The relationships for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and risk factors were less strong than those observed for sedentary behaviours, but significant negative relationships were observed for both accelerometer and IPAQ MVPA measures with glucose, and insulin and HOMA(IR values (all p<0.05. For accelerometer-derived MVPA only, additional negative relationships were seen with triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat, and a positive relationship was evident with HDL cholesterol (p = 0.0002. Regression coefficients for HOMA(IR, insulin and triglyceride were 43-50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived MVPA measure (all p≤0.01. CONCLUSION: Using the IPAQ to determine sitting time and MVPA reveals some, but not all, relationships between these activity measures and metabolic and vascular disease risk factors. Using this self-report method to quantify activity can therefore underestimate the strength of some
von Baeyer, Carl L; Jaaniste, Tiina; Vo, Henry L T; Brunsdon, Georgie; Lao, Hsuan-Chih; Champion, G David
Claims are made for the validity of some self-report pain scales for 3- and 4-year-old children, but little is known about their ability to use such tools. This systematic review identified self-report pain intensity measures used with 3- and/or 4- year-old participants (3-4yo) and considered their reliability and validity within this age span. The search protocol identified research articles that included 3-4yo, reported use of any pain scale, and included self-reported pain intensity ratings. A total of 1,590 articles were screened and 617 articles met inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 98% aggregated self-report data for 3-4yo with data for older children, leading to overestimates of the reliability and validity of self-report in the younger age group. In the 14 studies that provided nonaggregated data for 3-4yo, there was no evidence for 3-year-old and weak evidence for 4-year-old children being able to use published self-report pain intensity tools in a valid or reliable way. Preschool-age children have been reported to do better with fewer than the 6 response options offered on published faces scales. Simplified tools are being developed for young children; however, more research is needed before these are adopted. Some self-report pain scales have been promoted for use with 3- and 4-year-old children, but this is on the basis of studies that aggregated data for younger and older children, resulting in overestimates of reliability and validity for the preschool-age children. Scales with fewer response options show promise, at least for 4-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…
Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…
Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid
The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…
Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0
Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio
Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many
Baron-Epel, Orna; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F
Studies of changes in health following immigration are inconsistent, and few are based on longitudinal designs to test associations based on change. This study identified factors that predicted changes in self-reported health (SRH) among California residents of Korean descent. A sample of California residents of Korean descent were interviewed and followed-up 2 or 3 times by telephone during 2001-2009. The questionnaires dealt with SRH, lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical activity, and fast food consumption), and socioeconomic measures. Statistical analysis included random-intercepts longitudinal regression models predicting change in SRH. A similar percentage of respondents reported improved and deteriorating SRH (30.3% and 29.1%, respectively). Smoking, consumption of fast foods, age, percentage of life spent in the United States, and being female were predictors of deteriorating SRH, whereas physical activity, education, and living with a partner were predictive of improvement in SRH. The effect of immigration on SRH is influenced by socioeconomic factors and lifestyle practices. Results support promotion of healthy lifestyle practices among immigrants. © 2015 APJPH.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Fallentin, Nils; Christensen, Karl B
daily number of patient handling tasks and Hollmann's physical load index). METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 535 hospital employees in a psychiatric and an orthopedic ward in a Danish hospital. Of these 411 (77%) filled in and returned the questionnaire. Only the 373 respondents who had non...... the prevalence odds ratio (POR) for LBP was 5.38 (95% CI 2.03-14.29) in the group performing more than 10 patient handling tasks per day and 2.29 (95% CI 0.93-5.66) in the group with the highest score on the physical load index. CONCLUSION: In specialized hospital wards the daily number of patient handling tasks......BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a frequent health complaint among health care personnel. Several work tasks and working postures are associated with an increased risk of LBP. The aim of this study was to compare two self-reported measures of physical demands and their association with LBP (the...
Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L
The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.
Janz, Kathleen F; Lutuchy, Elena M; Wenthe, Phyllis; Levy, Steven M
This study examined the psychometric properties of two versions of a commonly used physical activity 7-d self-report, the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). We longitudinally examined the internal consistency, stability, and situational effects of the PAQ-C and PAQ-A in a cohort of children (N = 210) at ages 11 and 13 yr. Statistical analysis included factor loading and standardized Cronbach coefficient alphas. We cross-sectionally examined concurrent validity of the PAQ-A in a subsample of our cohort (N = 49) at age 13 by comparing it with concurrently measured physical activity using an activity monitor (Actigraph). Spearman correlation coefficients were used for this analysis. Standardized Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.72 to 0.88. A subsample analysis suggested that completing the questionnaires during the summer months slightly reduced the standardized alpha for the PAQ-C, but not the PAQ-A. Associations between the PAQ-A (revised) summary score and activity monitor variables were rho = 0.56 for total PA and rho = 0.63 for moderate through vigorous activity (P PAQ-A questions and activity monitor variables for the same time frame ranged from rho = 0.41 to 0.62 (P PAQ-C and PAQ-A show good internal consistency. The PAQ-A has acceptable validity.
Karcher, Nicole R; Barch, Deanna M; Avenevoli, Shelli; Savill, Mark; Huber, Rebekah S; Simon, Tony J; Leckliter, Ingrid N; Sher, Kenneth J; Loewy, Rachel L
Childhood psychoticlike experiences (PLEs) are associated with greater odds of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder during adulthood. However, no known, well-validated self-report tools have been designed to measure childhood PLEs. To examine the construct validity and psychometric properties of a measure of PLEs, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC). This validation study used data from the first wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a prospective longitudinal study aimed at assessing risk factors associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes from ages 9 to 10 years into late adolescence and early adulthood. The population-based sample of 3984 children within the ABCD data set was recruited from 20 research sites across the United States. Data for this study were collected from June 1, 2016, through August 31, 2017. The PQ-BC Total and Distress scores were analyzed for measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, their associations with measures of PLEs, and their associations with known correlates of PLEs, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones. The study analyses included 3984 participants (1885 girls [47.3%] and 2099 boys [52.7%]; mean [SE] age, 10.0 [0.01] years). The results demonstrated measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex. A family history of psychotic disorder was associated with higher mean (SE) PQ-BC Total (3.883 [0.352]; β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.027-0.094) and Distress (10.210 [1.043]; β = 0.051; 95% CI, 0.018-0.084) scores, whereas a family history of depression or mania was not. Higher PQ-BC scores were associated with higher rates of child-rated internalizing symptoms (Total score: β range, 0.218 [95% CI, 0.189-0.246] to 0.273 [95% CI, 0.245-0.301]; Distress score: β range, 0.248 [95% CI, 0.220-0.277] to 0.310 [95% CI, 0.281-0.338]), neuropsychological test performance
Dens, Nathalie; Eagle, Lynne C; De Pelsmacker, Patrick
Patients', doctors', and pharmacists' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for medication and their perceptions of its impact on patient self-reported behavior in terms of request for, and consumption of, advertised medication were investigated. Data were obtained in New Zealand, 1 of only 2 countries that allow mass-media DTCA for prescription medication, and in Belgium, which does not. Attitudes were relatively negative in both countries, but significantly more positive in New Zealand than in Belgium. The impact of DTCA (both in a positive and a negative sense) on self-reported patient behavior and patient interaction with doctors and pharmacists was limited in both countries. Although -- as already established in previous work -- the informativeness and reliability of DTCA can be much improved, and the attitude of medical professionals toward DTCA is negative in both countries, from the point of view of medical professionals and patients, DTCA does not harm the self-reported relationship between doctors, pharmacists, and patients.
Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres
SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171
Lauren S. Wakschlag
Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major public health problem that has been associated with numerous short- and long-term adverse health outcomes in offspring. However, characterizing smoking exposure during pregnancy precisely has been rather difficult: self-reported measures of smoking often suffer from recall bias, deliberate misreporting, and selective non-disclosure, while single bioassay measures of nicotine metabolites only reflect recent smoking history and cannot capture the fluctuating and complex patterns of varying exposure of the fetus. Recently, Dukic et al.  have proposed a statistical method for combining information from both sources in order to increase the precision of the exposure measurement and power to detect more subtle effects of smoking. In this paper, we extend the Dukic et al.  method to incorporate individual variation of the metabolic parameters (such as clearance rates into the calibration model of smoking exposure during pregnancy. We apply the new method to the Family Health and Development Project (FHDP, a small convenience sample of 96 predominantly working-class white pregnant women oversampled for smoking. We find that, on average, misreporters smoke 7.5 cigarettes more than what they report to smoke, with about one third underreporting by 1.5, one third under-reporting by about 6.5, and one third underreporting by 8.5 cigarettes. Partly due to the limited demographic heterogeneity in the FHDP sample, the results are similar to those obtained by the deterministic calibration model, whose adjustments were slightly lower (by 0.5 cigarettes on average. The new results are also, as expected, less sensitive to assumed values of cotinine half-life.
Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A
In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.
Price, Matthew; Maples, Jessica L; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Heekin, Mary; Rothbaum, Barbara O
Outcome expectancy, or the degree to which a client believes that therapy will result in improvement, is related to improved treatment outcomes for multiple disorders. There is a paucity of research investigating this relation in regards to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, the bulk of the research on outcome expectancy and treatment outcomes has relied mostly on self-report outcome measures. The relation between outcome expectancy on self-report measures, clinician-rated measures, and two biological indices (fear-potentiated startle and cortisol reactivity) of PTSD symptoms was explored. The sample included combat veterans (N = 116) treated with virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD. Results supported a negative association between outcome expectancy and both self-report and clinician-rated symptoms at the conclusion of treatment, but outcome expectancy was related to the magnitude of change during treatment for self-report measures only. Outcome expectancy was unrelated to biological measures of treatment response. These findings suggest that outcome expectancy may be related to patient and clinician perceptions of outcomes, but not biological indices of outcome for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bruxvoort, Katia; Festo, Charles; Cairns, Matthew; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mayaya, Frank; Kachur, S Patrick; Schellenberg, David; Goodman, Catherine
Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device--termed smart blister packs--to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in southern Tanzania. Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data. Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively). However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion) was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; psmart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval. Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies.
Full Text Available Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device--termed smart blister packs--to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in southern Tanzania.Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data.Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively. However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; p<0.0001. By smart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval.Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies.
Anna E. Saw, Luana C. Main, Paul B. Gastin
Full Text Available Athlete self-report measures (ASRM are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131 completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001 with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly.
Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative
Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p = 0.02), but not for energy (p = 0.119) or protein intake (p = 0.077). Conclusions The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance
Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative.
Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Tinker, Lesley F; Huang, Ying; Neuhouser, Marian L; McCann, Susan E; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Curb, J David; Prentice, Ross L
The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p = 0.02), but not for energy (p = 0.119) or protein intake (p = 0.077). The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance explained for protein density and their
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Celis-Morales, C.; Livingstone, K.M.; Woolhead, C.; Forster, H.; O’Donovan, C.B.; Macready, A.L.; Fallaize, R.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; Tsirigoti, L.; Efstathopoulou, E.; Moschonis, G.; Navas-Carretero, S.; San-Cristobal, R.; Kolossa, S.; Klein, U.L.; Hallmann, J.; Godlewska, M.; Surwiłło, A.; Drevon, C.A.; Bouwman, J.; Grimaldi, K.; Parnell, L.D.; Manios, Y.; Traczyk, I.; Gibney, E.R.; Brennan, L.; Walsh, M.C.; Lovegrove, J.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Daniel, H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Gibney, M.; Mathers, J.C.
In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric
Blackburn, Steven; Higginbottom, Adele; Taylor, Robert; Bird, Jo; Østerås, Nina; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Edwards, John J; Jordan, Kelvin P; Jinks, Clare; Dziedzic, Krysia
People with osteoarthritis desire high quality care, support and information. However, the quality of care for people with OA in general practice is not routinely collected. Quality Indicators can be used to benefit patients by measuring whether minimum standards of quality care are being met from a patient perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how a Research User Group (RUG) worked alongside researchers to co-produce a set of self-reported quality indicators for people with osteoarthritis when visiting their general practitioner or practice nurse (primary care). These were required in the MOSAICS study, which developed and evaluated a new model of supported self-management of OA to implement the NICE quality standards for OA. This article describes the public involvement in the MOSAICS study. This was 1) the co-development by RUG members and researchers of an Osteoarthritis Quality Indicators United Kingdom (OA QI (UK)) questionnaire for use in primary care, and 2) the comparison of the OA QI (UK) with a similar questionnaire developed in Norway. This study shows how important and effective a research user group can be in working with researchers in developing quality care indicators for osteoarthritis for use in a research study and, potentially, routine use in primary care. The questionnaire is intended to benefit patients by enabling the assessment of the quality of primary care for osteoarthritis from a patient's perspective. The OA QI (UK) has been used to examine differences in the quality of osteoarthritis care in four European countries. Background People with osteoarthritis (OA) desire high quality care, support and information about OA. However, the quality of care for people with OA in general practice is not routinely collected. Quality Indicators (QI) can be used to benefit patients by measuring whether minimum standards of quality care (e.g. NICE quality standards) are being met from a patient perspective. A Research User Group (RUG
Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zack, Matthew M; Saaddine, Jinan B
To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. We used cross-sectional data from the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine six HRQoL measures: self-reported health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, activity limitation days, life satisfaction, and disability. Visual impairment was categorized as no, a little, and moderate/severe. We examined the association between self-reported visual impairment and HRQoL using logistic regression accounting for the survey's complex design. People with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more frequent (≥14) physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days in the last 30 days compared to those reporting a little or no visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates (age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, heart attack, body mass index, leisure time activity, smoking, and medical care cost concerns) and comparing to those with no self-reported visual impairment, people reporting a little visual impairment were more likely to have fair/poor health (odds ratio, OR, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-1.3), life dissatisfaction (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0), and disability (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and those with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more fair/poor health (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0), life dissatisfaction (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9), and disability (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.2). They also had more frequent physically unhealthy days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1), mentally unhealthy days (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), and activity limitations days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2). Poor HRQoL is strongly associated with the severity of self-reported visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years.
Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zack, Matthew M.; Saaddine, Jinan B.
Purpose To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine six HRQoL measures: self-reported health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, activity limitation days, life satisfaction, and disability. Visual impairment was categorized as no, a little, and moderate/severe. We examined the association between self-reported visual impairment and HRQoL using logistic regression accounting for the survey’s complex design. Results People with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more frequent (≥14) physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days in the last 30 days compared to those reporting a little or no visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates (age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, heart attack, body mass index, leisure time activity, smoking, and medical care cost concerns) and comparing to those with no self-reported visual impairment, people reporting a little visual impairment were more likely to have fair/poor health (odds ratio, OR, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1–1.3), life dissatisfaction (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3–2.0), and disability (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6), and those with self-reported moderate/severe visual impairment had more fair/poor health (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6–2.0), life dissatisfaction (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8–2.9), and disability (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8–2.2). They also had more frequent physically unhealthy days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7–2.1), mentally unhealthy days (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5–2.1), and activity limitations days (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6–2.2). Conclusion Poor HRQoL is strongly associated with the severity of self-reported visual impairment among people aged ≥65 years. PMID:24955821
Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor
Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.
Irving, Shalon M; Njai, Rashid S; Siegel, Paul Z
Food insecurity is positively linked to risk of hypertension; however, it is not known whether this relationship persists after adjustment for socioeconomic position (SEP). We examined the association between food insecurity and self-reported hypertension among adults aged 35 or older (N = 58,677) in 12 states that asked the food insecurity question in their 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire. After adjusting for SEP, hypertension was more common among adults reporting food insecurity (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.36). Our study found a positive relationship between food insecurity and hypertension after adjusting for SEP and other characteristics.
Bibb, Jennifer; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
This study aimed to explore four mental health consumers' experiences of completing self-report outcome measures in a research project. Participants were recruited from a community mental health organisation in Melbourne and were interviewed upon completion of a mixed methods research study where they were asked to complete a series of self-report outcome measures. Descriptive phenomenological micro-analysis was used to analyse interview data and is presented along with the researchers' observations during the data collection process. Results revealed that participants found the outcome measures cognitively challenging and the language used in the measures did not support the empowering intentions of mental health recovery. The authors suggest that the value of completing surveys for people with severe mental illness needs to be carefully considered so that the research process does not diminish other benefits of participation.
Johnson, Danette Ifert; Long, Kathleen M.
Direct listening instruction is a frequent component of basic communication courses. Research has found changes in self-perceived listening competence during a basic communication course and only a minimal relationship between self-perceived and performance-based measures of listening and other communication behaviors. Results of the present study…
Nelson, Helen J.; Kendall, Garth E.; Burns, Sharyn K.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.
Bullying in schools is a major health concern throughout the world, contributing to poor educational and mental health outcomes. School nurses are well placed to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of bullying prevention strategies. To evaluate the effect of such strategies, it is necessary to measure children's behavior over time. This…
Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh
Full Text Available More than 16,500 people lose their lives each year due to traffic crashes in Iran, which reflects one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in the world. The aim of the present study is to investigate the factors structure of an extended Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and to examine the gender differences in the extracted factors among Iranian drivers. Further, the study tested the association between DBQ factors, demographic characteristics, and self-reported crashes. Based on Iranian driving culture, an extended (36 items Internet-based version of the DBQ was distributed among Iranian drivers. The results of Exploratory Factor Analysis based on a sample of 632 Iranians identified a five-factor solution named “Speeding and Pushing Violations”, “Lapses and Errors”, “Violations Causing Inattention”, “Aggressive Violations” and “Traffic Violations” which account for 44.7 percent of the total variance. The results also revealed that females were more prone to Lapses and Errors, whereas males reported more violations than females. Logistic regression analysis identified Violations Causing Inattention, Speeding and Pushing Violations as predictors of self-reported crashes in a three-year period. The results were discussed in line with road traffic safety countermeasures suitable for the Iranian context.
Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F.; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L.; Kipnis, Victor
Background Measurement error (ME) in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. Methods We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess ME in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, that includes 450 post-menopausal women aged 60–91. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 4-day food records (4DFR) and three 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Results Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF=0.57), followed by FFQ (AF=0.48), and 4DFR (AF=0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5–6% for absolute sugars; 7–18% for sugars density). Adding participants’ characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16–18% for absolute sugars; 29–40% for sugars density). Conclusions None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Impact Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that, measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. PMID:25234237
Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T
To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.
Clough, Alan R; MacLaren, David J; Robertson, Jan A; Ivers, Rowena G; Conigrave, Katherine M
In remote Indigenous Australian communities measuring individual tobacco use can be confounded by cultural expectations, including sharing. We compared self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). In a cross-sectional survey in three communities (population 2319 Indigenous residents, aged ≥16 years), 400 Indigenous residents were interviewed (206 men, 194 women). Eight community stores provided information about tobacco sold during the survey. To gauge the impact of 255 non-Indigenous residents on tobacco turnover, 10 were interviewed (five men, five women). Breath carbon monoxide levels confirmed self-reported smoking. Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day was compared with daily tobacco consumption per user estimated using amounts of tobacco sold during 12 months before the survey (2007-2008). 'Lighter smokers' (Indigenous study participants, 305 (76%) used tobacco; four chewed tobacco. Of 301 Indigenous smokers, 177 (58%) provided self-reported consumption information; a median of 11-11.5 cigarettes per day in men and 5.5-10 cigarettes per day in women. Men were three times (odds ratio=2.9) more likely to be 'heavier smokers'. Store turnover data indicated that Indigenous tobacco users consumed the equivalent of 9.2-13.1 cigarettes per day; very similar to self-reported levels. Sixty per cent (=6/10) of non-Indigenous residents interviewed were smokers, but with little impact on tobacco turnover overall (2-6%). Smoking levels reported by Indigenous Australians in this study, when sharing tobacco was considered, closely reflected quantities of tobacco sold in community stores. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung-Bae; Bajgai, Johny
Different health behaviors influence health and illness. Spiritual well-being is one of the most important aspects of health promotion. The aim of this study was to identify the association between spiritual behavior in relation to meditation, worship, and physical exercise during yoga with self-reported disease/illness among women of the Kailali district of Nepal. This was a cross-sectional study with 453 randomly selected women in the Kailali district of Nepal within 1 municipality and 4 village development committees (VDC) using cluster sampling. We used a semi-structured interview to collect the data for selected respondents. Socioeconomics, lifestyle, self-care, and spiritual behavior variables were independent variables, and self-reported illness in the past year was a dependent variable. Descriptive statistics, chi square, hierarchical logistic regression for odds ratio, and 95% CI were used when appropriate. Study results showed that 89% of participants were from the rural area, 29.3% were housewives, 51.4% had no formal education, 43.2% used tobacco, 42.1% did yoga, and 16.9% engaged in regular worship. Self-reported illness was associated with safe toilet-using behavior, tobacco use, junk food consumption, yoga and regular exercise, worship, and regular sleeping habits. Comparing odds ratios and 95% CIs, the women who had safe toilet behavior and did not use tobacco were 2.48 (1.98-7.98) and 2.86 (1.74-7.34) times less likely to be ill, respectively. Likewise, women who consumed junk food; did not regularly exercise, meditate, or worship; and had irregular sleeping habits were 1.65 (1.32-4.61), 2.81(1.91-5.62), 2.56 (2.01-4.88), 4.56 (3.91-8.26), and 2.45 (2.12-5.03) times more likely to become ill, respectively. Our study concludes that spiritual behavior is effective for better health and low risk for disease occurrence. A spiritual health policy and separate curriculum for basic education and medical education should be promoted globally, and further
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Scher, Christine D.; McCreary, Donald R.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Resick, Patricia A.
Empirical research increasingly suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comprised of four factors: re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. Nonetheless, there remains some inconsistency in the findings of factor analyses that form the bulk of this empirical literature. One source of such inconsistency may be assessment measure idiosyncrasies. To examine this issue, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses of interview and self-report data across three trauma samples. Analyses of the interview data indicated a good fit for a four-factor model across all samples; analyses of the self-report data indicated an adequate fit in two of three samples. Overall, findings suggest that measure idiosyncrasies may account for some of the inconsistency in previous factor analyses of PTSD symptoms. PMID:18206346
Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin
Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students ( N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Zhu, Xiaoqin
Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students (N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior. PMID:29651269
Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.
Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; Aghababian, Valérie; Parola, Nathalie; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal
Impaired executive functions are among the most widely observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these patients has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcome for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL) instrument, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (SQoL18). cross-sectional study. age over 18 years, diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. sociodemographic (age, gender, and education level) and clinical data (duration of illness, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia); QoL (SQoL18); and executive performance (Stroop test, lexical and verbal fluency, and trail-making test). Non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for each of the three tests. For the six groups, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were enrolled. The factor analysis performed in the impaired groups showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the non-impaired groups and the reference population. Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of self-reported disease-specific QoL questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Terwee, Caroline B; Amick, Benjamin C; Bültmann, Ute
During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in occupational health practice and research, the measurement properties (eg, reliability, validity, responsiveness) must be evaluated. The objective of this study is to appraise critically and compare the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with CMD. A systematic review was performed searching three electronic databases. Papers were included that: (i) mainly focused on the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of a self-reported health-related work-functioning instrument; (ii) were conducted in a CMD population; and (iii) were fulltext original papers. Quality appraisal was performed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Five papers evaluating measurement properties of five self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments in CMD populations were included. There is little evidence available for the measurement properties of the identified instruments in this population, mainly due to low methodological quality of the included studies. The available evidence on measurement properties is based on studies of poor-to-fair methodological quality. Information on a number of measurement properties, such as measurement error, content validity, and cross-cultural validity is still lacking. Therefore, no evidence-based decisions and recommendations can be made for the use of health-related work functioning instruments. Studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the existing instruments' measurement properties.
Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith
Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes. PMID:28983443
Franklin, Ashley; Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith
Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes.
Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy
This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…
Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N
Stress has been associated with poor self-control. Individual differences in impulsivity and other behavioral tendencies may influence the relationship of stress with self-control, although this possibility has not been examined to date. The present research investigated whether cumulative stress is associated with poor self-control, and whether this relationship is mediated by impulsivity, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition in men and women. A community sample of 566 adults (319 women and 247 men) was assessed on the Cumulative Adversity Interview, Brief Self-control Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System Scale (BIS/BAS). Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques. In the total sample, the effects of cumulative stress on self-control were mediated by impulsivity. Neither behavioral inhibition nor behavioral approach mediated the association between cumulative stress and self-control in the total sample. Results were similar when men and women were considered separately, with impulsivity, but not behavioral inhibition or approach, mediating the association between cumulative stress and self-control. Impulsive individuals might benefit preferentially from interventions focusing on stress management and strategies for improving self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R
Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences. Undergraduate students (total N = 105; female n = 77, male n = 28) completed laboratory measures-delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD)-for two different outcomes-money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI), which measures difficulty with delaying gratification (i.e., impulsivity) across different domains, including money and physical pleasures. Findings indicated that DD and PD for money were not related to any of the DGI subscales. However, DD for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI Physical Pleasures subscale, but not other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures of impulsive choice may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavioral patterns, but further research is warranted.
Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…
The specific purpose of the study was to examine the impact of differences in type of dental plan, premiums paid to dental plans, patient out-of-pocket costs, and the dental insurance market on patient behavior...
Hébert, J R; Peterson, K E; Hurley, T G; Stoddard, A M; Cohen, N; Field, A E; Sorensen, G
To evaluate the effect of social desirability trait, the tendency to respond in a manner consistent with societal expectations, on self-reported fruit, vegetable, and macronutrient intake. A 61-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), 7-item fruit and vegetable screener, and a single question on combined fruit and vegetable intake were completed by 132 female employees at five health centers in eastern Massachusetts. Intake of fruit and vegetables derived from all three methods and macronutrients from the FFQ were fit as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models (overall and by race/ethnicity and education); independent variables included 3-day mean intakes derived from 24-hour recalls (24HR) and score on the 33-point Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale (the regression coefficient for which reflects its effect on estimates of dietary intake based on the comparison method relative to 24HR). Results are based on the 93 women with complete data and FFQ-derived caloric intake between 450 and 4500 kcal/day. In women with college education, FFQ-derived estimates of total caloric were associated with under-reporting by social desirability trait (e.g., the regression coefficient for total caloric intake was -23.6 kcal/day/point in that group versus 36.1 kcal/day/point in women with education less than college) (difference = 59.7 kcal/day/point, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 13.2, 106.2). Except for the single question on which women with college education tended to under-report (difference =.103 servings/day/point, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.203), there was no association of social desirability trait with self-reported fruit and vegetable intake. The effect of social desirability trait on FFQ reports of macronutrient intake appeared to differ by education, but not by ethnicity or race. The results of this study may have important implications for epidemiologic studies of diet and health in women.
McIntyre, Teresa M; McIntyre, Scott E; Barr, Christopher D; Woodward, Phillip S; Francis, David J; Durand, Angelia C; Mehta, Paras; Kamarck, Thomas W
There is a lack of comprehensive research on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) feasibility to study occupational stress, especially its long-term sustainability. EMA application in education contexts has also been sparse. This study investigated the feasibility of using EMA to study teacher stress over 2 years using both objective compliance data and a self-reported feasibility survey. It also examined the influence of individual and school factors on EMA feasibility. Participants were 202 sixth through eighth grade teachers from 22 urban middle schools in the southern United States. EMA was implemented via an iPod-based Teacher Stress Diary (TSD). Teachers recorded demands, stress responses, and resources during 12 days (6 waves) over 2 years. Feasibility was assessed via compliance data generated by the TSD (e.g., entry completion) and an EMA Feasibility Survey of self-reported user-friendliness and EMA interference. The results showed high compliance regarding entry and item completion, and completion time, which was sustained over time. User-friendliness was appraised as very high and EMA interference as low. Initial difficulties regarding timing and length of assessments were addressed via EMA method refinement, resulting in improved feasibility. Teachers' ethnicity, age, marital status, grade/course taught, class size, class load, and daily workload impacted feasibility. The results supported the feasibility of using EMA to study work stress longitudinally and the value of continued feasibility monitoring. They also support EMA use to study teacher stress and inform EMA implementation in schools. Some teacher and school factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding on EMA implementation in education contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women's self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSIONS: Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising
Thomas, Susie; Halbert, Julie; Mackintosh, Shylie; Quinn, Stephen; Crotty, Maria
To determine self-reported physical activity barriers, behaviors, and beliefs about exercise of a representative sample and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Face-to-face interviews conducted between September and December 2008, using a random stratified sampling technique. Barriers injury and illness were associated with being older, single, and not engaged in full-time work; lack of time was associated with being married, younger, female, and working full-time; and lack of motivation and cost were associated with being younger than 65 years. Advancing age was significantly associated (p exercise in, while all age groups (74%) felt that walking was the most important type of exercise for older adults. A better understanding of these factors may improve uptake of and adherence to exercise programs across the ages.
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Bohn, Mariko T.
This article examines the influence of Japanese cultural values, beliefs, and educational style on Japanese students learning English as a second language in an American classroom. In contrast to the Japanese students' high motivation to learn English, their classroom behavior and roles reflect their own cultural perspectives rather than the…
Dworkin, Mark S; Peterson, Caryn E; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C Lynn
Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, pcomic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result.
Dumontheil, Iroise; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Ferschmann, Lia; Walhovd, Kristine; Tamnes, Christian; Fjell, Anders; Overbye, Knut
Basic perspective taking and mentalising abilities develop in childhood, but recent studies indicate that the use of social perspective taking to guide decisions and actions has a prolonged development that continues throughout adolescence. Here, we aimed to replicate this research and investigate the hypotheses that individual differences in social perspective taking in adolescence are associated with real-life prosocial and antisocial behavior and differences in brain structure. We employed...
Clover, Kerrie; Oultram, Sharon; Adams, Catherine; Cross, Laraine; Findlay, Naomi; Ponman, Leah
This analysis sought to determine whether patient self-report measures were associated with disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region. A cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region at a major regional radiation oncology treatment centre (ROTC) in Australia completed self-report measures of anxiety, history of panic and fears relevant to use of an immobilising mask. The treating Radiation Therapist (RT) rated the level of session disruption due to patient anxiety during the Computerised Tomography/Simulation (CT/Sim) (baseline) session and first treatment session. Complete data were obtained for 90 patients. RTs rated 11 and 24% of patients as having some level of session disruption session due to anxiety at baseline and Treatment 1, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with session disruption at baseline in bivariate analyses: currently taking psycho-active medication (p=0.008); fear of enclosed spaces (p=0.006); fear of face being covered up (p=0.006); fear of movement restriction (p=0.041) and ever had an anxiety attack (p=0.034). Sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.75 and specificity ranged from 0.68 to 0.90. Only session disruption at baseline predicted disruption at Treatment 1 (pdisruption and patient self-report measures which might be used to flag patients for prophylactic treatment. Further development and replication in a larger sample is warranted before introduction of these measures into routine practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chum, Antony; Skosireva, Anna; Tobon, Juliana; Hwang, Stephen
Self-reported health measures are important indicators used by clinicians and researchers for the evaluation of health interventions, outcome assessment of clinical studies, and identification of health needs to improve resource allocation. However, the application of self-reported health measures relies on developing reliable and valid instruments that are suitable across diverse populations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the SF-12v.2, an instrument for measuring self-rated physical and mental health, for homeless adults with mental illness. Various interventions have been aimed at improving the health of homeless people with mental illness, and the development of valid instruments to evaluate these interventions is imperative. We measured self-rated mental and physical health from a quota sample of 575 homeless people with mental illness using the SF-12v2, EQ-5D, Colorado Symptoms Index, and physical/mental health visual analogue scales. We examined the construct validity of the SF-12v2 through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and using ANOVA/correlation analyses to compare the SF-12v2 to the other instruments to ascertain discriminant/convergent validity. Our CFA showed that the measurement properties of the original SF-12v2 model had a mediocre fit with our empirical data (χ2 = 193.6, df = 43, p physical and mental health status for a homeless population with mental illness.
Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Myers, Emily; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Palmer, Barton W; Weiner, Lauren S; Parker, Barbara A; Patterson, Ruth E
Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales. Linear mixed-effects regression models tested intervention effects for changes in cognition scores. On average, participants (n = 87) were aged 57 years (standard deviation, 10.4 years) and were 2.5 years (standard deviation, 1.3 years) post surgery. Scores on the Oral Symbol Digit subscale (a measure of processing speed) evidenced differential improvement in the exercise arm versus the control arm (b = 2.01; P cognition were not statistically significant but were suggestive of potential group differences. Time since surgery moderated the correlation, and participants who were ≤2 years post surgery had a significantly greater improvement in Oral Symbol Digit score (exercise vs control (b = 4.00; P 2 years postsurgery (b = -1.19; P = .40). A significant dose response was observed with greater increased physical activity associated with objective and self-reported cognition in the exercise arm. The exercise intervention significantly improved processing speed, but only among those who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 2 years. Slowed processing speed can have substantial implications for independent functioning, supporting the potential importance of early implementation of an exercise intervention among patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2018;124:192-202. © 2017
Grignol, Valerie P; Gans, Alyssa; Booth, Branyan A; Markert, Ronald; Termuhlen, Paula M
A correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behaviors later as professionals. Academic dishonesty has been assessed among medical students, but not among general surgery residents. We sought to describe the attitudes of general surgery residents with regard to ethical practices in test taking. A survey with 4 scenarios describing activities related to examination taking that may or may not be considered unethical was administered. Participants were asked about participation in the activities-either personally or any knowledge of others-and whether the activities were unethical. Fifty-seven of 62 residents (92%) participated. For each scenario, >70% indicated that neither they nor anyone else they knew had participated in the activities. Behaviors deemed unethical included memorizing or using memorized questions to prepare for future tests (52%), selling questions for financial gain (90%), and purchasing previously used questions (57%). No difference in attitudes was seen among incoming interns, junior-level (postgraduate year [PGY]1-3), or senior-level (PGY4-6) residents. Overall, general surgery residents indicated that they had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical. Defining what is unethical was less clear. This represents an area for further education. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Romm, K L; Rossberg, J I; Berg, A O; Hansen, C F; Andreassen, O A; Melle, I
Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety. A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis. The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression. The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cavanna, Andrea E; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Blangiardo, Rosanna; Eddy, Clare M; Silvestri, Paola R; Cali', Paola V; Gagliardi, Emanuela; Balottin, Umberto; Cardona, Francesco; Rizzo, Renata; Termine, Cristiano
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and comorbid behavioral problems. This study compared child- and parent-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. We assessed 75 children with Tourette syndrome, of which 42 (56%) had comorbid conditions (obsessive-compulsive disorder = 25; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder = 6; both comorbidities = 4). All patients completed psychometric instruments, including the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale for Children and Adolescents (child report) and the Child Tourette's Syndrome Impairment Scale (parent report). Data were compared for patients with pure Tourette syndrome, Tourette syndrome + obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome + attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome + both comorbidities. There were no group differences in quality of life. However, there were differences for total, school, and home activities impairment scores. Children and parents may not share similar views about the impact of Tourette syndrome on functioning. The measurement of health-related quality of life in Tourette syndrome is more complex in children than adults.
Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Blangiardo, Rosanna; Eddy, Clare M.; Silvestri, Paola R.; Cali’, Paola V.; Gagliardi, Emanuela; Balottin, Umberto; Cardona, Francesco; Rizzo, Renata; Termine, Cristiano
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and comorbid behavioral problems. This study compared child- and parent-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. We assessed 75 children with Tourette syndrome, of which 42 (56%) had comorbid conditions (obsessive-compulsive disorder = 25; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder = 6; both comorbidities = 4). All patients completed psychometric instruments, including the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome–Quality of Life Scale for Children and Adolescents (child report) and the Child Tourette’s Syndrome Impairment Scale (parent report). Data were compared for patients with pure Tourette syndrome, Tourette syndrome + obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome + attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome + both comorbidities. There were no group differences in quality of life. However, there were differences for total, school, and home activities impairment scores. Children and parents may not share similar views about the impact of Tourette syndrome on functioning. The measurement of health-related quality of life in Tourette syndrome is more complex in children than adults. PMID:22952315
Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Wong, Kimberly; Chinna, Karuthan; Arasu, Kanimolli; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee
The CORFIS (Community-Based Cardiovascular Risk Factors Intervention Strategies) program was piloted in community clinics in Malaysia to address the lack of health education in chronic disease management. The stages of change model was applied in a multicenter quasi-experimental design to evaluate adherence to advocated behaviors in CORFIS patients with hypertension. Based on submitted diet and exercise records (n = 209), adherence to sodium reduction, regular exercise, and increasing fruit and vegetable intake behaviors were quantified against weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes. Patients were categorized at 6 months into nonadherent/N-A (Precontemplation, Contemplation, and Preparation), newly adherent/NA (Action) and totally adherent/TA (Maintenance) groups. Self-reported adherence records did not meet recommended targets for healthful behaviors, but clinical benefits were achieved by adherent groups as indicated by effect size (Cohen's d) comparisons. SBP reduction was associated with adherence to sodium reduction in NA (d = 0.60, p .05). Marginally increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (Δ = 0.41 servings) resulted in sizeable reductions in weight for NA (d = 0.81, p TA (d = 0.54, p N-A (d = 0.21, p > .05) and in WC for NA (d = 0.68, p TA (d = 0.53, p N-A (d = 0.52, p > .05). Exercise behavior was least successful as pedometer counting was below 10,000 steps but sizeable weight and WC reductions were largest for NA (d = 0.71 and 0.79, respectively) > TA (d = 0.60 and 0.53, respectively) > N-A (d = 0.33 and 0.35, respectively). Patients reporting a shift to positive stages of change behaviors enjoyed clinically beneficial reductions in SBP, DBP, weight, and WC. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Geir Fagerjord Lorem
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH. The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman's correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p <.001. The Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI was also associated with SRH (r = -.25, p <.001. When focusing on only individuals with a comorbid disease, the relation between SRH and the Health Impact Index (HII was strengthened (r = -.42, p <.001, while the association between SRH and CCI was attenuated (r = -.14, p <.001. CCI was designed to control for comorbid conditions when survival/mortality is the outcome of interest but is inaccurate when the outcome is SRH. We conclude that HII should be used when SRH is not available, and well-being or quality of survival/life is the outcome of interest.
Theodore P Beauchaine
Full Text Available Delay discounting-often referred to as hyperbolic discounting in the financial literature-is defined by a consistent preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, and by failure of future consequences to curtail current consummatory behaviors. Previous research demonstrates (1 excessive delay discounting among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, (2 common neural substrates of delay discounting and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD, and (3 associations between delay discounting and both debt burden and high interest rate borrowing. This study extends prior research by examining associations between ADHD symptoms, delay discounting, and an array of previously unevaluated financial outcomes among 544 individuals (mean age 35 years. Controlling for age, income, sex, education, and substance use, ADHD symptoms were associated with delay discounting, late credit card payments, credit card balances, use of pawn services, personal debt, and employment histories (less time spent at more jobs. Consistent with neural models of reward processing and associative learning, more of these relations were attributable to hyperactive-impulsive symptoms than inattentive symptoms. Implications for financial decision-making and directions for future research are discussed.
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Ben-David, Itzhak; Sela, Aner
Delay discounting-often referred to as hyperbolic discounting in the financial literature-is defined by a consistent preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, and by failure of future consequences to curtail current consummatory behaviors. Previous research demonstrates (1) excessive delay discounting among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (2) common neural substrates of delay discounting and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD, and (3) associations between delay discounting and both debt burden and high interest rate borrowing. This study extends prior research by examining associations between ADHD symptoms, delay discounting, and an array of previously unevaluated financial outcomes among 544 individuals (mean age 35 years). Controlling for age, income, sex, education, and substance use, ADHD symptoms were associated with delay discounting, late credit card payments, credit card balances, use of pawn services, personal debt, and employment histories (less time spent at more jobs). Consistent with neural models of reward processing and associative learning, more of these relations were attributable to hyperactive-impulsive symptoms than inattentive symptoms. Implications for financial decision-making and directions for future research are discussed.
Blai, Boris, Jr.
An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…
Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin
The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.
Maria A.E. Baars
Full Text Available Recent studies in late adolescents (age 17+ show that brain development may proceed till around the 25th year of age. This implies that study performance in higher education could be dependent upon the stage of brain maturation and neuropsychological development. Individual differences in development of neuropsychological skills may thus have a substantial influence on the outcome of the educational process. This hypothesis was evaluated in a large survey of 1760 first-year students at a University of Applied Sciences, of which 1332 are included in the current analyses. This was because of their fit within the age range we pre-set (17-20 years’ old at start of studies. Student characteristics and three behavioural ratings of executive functioning (EF were evaluated with regard to their influence on academic performance. Self-report measures were used: self-reported attention, planning, and self-control & self-monitoring. Results showed that students with better self-reported EF at the start of the first year of their studies obtained more study credits at the end of that year than students with a lower EF self-rating. The correlation between self-control & self-monitoring on the one hand, and study progress on the other, appeared to differ for male and female students and to be influenced by the level of prior education. The results of this large-scale study could have practical relevance. The profound individual differences between students may at least partly be a consequence of their stage of development as an adolescent. Students who show lower levels of attention control, planning and self-control/self-monitoring can be expected to have a problem in study planning and study progress monitoring and hence study progress. The findings imply that interventions directed at the training of these (executive functions should be developed and used in higher education in order to improve academic achievement, learning attitude and motivation.
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Self-report surveys are widely used to measure adolescent risk behavior and academic adjustment, with results having an impact on national policy, assessment of school quality, and evaluation of school interventions. However, data obtained from self-reports can be distorted when adolescents intentionally provide inaccurate or careless responses.…
Huysmans, Maaike A; Eijckelhof, Belinda H W; Garza, Jennifer L Bruno; Coenen, Pieter; Blatter, Birgitte M; Johnson, Peter W; van Dieën, Jaap H; van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T
Alternative techniques to assess physical exposures, such as prediction models, could facilitate more efficient epidemiological assessments in future large cohort studies examining physical exposures in relation to work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate two types of models that predict arm-wrist-hand physical exposures (i.e. muscle activity, wrist postures and kinematics, and keyboard and mouse forces) during computer use, which only differed with respect to the candidate predicting variables; (i) a full set of predicting variables, including self-reported factors, software-recorded computer usage patterns, and worksite measurements of anthropometrics and workstation set-up (full models); and (ii) a practical set of predicting variables, only including the self-reported factors and software-recorded computer usage patterns, that are relatively easy to assess (practical models). Prediction models were build using data from a field study among 117 office workers who were symptom-free at the time of measurement. Arm-wrist-hand physical exposures were measured for approximately two hours while workers performed their own computer work. Each worker's anthropometry and workstation set-up were measured by an experimenter, computer usage patterns were recorded using software and self-reported factors (including individual factors, job characteristics, computer work behaviours, psychosocial factors, workstation set-up characteristics, and leisure-time activities) were collected by an online questionnaire. We determined the predictive quality of the models in terms of R2 and root mean squared (RMS) values and exposure classification agreement to low-, medium-, and high-exposure categories (in the practical model only). The full models had R2 values that ranged from 0.16 to 0.80, whereas for the practical models values ranged from 0.05 to 0.43. Interquartile ranges were not that different for the two models, indicating that only for some
Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju
To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Internalized weight stigma has gained growing interest due to its association with multiple health impairments in individuals with obesity. Especially high internalized weight stigma is reported by individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. For assessing this concept, two different self-report questionnaires are available, but have never been compared: the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS. The purpose of the present study was to provide and to compare reliability, convergent validity with and predictive values for psychosocial health outcomes for the WSSQ and WBIS.The WSSQ and the WBIS were used to assess internalized weight stigma in N = 78 prebariatric surgery patients. Further, body mass index (BMI was assessed and body image, quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were measured by well-established self-report questionnaires. Reliability, correlation, and regression analyses were conducted.Internal consistency of the WSSQ was acceptable, while good internal consistency was found for the WBIS. Both measures were significantly correlated with each other and body image. While only the WSSQ was correlated with overweight preoccupation, only the WBIS was correlated with appearance evaluation. Both measures were not associated with BMI. However, correlation coefficients did not differ between the WSSQ and the WBIS for all associations with validity measures. Further, both measures significantly predicted quality of life, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety, while the WBIS explained significantly more variance than the WSSQ total score for self-esteem.Findings indicate the WSSQ and the WBIS to be reliable and valid assessments of internalized weight stigma in prebariatric surgery patients, although the WBIS showed marginally more favorable results than the WSSQ. For both measures, longitudinal studies on stability and predictive validity are warranted, for example, for weight
Richter Lagha, Regina Anne
Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week, nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior. Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity.
Barr, Nigel; Holmes, Mark; Roiko, Anne; Dunn, Peter; Lord, Bill
Noncompliance with recommended hand hygiene and gloving practices by workers in the emergency medical services may contribute to the transmission of health care-associated infections and lead to poor patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the self-reported behaviors and perceptions of Australian paramedics in relation to their hand hygiene and gloving practices in paramedic-led health care. A national online survey (n = 417; 17% response rate) and 2 semistructured focus groups (6 per group) were conducted with members of Paramedics Australasia. Although most of the study participants perceived hand hygiene and gloving to be important, the findings suggest poor compliance with both practices, particularly during emergency cases. All participants reported wearing gloves throughout a clinical case, changing them either at the completion of patient care or when visibly soiled or broken. Hand hygiene was missed at defined moments during patient care, possibly from the misuse of gloves. Paramedic hand hygiene and gloving practices require substantial improvement to lower potential transmission of pathogens and improve patient safety and clinical care. Further research is recommended to explore how to alleviate the barriers to performing in-field hand hygiene and the misuse of gloves during paramedic-led health care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kintz, Natalie M.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Vessey, William B.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Deep space explorations will involve significant delays in communication to and from Earth that will likely impact individual and team outcomes. However, the extent of these impacts and the appropriate countermeasures for their mitigation remain largely unknown. This study utilized the International Space Station (ISS), a high-fidelity analog for deep space, as a research platform to assess the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance, mood, and behavior. Three astronauts on the ISS and 18 mission support personnel performed tasks with and without communication delays (50-s one-way) during a mission lasting 166 days. Self-reported assessments of individual and team performance and mood were obtained after each task. Secondary outcomes included communication quality and task autonomy. Qualitative data from post-mission interviews with astronauts were used to validate and expand on quantitative data, and to elicit recommendations for countermeasures. Crew well-being and communication quality were significantly reduced in communication delay tasks compared to control. Communication delays were also significantly associated with increased individual stress/frustration. Qualitative data suggest communication delays impacted operational outcomes (i.e. task efficiency), teamwork processes (i.e. team/task coordination) and mood (i.e. stress/frustration), particularly when tasks involved high task-related communication demands, either because of poor communication strategies or low crew autonomy. Training, teamwork, and technology-focused countermeasures were identified to mitigate or prevent adverse impacts.
Full Text Available The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL. Body mass index (BMI was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA, or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively. The prevalence of engaging in ≥150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders.
Erhart, Michael; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions). Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model) were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA) for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83) and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA=0.07) and child reports (RMSEA=0.06). Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r=0.44-0.63 vs. r=0.33-0.59) in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were observed for known-groups validity. Our study showed that parent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Methods Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions. Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. Results The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83 and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA = 0.07 and child reports (RMSEA = 0.06. Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r = 0.44 – 0.63 vs. r = 0.33 – 0.59 in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were
Keatley, David A.; Clarke, David D.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S.
Research into individuals’ intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the “mere measurement” effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measu...
Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Burchett, Danielle; Martinez, Jennifer; Gomez, Anthony
In this study, we examined whether the 5 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) items (93, 120, 164, 251, and 334) would provide incremental suicide-risk assessment information after accounting for information garnered from clinical interview questions. Among 229 forensic inpatients (146 men, 83 women) who were administered the MMPI-2-RF, 34.9% endorsed at least 1 SUI item. We found that patients who endorsed SUI items on the MMPI-2-RF concurrently denied conceptually related suicide-risk information during the clinical interview. For instance, 8% of the sample endorsed Item 93 (indicating recent suicidal ideation), yet denied current suicidal ideation upon interview. Conversely, only 2.2% of the sample endorsed current suicidal ideation during the interview, yet denied recent suicidal ideation on Item 93. The SUI scale, as well as the MMPI-2-RF Demoralization (RCd) and Low Positive Emotions (RC2) scales, correlated significantly and meaningfully with conceptually related suicide-risk information from the interview, including history of suicide attempts, history of suicidal ideation, current suicidal ideation, and months since last suicide attempt. We also found that the SUI scale added incremental variance (after accounting for information garnered from the interview and after accounting for scores on RCd and RC2) to predictions of future suicidal behavior within 1 year of testing. Relative risk ratios indicated that both SUI-item endorsement and the presence of interview-reported risk information significantly and meaningfully increased the risk of suicidal behavior in the year following testing, particularly when endorsement of suicidal ideation occurred for both methods of self-report. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self......The self-generated validity theory (Feldman and Lynch 1988) uses the following arguments: First, re-existing intentions may become more accessible in memory when the researcher asks the question. The measurement process thereby leads survey respondents to form judgments that they otherwise would...
Stice, E; Telch, C F; Rizvi, S L
This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from this scale possessed temporal reliability (mean kappa = .80) and criterion validity (with interview diagnoses; mean kappa = .83). In support of convergent validity, individuals with eating disorders identified by this scale showed elevations on validated measures of eating disturbances. The overall symptom composite also showed test-retest reliability (r = .87), internal consistency (mean alpha = .89), and convergent validity with extant eating-pathology scales. Results implied that this scale was reliable and valid in this investigation and that it may be useful for clinical and research applications.
Andreasen, Jane; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether frailty in acutely admitted older medical patients, assessed by a self-report questionnaire and evaluation of functional level at discharge, was associated with readmission or death within 6 months after discharge. A second objective was to assess the predictive...... measured. Associations were assessed using Cox regression with first unplanned readmission or death (all-causes) as the outcome. Prediction models including the three exposure variables and known risk factors were modelled using logistic regression and C-statistics. RESULTS: Of 1328 included patients, 50......% were readmitted or died within 6 months. When adjusted for gender and age, there was an 88% higher risk of readmission or death if the TFI scores were 8-13 points compared to 0-1 points (HR 1.88, CI 1.38;2.58). Likewise, higher TUG and lower GS scores were associated with higher risk of readmission...
van Genderen, Simon; van den Borne, Carlie; Geusens, Piet; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies; Plasqui, Guy
Physical functioning can be assessed by different approaches that are characterized by increasing levels of individual appraisal. There is insufficient insight into which approach is the most informative in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with control subjects. The objective of this study was to compare patients with AS and control subjects regarding 3 approaches of functioning: experienced ability to perform activities (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index [BASFI]), self-reported amount of physical activity (PA) (Baecke questionnaire), and the objectively measured amount of PA (triaxial accelerometer). This case-control study included 24 AS patients and 24 control subjects (matched for age, gender, and body mass index). Subjects completed the BASFI and Baecke questionnaire and wore a triaxial accelerometer. Subjects also completed other self-reported measures on disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), and overall health (EuroQol visual analog scale). Both groups included 14 men (58%), and the mean age was 48 years. Patients scored significantly worse on the BASFI (3.9 vs 0.2) than their healthy peers, whereas PA assessed by Baecke and the accelerometer did not differ between groups. Correlations between approaches of physical functioning were low to moderate. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index was associated with disease activity (r = 0.49) and physical fatigue (0.73) and Baecke with physical and activity related fatigue (r = 0.54 and r = 0.54), but total PA assessed by accelerometer was not associated with any of these experience-based health outcomes. Different approaches of the concept physical functioning in patients with AS provide different information. Compared with matched control subjects, patients with AS report more difficulties but report and objectively perform the same amount of PA.
Wells, Samantha; Tremblay, Paul F; Flynn, Andrea; Russell, Evan; Kennedy, James; Rehm, Jürgen; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon; Graham, Kathryn
A pooled database from diverse community samples was used to examine the associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) with self-reported stress and stress-linked mental health measures, including depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug use, disability and experiences with aggression. As part of innovative research using a mobile laboratory to study community mental health, data were pooled from five sub-studies: a random sample of the general population (n = 70), people who had received treatment for a mental health and/or substance use problem (n = 78), family members of people treated for mental health and/or substance use problems (n = 49), community volunteers who sometimes felt sad or blue or thought they drank too much (n = 83) and young adults in intimate partner relationships (n = 44). All participants completed a computerized questionnaire including standard measures of perceived stress, chronic stress, depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, tobacco use, prescription drug use, illicit drug use, disability and intimate partner aggression. HCC was significantly associated with use of antidepressants, hazardous drinking, smoking and disability after adjusting for sub-study and potential confounders (sex, body-mass index, use of glucocorticoids and hair dyed). In addition, preliminary analyses suggest a significant curvilinear relationship between HCC and perceived stress; specifically, HCC increased with higher perceived stress but decreased at the highest level of stress. Overall, HCC was associated with mental health-related variables mainly reflecting substance use or experiencing a disability. The relationship between HCC and self-reported stress is unclear and needs further research.
Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Otten, R.; Vermulst, A.A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Goelitz, D.; Keyes, K.M.; Koc, C.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kovess, V.
Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children's mental health. However, use of young children's self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV–based child mental health self-report
Sulz, Lauren; Temple, Viviene; Gibbons, Sandra
The aim of this research was to develop measures to provide valid and reliable representation of the motivational states and psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) within a physical education context. Based on theoretical underpinnings of self-determination theory, two questionnaires were…
Dom, G.; D'Haene, P.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
Aims: To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Design and measurements: A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison
Kirstine H. Obling
Conclusion: A single-item question is a cost-effective way of measuring physical fitness level, but the method has low association and fair agreement when compared to the Aastrand test. Men tend to overestimate physical fitness more than women, which should be accounted for if using the question in primary care settings.
Liggett, Jacqueline; Carmichael, Kieran L C; Smith, Alexander; Sellbom, Martin
This study examined the validity of newly developed disorder-specific impairment scales (IS), modeled on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, for obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) and avoidant (AvPD) personality disorders. The IS focused on content validity (items directly reflected the disorder-specific impairments listed in DSM-5 Section III) and severity of impairment. A community sample of 313 adults completed personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD and AvPD, as well as measures of impairment in the domains of self- and interpersonal functioning. Results indicated that both impairment measures (for AvPD in particular) showed promise in their ability to measure disorder-specific impairment, demonstrating convergent validity with their respective Section II counterparts and discriminant validity with their noncorresponding Section II disorder and with each other. The pattern of relationships between scores on the IS and scores on external measures of personality functioning, however, did not indicate that it is useful to maintain a distinction between impairment in the self- and interpersonal domains, at least for AvPD and OCPD.
van Bockstaele, B.; Verschuere, B.; Koster, E.H.W.; Tibboel, H.; de Houwer, J.; Crombez, G.
In this study, we investigated to what extent indirect measures predict behavioural and physiological fear responses towards spiders. Implicit attitudes towards spiders were assessed using an implicit association test and attentional bias towards spiders was assessed using a dot probe task and a
Siebes, RC; Ketelaar, M; Wijnroks, L; van Schie, PE; Nijhuis, Bianca J G; Vermeer, A; Gorter, JW
Objective: To validate the Dutch translation of the Canadian Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers questionnaire (MPOC-SP) for use in paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Design: The construct validity, content validity, face validity, and reliability of the Dutch
Vasilev, Christina A.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Mead, Hilary K.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.
Background: Several theoretical perspectives suggest that emotion dysregulation is a predisposing risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. Yet despite a rapidly evolving literature, difficulties with emotion regulation (ER) are often measured inconsistently across studies, with little regard to whether different approaches capture the same…
Brown, G Ted; Wright, F Virginia; Lang, Bianca A; Birdi, Nina; Oen, Kim; Stephens, Derek; McComas, Joan; Feldman, Brian M
The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report (JAFAR), and Juvenile Arthritis Functional Status Index (JASI) are widely used functional measures for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that differ in content, format, and completion time. We compared the responsiveness and child-parent agreement of the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI in a prospective, multicenter study. Children and adolescents from 5 rheumatology centers were enrolled. Subjects were about to undergo therapy (intraarticular corticosteroid injections [IAS] and methotrexate or hip surgery (MTX/hip]) expected to produce a functional improvement. All subjects were studied before the intervention and at 6 weeks and 6 months posttreatment. At each study visit, the 3 measures were administered in randomized, balanced order to both parents and children. A total of 92 subjects (mean age 12.8 years) were enrolled in the study, 74 of which were in the IAS group. The responsiveness of all 3 measures was moderate to strong. The standardized response mean at 6 weeks for the IAS group on the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.18, 0.64), 0.70 (95% CI 0.47, 0.93), and 0.36 (95% CI 0.13, 0.59), respectively. The CHAQ was somewhat more responsive to change at 6 weeks (IAS group: relative efficiency 0.34 [JAFAR], 0.27 [JASI]), but less responsive at 6 months (MTX/hip group: relative efficiency 5.1 [JAFAR], 3.9 [JASI]). All 3 questionnaires showed acceptable parent-child agreement, and overall, there were few differences between the 3 questionnaires. The functional outcome measures currently used for JIA are all adequately responsive for use in trials or in the clinic setting. The choice of which measure to use should therefore be based on the time available for completion, the intended clinical/research use, and the depth of content required.
Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A
Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.
Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge
This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8-13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA ( r : 0.22-0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males. Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63. The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender. This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.
Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge
This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396
Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta
The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice
Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.
Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…
Dom, G; D'haene, P; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B
To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison group. The European Addiction Severity Index was used to assess substance-related problems and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Dutch version of the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were used to assess impulsive and aggressive traits. Impulsive decision making was assessed using a delay discounting task (DDT) with hypothetical monetary rewards. Participants were EOAs (n = 42) and LOAs (n = 46) recruited from an addiction treatment centre and an unmatched, non-substance-abusing comparison group (n = 54). Findings The EOAs had higher levels of impulsive decision making than both the LOAs and the comparison group. The EOAs had higher scores than the LOAs on measures of impulsiveness, aggressiveness and the severity of substance-related problems. This study provides evidence that EOAs are more impulsive and aggressive than LOAs. Further identification of alcoholism subtypes based on dimensions of impulsivity should be considered in the light of their relationship with pharmacological and behavioural treatment interventions.
Fabrikant, Jerry M; Park, Tae Soon
Ultrasound, well recognized as an effective diagnostic tool, reveals a thickening of the plantar fascia in patients with plantar fasciitis/fasciosis disease. The authors hypothesized that ultrasound would also reveal a decrease in the plantar fascia thickness for patients undergoing treatment for the disease, a hypothesis that, heretofore, had been only tested on a limited number of subjects. They conducted a more statistically significant study that found that clinical treatment with injection and biomechanical correction does indeed diminish plantar fascia thickness as shown on ultrasound. The study also revealed that patients experience the most heightened plantar fascia tenderness toward the end of the day, and improvement in their symptomatic complaints were associated with a reduction in plantar fascia thickness. As a result, the authors conclude that office-based ultrasound can help diagnose and confirm plantar fasciitis/fasciosis through the measurement of the plantar fascia thickness. Because of the advantages of ultrasound--that it is non-invasive with greater patient acceptance, cost effective and radiation-free--the imaging tool should be considered and implemented early in the diagnosis and treatment of plantar fasciitis/fasciosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lau Schumann, Lynette
Given that parenting behavior is central to children's physical, academic, and socio-emotional outcomes, improved understanding about the correlates of human parenting behavior will benefit children's development. This dissertation utilized two separate ethnically and socio-economically diverse community-based samples (177 parents of 6-9 year-old children with and without ADHD; and a subset of 56 mothers and 57 fathers selected from a larger study of newlywed marriage and family development) ...
Carter, Allison; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Ding, Erin; Sereda, Paul; Webster, Kath; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Hogg, Robert S; Kaida, Angela
We assessed the validity of a self-report measure of undetectable viral load (VL) among women with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Questionnaire data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study was linked with population-based clinical data from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Self-reported undetectable VL was assessed by the question: "What was your most recent VL, undetectable (i.e. linked to clinical data. Those unlinked (n = 1), missing self-report VL (n = 18), or missing self-report and laboratory VL (n = 1) were excluded. Among the remaining 336: median age was 44 (IQR 37-51); 96% identified as cis-gender; 84% identified as heterosexual; and 45% identified as Indigenous, 40% White, 8% African, Caribbean, or Black, and 8% other/multiple ethnicities. Overall, 85% self-reported having an undetectable VL while 82% had clinical data indicating viral suppression. The PPV was 93.7 (95% CI 90.2-96.2) indicating that 94% of women who self-reported being undetectable truly were. The NPV was 80.4 (95% CI 66.9-90.2). LR+ was 3.2 (2.1-4.6) and LR- was 0.05 (0.03-0.10). Our self-report measure assessing undetectable VL strongly predicted true viral suppression among Canadian women with HIV. This measure can be used in research settings without laboratory data in regions with high rates of VL testing and suppression.
Pitchika, Anitha; Hampel, Regina; Wolf, Kathrin; Kraus, Ute; Cyrys, Josef; Babisch, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra
Air pollution, traffic noise and noise annoyance are suggested to be associated with hypertension and blood pressure (BP); however, the evidence remains inconsistent. Our study examined the long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of air pollution and traffic noise on prevalent hypertension and BP. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 2552 participants aged 31-72years from the KORA F4 (2006-2008) study conducted in the region of Augsburg, Germany. Land-use regression models were used to estimate residential long-term exposure to particulate matter residences. Participants filled-in a questionnaire on noise annoyance and heavy traffic passing their residence. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for confounders were used to assess the association between exposure measures and hypertension and BP. An interquartile increase in annual mean PM 2.5 (1μg/m 3 ) was significantly associated with 15% higher prevalence of hypertension, without (95% CI: 2.5; 28.0%) and with (95% CI: 0.7; 30.8%) adjustment for traffic noise. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was associated with air pollutants and traffic noise with percent increases in mean of 0.7 (95% CI: 0.2; 1.2), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.1; 1.1) and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.0; 0.7) for an interquartile increase in PM 2.5 (1μg/m 3 ) and PM 2.5 abs (0.2∗10 -5 /m), and 5dB(A) increase in 24-hour road traffic noise, respectively. Associations of PM 2.5 abs and NO 2 with hypertension or DBP were stronger in men and diabetic individuals. No clear associations were seen with systolic BP or noise annoyance. In conclusion, self-reported measures of air pollution or noise did not perform better than the objective measures. Our findings provide further evidence for a link between air pollution, noise and cardiovascular disease and indicate a stronger association for men and diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ana M. Galetti
Full Text Available Objective: To validate the Gambling Follow-up Scale, Self-Report version (GFS-SR, a 10-item scale designed to assess gambling frequency, time and money spent on gambling, gambling craving, debts, emotional distress, family relationships, autonomy, and frequency of and satisfaction with leisure activities in individuals diagnosed with gambling disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria. Methods: One hundred and twenty treatment-seeking gamblers were evaluated, 84 of whom proceeded to treatment. Fifty-two relatives provided collateral informant reports at baseline. Six months later, the 50 patients who completed the program were reassessed. Results: The GFS-SR showed good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency. Factor analysis presented a three-factor solution: gambling behavior (factor 1; social life (factor 2; and personal hardship (factor 3. There was a high degree of convergence between GFS-SR scores and those of reference scales. The GFS-SR scores showed excellent sensitivity to change (factor 1, predictive validity for treatment response (factor 2, and ability to distinguish recovered from unrecovered patients after treatment (factor 3. A cutoff score of 33 was found to have 87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for gambling recovery. Conclusion: The GFS-SR is well suited to providing reliable follow-up of gamblers under treatment and assessing the efficacy of their treatment.
Kivity, Yogev; Huppert, Jonathan D
Recent models of social anxiety disorder emphasise the role of emotion dysregulation; however, the nature of the proposed impairment needs clarification. In a replication and extension framework, four studies (N = 193) examined whether individuals with social anxiety (HSAs) are impaired in using cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Self-reports and lab-based tasks of suppression and reappraisal were utilised among individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that, compared to controls, HSAs reported less frequent and effective use of reappraisal and more frequent and effective use of suppression. Counter to most models and our hypotheses, HSAs were more successful than controls in lab-based reappraisal of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. HSAs were less successful than controls in lab-based suppression of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. The results held even when participants were under social stress (impromptu speech anticipation). Overall, subjective reports of HSAs reveal strong deficits in emotion regulation whereas lab-based measures provided less conclusive evidence of such deficits. These results suggest that individuals with social anxiety experience difficulties implementing their reappraisal abilities in daily life.
Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.
The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…
Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella
Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Nilsson, Jan; Johansson, Eva; Egmar, Ann-Charlotte; Florin, Jan; Leksell, Janeth; Lepp, Margret; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Gardulf, Ann
To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines. A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric properties. 1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges. The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: "Nursing care", "Value-based nursing care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership in and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition, evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained. The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses. © 2013.
Hannibal, Niels; Domingo, Maria Rodrigo; Valentin, Jan B; Licht, Rasmus W
No specific instrument has been developed for measuring alliance during music therapy. To evaluate the feasibility of using the Helping Alliance Questionnaire II (HAq-II) as a self-report measure for individuals receiving treatment for a psychiatric disorder. Specifically, we examined the percent of patients who filled out the questionnaire, and when completed, whether there were any missing items. We also examined internal consistency and associations between patient variables and HAq-II scores. Between October 2013 and April 2014, we invited 45 individuals with a psychiatric disorder, who were also receiving music therapy, to fill out the HAq-II. We also collected clinical data from each person's record. Thirty-one (69%) of the 45 invited patients filled out the HAq-II, and of those completed, only three had missing items. Of the 45 invited patients, thirty (67%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and 11 (24%) were diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. In terms of diagnosis and other clinical variables, no statistically significant differences were found between the 31 patients who filled out the HAq-II and the 14 patients who did not return the questionnaire. The median HAq-II score was 5.11 (range 3.74-6.00), indicating a relatively high alliance. We did not find any statistically significant associations between the HAq-II scores and potential predictors of interest. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.85. Completion of the HAq-II was fairly high in this group of individuals with psychiatric diagnoses who were receiving music therapy. Internal consistency of the HAq-II was acceptable. Relatively high HAq-II scores suggest a high degree of therapeutic alliance, but the external validity of the HAq-II and the relationship between scores and therapy needs further evaluation. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to assess knee range of motion (ROM as well as patients’ reported pain, stiffness and function up to six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The secondary aim was to analyze the extent to which knee ROM correlates with patient-rated outcome. A prospective study included 60 patients with primary TKA for osteorthritis, admitted at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic from April 2009 to October 2014. The patients were evaluated at 4 time points: at admission and at discharge, as well as at follow-up at 3 and at 6 months after surgery. The outcome parameters included: active knee ROM, as well as pain, stiffness and function according to self reported Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC questionnaire. Statistically highly significant improvement in flexion and extension was observed from admission to all other assessment time points (p<0.001. Also, statistically significant improvement of all three WOMAC subscales (pain, stiffness and function was found between all assessments points (p<0.001. According to values of Spearman correlation coefficient, there was significant negative correlation of flexion with all WOMAC subscales at all assessment points, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome parameter was without significance. It can be concluded that in TKA patients all outcome measures improved significantly from admission to 6 months follow-up. Knee flexion ROM negatively and moderately to strongly correlated with pain, stiffness and function, whereas correlation of extension with any assessed outcome measure was without significance.
Makama Andries Monyeki
Full Text Available Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of agreement between physical activity objectively measured by the ActiHeart® (Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK device and subjectively reported physical activity by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF among adolescents attending schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality, South Africa. A cross-sectional study design was used with a total of 63 boys and 45 girls aged 15 years who took part in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PHALS. Stature and weight were measured according to standard International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK protocols. Objective physical activity (PA was measured by a combined heart rate and accelerometer device (ActiHeart® for seven consecutive days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA was assessed. Subjective physical activity was assessed with the self-reported IPAQ-SF. Objective PA indicated that 93% of the participants were inactive and only 6% were highly active. The IPAQ-SF showed that 24% were inactive, with 57% active. A non-significant correlation (r = 0.11; p = 0.29 between the ActiHeart® measure of activity energy expenditure (AEE and total physical activity (IPAQ-SF was observed. The Bland–Altman plot showed no agreement between the two measurement instruments and also a variation in the level of equivalence. When Cohen’s kappa (κ was run to determine the agreement between the two measurement instruments for estimated physical activity, a poor agreement (κ = 0.011, p < 0.005 between the two was found. The poor level of agreement between the objective measure of physical activity (ActiHeart® and
In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…
The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-report inventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…
Halley, Andrew C; Boretsky, Melanie; Puts, David A; Shriver, Mark
Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) have previously been shown to associate with a variety of human behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD pathology, alcohol and tobacco craving, financial risk-taking in males, and broader personality traits such as novelty seeking. Recent research has linked the presence of a 7-repeat (7R) allele in a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) along exon III of DRD4 to age at first sexual intercourse, sexual desire, arousal and function, and infidelity and promiscuity. We hypothesized that carriers of longer DRD4 alleles may report interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors and experiences than noncarriers. Participants completed a 37-item questionnaire measuring sexual interests as well as Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and were genotyped for the 48-bp VNTR on exon III of DRD4. Based on our final genotyped sample of female (n = 139) and male (n = 115) participants, we found that 7R carriers reported interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors (r = 0.16) within a young adult heterosexual sample of European descent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported association between DRD4 exon III VNTR genotype and interest in a variety of sexual behaviors. We discuss these findings within the context of DRD4 research and broader trends in human evolutionary history.
Persson, Roger; Albertsen, Karen; Garde, Anne Helene; Rugulies, Reiner
Since knowledge intensive work often requires self-management, one might fear that persons who are dependent on work success for self-esteem will have difficulties in finding a healthful and sustainable balance between internal needs and external demands. Accordingly, we examined to what degree work-related performance-based self-esteem (PBS) was linked to work and health behaviors in 392 knowledge workers (226 women, 166 men). In the women group, multiple binary logistic regression analyses with repeated measurements showed that the PBS score was associated with 10 of the 17 examined work and health behaviors. For men the corresponding figure was 3 of 17. In both men and women, higher PBS scores were positively associated with reports of efforts and strivings for work as well as attending work while ill. In conclusion, statistically significant relationships between PBS and work and health behaviors were more clearly visible among women than men. Whether this gender difference is dependent on the study design, or on true inherent differences between women and men, cannot be concluded with any certainty. However, persons who described themselves as being relatively more dependent on work accomplishments for a high self-esteem, as expressed by the PBS score, seem to display work behaviors that may lessen their restitution time. In addition, they also seem to be more prone to work while sick. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Duncan Mitch J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial configurations of office environments assessed by Space Syntax methodologies are related to employee movement patterns. These methods require analysis of floors plans which are not readily available in large population-based studies or otherwise unavailable. Therefore a self-report instrument to assess spatial configurations of office environments using four scales was developed. Methods The scales are: local connectivity (16 items, overall connectivity (11 items, visibility of co-workers (10 items, and proximity of co-workers (5 items. A panel cohort (N = 1154 completed an online survey, only data from individuals employed in office-based occupations (n = 307 were used to assess scale measurement properties. To assess test-retest reliability a separate sample of 37 office-based workers completed the survey on two occasions 7.7 (±3.2 days apart. Redundant scale items were eliminated using factor analysis; Chronbach’s α was used to evaluate internal consistency and test re-test reliability (retest-ICC. ANOVA was employed to examine differences between office types (Private, Shared, Open as a measure of construct validity. Generalized Linear Models were used to examine relationships between spatial configuration scales and the duration of and frequency of breaks in occupational sitting. Results The number of items on all scales were reduced, Chronbach’s α and ICCs indicated good scale internal consistency and test re-test reliability: local connectivity (5 items; α = 0.70; retest-ICC = 0.84, overall connectivity (6 items; α = 0.86; retest-ICC = 0.87, visibility of co-workers (4 items; α = 0.78; retest-ICC = 0.86, and proximity of co-workers (3 items; α = 0.85; retest-ICC = 0.70. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 differences, in theoretically expected directions, were observed for all scales between office types, except overall connectivity. Significant associations were
Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor
Morisky, Donald E; Kominski, Gerald F; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Kotlerman, Jenny B
Premature morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases account for a major proportion of expenditures for health care cost in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a disease management program on physiological and behavioral health indicators for Medicaid patients in Florida. A two-year prospective study of 15,275 patients with one or more chronic illnesses (congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, or asthma) was undertaken. Control of hypertension improved from baseline to Year 1 (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60, p management program benefited in terms of controlling hypertension, asthma symptoms, and cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila
To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing
Abstract The current study focused on how engaging in media multitasking (MMT) and the experience of everyday cognitive failures impact on the individual's engagement in risky cybersecurity behaviors (RCsB). In total, 144 participants (32 males, 112 females) completed an online survey. The age range for participants was 18 to 43 years (M = 20.63, SD = 4.04). Participants completed three scales which included an inventory of weekly MMT, a measure of everyday cognitive failures, and RCsB. There was a significant difference between heavy media multitaskers (HMM), average media multitaskers (AMM), and light media multitaskers (LMM) in terms of RCsB, with HMM demonstrating more frequent risky behaviors than LMM or AMM. The HMM group also reported more cognitive failures in everyday life than the LMM group. A regression analysis showed that everyday cognitive failures and MMT acted as significant predictors for RCsB. These results expand our current understanding of the relationship between human factors and cybersecurity behaviors, which are useful to inform the design of training and intervention packages to mitigate RCsB. PMID:29638157
Hadlington, Lee; Murphy, Karen
The current study focused on how engaging in media multitasking (MMT) and the experience of everyday cognitive failures impact on the individual's engagement in risky cybersecurity behaviors (RCsB). In total, 144 participants (32 males, 112 females) completed an online survey. The age range for participants was 18 to 43 years (M = 20.63, SD = 4.04). Participants completed three scales which included an inventory of weekly MMT, a measure of everyday cognitive failures, and RCsB. There was a significant difference between heavy media multitaskers (HMM), average media multitaskers (AMM), and light media multitaskers (LMM) in terms of RCsB, with HMM demonstrating more frequent risky behaviors than LMM or AMM. The HMM group also reported more cognitive failures in everyday life than the LMM group. A regression analysis showed that everyday cognitive failures and MMT acted as significant predictors for RCsB. These results expand our current understanding of the relationship between human factors and cybersecurity behaviors, which are useful to inform the design of training and intervention packages to mitigate RCsB.
Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Goudriaan, A.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; de Beurs, E.; van den Brink, W.
Background: Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by
Goudriaan, A. E.; Oosterlaan, J.; de Beurs, E.; van den Brink, W.
BACKGROUND: Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by
Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R
The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.
Mc Closkey, Michael S.; Look, Amy E.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Pajoumand, Golnaz; Berman, Mitchell E.
Previous research using self-report measures has shown an association between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and impulsive tendencies. However, self-injurers have not been shown to be different from comparison groups on laboratory tasks putatively assessing impulsive behavior. One explanation for these contradictory findings is that…
Full Text Available .This paper describes the items, scale validity and scale reliability of a self-report questionnaire that measures bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents among adolescents, and its behavioral determinants. Determinants included behavioral intention, behavioral attitudes, moral disengagement attitudes, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, subjective norm and social skills. Questions also assessed (cyber-bullying involvement. Validity and reliability information is based on a sample of 238 adolescents (M age=13.52 years, SD=0.57. Construct validity was assessed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA or Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA in Mplus7 software. Reliability (Cronbach Alpha, α was assessed in SPSS, version 22. Data and questionnaire are included in this article. Further information can be found in DeSmet et al. (2018 .
Lee, Chih-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Strong, Carol
Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7 th - and 9 th -grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007. Subjective PT was defined using the Pubertal Developmental Scale (PDS), which mainly measures pubertal changes. MA was recalled by participants themselves. Various psychological and behavioral factors were recorded and measured until the age of 20, including the use of alcohol and cigarettes, psychological well-being, sexual activity, and socially problematic behaviors. A χ 2 test for linear-by-linear association and one-way analysis of variance followed by multivariate regression models were used to dissect the differential effects of PT and MA in the association with the outcome variables. In total, 1545 female participants with an average age of 14.5 (±1.1) years were deemed valid for analysis. Among them, 257 (16.6%) participants perceived themselves as having early PT, defined as more than 1 standard deviation above the mean PDS score, and 82 (5.3%) had early MA (occurring before the 4 th grade). In univariate analysis, participants with early PT had higher rates of smoking and sexual activity, and MA was not related to their psychobehavioral outcomes. After multivariate adjustment, only late PT was significantly correlated with lower amounts of cigarette smoking and sexual activity before the age of 20. Conceptual and actual pubertal developments may be differentially associated with psychobehavioral outcomes among young Taiwanese girls. Clinical attention should be given to adolescent self-perception of
Goudriaan, A.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; de Beurs, E.; van den Brink, W.
Background: Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. Method: This study investigated the e...
Tedla, Y G; Bautista, L E
Self-reported medication adherence is known to overestimate true adherence. However, little is known about patient factors that may contribute to the upward bias in self-reported medication adherence. The objective of this study is to examine whether demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors are associated with being a false-positive self-reported adherer (FPA) to antihypertensive drug treatment. We studied 175 patients (mean age: 50 years; 57% men) from primary-care clinics starting antihypertensive drug treatment. Self-reported adherence (SRA) was measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and by the number of drug doses missed in the previous week/month, and compared with pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) as gold standard. Data on adherence, demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors were collected at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year. FPA was defined as being a non-adherer by PCAR and an adherer by self-report. Mixed effect logistic regression was used for the analysis. Twenty percent of participants were FPA. Anxiety increased (odds ratio (OR): 3.00; P=0.01), whereas smoking (OR: 0.40; P=0.03) and drug side effects (OR: 0.46, P=0.03) decreased the probability for FPA by MARS. Education below high-school completion increased the probability of being an FPA as measured by missing doses in the last month (OR: 1.66; P=0.04) and last week (OR: 1.88; P=0.02). The validity of SRA varies significantly according to drug side effects, behavioral factors and patient's mood. Careful consideration should be given to the use of self-reported measures of adherence among patients likely to be false-positive adherers.
Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey
This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted.
Vestergaard, Martin David
experimento fueron los cambios en los resultados auto-reportados en el tiempo y las relaciones entre las diferentes mediciones subjetivas de beneficio y satisfacción. Se aplicaron cuatro inventarios de resultados y un cuestionario sobre estilo de vida auditivo a 25 usuarios de AAdespués de la adaptación; la......-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes. El estudio se enfocó en los resultados auto-reportados en nuevos usuarios de auxiliares auditivos (AA). Los objetivos del...... evaluación tuvo lugar una, cuatro y trece semanas después. Los resultados muestran que para los nuevos usuarios que utilizan su AA más de 4 horas al día, los resultados auto-reportados mejoran en algunas escalas en el curso de 13 semanas, aun cuando no hubiera cambio en la amplificación durante este tiempo...
Eyawo, Oghenowede; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Justice, Amy C; Fiellin, David A; Hahn, Judith A; Williams, Emily C; Gordon, Adam J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Crystal, Stephen; Gaither, Julie R; Edelman, E Jennifer; Bryant, Kendall J; Tate, Janet P
Unhealthy alcohol use may be particularly detrimental among individuals living with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and is often under-reported. Direct biomarkers of alcohol exposure may facilitate improved detection of alcohol use. We evaluated the association of alcohol exposure determined by both self-report [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)] and a direct biomarker [phosphatidylethanol (PEth)], with mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Biomarker Cohort. We considered PEth AUDIT-C scores [0, 1-3/1-2 (men/women), 4-7/3-7 (men/women), 8-12] and PEth (AUDIT-C = 0 (abstinence). Of these, 15% (149/1015) had PEth ≥8 suggesting recent alcohol exposure. Among those with AUDIT-C = 0, HCV+ individuals were more likely to have PEth ≥8. After controlling for age, sex, race, HIV, HCV, and HIV viral suppression, those with AUDIT-C = 0 but PEth ≥8 had the highest risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 3.29). PEth in addition to self-report may improve detection of alcohol use in clinical settings, particularly among those at increased risk of harm from alcohol use. Individuals infected with HCV were more likely to under-report alcohol use.
Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K
Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL,Youth Self-Report (YSR and Teacher's Report Form(TRF: an overview of the development of the original and Brazilian versions Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Youth Self- Report (YSR y Teacher's Report Form (TRF: una visión general sobre el desarrollo de las versiones originales y brasileñas Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Youth Self-Report (YSR e Teacher's Report Form (TRF: uma visão geral sobre o desenvolvimento das versões originais e brasileiras
Isabel A. Bordin
Full Text Available The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA for school-age children includes three instruments for assessing emotional and/or behavioral problems: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, completed by parents, Youth Self-Report (YSR, completed by adolescents and Teacher's Report Form (TRF, completed by teachers. This review article gives detailed information on the development of these forms in the United States and Brazil, describing the main changes to the items, scales and score cut-off points in original versions between 1991 and 2001, as well as the process involved in the translation, back-translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires to develop the current official Brazilian versions of the CBCL, YSR and TRF. The utility of these tools for research and clinical practice is highlighted, mentioning epidemiological studies and evaluation of interventions conducted in Brazil. Researchers' and clinicians' doubts regarding the correct use of the current official Brazilian versions are answered, giving examples of frequently asked questions relevant to the Brazilian context.El sistema de evaluación de base empírica de Achenbach para niños/adolescentes en edad escolar incluye tres instrumentos para evaluar problemas emocionales y/o de comportamiento: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL [padres], Youth Self-Report (YSR [adolescentes] y Teacher's Report Form (TRF [profesores]. Este artículo de revisión proporciona información detallada sobre el desarrollo de estos instrumentos en los Estados Unidos y en Brasil, describiendo las principales alteraciones en ítems, escalas y puntos de corte en la puntuación, que se realizaron en las versiones originales de 1991 a 2001, y el proceso de traducción, retrotraducción y adaptación cultural de los cuestionarios originales, con el fin de desarrollar las actuales versiones brasileñas oficiales del CBCL, YSR y TRF. La utilidad de estos instrumentos en investigación y en la pr
Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien
In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sills, E Scott; Perloe, Mark; Tucker, Michael J; Kaplan, Carolyn R; Genton, Marc Georges; Schattman, Glenn L
Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods Fifteen parameters were evaluated by a computer-based research instrument accessed by a large, unscreened population. Incomplete questionnaires were not entered, and responses were electronically tabulated to block duplicate submissions. Results From 657 participants, the majority (63%) were between 26–34 years old; mean BMI was 30.4 kg/m2. 343 of 657 had at least one pregnancy and 61% of the study group had taken fertility medicine (any type) at least once. Physicians were the most common provider of PCOS information for all study participants, irrespective of age. Patient emotions associated with the diagnosis of PCOS included "frustration" (67%), "anxiety" (16%), "sadness" (10%), and "indifference" (2%). Self-reported patient aptitude regarding PCOS was scored as high or "very aware" in >60% of women. Respondents were also asked: "If your PCOS could be safely and effectively helped by something else besides fertility drugs or birth control pills, would that interest you?" Interest in alternative PCOS treatments was expressed by 99% of the sample (n = 648). Conclusions In our study population, most women associated negative emotions with PCOS although the self-reported knowledge level for the disorder was high. While these women regarded their obstetrician-gynecologist as integral to their PCOS education, traditional PCOS therapies based on oral contraceptives or ovulation induction agents were regarded as unsatisfactory by most women. PMID:11545683
Tunçalp, Özge; Stanton, Cynthia; Castro, Arachu; Adanu, Richard; Heymann, Marilyn; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Lattof, Samantha R.; Blanc, Ann; Langer, Ana
Background Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR). Methods and Findings This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women’s self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising but insufficient to
Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.
Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1).The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 - 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 - 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 - 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 - 99.3) %. The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at least 15 days among eldercare employees. Pregnancy
Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality
Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
9 4.2 Sleep and Physical Exercise Health Behaviors...excess caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol use, and a deficit in physical fitness activity can further contribute to reduction in overall health . Since...to address key physical and psychological health concerns and to promote resiliency among their designated remote warrior workforces. The purpose
Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Wong, Kimberly; Chinna, Karuthan; Arasu, Kanimolli; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee
The CORFIS ("Community-Based Cardiovascular Risk Factors Intervention Strategies") program was piloted in community clinics in Malaysia to address the lack of health education in chronic disease management. The stages of change model was applied in a multicenter quasi-experimental design to evaluate adherence to advocated behaviors in…
Harris, Paul B; Houston, John M; Vazquez, Jose A; Smither, Janan A; Harms, Amanda; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Sachau, Daniel A
Surveys of 1217 undergraduate students supported the reliability (inter-item and test-retest) and validity of the Prosocial and Aggressive Driving Inventory (PADI). Principal component analyses on the PADI items yielded two scales: Prosocial Driving (17 items) and Aggressive Driving (12 items). Prosocial Driving was associated with fewer reported traffic accidents and violations, with participants who were older and female, and with lower Boredom Susceptibility and Hostility scores, and higher scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Aggressive Driving was associated with more frequent traffic violations, with female participants, and with higher scores on Competitiveness, Sensation Seeking, Hostility, and Extraversion, and lower scores on Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. The theoretical and practical implications of the PADI's dual focus on safe and unsafe driving are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moberly, Aaron C; Patel, Tirth R; Castellanos, Irina
As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that neurocognitive skills, including some EF skills, contribute to the ability to recognize speech through a CI. Thirty postlingually deafened adults with CIs and 42 age-matched NH adults were enrolled. Participants and their spouses or significant others (informants) completed well-validated self-reports or informant-reports of EF, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult (BRIEF-A). CI users' speech recognition skills were assessed in quiet using several measures of sentence recognition. NH peers were tested for recognition of noise-vocoded versions of the same speech stimuli. CI users self-reported difficulty on EF tasks of shifting and task monitoring. In CI users, measures of speech recognition correlated with several self-reported EF skills. The present findings provide further evidence that neurocognitive factors, including specific EF skills, may decline in association with hearing loss, and that some of these EF skills contribute to speech processing under degraded listening conditions.
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S
The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. 2015 APA, all rights reserved
Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.
Grignol, Valerie P; Grannan, Kevin; Sabra, John; Cromer, Robert M; Jarman, Benjamin; Dent, Daniel; Sticca, Robert P; Nelson, Timothy M; Kukora, John S; Daley, Brian J; Treat, Robert W; Termuhlen, Paula M
Correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behavior once in practice. Previously, we assessed the attitudes of general surgery residents and ethical practices in test taking at a single institution. Most residents had not participated in activities they felt were unethical, yet what constituted unethical behavior was unclear. We sought to verify these results in a multi-institutional study. A scenario-based survey describing potentially unethical activities related to the American Board of Surgery In-training Examination (ABSITE) was administered. Participants were asked about their knowledge of or participation in the activities and whether the activity was unethical. Program directors were surveyed about the use of ABSITE results for resident evaluation and promotion. Ten programs participated in the study. The resident response rate was 67% (186/277). Of the respondents, 43% felt that memorizing questions to study for future examinations was unethical and 50% felt that using questions another resident memorized was unethical. Most felt that buying (86%) or selling (79%) questions was unethical. Significantly more senior than junior residents have memorized (30% vs 16%; p = 0.04) or used questions others memorized (33% vs 12%; p = 0.002) to study for future ABSITE examinations and know of other residents who have done so (42% vs 20%; p = 0.004). Most programs used results of the ABSITE in promotion (80%) and set minimum score expectations and consequences (70%). Similar to our single-institution study, residents had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical; however the definition of what constitutes cheating remains unclear. Differences were identified between senior and junior residents with regard to memorizing questions for study. Cheating and unethical behavior is not always clear to the learner and represents an area for further education. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery
Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Ashbolt, Rosie; Green, Julie; Calache, Hanny; Keith, Benedict; Riggs, Elisha; Waters, Elizabeth
This study sought to advance understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on oral health by examining how parental self-efficacy (with regard to acting on their child's oral health needs) and oral health knowledge relate to parental and child oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Parents of children in grades 0/1 and 5/6 (n = 804) and children in grades 5/6 (n = 377, mean age 11.5 ± 1.0, 53.9% female) were recruited from a stratified random sample of 11 primary (elementary) schools. Participants completed surveys capturing psychosocial factors, oral health-related knowledge, and parental attitudes about oral health. Parents also rated their own oral health status and the oral health of their child. Correlations and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for socioeconomic status, child age, and gender) examined associations between psychosocial factors and the outcomes of interest (parent and child behaviors and self-rated oral health status). Higher parental self-efficacy was associated with more frequent toothbrushing (by parent and child), and more frequent visits to a dental professional. These associations were particularly strong with regard to dental visits for children, with parents with the highest tertile for self-efficacy 4.3 times more likely to report that their child attended a dentist for a checkup at least once a year (95%CI 2.52-7.43); and 3 times more likely to report their child brushing their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.04, 95%CI 1.64-5.64) compared with those parents in the lowest tertile for self-efficacy. No associations with oral health knowledge were found when examined by tertile of increasing knowledge. Oral health self-efficacy and knowledge are potentially modifiable risk factors of oral health outcomes, and these findings suggest that intervening on these factors could help foster positive dental health habits in families. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mauger, Paul A.; And Others
The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…
Ollendick, Thomas H.; And Others
The relationship between a self-report measure of assertive behavior in children and a role-play measure was examined in 69 elementary school children. Self-report of positive assertion related more closely to role-play measures and expert ratings of assertiveness than did self-report of negative assertion. (Author/LHW)
Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and
Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Weaver, Mark A; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Van Damme, Kathleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio
Research on the determinants of condom use and condom non-use generally has relied on self-reported data with questionable validity. We identified predictors of recent, unprotected sex among 331 female sex workers in Madagascar using two outcome measures: self-reports of unprotected sex within the past 48 h and detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biological marker of recent semen exposure. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that self-reported unprotected sex was associated with three factors: younger age, having a sipa (emotional partner) in the prior seven days, and no current use of hormonal contraception. The sole factor related to having PSA detected was prevalent chlamydial infection (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-10.1). Differences in predictors identified suggest that determinants of unprotected sex, based on self-reported behaviors, might not correlate well with risk of semen exposure. Caution must be taken when interpreting self-reported sexual behavior measures or when adjusting for them in analyses evaluating interventions for the prevention of HIV/STIs.
Conroy, Amy A; Wong, Lauren H
The majority of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure utilizes the perspective from a single individual, which cannot be substantiated in the absence of supporting data such as from a primary partner. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the extent to which self-reported HIV disclosure was confirmed by a primary partner; (2) individual and relationship-level predictors of self-reported versus confirmed disclosure; and (3) whether confirmed disclosure was a stronger predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status compared to self-reported disclosure. As part of an 8-wave longitudinal study from 2009 to 2011 in southern Malawi, 366 individuals (183 couples) were interviewed about their primary relationship (wave 3), individually tested for HIV (wave 4), and then asked whether they disclosed to their primary partner (wave 5). While 93% of respondents reported that they disclosed, only 64% of respondents had confirmed reports from their partner. Having communicated with partner about HIV was positively associated with self-reported disclosure; this association remained significant but became more precise in the models for confirmed disclosure. Confirmed disclosure, but not self-report, was a significant predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status. Being male, having lower perceived partner infidelity, having higher relationship unity, and testing HIV-negative were positively and significantly associated with correct assessment. Dyadic data from two partners provide an improved measure of disclosure as compared to a single individual's self-report and could be used to identify behavioral and biomedical opportunities to prevent HIV transmission within couples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.
The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…
Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM, subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6 and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4. Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9, and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8. Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement.
Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon
from friends in transgender women. Hormone-prescribing physicians can be reassured that the long-term administration of testosterone in transgender men does not increase aggressive behavior. This is the 1st prospective study to assess the effect of gender-affirming hormonal care on aggression. Limitations included the use of different laboratories, the use of a patient-reported outcome measure, and the lack of aggression subtypes. Testosterone therapy was not associated with an increase in levels of aggression in transgender men or a decrease in aggressive behavior in transgender women on antiandrogen and estrogen therapy, but other psychological and/or social factors, such as anxiety levels, appear to contribute to self-reported aggression in transgender people. Defreyne J, T'Sjoen G, Bouman WP, et al. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons. J Sex Med 2018;15:768-776. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses viral replication to an undetectable level if a sufficiently high level of adherence is achieved. We investigated which adherence measurement best distinguishes between patients with and without detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring. We randomly selected 870 patients who started cART between May 2009 and April 2012 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hundred and sixty-four (76.3%) patients who were retained in HIV care and were receiving cART for at least 6 months were included and 642 had their plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration measured. Patients' adherence to cART was assessed according to self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill measures. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of detectable viremia. Model accuracy was evaluated by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 9.2% and 5.5% of the 642 patients had a detectable viral load of ≥40 and ≥400 RNA copies/ml, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, younger age, lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation, being illiterate and widowed, and each of the adherence measures were significantly and independently predictive of having ≥400 RNA copies/ml. The ROC curve showed that these variables altogether had a likelihood of more than 80% to distinguish patients with a plasma viral load of ≥400 RNA copies/ml from those without. Adherence to cART was remarkably high. Self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill non-adherence were all significantly predictive of detectable viremia. The choice for one of these methods to detect non-adherence and predict a detectable viral load can therefore be based on what is most practical in a particular setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smallest detectable change and test-retest reliability of a self-reported outcome measure: Results of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
Ohno, Shotaro; Takahashi, Kana; Inoue, Aimi; Takada, Koki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Tanigawa, Masaru; Hirao, Kazuki
This study aims to examine the smallest detectable change (SDC) and test-retest reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We tested 154 young adults at baseline and 2 weeks later. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability with a two-way random effects model for agreement. We then calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) for agreement using the ICC formula. The SEM for agreement was used to calculate SDC values at the individual level (SDC ind ) and group level (SDC group ). The study participants included 137 young adults. The ICCs for all self-reported outcome measurement scales exceeded 0.70. The SEM of CES-D was 3.64, leading to an SDC ind of 10.10 points and SDC group of 0.86 points. The SEM of GSES was 1.56, leading to an SDC ind of 4.33 points and SDC group of 0.37 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with bimodal scoring was 1.47, leading to an SDC ind of 4.06 points and SDC group of 0.35 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with Likert scoring was 2.44, leading to an SDC ind of 6.76 points and SDC group of 0.58 points. To confirm that the change was not a result of measurement error, a score of self-reported outcome measurement scales would need to change by an amount greater than these SDC values. This has important implications for clinicians and epidemiologists when assessing outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Victor, Elizabeth C; Bowman, Hilary; Thompson, Robert J
The authors developed a 14-item measure of adherence to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior (ARDSB). The ARDSB psychometric properties were investigated to better understand religious motivations associated with changes in sexual behavior that may provide support for sexual health promotion and prevention programs. Four hundred eighty-three undergraduates aged 18 to 26. Data were collected from an online survey during the 2012-2013 academic school year. Principle components factor analysis identified 2 factors: reasons to break religious doctrine and reasons to adhere to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior. The subscales had good internal consistency. Correlations, t tests, and analyses of variance of the subscales with measures of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and self-reported sexual behavior and risk provide support for concurrent validity. The ARDSB could be employed as a measure to better understand sexual behavior; it is inexpensive and relatively easy to employ in both research and campus ministry settings.
Ability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile and the Youth Self Report-Dysregulation Profile to identify serious psychopathology and association with correlated problems in high-risk children and adolescents.
Dölitzsch, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc
The current analyses examined whether the dysregulation profile (DP) 1) could be used to identify children and adolescents at high risk for complex and serious psychopathology and 2) was correlated to other emotional and behavioral problems (such as delinquent behavior or suicide ideation). DP was assessed using both the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) in a residential care sample. Children and adolescents (N=374) aged 10-18 years living in residential care in Switzerland completed the YSR, and their professional caregivers completed the CBCL. Participants meeting criteria for DP (T-score ≥67 on the anxious/depressed, attention problems, and aggressive behavior scales of the YSR/CBCL) were compared against those who did not for the presence of complex psychopathology (defined as the presence of both emotional and behavioral disorders), and also for the prevalence of several psychiatric diagnoses, suicidal ideation, traumatic experiences, delinquent behaviors, and problems related to quality of life. The diagnostic criteria for CBCL-DP and YSR-DP were met by just 44 (11.8%) and 25 (6.7%) of participants. Only eight participants (2.1%) met the criteria on both instruments. Further analyses were conducted separately for the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP groups. DP was associated with complex psychopathology in only 34.4% of cases according to CBCL and in 60% of cases according to YSR. YSR-DP was somewhat more likely to be associated with psychiatric disorders and associated problems than was the CBCL-DP. Because of the relatively small overlap between the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP, analyses were conducted largely with different samples, likely contributing to the different results. Despite a high rate of psychopathology in the population studied, both the YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP were able to detect only a small proportion of those with complex psychiatric disorders. This result questions the validity of YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP in detecting subjects
Full Text Available Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.Results: Women (N=155 provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually
Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information.
Britner, Preston A.; Morog, Maria C.; Pianta, Robert C.; Marvin, Robert S.
We analyzed data from 87 mothers of children ages 15 to 44 months with cerebral palsy (CP) or no diagnosis, who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Support Functions Scale, and Inventory of Social Support. Principal components analysis of the 15 subscales from the 5 measures revealed few cross-measure loadings. Mothers…
Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shuster, Anastasia; Sela, Tal; Levy, Dino J.
Hunger is a powerful driver of human behavior, and is therefore of great interest to the study of psychology, economics, and consumer behavior. Assessing hunger levels in experiments is often biased, when using self-report methods, or complex, when using blood tests. We propose a novel way of objectively measuring subjects’ levels of hunger by identifying levels of alpha-amylase (AA) enzyme in their saliva samples. We used this measure to uncover the effect of hunger on different types of choice behaviors. We found that hunger increases risk-seeking behavior in a lottery-choice task, modifies levels of vindictiveness in a social decision-making task, but does not have a detectible effect on economic inconsistency in a budget-set choice task. Importantly, these findings were moderated by AA levels and not by self-report measures. We demonstrate the effects hunger has on choice behavior and the problematic nature of subjective measures of physiological states, and propose to use reliable and valid biologically based methods to overcome these problems. PMID:29875715
Simmons, Rebecca G.; Smith, Kristi; Balough, Meghan; Friedrichs, Michael
Introduction. Adolescent use of indoor tanning facilities is associated with an increased risk in later development of melanoma skin cancers. States that have imposed age restrictions on access to indoor tanning generally show lower self-reported rates of indoor tanning than states with no restrictions, but currently no studies have assessed indoor tanning use before and after such restrictions. Methods. In 2013, we compared self-reported indoor tanning data collected in the Prevention Needs ...
Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee
This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed.