This study examined the psychophysiological effects of coffee consumption on anxiety as reported by University students. . It was hypothesized that heavy caffeine users would report significantly higher anxiety and more psychophysical symptoms of caffenism more than non-users. A sample size of 447-university students ...
Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine
Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.
Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M
AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...... differences, cross-informant correlations and relative risks for elevated anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Self-reported anxiety symptoms did not significantly differ, although the upper confidence limit (95% CI: -3.3 to 5.1) supported an odds ratio of 2 for the preterm-born participants. Mothers of the preterm......-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...
Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching
The aim of this study was to explore the lifestyle/social, personality trait and mental factors among incoming university students with higher self-reported social anxiety symptoms (SAS). A total of 5126 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included a self-administered questionnaire that examined personal lifestyle, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the suicide ideation from the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire. SAS (23.7%) were prevalent. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the significant predictors of higher levels of SAS were being an undergraduate student and a non-smoker, having lower Measurement of Support Functions score (poorer social support), having higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision score (Internet addiction), having lower Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale score (less altruistic behaviour), having suicide ideation and having higher Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire score (poorer sleeper). Given the high prevalence of SAS among university students, it is necessary to build a better strategy to detect students with potential social anxiety-related problems/disorders or other mental problems early on. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Dora; Constantinou, Elena; Paraskeva-Siamata, Michaela
This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined standardized anxiety situations, including social anxiety and animal fear scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher during social anxiety imagery. Public speaking fear was associated with increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity associated with social anxiety could be attributed to depression levels, while the specificity associated with public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also depression and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salazar, Robert D; Le, Asher M; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Anxiety is commonly endorsed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly affects quality of life. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is often used but contains items that overlap with common PD motor symptoms (e.g., "hands trembling"). Because of these overlapping items, we hypothesized that PD motor symptoms would significantly affect BAI scores. One hundred non-demented individuals with PD and 74 healthy control participants completed the BAI. PD motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Factor analysis of the BAI assessed for a PD motor factor, and further analyses assessed how this factor affected BAI scores. BAI scores were significantly higher for PD than NC. A five-item PD motor factor correlated with UPDRS observer-rated motor severity and mediated the PD-control difference on BAI total scores. An interaction occurred, whereby removal of the PD motor factor resulted in a significant reduction in BAI scores for PD relative to NC. The correlation between the BAI and UPDRS significantly declined when controlling for the PD motor factor. The results indicate that commonly endorsed BAI items may reflect motor symptoms such as tremor instead of, or in addition to, genuine mood symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of considering motor symptoms in the assessment of anxiety in PD and point to the need for selecting anxiety measures that are less subject to contamination by the motor effects of movement disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG
This study was meant to investigate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Lehrer Woolfolk Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ), an instrument for assessment of somatic, behavioral and cognitive aspects of anxiety. Confirmatory factor analysis on data from social phobics (n = 108),
Terluin, B.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Ader, H.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hermens, M.L.M.; van Boeijen, C.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.
Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity.
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor
Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A; Molitor, Joseph G
Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children's perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children's self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children's self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.
Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397
Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on
Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV
Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak
The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...
Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison
We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.
Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.
Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten
, more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...
Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba
Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.
Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F
Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer
leading to GP contacts. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of symptoms and GP contacts are common in this overview of 44 different self-reported symptoms. For almost 2/3 of the reported symptoms no gender differences were found concerning the proportion leading to GP contacts. An enhanced understanding of healthcare...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...
O Donnchadha, Seán
BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.
O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D
This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Larissa Forni dos Santos
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR, translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413 and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252. The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson's = 0.82. The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard.
Balsamo, Michela; Cataldi, Fedele; Carlucci, Leonardo; Fairfield, Beth
With increasing numbers of older adults in the general population, anxiety will become a widespread problem in late life and one of the major causes of health care access contributing to high societal and individual costs. Unfortunately, the detection of anxiety disorders in late life is complicated by a series of factors that make it different from assessment in younger cohorts, such as differential symptom presentation, high comorbidity with medical and mental disorders, the aging process, and newly emergent changes in life circumstances. This review covers commonly and currently used self-report inventories for assessing anxiety in older adults. For each tool, psychometric data is investigated in depth. In particular, information about reliability, validity evidence based on data from clinical and nonclinical samples of older adults, and availability of age-appropriate norms are provided. Finally, guidance for clinical evaluation and future research are proposed in an effort to highlight the importance of clinical assessment in the promotion of clinically relevant therapeutic choices. PMID:29670342
Wei, Chiaying; Swan, Anna J; Makover, Heather B; Kendall, Philip C
Evidence suggests the important role of (a) parenting behaviors and (b) parental psychopathology in the development and maintenance of youth anxiety. Using a multi-informant approach, the current study examined the association of maternal autonomy granting and maternal symptoms (i.e., anxiety and depression) with youth anxiety among mothers and 88 youth (ages of 6-17) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from the generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses indicated that mothers reported higher youth anxiety symptoms compared to youth self-reports. Youth-perceived maternal autonomy granting was inversely associated with youth anxiety, and maternal self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms significantly moderated this relationship: As mothers reported higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, the inverse association between parental autonomy granting and youth anxiety weakened. The interaction between parenting behavior and parental psychopathology significantly influenced youth anxiety symptoms, which presents important clinical implications to integrate into parenting work in the treatment of youth anxiety disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fatigue, anxiety and depression are very frequent symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Goals: In this study we evaluated the influence of socioeconomic characteristics, therapy and comorbidities on the self-reported high fatigue, anxiety and depression in patients with RA. Method: Multicenter cross-sectional study was performed in 22 health institutions in Serbia during the period from April-August 2014 in population of older RA patients. Self-reported patients health status was measured by: Fatigue Assessment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. Treatment modalities were defined as: (1 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and/or analgesics and/or corticosteroids; (2 synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs alone or in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs and (3 any RA treatment which includes biologic DMARDs. Results: There were significant predictors of high depression: synthetic DMARDs therapy in combination with corticosteroids and/or NSAIDs, physiotherapist self-payment, frequent taxi use, alternative treatment and employment status. The need for another person's assistance, supplemental calcium therapy and professional qualifications were the predictors of a high fatigue, whereas the age above 65 years had the protective effect on it. Anxiety was an independent high fatigue predictor. The predictors of a high anxiety were: gastroprotection with proton-pump inhibitors and patient occupation. Conclusion Socioeconomic predictors of self-reported high depression, anxiety or fatigue are different for each of the mentioned outcomes, while accompanied with the basic RA treatment they exclusively explain a high depression. The anxiety, jointed with the socioeconomic variables and supplemental therapy, is a significant fatigue predictor in RA patients.
Stewart, S H; Karp, J; Pihl, R O; Peterson, R A
Two studies examined the relationships between anxiety sensitivity (AS), drug use, and reasons for drug use. In Study 1, 229 university students (57% F) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and a drug use survey, assessing use of a variety of drugs within the last month, and coping reasons for drug use. Consistent with a modified tension-reduction hypothesis, ASI scores were positively correlated with the number of both anxiety- and depression-related reasons for drug use endorsed. In Study 2, 219 university students (74% F) completed the ASI and a drug use survey, assessing use of several drugs (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes, caffeine, and marijuana/hashish) within the last year, and primary reasons (coping, affiliative, or enhancement) for the use of each drug. Marijuana/hashish users reported lower ASI scores than non-users supporting a negative relation between AS and the use of cannabis. ASI scores were positively correlated with the use of alcohol primarily to cope, and negatively correlated with the use of alcohol primarily to affiliate, among both gender groups, and ASI scores were positively correlated with the use of nicotine primarily to cope among the females. Implications of these findings for understanding risk for abuse of stress-response-dampening drugs by high AS individuals are discussed.
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark
The use of virtual reality (VR) in psychological treatment is expected to increase. Cybersickness (CS) is a negative side effect of VR exposure and is associated with treatment dropout. This study aimed to investigate the following: (a) if gender differences in CS can be replicated, (b) if differences in anxiety and CS symptoms between patients and controls can be replicated, and (c) whether the relationship between exposure to VR and CS symptoms is mediated by anxiety. A sample (N = 170) of participants with different levels of psychosis liability was exposed to VR environments. CS and anxiety were assessed with self-report measures before and after the VR experiment. This study replicated gender differences in CS symptoms, most of which were present before exposure to VR. It also replicated findings that a significant correlation between anxiety and CS can be found in healthy individuals, but not in patients. In a VR environment, anxiety partially mediated CS symptoms, specifically nausea and disorientation. A partial explanation for the differences found between patients and controls may lie in a ceiling effect for the symptoms of CS. A second explanation may be the partial overlap between CS symptoms and physiological anxiety responses. CS symptoms reported at baseline cannot be explained by exposure to VR, but are related to anxiety. Caution is required when interpreting studies on both CS and anxiety, until the specificity in measurements has been improved. Since anxiety mediated the CS symptoms, CS is expected to decline during treatment together with the reduction of anxiety.
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Melli, Gabriele; Bailey, Robin; Carraresi, Claudia; Poli, Andrea
Research has supported the specific role that anxiety sensitivity, health-related dysfunctional beliefs, and metacognitive beliefs may play in the development and maintenance of health anxiety symptoms. However, the role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety has only been explored in analogue samples. The aim of this study was to explore for the first time the association between metacognitive beliefs and health anxiety symptoms in a sample of participants who reported having received a ...
Crisson, James; And Others
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
Jarrett, Matthew A
The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L
Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano
To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.
Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita
The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.
Petrac, D C; Bedwell, J S; Renk, K; Orem, D M; Sims, V
There have been relatively few studies on the relationship between recent perceived environmental stress and cognitive performance, and the existing studies do not control for state anxiety during the cognitive testing. The current study addressed this need by examining recent self-reported environmental stress and divided attention performance, while controlling for state anxiety. Fifty-four university undergraduates who self-reported a wide range of perceived recent stress (10-item perceived stress scale) completed both single and dual (simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli) continuous performance tests. Partial correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the auditory omission errors from the dual condition, after controlling for state anxiety and auditory omission errors from the single condition (r = 0.41). This suggests that increased environmental stress relates to decreased divided attention performance in auditory vigilance. In contrast, an increase in state anxiety (controlling for perceived stress) was related to a decrease in auditory omission errors from the dual condition (r = - 0.37), which suggests that state anxiety may improve divided attention performance. Results suggest that further examination of the neurobiological consequences of environmental stress on divided attention and other executive functioning tasks is needed.
Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others
A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Böhn, Lena; Störsrud, Stine; Törnblom, Hans; Bengtsson, Ulf; Simrén, Magnus
.001), energy (r=-0.21; P=0.005), food (r=-0.29; P<0.001), social functioning (r=-0.23; P=0.001), and physical status (r=-0.16; P<0.05). However, the number of food items reported to provoke GI symptoms was unrelated to body mass index, age, IBS subtype, anxiety, depression, or GI-specific anxiety. The majority of IBS patients believe that certain food items are important triggers of their GI symptoms. This is especially true for foods containing carbohydrates and fat, and also may be relevant for histamine-releasing food items and foods rich in biogenic amines. Self-reported food intolerance is associated with high symptom burden and reduced quality of life.
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba
To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Introduction: The emergence of anxiety during childhood is accompanied by the development of attentional biases to threat. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these biases are poorly understood. In addition, previous research has not examined whether state and trait anxiety are independently associated with threat-related biases.Methods: We compared ERP waveforms during the processing of emotional faces in a population sample of 58 6–11-year-olds who completed self-reported measures of trait and state anxiety and depression.Results: The results showed that the P1 was larger to angry than neutral faces in the left hemisphere, though early components (P1, N170 were not strongly associated with child anxiety or depression. In contrast, Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes to angry (vs. neutral faces were significantly and positively associated with symptoms of anxiety/depression. In addition, the difference between LPPs for angry (vs. neutral faces was independently associated with state and trait anxiety symptoms.Discussion: The results showed that neural responses to facial emotion in children with elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were most evident at later processing stages characterized as evaluative and effortful. The findings support cognitive models of threat perception in anxiety and indicate that trait elements of anxiety and more transitory fluctuations in anxious affect are important in understanding individual variation in the neural response to threat in late childhood.
Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn
Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635
Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar
Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...
Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar
Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...
Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.
The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N =112) completed Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales
Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires...
Neumann, Dawn; Malec, James F; Hammond, Flora M
To compare self-reported aggression in people with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the relations of aggression to alexithymia (poor emotional insight), depression, and anxiety. Rehabilitation hospital. Forty-six adults with moderate to severe TBI who were at least 3 months postinjury; 49 healthy controls (HCs); groups were frequency matched for age and gender. Cross-sectional study using a quasi-experimental design. Aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire); alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20); depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9); and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Participants with TBI had significantly higher aggression scores than HCs. For participants with TBI, 34.2% of the adjusted variance of aggression was significantly explained by alexithymia, depression, and anxiety; alexithymia accounted for the largest unique portion of the variance in this model (16.2%). Alexithymia, depression, and anxiety explained 46% of the adjusted variance of aggression in HCs; in contrast to participants with TBI, depression was the largest unique contributor to aggression (15.9%). This was the first empirical study showing that poor emotional insight (alexithymia) significantly contributes to aggression after TBI. This relation, and the potential clinical implications it may have for the treatment of aggression, warrants further investigation.
Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Phillip B; Wilhelm, Kay A; Malhi, Gin S
To examine the association between an early inhibited temperament and lifetime anxiety disorders, we studied a sample of patients with major depression who were not selected on the basis of comorbid axis I anxiety disorders. One-hundred eighty-nine adults (range = 17-68 years) referred to a tertiary depression unit underwent structured diagnostic interviews for depression and anxiety and completed two self-report measures of behavioral inhibition, the retrospective measure of behavioural inhibition (RMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005] and the adult measure of behavioural inhibition (AMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005]. Patients' scores were classified into "low," "moderate," or "high" inhibition. While groups did not differ in terms of depression severity, there were differences across groups in clinically diagnosed nonmelancholic status and age of onset of first episode. Those reporting a high degree of childhood inhibition were significantly more likely to qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia, and this association was independent of their scores on the AMBI. Findings are discussed in light of the existing risk-factor literature and support the hypothesis that an early inhibited temperament may be a significant precursor to later anxiety, especially social anxiety disorder. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi
Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Karande, S; Gogtay, N J; Bala, N; Sant, H; Thakkar, A; Sholapurwala, R
Anxiety disorders usually remain undiagnosed in school students owing to the internalized nature of their symptoms. The present study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in school students in Mumbai. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables (age, gender, presence of sibling, and type of school curriculum or school) on anxiety symptoms. Study cases (8-15 year olds) were recruited by nonprobability sampling from four English-medium schools. Anxiety was measured using Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report questionnaire. T-scores (total and subscales) were calculated and cut-off scores of> 60 were considered as significant. Symptoms of overall anxiety were present in 10.8% (53/493) of the students. Older students (12-15 year olds) had greater odds of having overall anxiety symptoms (crude OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.27 to 8.39, P < 0.0001). Symptoms of all anxiety disorders were present in the 493 participants, with obsessions/compulsions and fears of physical injury being the most common (in 29.6% and 27.2%, respectively). Older students and boys had greater odds of having obsessions/compulsions (crude OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.44, P < 0.0001; and crude OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.27, P= 0.035, respectively]. Students with sibling (s) had greater odds of having fears of physical injury (crude OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78, P= 0.003). There is an urgent need to screen school students in our city for anxiety disorders.
Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo Gi; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana
Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.
Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael
Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.
Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.
Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Ekholm, Heidi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Peltomäki, Timo
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically. Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056). In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.
Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J
Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.
Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350
Michalska, Kalina J; Machlin, Laura; Moroney, Elizabeth; Lowet, Daniel S; Hettema, John M; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Averbeck, Bruno B; Brotman, Melissa A; Nelson, Eric E; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S
The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children. Participants were 82 youth from a general population sample of twins (aged 9-13 years), exhibiting a range of anxiety symptoms. Participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm where the conditioned stimuli (CS+) were two neutral faces, one of which was randomly selected to be paired with an aversive scream. Eye tracking, physiological, and subjective data were acquired. Children and parents reported their child's anxiety using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Conditioning influenced eye gaze patterns in that children looked longer and more frequently to the eye region of the CS+ than CS- face; this effect was present only during fear acquisition, not at baseline or extinction. Furthermore, consistent with past work in adults, anxiety symptoms were associated with eye gaze avoidance. Finally, gaze duration to the eye region mediated the effect of anxious traits on self-reported fear during acquisition. Anxiety symptoms in children relate to face-viewing strategies deployed in the context of a fear learning experiment. This relationship may inform attempts to understand the relationship between pediatric anxiety symptoms and learning. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Rose, Matthias; Devine, Janine
Patient self-reported symptoms are of crucial importance to identify anxiety disorders, as well as to monitor their treatment in clinical practice and research. Thus, for evidence-based medicine, a precise, reliable, and valid (ie, “objective”) assessment of the patient's reported “subjective” symptoms is warranted. There is a plethora of instruments available, which can provide psychometrically sound assessments of anxiety, but there are several limitations of current tools that need to be carefully considered for their successful use. Nevertheless, the empirical assessment of mental health status is not as accepted in medicine as is the assessment of biomarkers. One reason for this may be that different instruments assessing the same psychological construct use different scales. In this paper we present some new developments that promise to provide one common metric for the assessment of anxiety, to facilitate the general acceptance of mental health assessments in the future. PMID:25152658
Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.
Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high
Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi
To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.
Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina
This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.
Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J
The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The existence of both anxiety and hysterical symptoms have been described in schizophrenic populations. Various explanations exist. The issue of whether such symptoms represent discrete clinical entities or are intrinsic to the schizophrenic process, requires further research. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Hysterical
Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Villabø, Marianne A; Lauth, Bertrand
The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) is a widely used self-report questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with well documented predictive validity of the total score and subscales in internalizing and mixed clinical samples. However, no data exist on the screening efficiency in an inpatient sample of adolescents. To examine the psychometric properties and screening efficiency of the MASC in a high comorbid inpatient sample. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to investigate the predictive value of the MASC total and subscale scores for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), DSM-IV diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and social phobia (SoP) in a highly comorbid inpatient sample of adolescents (11-18 years). The MASC total score predicted any anxiety disorder (AD) and GAD moderately well. Physical symptoms predicted GAD moderately well. Social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic did not predict SoP or SAD, respectively. Physical symptoms and harm avoidance also predicted the presence of major depressive disorder. The findings support the utility of the MASC total score to predict the presence of any AD and GAD. However, the utility of the social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic subscales showed limited utility to predict the presence of SAD and SoP, respectively. The MASC has probably a more limited function in screening for AD among a highly comorbid inpatient sample of severely affected adolescents. Our results should be interpreted in the light of a small, mixed sample of inpatient adolescents.
Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.
The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…
Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Thomsen, Per H; Rask, Charlotte U
Health anxiety (HA) is an overlooked area in paediatric research. Little is known about the occurrence of HA symptoms in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting, and there are no age-appropriate diagnostic criteria and only limited number of assessment tools. It is therefore likely that HA is seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a normal curve shifted to the right compared with a normal population of Danish children, and 30 % presented with high HA symptoms. Chi-squared tests were used to examine the proportion of children and adolescents with high HA symptoms in relation to various clinical characteristics. Clinician-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries. Further research in the description of childhood HA is important in order to understand whether HA is a distinct disorder early in life.
Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin
The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reuman, Lillian; Jacoby, Ryan J; Blakey, Shannon M; Riemann, Bradley C; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S
Illness anxiety and OCD symptoms appear to overlap in their presentation as well as in other conceptually important ways (e.g., dysfunctional cognitions). Little research, however, has directly examined these putative relationships. The present study examined the extent to which illness anxiety symptoms were associated with OCD symptom dimensions and relevant cognitive factors in a large treatment-seeking sample of patients with OCD. Patients completed a battery of self-report measures of OCD and health anxiety symptoms and related cognitive biases. Results from regression analyses indicated that illness anxiety symptoms were associated with harm obsessions and checking rituals, as well as with the tendency to overestimate threat and responsibility for harm. Illness anxiety was not associated with perfectionism. Conceptual and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark. D.; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul
Objective The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Methods Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. Results The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (psymptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). Conclusion The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments. PMID:26766947
Shin, Ju Young; Pohlig, Ryan T; Habermann, Barbara
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a wide range of symptom presentations. The purpose of this research was to compare self-reported motor and non-motor symptoms of PD by sex and disease duration. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey in community-dwelling people with PD. A total of 141 participants (64.6% response rate; 59.6% men; M age = 69.7 years) were included. Males reported more rigidity, speech problems, sexual dysfunction, memory problems, and socializing problems than females. The number of motor symptoms in three groups divided by increments of 5 years was significantly increased. Postural instability, freezing, off periods, dyskinesia, speech problems, and hallucinations/psychosis were significantly increased as the disease duration increased. Thorough assessment of motor and non-motor symptoms could decrease the risk of inadequate symptom management. Provision of information regarding PD symptoms at each stage may help people with PD and their caregivers in planning their future care and life.
Kim, Taeshik; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Yoo, Min-Sang; Lee, Dongwook; Hong, Yun-Chul
With the development of technology, extensive use of computers in the workplace is prevalent and increases efficiency. However, computer users are facing new harmful working conditions with high workloads and longer hours. This study aimed to investigate the association between computer use at work and self-reported depressive and anxiety disorder (DAD) in a nationally representative sample of South Korean workers. This cross-sectional study was based on the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011), and 48,850 workers were analyzed. Information about computer use and DAD was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. We investigated the relation between computer use at work and DAD using logistic regression. The 12-month prevalence of DAD in computer-using workers was 1.46 %. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the odds ratio for DAD was higher in workers using computers more than 75 % of their workday (OR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.30-2.20) than in workers using computers less than 50 % of their shift. After stratifying by working hours, computer use for over 75 % of the work time was significantly associated with increased odds of DAD in 20-39, 41-50, 51-60, and over 60 working hours per week. After stratifying by occupation, education, and job status, computer use for more than 75 % of the work time was related with higher odds of DAD in sales and service workers, those with high school and college education, and those who were self-employed and employers. A high proportion of computer use at work may be associated with depressive and anxiety disorder. This finding suggests the necessity of a work guideline to help the workers suffering from high computer use at work.
Giulio Sergio Roi
Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.
Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.
Sushama A. Khopkar
Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.
Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony
Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.
CLUM, GRETCHEN A.; NISHITH, PALLAVI; RESICK, PATRICIA A.
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings sugge...
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...
Midtgaard, Julie; Rørth, Mikael; Stelter, Reinhard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean +/- SD of the change was -1.14 +/- 2.91 for anxiety...... and -0.44 +/- 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, chi2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, chi2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress...
SIMPSON, ANDREW J.; ROMER, LEE M.; KIPPELEN, PASCALE
ABSTRACT Purpose A change in the perception of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists is often used to aid diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our aim was to test the association between subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms and changes in airway caliber after induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction in athletes with EIB. Methods Eighty-five athletes with diagnosed or suspected EIB performed a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) challenge with dry air. Of the 45 athletes with hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction [i.e., post-EVH fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥10%, EVH−], 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Terbutaline (0.5 mg) or placebo was administered by inhalation 15 min before EVH. Spirometry (for FEV1) was performed before and after EVH, and respiratory symptoms were recorded 15 min after EVH on visual analog scales. Results Terbutaline inhibited bronchoconstriction (i.e., maximal fall in FEV1 athletes, with an average degree of bronchoprotection of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45% to 62%). Terbutaline reduced group mean symptom scores (P athletes who had less than 10% FEV1 fall after EVH in the terbutaline condition, almost half (48%) rated at least one respiratory symptom higher under terbutaline, and more than one quarter (28%) had a higher total symptom score under terbutaline. Conclusion Self-reports of respiratory symptoms in conditions of induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction do not correlate with changes in airway caliber in athletes with EIB. Therefore, subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool for EIB in athletes. PMID:25710876
Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664
Karibe, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Kisaki; Okamoto, Ayuko; Kawakami, Tomomi; Kato, Yuichi; Warita-Naoi, Sachie
Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents. A total of 1,415 subjects (11-15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.
Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating
Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.
Full Text Available Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children.During 2013-2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2-5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A. Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms.In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA, computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377 and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205 were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model.Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations.
Abali, Osman; Zülfikar, Osman Bülent; Karakoç Demirkaya, Sevcan; Ayaydin, Hamza; Kircelli, Fuat; Duman, Mehtap
Hemophilia is an inherited disease with serious repercussions. Psychiatric symptoms are frequently seen in children and adolescents with hemophilia. The aim of this study was to assess symptoms of anxiety in children with hemophilia and parental attitude towards children with hemophilia. 42 boys were assessed according to child and adolescent psychiatry. Anxiety symptoms and parental attitude were obtained by the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Self-Report for Childhood Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED) and the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI). The mean age was 11.6 ± 2.5 (range; 7-16). State anxiety scores (44.02 ± 6.9) were higher than trait anxiety scores (32.7 + 7.5). The most interesting results were high scores related to overprotective mothering (47.9 ± 9.7) and the application of strict discipline (39.4 ± 9.1). The total SCARED scores obtained were (23.25 ± 11.3). Assuring a high quality of life is important for children and adolescents with chronic illness. Quality of life is negatively affected by psychiatric symptoms (e.g. anxiety symptoms, depression, intra-familial stress symptoms) in children with hemophilia. This study suggests that high anxiety scores and problems related to parental attitude can be seen in children and adolescents with hemophilia. These problems caused by parental attitude and anxiety symptoms should be considered in the treatment of hemophilia.
Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Berk, Michael
Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is h...
da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano
The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with
Clum, G A; Nishith, P; Resick, P A
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms in rape victims with PTSD.
Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu
to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the
Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred
Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.
Dekker, Rebecca L; Lennie, Terry A; Doering, Lynn V; Chung, Misook L; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K
Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. The aim of this study was to describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (odds ratio (OR)= 0.97, p=0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR =1.25, panxiety symptoms. Patients with HF and depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Chin, Richard F; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R
Children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy were screened using the parent-report (n=69) and self-report (n=48) versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the self-report version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (n=48) in a population-based sample. A total of 32.2% of children (self-report) and 15.2% of children (parent-report) scored ≥1 SD above the mean on the SCAS total score. The subscales where most difficulty were reported on parent-report were Physical Injury and Separation Anxiety. There was less variation on self-report. On the CDI, 20.9% of young people scored ≥1 SD above the mean. Children reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety on the SCAS total score and three of the subscales (pchildren with generalized seizures on self- but not parent-report. Higher CDI scores were significantly associated with generalized seizures (p>.05). Symptoms of anxiety were more common based on self-report compared with parent-report. Children with generalized seizures reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E. J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55–64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression towards one’s partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant’s personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005
Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Lee, Grace J; Suhr, Julie A
Expectancy is a psychological factor that can impact treatment effectiveness. Research on neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests expectancy may contribute to treatment outcomes, though evidence for expectancy as an explanatory factor is sparse. This pilot study investigated the effects of expectancies on self-reported ADHD symptoms in simulated neurofeedback. Forty-six adults who were concerned that they had ADHD expected to receive active neurofeedback, but were randomly assigned to receive a placebo with false feedback indicating attentive (positive false feedback) or inattentive (negative false feedback) states. Effects of the expectancy manipulation were measured on an ADHD self-report scale. Large expectancy effects were found, such that individuals who received positive false feedback reported significant decreases in ADHD symptoms, whereas individuals who received negative false feedback reported significant increases in ADHD symptoms. Findings suggest that expectancy should be considered as an explanatory mechanism for ADHD symptom change in response to neurofeedback.
Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I
This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women.
Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A
In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.
Santos, Larissa F; Loureiro, Sonia R; Crippa, José A S; Osório, Flávia L
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts.
Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto
The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine
Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99; N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45. Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model
Van Steenis MNA
Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other
Bogels, S.M.; Snieder, N.; Kindt, M.
The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their
Romm, K L; Rossberg, J I; Berg, A O; Hansen, C F; Andreassen, O A; Melle, I
Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety. A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis. The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression. The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin
This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B
Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.
Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Laatikainen, Tiina
A hypothesis concerning habitual sleep reduction and its adverse consequences among general population in modern societies has received wide publicity in the mass media, although scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis is scarce. Similarly, there is an extensively distributed belief, at least...... in Finland, that the prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms is increasing, but evidence for this is even sparser. These issues are important because of the known increased risk of mortality and health risks associated with sleep duration deviating from 7 to 8 h. To reveal possible trends in self......-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms, we reanalyzed all available data from surveys carried out in Finland from 1972 to 2005. The main results were that a minor decrease of self-reported sleep duration has taken place in Finland, especially among working aged men. However, the size...
Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse
The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).
Hopkins, Joyce; Miller, Jennifer L; Butler, Kristina; Gibson, Lynda; Hedrick, Laura; Boyle, Deborah Anne
The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the relation between social support, trait anxiety, symptoms of maternal distress (including stress, depression and anxiety) and maternal-fetal attachment; and (2) to determine if social support buffers the relation between trait anxiety, symptoms of distress and maternal-fetal attachment. Ninety-four pregnant women completed five self-report questions. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of trait anxiety, symptoms of distress, and social support on two factors of maternal-fetal attachment, quality and intensity/frequency. In the first model with the dependent measure as the maternal-fetal attachment quality score, trait anxiety (β = -.24, p social support (β = .30, p social support (β = .32, p social support is high, the relation between anxiety and maternal-fetal attachment intensity/frequency is attenuated. This study demonstrates that prenatal attachment is related to trait anxiety and social support. These findings suggest that interventions to decrease anxiety and increase social support could enhance maternal-fetal attachment.
Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Weijmer, Janneke; Helmerhorst, Frans
The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal adjustment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were studied in people with fertility problems. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 313 patients attending an infertility clinic. Self-report
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter
INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...
Verbeke, W.; Bagozzi, R.P.; van den Berg, W.; Worm, L.; Belschak, F.D.
We study sales presentation anxiety (SPA) using multilevel analysis of a quasi-natural field experiment: the final exam of an executive training course where sales professionals (n = 128) compete in teams to present an account plan to a critical audience who then ask questions and evaluate their
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.
Full Text Available Physicians' poor mental health not only hinders their professional performance and affects the quality of healthcare provided but also adversely affects patients' health outcomes. Few studies in China have evaluated the mental health of physicians. The purposes of this study are to quantify Chinese physicians' anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as evaluate associated risk factors.In our study, 2641 physicians working in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China were recruited and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire along with validated scales testing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptoms.An estimated 25.67% of physicians had anxiety symptoms, 28.13% had depressive symptoms, and 19.01% had both anxiety and depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the participants often experienced workplace violence and 63.17% sometimes encountered it. Among our study population, anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poor self-reported physical health, frequent workplace violence, lengthy working hours (more than 60 hours a week, frequent night shifts (twice or more per week, and lack of regular physical exercise.Our study demonstrates that anxiety and depressive symptoms are common among physicians in China, and the doctor-patient relationship issue is particularly stressful. Interventions implemented to minimize workload, improve doctor-patient relationships, and assist physicians in developing healthier lifestyles are essential to combat anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians, which may improve their professional performance.
Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Izumi, Mie; Manabe, Emiko; Uematsu, Sayo; Watanabe, Ayako; Moritani, Toshio
We investigated the association between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression for the first 2 years postpartum. A total of 108 participants within 2 years postpartum underwent physiological measurements of ANS activity using the heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum and self-reported questionnaires (14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). The cutoff points for anxiety and depressive symptom scores in this questionnaire were as follows: 7 or less, non-cases; 8-10, doubtful cases; 11 or more, definite cases. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at University Hospital in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology department clinic in Japan. Anxiety and depression non-cases accounted for 67.6% (n = 73) of subjects, anxiety non-cases and depression doubtful and definite cases 7.4% (n = 8), anxiety doubtful and definite cases and depression non-cases 8.3% (n = 9), and anxiety and depression doubtful and definite cases 16.7% (n = 18). Findings were similar for women with anxiety or depression, with total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV among doubtful and definite cases significantly lower than among non-cases for both anxiety (p = 0.006, 0.034, 0.029, respectively) and depression (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.007). Significant correlations were observed between TP, LF and HF and anxiety and depression scores (respective values for anxiety: rs = -0.331, p <0.001; rs = -0.286, p = 0.003; rs = -0.269, p = 0.005; and depression: rs = -0.389, rs = -0.353, rs = -0.337, all p <0.001). The present study demonstrated that mothers with anxiety or depressive symptoms had significantly lower HRV (HF, LF and TP) than those without.
Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.
Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...
Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.
Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley
Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered (“destabilized”) with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were “looking through” them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother’s face—a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence. PMID:25983359
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.
Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?
Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...
Akhter, Rahena; Morita, Manabu; Ekuni, Disuke; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Furuta, Michiko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Wilson, David
To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930) regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319), pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21), difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18), clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29), clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48), difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11), and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97). The control group (n = 1,387) were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV) and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively). TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III) were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important
Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv
Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…
Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D
Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.
Alice M Braden
Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. Methods A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930 regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Results Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319, pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21, difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18, clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29, clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48, difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11, and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97. The control group (n = 1,387 were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively. TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. Conclusions TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.
Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M
The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.
Julie Kristine Aasvik
Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167 who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling (GLM was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value <= 0.001 and anxiety (p-value = 0.001 were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice.
Vermaat, Lieke E W; van der Miesen, Anna I R; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Popma, Arne; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a sample of adults referred for gender dysphoria (GD) compared to typically developing (TD) populations, (2) see whether males assigned at birth with GD (MaB GD s) and females assigned at birth with GD (FaB GD s) differ in ASD symptom levels, (3) study the role of sexual orientation, and (4) investigate ASD symptoms' correlation with GD symptoms. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure ASD symptoms, and the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) was used to measure the intensity of GD. Mean AQ scores of adults referred for GD (n = 326; 191 MaB GD and 135 FaB GD ) were compared to three TD populations taken from the literature (n = 1316; 667 male and 644 female, 5 birth-assigned sex unknown). The mean AQ score in individuals referred for GD was similar to the TD samples. FaB GD s showed higher mean AQ scores than MaB GD s, and they had mean scores similar to TD individuals of the same experienced gender (TD males). After selecting individuals with an UGDS score indicative of GD, a positive association between ASD and GD symptoms was found. The co-occurrence of GD and ASD in adults may not be as prevalent as previously suggested. Attenuation of sex differences in ASD might explain FaB GD s' and MaB GD s' ASD symptoms' similarity to those of TD individuals of the same experienced gender. Intensity of ASD symptoms might be correlated with intensity of GD symptoms, warranting further studies to elaborate on their potential co-occurrence.
Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G
Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kang Ho; Ho Chae, Chang; Ouk Kim, Young; Seok Son, Jun; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Woo Kim, Chan; Ouk Park, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Jun; Saeng Jung, Young
The prevalence of anxiety disorders has been increasing in South Korea, with recent studies reporting anxiety disorders as the most common mental disorder among all South Korean females. Anxiety disorders, which are independent risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, are significantly correlated with productivity loss, high medical costs, impaired work performance, and frequent worker absence, and thus are potentially serious problems affecting the health of South Korean female workers. In previous studies, anxiety disorders were shown to have a significant correlation with occupational stress. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms as well as the relationship between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms among South Korean female manufacturing workers. A structured self-reported questionnaire was administered to 1,141 female workers at an electrical appliance manufacturing plant. The questionnaire collected data on general characteristics, health behaviors, sleep quality, job characteristics (shift work, shift work schedule, and job tenure), occupational stress, and anxiety symptoms. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, occupational stress with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF), and anxiety symptoms with the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A chi square test was conducted to determine the distribution differences in anxiety symptoms based on general characteristics, health behaviors, job characteristics, and sleep quality. A linear-by-linear association test was used to determine the distribution differences between anxietysymptoms and the levels of occupational stress. Last, logistic regression analysis was used in order to determine the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 15.2 %. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for sleep quality and general characteristics
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Hakestam, U; Söderfeldt, B; Rydén, O; Glantz, P O
To assess simple questions for identifying patient personality traits among a normal Swedish population and to assess possible relationships between personality and symptoms, attitudes, dental problems, and received dental care, a questionnaire was sent to 489 subjects awaiting prosthodontic treatment (response rate 84.2%). Three personality traits could be identified: "Fearful-depressed" subjects consumed more tranquillisers, were worried and had many symptoms, whilst "Open-minded" were optimistic about treatment, had high expectations and few symptoms. "Control-minded" did not reveal worries and guarded their autonomy. It was concluded that personality indicators were related to clinically relevant factors: salience of teeth, perceptions of problems, dental attendance pattern, expectations and perceptions of symptoms.
Hayes, N E
Economic pressures are leading to earlier hospital discharge following delivery, before complications of obstetric neuraxial block may become apparent. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of symptoms presenting post-discharge at a single tertiary obstetric centre.
Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana
This study aimed to investigate both anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, comparing women and men and first and second-time parents. A sample of 260 Portuguese couples (N=520), first or second-time parents, recruited in an Obstetrics Out-patients Unit, filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. A decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum was found in both women and men, as well as in first and second-time parents. Men presented less anxiety and depression symptoms than women, but the same pattern of symptoms over time. Second-time parents showed more anxiety and depression symptoms than first-time parents and a different pattern of symptoms over time: an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms from the 3rd trimester to childbirth was observed in first-time parents versus a decrease in second-time parents. The voluntary nature of the participation may have lead to a selection bias; women and men who agreed to participate could be those who presented fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Moreover, the use of self-report symptom measures does not give us the level of possible disorder in participants. Anxiety and depression symptoms diminish from pregnancy to the postpartum period in all parents. Patterns of anxiety and depression symptoms from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum are similar in women and men, but somewhat different in first and second-time parents. Second-time parents should also be considered while studying and intervening during pregnancy and the postpartum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Are Indigenous Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported Health Professional-Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders Among Canadian First Nations Adults?: Findings from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.
Nasreen, Sharifa; Brar, Ramanpreet; Brar, Samanpreet; Maltby, Alana; Wilk, Piotr
We estimated the prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed anxiety disorders among Canadian First Nations adults living off-reserve, and assessed the relationship between anxiety disorders and Indigenous determinants of health (Status Indian, residential school attendance, knowledge of Indigenous language, and participation in traditional activities) using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed using bootstrap weights. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 14.5% among off-reserve First Nations adults. There was an increased odds of anxiety disorders among those participating in traditional activities compared to their counterparts (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.90). No association was found between anxiety disorders and other Indigenous determinants of health. There is a high prevalence of self-reported anxiety among First Nations adults living off-reserve. However, further studies are warranted to identify and assess the role of Indigenous determinants of health for anxiety disorders and other prevalent mental health conditions in this population.
Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe
Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.
Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey
Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.
YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol; JEUNG, Dayee; CHANG, Sei-Jin
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of ?Engaging with Complaints?, ?Suppressing Emotion?, experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and...
Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.
Vulić-Prtorić, Anita; Cohza, Renata; Grubić, Marina; Lopižić, Josip; Padelin, Patricija
Anxiety sensitivity is described as the fear of anxiety symptoms and physical sensations associated with anxiety. Understanding this fear of fear has particular importance in prevention and therapy of anxiety disorders, and especially in health psychology and ways of coping with health problems and illness in children and adolescents. The paper presents the results of the research in the sample of 184 participants in the age between 10 and 15 years, divided in 4 samples: 1) children with head...
Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne
Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673
Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul
Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Bouwman, Leanne; Notermans, Sabine
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition (as an index of anxiety proneness), and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children aged 8-13 years (N = 126), using children's self-report data. Results showed that there were positive and significant correlations between shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms. When controlling for the overlap between shame and guilt, it was found that shame (but not guilt) remained significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety proneness and anxiety symptoms. Further, when controlling for the effect of behavioral inhibition, shame still accounted for a significant proportion of the variance of total anxiety and generalized anxiety scores. For these anxiety problems, support emerged for a model in which shame acted as a partial mediator in the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety. These results indicate that the self-conscious emotion of shame is a robust correlate of anxiety pathology in children.
Shah, Saloni; Kim, Jane P; Park, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Yuen, Laura D; Do, Dennis; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A
To assess differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms and longitudinal depressive severity in bipolar disorder (BD). Stanford BD Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and followed with the STEP-BD Clinical Monitoring Form while receiving naturalistic treatment for up to two years. Baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and times to depressive recurrence/recovery were compared in patients with versus without lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms. Among 105 currently recovered patients, lifetime anxiety disorder was significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics, hastened depressive recurrence (driven by earlier onset age), and a significantly (> two-fold) higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate, whereas current anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics and hastened depressive recurrence (driven by lifetime anxiety disorder), but only a numerically higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate. In contrast, among 153 currently depressed patients, lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with time to depressive recovery or depressive recovery rate. American tertiary BD clinic referral sample, open naturalistic treatment. Research is needed regarding differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms and hastened/delayed depressive recurrence/recovery - specifically whether lifetime anxiety disorder versus current anxiety symptoms has marginally more robust association with hastened depressive recurrence, and whether both have marginally more robust
Han, J H; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Park, E-C
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected. Data from the 2006-2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model. Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants. Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.
Ganda Mall, John-Peter; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Algilani, Samal; Rasoal, Dara; Repsilber, Dirk; Brummer, Robert J; V Keita, Åsa; Schoultz, Ida
Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin. Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.
Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P
This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.
Bhat, Sunil K; Beilin, Lawrence J; Robinson, Monique; Burrows, Sally; Mori, Trevor A
Depression and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but their relationship to blood pressure (BP) is less clear. Age-related comorbidity and lifestyle factors may confound these relationships. This study aimed to assess the relationships among BP, depression and anxiety symptom scores and self-reported history of depression in young adults. Data on 1014 participants aged 20 years from the Western Australian Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed for cross-sectional associations between clinic BP and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale questionnaire scores or a reported history of depression, accounting for relevant confounders. Multivariable adjusted analyses showed an inverse relationship between SBP with depression (coefficient = -0.10; P = 0.012) and anxiety (after excluding two outliers with SBP > 156 mmHg, coefficient = -0.13; P = 0.018) scores, independent of sex, BMI, female hormonal contraceptive use, alcohol consumption, birth weight and maternal hypertension in pregnancy. SBP was 1.6 mmHg lower for 2 SD (16 units) increase in depression score. There was an inverse association between self-reported history of depression (15.8% of participants) and SBP (coefficient = -1.91; P = 0.023), with an interaction with increasing BMI (interaction coefficient = -0.43; P = 0.002) enhancing this difference. Our findings show that SBP in young adults is inversely associated with depression and anxiety scores, independent of a range of lifestyle confounders. Despite a positive association between BMI and BP, adiposity enhanced the inverse association between self-reported history of depression and SBP. These findings contrast with the predisposition of depressed participants to cardiovascular disease in later life when decades of unhealthy lifestyle changes may dominate.
Cairns, E; Wilson, R
In order to investigate the possible relationship between physical health and political violence in Northern Ireland a random sample of residents of four electoral areas (two with relatively high violence and two with relatively low violence) was interviewed at home. Each person was asked to rate their health in terms of common physical symptoms, to indicate their use of family doctor and hospital services, and to rate the level of political violence in their neighbourhood. Analysis of covariance (with a measure of psychological well-being, a measure of trait neuroticism plus age and socioeconomic status as covariates) revealed that women reported more physical symptoms than did men, people in the 'high' violence areas reported more symptoms than did those in the 'low' violence areas, while those who rated their own neighbourhood most highly in terms of perceived violence also reported the greatest number of physical symptoms. However, a series of chi 2 tests revealed no association between political violence or perceived political violence and uptake of services.
Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P
No epidemiological evidence of an association between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease has been found. Based on case reports, it has been hypothesized that silicone breast implants may be associated with a unique rheumatic symptom cluster termed "atypical connective tissue d...
Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.
The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could
Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (pwhiplash was more commonly reported than whiplash-injury a long time ago, and the association of interest weakly increased with time since whiplash
Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González
To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239
Jaquier, Véronique; Flanagan, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) has demonstrated strong associations with anxiety and posttraumatic stress, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously in IPV research. Gaps in knowledge remain as to their differential associations to substance use problems among IPV-victimized women. A sample of 143 community women self-reported on their current IPV victimization, mental health and substance use problems. Hierarchical entry multiple regressions were used to test for the direct and indirect effects of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom severity was associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Mediation analyses indicated (i) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to alcohol problems through posttraumatic stress symptom severity controlling for anxiety symptom severity and (ii) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to drug problems through anxiety symptom severity controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. In examining the indirect pathways of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to substance use problems this study highlights that anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity have unique effects on alcohol and drug problems among IPV-victimized women.
Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza
Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.
Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M
The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could be a useful way to boost the diagnosis of cocaine dependence. A cross-sectional study of 221 cocaine users from several outpatient addiction treatment services in France, addressing the most severe period of cocaine use. DSM-IV cocaine dependence was determined with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Physical symptoms before using cocaine were retrospectively assessed with a single item rated on a 0-5 scale. The prevalence of DSM-IV cocaine dependence was 84.6%. The mean score on the physical symptoms item was 1.3 (SD 1.3). A cut-off score of ≥ 1 on this item alone resulted in a sensitivity of 62%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 96.6% and a negative predictive value of 29.7% to detect DSM IV cocaine dependence in this sample. Adding this item to a model with the frequency of cocaine use significantly increased the predictive power: Nagelkerke's R(2) increased from .149 to .326 (p physical signs of cocaine craving is associated with a clinical diagnosis of lifetime cocaine dependence and could be a simple way to improve its detection in clinical settings. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.
Dibley, Lesley B; Norton, Christine; Jones, Roger
About 30-50% of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) experience refractory symptoms despite taking proton pump inhibitors regularly. Epidemiology studies suggest lifestyle risks, but these are under-represented in existing guidelines. The potential for changes to positively impact on symptoms may be underestimated. Lifestyle advice currently appears to be ineffective. To inform the future design of a behaviour change intervention aimed at improving symptoms for patients with GORD, by exploring patient understanding and experiences of lifestyle influences on GORD symptoms. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 patients (12 women and 11 men) aged 30-86 years, aiming to identify lifestyle influences perceived by patients to affect their symptoms. Patients reported a wide range of daily influences on their symptoms, including diet, drinking with a meal, body position, alcohol, gaining weight, stress and anxiety. Dietary influences included types of food eaten and eating pattern-including speed of eating and meal size. Many foods were identified as troublesome, but not all foods affected all patients. Eating late and daytime tiredness were not recognized as causes or consequences of night-time reflux. Patients stated that daily living patterns affected their reflux symptoms, but influences were highly variable between respondents. Lifestyle factors appear to combine in unique patterns for individuals, but GORD patients may not be able to identify potential triggers and make changes for themselves. A behaviour change intervention might prove beneficial to these patients.
Mayville, Stephen B; Williamson, Donald A; White, Marney A; Netemeyer, Richard G; Drab, Danae L
Muscle dysmorphia has recently been described as a variant of body dysmorphic disorder that involves an intense preoccupation with one's perceived lack of muscle size. Currently, no assessment measures specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of the construct of muscle dysmorphia have been published. To address this need, the authors developed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a brief 19-item self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Psychometric evaluation of the MASS across two samples of male weight lifting participants (total N = 372) revealed a stable five-factor structure. An evaluation of factor content resulted in the following factor labels: Bodybuilding Dependence, Muscle Checking, Substance Use, Injury, and Muscle Satisfaction. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were established with the MASS total score and its subscales. The authors believe the MASS will be a useful measure for research and applied work relating to muscle dysmorphia.
Skodje, Gry I; Sarna, Vikas K; Minelle, Ingunn H; Rolfsen, Kjersti L; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R; Veierød, Marit B; Henriksen, Christine; Lundin, Knut E A
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by symptom improvement after gluten withdrawal in absence of celiac disease. The mechanisms of non-celiac gluten sensitivity are unclear, and there are no biomarkers for this disorder. Foods with gluten often contain fructans, a type of fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. We aimed to investigate the effect of gluten and fructans separately in individuals with self-reported gluten sensitivity. We performed a double-blind crossover challenge of 59 individuals on a self-instituted gluten-free diet, for whom celiac disease had been excluded. The study was performed at Oslo University Hospital in Norway from October 2014 through May 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on diets containing gluten (5.7 g), fructans (2.1 g), or placebo, concealed in muesli bars, for 7 days. Following a minimum 7-day washout period (until the symptoms induced by the previous challenge were resolved), participants crossed over into a different group, until they completed all 3 challenges (gluten, fructan, and placebo). Symptoms were measured by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale Irritable Bowel Syndrome (GSRS-IBS) version. A linear mixed model for analysis was used. Overall GSRS-IBS scores differed significantly during gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges; mean values were 33.1 ± 13.3, 38.6 ± 12.3, and 34.3 ± 13.9, respectively (P = .04). Mean scores for GSRS-IBS bloating were 9.3 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 3.5, and 10.1 ± 3.7, respectively, during the gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges (P = .004). The overall GSRS-IBS score for participants consuming fructans was significantly higher than for participants consuming gluten (P = .049), as was the GSRS bloating score (P = .003). Thirteen participants had the highest overall GSRS-IBS score after consuming gluten, 24 had the highest score after consuming fructan, and 22 had the highest score after consuming placebo. There was no difference in GSRS
Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda S; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth. Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on baseline data from youth participating in a large randomized clinical trial. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further, the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity, and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders. Findings suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as related to social concerns, in research and clinical settings.
Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R
To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Inevitable pesticide use in Indian agriculture has posed an increased risk of exposure to the farmers, which may lead to adverse health manifestations. Therefore, it is essential that the farmers must be aware of the harmful effects of pesticides. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge, practice and identify self-reported morbidity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm women in the identified villages of Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to carry out the survey among farmwomen. Results: 129 women working in agricultural farms were included in the study. Meagre knowledge regarding route of pesticide exposure was observed. Majority of them were not aware of toxicity symbols and never read the precautions on the pesticide containers. Inaccessibility was the main reason for insubstantial use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices of containers were observed. Weakness (57.3%, headache (52% and itching of skin (51.1% were the common morbidity symptoms. Significant association was found between morbidity symptoms and use of PPE and hygienic practices, indicating importance of such practices. Conclusion: Improving knowledge which influences their practices and encouraging PPE use might be useful to remediate these issues. Monitoring studies may further aid to obtain the outcome of the awareness programmes and subsequently improved intervention methods can also be implemented.
Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M
Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Toe, Adama M; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I
Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.
Palmer, Mary H; Willis-Gray, Marcella G; Zhou, Fang; Newman, Diane K; Wu, Jennifer M
To describe toileting behaviors working women habitually use and investigate behaviors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary urgency with or without leakage. Non-pregnant female employees of a large academic medical center 18 years and over were eligible to complete an online survey about bladder health and toileting behaviors. One hundred eighty-two women participated in the survey. The majority were white (83.52%), married (52.49%), had ≥1 pregnancy (54.40%), and in excellent health (93.41%). The average age and body mass index were 47.28 ± 13.56 years and 27.92 ± 6.78, respectively. The sample was further sub-divided into two groups: urinary urgency (N = 119) or no urinary urgency symptoms (N = 51). Habitual toileting behaviors for these groups (N = 170) included: sitting to urinate at home (98.24%), emptying the bladder completely (88.82%), emptying the bladder before leaving home (80.00%), and sitting to urinate when away from home (68.82%). Logistic regression analysis showed age increased the odds of urinary urgency (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09). Women who waited too long to urinate at work (aOR 7.85, 95%CI 1.57-39.24) and wore panty liners for urinary leakage (aOR 2.86, 95%CI 1.25-6.56) had greater odds of urinary urgency than women who did neither. Most habitual toileting behaviors were not associated with urinary urgency except waiting too long to urinate when at work. Logistic regression revealed significant relationships among health-related factors, personal characteristics, behaviors, and urinary urgency. LUTS in women is both a women's health and occupational health issue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spoormaker, Victor I; Schredl, Michael; van den Bout, Jan
The DSM-IV-TR definition of nightmares-extremely frightening dreams from which the person wakes up directly-is unnecessarily narrow. Other emotions (anger, grief) have also been reported in nightmares, and direct awakening from a bad dream seems to be unrelated to increased distress. In addition, assessment of nightmares is problematic. Polysomnographic recordings have an ameliorating effect on nightmare frequency, retrospective measurements tend to underestimate nightmare frequency, and persons with frequent nightmares may feel reluctant to fill out (daily) prospective measurements. For studying nightmares, it is necessary to distinguish idiopathic nightmares from posttraumatic nightmares, which are part of a posttraumatic stress reaction or disorder that may result from experiencing a traumatic event. Both types of nightmares have been associated with an elevated level of periodic limb movements, although only posttraumatic nightmares seem to be related to more and longer nocturnal awakenings. Nightmares have also been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology, or the so-called personality factor neuroticism. Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last decades have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. The cognitive-restructuring technique imagery rehearsal therapy is the treatment of choice for nightmares, although a randomized controlled trial with an attention control-group has not yet been carried out. Nightmares are more than a symptom of a larger (anxiety) syndrome and need to be viewed from a sleep medicine perspective: nightmares are a highly prevalent and separate sleep disorder that can and should receive specific treatment.
Stellato Rebecca K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies examining medically unexplained symptoms (MUS have been performed in primary or secondary care and have examined symptoms for which patients sought medical attention. Disasters are often described as precipitating factors for MUS. However, health consequences of disasters are typically measured by means of questionnaires, and it is not known whether these self-reported physical symptoms are presented to the GP. It is also not known if the self-reported symptoms are related to a medical disorder or if they remain medically unexplained. In the present study, three research questions were addressed. Firstly, were self-reported symptoms among survivors presented to the GP? Secondly, were the symptoms presented to the GP associated with a high level of functional impairment and distress? Thirdly, what was the GP's clinical judgment of the presented symptoms, i.e. were the symptoms related to a medical diagnosis or could they be labeled MUS? Methods Survivors of a man-made disaster (N = 887 completed a questionnaire 3 weeks (T1 and 18 months (T2 post-disaster. This longitudinal health survey was combined with an ongoing surveillance program of health problems registered by GPs. Results The majority of self-reported symptoms was not presented to the GP and survivors were most likely to present persistent symptoms to the GP. For example, survivors with stomachache at both T1 and T2 were more likely to report stomachache to their GP (28% than survivors with stomachache at only T1 (6% or only T2 (13%. Presentation of individual symptoms to the GP was not consistently associated with functional impairment and distress. 56 – 91% of symptoms were labeled as MUS after clinical examination. Conclusion These results indicate that the majority of self-reported symptoms among survivors of a disaster are not presented to the GP and that the decision to consult with a GP for an individual symptom is not dependent on the level of
Neely, Kristina A; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Yoder, Arie; Williams, Genevieve K R; Loken, Eric; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were instructed to maintain force production over a 20-second trial with and without real-time visual feedback about their performance. The results demonstrated that when visual feedback was available, adults with ADHD produced slightly higher grip force than controls. However, when visual feedback was removed, adults with ADHD had a faster rate of decay of force, which was associated with ADHD symptom severity and trait impulsivity. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way that adults with ADHD integrate visual feedback during continuous motor tasks. These may account for some of the motor impairments reported in children with ADHD. These deficits could result from (1) dysfunctional sensory motor integration and/or (2) deficits in short-term visuomotor memory.
Graystone, H J; Garner, M J; Baldwin, D S
Social phobia is a common, persistent and disabling anxiety disorder in which co-existing depressive symptoms are common. However the prevalence of social anxiety symptoms in patients with other mood and anxiety disorders is uncertain. In consecutive patients attending a tertiary referral mood and anxiety disorders service, depressive symptoms were assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and social anxiety symptoms by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) was completed following the appointment. 75 patients (48 women, 27 men; mean age 45.9 years) completed the study. 38 had a single diagnosis and 37 co-morbid diagnoses: 15 patients had bipolar disorder, 35 unipolar depressive disorder, 19 an anxiety disorder, and 6 other disorders. Independent samples t-tests and one-way between-subjects ANOVA revealed that the severity of social anxiety symptoms but not depressive symptoms was significantly greater in patients with co-morbid diagnoses (LSAS 73.7 vs 54.2, t(72)=2.44, pdepression or bipolar disorder (respectively; LSAS 78.8 vs 59.4 vs 50.0, F(2, 65)=3.13, p=.05; MADRS 22.2 vs 19.8 vs 17.5, F(2, 66)depression (R(2)=0.376, pdepressive and social anxiety symptoms across a range of diagnoses. Depressive and social anxiety symptoms were most severe but least well correlated among tertiary care outpatients with anxiety disorders, emphasising the need for comprehensive evaluation and treatment.
Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco
To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.
Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.
Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257
The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. David M Ndetei, Lincoln Khasakhala, Lambert Nyabola, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, Soraya Seedat, Victoria Mutiso, Donald Kokonya, Gideon Odhiambo ...
Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari
This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…
Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is
Clover, Kerrie; Oultram, Sharon; Adams, Catherine; Cross, Laraine; Findlay, Naomi; Ponman, Leah
This analysis sought to determine whether patient self-report measures were associated with disruption to radiation therapy sessions due to anxiety among cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region. A cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy to the head and neck region at a major regional radiation oncology treatment centre (ROTC) in Australia completed self-report measures of anxiety, history of panic and fears relevant to use of an immobilising mask. The treating Radiation Therapist (RT) rated the level of session disruption due to patient anxiety during the Computerised Tomography/Simulation (CT/Sim) (baseline) session and first treatment session. Complete data were obtained for 90 patients. RTs rated 11 and 24% of patients as having some level of session disruption session due to anxiety at baseline and Treatment 1, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with session disruption at baseline in bivariate analyses: currently taking psycho-active medication (p=0.008); fear of enclosed spaces (p=0.006); fear of face being covered up (p=0.006); fear of movement restriction (p=0.041) and ever had an anxiety attack (p=0.034). Sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.75 and specificity ranged from 0.68 to 0.90. Only session disruption at baseline predicted disruption at Treatment 1 (pdisruption and patient self-report measures which might be used to flag patients for prophylactic treatment. Further development and replication in a larger sample is warranted before introduction of these measures into routine practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wilbert Bunini Manyilizu
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe self-reported health symptoms, the use of personal protective gear and clothing and poor safety procedures when applying pesticides among farm workers. A total of 128 adult farm workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the farming season. The commonly used pesticides included profenofos, mancozeb, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan and carbosulfan. The majority (>90% of farm workers used no personal protective clothing while handling pesticides. More than one-third of farm workers ate and drank without washing their hands following pesticide handling, while a smaller number smoked or chewed gum. Wearing special boots during pesticide application was found to reduce the risk of skin rash (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06–0.66, whereas smoking when applying pesticides increased the risk of chest pain occurrence (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.14–15.43, as well as forgetfulness (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.30–14.02. Chewing gum and eating when applying pesticides was associated with diarrhoea (OR = 11.0, 95% CI: 1.80–6.84 and OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 1.27–3.67 respectively. The increased self-reported prevalence of post-exposure adverse health effects among farm workers was associated with poor use of personal protective clothing and poor safety practices during pesticide use and handling. These data indicate the need for improved availability and use of protective equipment, and training in crop and pest management practices to prevent risky behavioursand for safer and sustainable vegetable production.
Ellison, Marsha Langer; Mueller, Lisa; Smelson, David; Corrigan, Patrick W; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Najavits, Lisa M; Vessella, Jennifer M; Drebing, Charles
The influx of young adult veterans with mental health challenges from recent wars combined with newly expanded veteran education benefits has highlighted the need for a supported education service within the Veterans Administration. However, it is unknown how such a service should be designed to best respond to these needs. This study undertook a qualitative needs assessment for education supports among veterans with post-9/11 service with self-reported PTSD symptoms. Focus groups were held with 31 veterans, 54% of whom were under age 30. Transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using a thematic approach and a Participatory Action Research team. Findings indicate a need for age relevant services that assist with: education planning and access, counseling for the G.I. Bill, accommodations for PTSD symptoms, community and family re-integration, and outreach and support. The veterans recommended that supported education be integrated with the delivery of mental health services, that services have varied intensity, and there be linkages between colleges and the Veterans Health Administration.
Aucoin, Monique; Bhardwaj, Sukriti
Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of ...
Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.
This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…
Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.
Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine
The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.
To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)
Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria
Recently, computer, mobile phone and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and to analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (age 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more with use. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure, e.g., over 89.8% quite often or often experienced pain, numbness or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in the hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.
Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
The association between anxiety and nonadherence to preventive therapies remains unclear. We investigated whether somatic symptoms of anxiety predict statin nonadherence. This is a prospective cohort study of 1924 individuals who responded to a questionnaire survey on health status and initiated statin therapy after the survey during 2008-2010. We followed the cohort for nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered pain upon anger or emotion, sweating without exercise, flushing, tremor of hands or voice, muscle twitching) before the statin initiation, and 16% had experienced at least one symptom on average weekly to daily. 49% of respondents were nonadherent. Weekly to daily occurrence of these symptoms predicted a 33% increase in the risk of nonadherence (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.13-1.57) compared to no symptoms when adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle risks, cardiovascular comorbidities, and depression. Particularly, chest pain upon anger or emotion (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and muscle twitching (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42) predicted an increased risk of nonadherence to statin therapy. Psychological symptoms of anxiety were not associated with nonadherence when adjusted for somatic symptoms. Somatic anxiety-related symptoms predicted nonadherence to statin therapy. Information on pre-existing somatic symptoms may help identifying patients at increased risk of statin nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca
Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years, middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years, and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC. T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Results Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3% had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (χ2 = 7.8, df = 2, p 2 = 11.68, df = 2, p Conclusion In this community sample of children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8-10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11-13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14-16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class community in Catania, Italy. Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). T-scores were computed for the MASC total scores, and considered to be in the anxious range if 65 or above. Current academic grades were obtained from school records. Of the 478 children, 35 (7.3%) had a MASC T-score in the anxious range. The rate of children in the anxious range was 2.3% in elementary, 7.9% in middle, and 15.9% in high school (chi2 = 7.8, df = 2, p children and adolescents attending elementary through high school, the prevalence of abnormally high self-reported levels of anxiety increased in frequency with age and was negatively associated with school performance.
Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano; Carpita, Barbara; Carlini, Marina; Mengali, Francesco; Tognetti, Rosalba; Rivetti, Francesco; Massimetti, Gabriele
The aim of the study was to explore social anxiety spectrum gender differences, in a sample of university students. Overall, 823 University of Pisa students were assessed by Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire (SHYSR). Using a total score of 68 as the optimal diagnostic threshold, we classified students into two groups with levels of severity: low scorers (60%), significant gender differences emerged for 6 items: females reported higher rates of items related to “Performance fears”, that seemed to confirm the new DSM-5 specifier named “Performance only”, while males reported higher rate in a single item related to “Behavioural inhibition”. Females showed a significant higher total score and “Specific anxieties and phobic features” and “Interpersonal sensitivity” domain scores compared to males, in low severity subgroup, and males showed significant higher “Social phobic traits during childhood and adolescence” and “Behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms” domain scores compared to females in the high severity subgroup. Finally, rate of individuals declaring to consume alcohol was significantly higher in males than females. Among university students, social anxiety spectrum seems to be more frequent in females than males. In males, social anxiety spectrum is more frequently associated with an early onset, behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms and, consequently, with higher severity.
Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Boman, Krister K
The aim was to assess symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress (PTS; cognitive intrusions, avoidance, arousal) related to the child's illness, and generic distress (anxiety, depression) in parents of childhood cancer patients. Outcomes were compared to normative and relevant reference data, and analysed for their dependence on time passed since diagnosis. Swedish parents (266 mothers, 208 fathers) were recruited at two centres. Data from a clinical sample of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and parents of healthy children were used for comparison. The Impact of Events Scale (IES-R) was used for assessing PTS symptoms, and self-report scales for anxiety and depression. Elevated stress and generic distress varied as a function of time from diagnosis. Up to 12% of parents for whom >5 years had passed since diagnosis still reported equally, or more intrusive thoughts, avoidance and arousal when contrasted to patients suffering from PTSD. Parents of recently diagnosed children had more cancer-related intrusive thoughts than those of long-term survivors. Heightened anxiety and depression was most prominent in mothers and fathers up to 2.5 years after diagnosis. In conclusion, severe generic distress characterises the first years after diagnosis, and initially common PTS symptoms are found in a considerable portion of parents years after diagnosis. Clinically, attention should be paid to continuous parent support needs. Individual variation vis-à-vis distress vulnerability should be acknowledged, and presupposed gender differences avoided. When treatment situation asks the most of parents' collaboration, many are under pressure of severe stress.
Full Text Available Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP may have a smaller effect on health and well-being of members of the minority than the majority groups. Aim: Built on the MDR theory, this study compared Whites and African Americans for the effects of three family SEP indicators (family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence on subsequent symptoms of anxiety 18 years later during young adulthood. Methods: Flint Adolescents Study (FAS, 1994–2012, followed 359 youth (ages 13 to 17, 295 African American and 64 Whites for 18 years. The independent variables were family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence. The dependent variable was subsequent symptoms of anxiety, measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, 18 years later. Age and gender were the covariates and race/ethnicity was the focal effect modifier (moderator. Four linear regression models were estimated to investigate the effects of the three family SEP indicators at age 15 on subsequent symptoms of anxiety at age 33 in the pooled sample and also by race/ethnicity. Results: In the pooled sample, having married parents at age 15 was inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety at age 33. We found an interaction between race/ethnicity and family type, indicating a smaller protective effect of having married parents against symptoms of anxiety for African American compared to White participants. The other two SEP indicators did not show any effect and did not interact with race/ethnicity on the outcome. Conclusion: In support of the MDR theory, marital status of parents during adolescence protects White but not African American young adults against anxiety symptoms. Diminished return of SEP is one of many underlying mechanisms involved in shaping racial and ethnic disparities in anxiety, however, that is often overlooked. Future research that examines economic and social
Gao, Keming; Wu, Renrong; Wang, Zuowei; Ren, Ming; Kemp, David E; Chan, Philip K; Conroy, Carla M; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R
To study the disagreement between self-reported suicidal ideation (SR-SI) and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation (CA-SI) and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). Routine clinical outpatients were diagnosed with the MINI-STEP-BD version. SR-SI was extracted from the 16 Item Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16) item 12. CA-SI was extracted from a modified Suicide Assessment module of the MINI. Depression and anxiety severity were measured with the QIDS-SR-16 and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and bivariate linear logistic regression were used for analyses. Of 103 patients with MDD, 5.8% endorsed any CA-SI and 22.4% endorsed any SR-SI. Of the 147 patients with BPD, 18.4% endorsed any CA-SI and 35.9% endorsed any SR-SI. The agreement between any SR-SI and any CA-SI was 83.5% for MDD and 83.1% for BPD, with weighted Kappa of 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. QIDS-SR-16 score, female gender, and ≥4 year college education were associated with increased risk for disagreement, 15.44 ± 4.52 versus 18.39 ± 3.49 points (p = 0.0026), 67% versus 46% (p = 0.0783), and 61% versus 29% (p = 0.0096). The disagreement was positively correlated to depression severity in both MDD and BPD with a correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.40 and 0.79, respectively, but was only positively correlated to anxiety severity in BPD with a R(2) = 0.46. Self-reported questionnaire was more likely to reveal higher frequency and severity of SI than clinician-ascertained, suggesting that a combination of self-reported and clinical-ascertained suicidal risk assessment with measuring depression and anxiety severity may be necessary for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.
Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…
Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.
We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative
C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)
textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER. As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed.Children (aged 9 to 13 years with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 26 as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate.SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age.Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.
Full Text Available Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of protein, fat, and fiber to her diet resulted in a substantial decrease in anxiety symptoms as well as a decrease in the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms. A brief return to her previous diet caused a return of her anxiety symptoms, followed by improvement when she restarted the prescribed diet. This case strengthens the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of mental illnesses such as generalized anxiety disorder and subsequently that dietary modification as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness warrants further study.
Aucoin, Monique; Bhardwaj, Sukriti
Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of protein, fat, and fiber to her diet resulted in a substantial decrease in anxiety symptoms as well as a decrease in the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms. A brief return to her previous diet caused a return of her anxiety symptoms, followed by improvement when she restarted the prescribed diet. This case strengthens the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of mental illnesses such as generalized anxiety disorder and subsequently that dietary modification as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness warrants further study.
Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, H.M.S.; Eley, T.C.
Anxiety sensitivity, a belief that symptoms of anxiety are harmful, has been proposed to influence development of panic disorder. Recent research suggests it may be a vulnerability factor for many anxiety subtypes. Moderate genetic influences have been implicated for both anxiety sensitivity and anxiety, however, little is known about the aetiology of the relationship between these traits in children. Self-reports of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms were collected from approximately 3...
Full Text Available Karthik Ramakrishnan,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Ami Claxton,1 Vipan C Sood,2 Maria Kootsikas,2 Wendy Agnese,2 Scott Sibbel11DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Jersey City, NJ, USAAbstract: One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%–90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124 undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315. The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization – higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units and intravenous (IV iron (237.2 to 247.6 units and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%, as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey. These results highlight the need to better
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.......91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact...
Nelson, Brady D; Hajcak, Greg
There is growing evidence that heightened sensitivity to unpredictability is a core mechanism of anxiety disorders. In adults, multiple anxiety disorders have been associated with a heightened startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat. Child and adolescent anxiety has been linked to an increased startle reflex across baseline, safety, and threat conditions. However, it is unclear whether anxiety in youth is related to the startle reflex as a function of threat predictability. In a sample of 90 8 to 14 year-old girls, the present study examined the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and startle potentiation during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task. Depression symptom dimensions were also examined given their high comorbidity with anxiety and mixed relationship with the startle reflex and sensitivity to unpredictability. To assess current symptoms, participants completed the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and Children's Depression Inventory. Results indicated that social phobia symptoms were associated with heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat and attenuated startle potentiation in anticipation of predictable threat. Negative mood and negative self-esteem symptoms were associated with attenuated and heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat, respectively. All results remained significant after controlling for the other symptom dimensions. The present study provides initial evidence that anxiety and depression symptom dimensions demonstrate unique associations with the startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat in children and adolescents.
Nelson, Brady D.; Hajcak, Greg
There is growing evidence that heightened sensitivity to unpredictability is a core mechanism of anxiety disorders. In adults, multiple anxiety disorders have been associated with a heightened startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat. Child and adolescent anxiety has been linked to an increased startle reflex across baseline, safety, and threat conditions. However, it is unclear whether anxiety in youth is related to the startle reflex as a function of threat predictability. In a sample of 90 8 to 14 year-old girls, the present study examined the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and startle potentiation during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task. Depression symptom dimensions were also examined given their high comorbidity with anxiety and mixed relationship with the startle reflex and sensitivity to unpredictability. To assess current symptoms, participants completed the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and Children’s Depression Inventory. Results indicated that social phobia symptoms were associated with heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat and attenuated startle potentiation in anticipation of predictable threat. Negative mood and negative self-esteem symptoms were associated with attenuated and heightened startle potentiation in anticipation of unpredictable threat, respectively. All results remained significant after controlling for the other symptom dimensions. The present study provides initial evidence that anxiety and depression symptom dimensions demonstrate unique associations with the startle reflex in anticipation of unpredictable threat in children and adolescents. PMID:27224989
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6% and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate
Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Siebert, Erin C; Carlile, Jessica A; Scarsella, Gina M; Abelson, James L
Worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms are dimensions that have each been linked to heterogeneous problems in interpersonal functioning. However, the relationships between these symptoms and interpersonal difficulties remain unclear given that most studies have examined diagnostic categories, not accounted for symptoms' shared variability due to general distress, and investigated only interpersonal problems (neglecting interpersonal traits, interpersonal goals, social behavior in daily life, and reports of significant others). To address these issues, students (Study 1; N=282) endorsed symptoms and interpersonal circumplex measures of traits and problems, as well as event-contingent social behaviors during one week of naturalistic daily interactions (N=184; 7,036 records). Additionally, depressed and anxious patients (N=47) reported symptoms and interpersonal goals in a dyadic relationship, and significant others rated patients' interpersonal goals and impact (Study 2). We derived hypotheses about prototypical interpersonal features from theories about the functions of particular symptoms and social behaviors. As expected, worry was uniquely associated with prototypically affiliative tendencies across all self-report measures in both samples, but predicted impacting significant others in unaffiliative ways. As also hypothesized, social anxiety was uniquely and prototypically associated with low dominance across measures, and general distress was associated with cold-submissive tendencies. Findings for depressive symptoms provided less consistent evidence for unique prototypical interpersonal features. Overall, results suggest the importance of multimethod assessment and accounting for general distress in interpersonal models of worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq
Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...
Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A
The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives.
Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko
Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J
To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.
Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Yu, Mabel
Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016), the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II). We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt ( n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed) and Canada ( n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed). Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998) factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective ( F (1,121) = 9.51, p = .003) and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales ( F (1,121) = 42.80, p cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.
Spielmans, Glen I; Gerwig, Katherine
Recent meta-analyses of the efficacy of second-generation antidepressants for youth have concluded that such drugs possess a statistically significant advantage over placebo in terms of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, no meta-analysis has included measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, or autonomy. Further, prior meta-analyses have not included self-reports of depressive symptoms. Studies were selected through searching Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials databases as well as GlaxoSmithKline's online trial registry. We included self-reports of depressive symptoms and pooled measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomous functioning as a proxy for overall well-being. We found a nonsignificant difference between second-generation antidepressants and placebo in terms of self-reported depressive symptoms (k = 6 trials, g = 0.06, p = 0.36). Further, pooled across measures of quality of life, global mental health, self-esteem, and autonomy, antidepressants yielded no significant advantage over placebo (k = 3 trials, g = 0.11, p = 0.13). Though limited by a small number of trials, our analyses suggest that antidepressants offer little to no benefit in improving overall well-being among depressed children and adolescents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Morina, N.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results
Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Goncher, Ian
The authors explored the efficacy of a randomized controlled trial to assess the potential benefits of psychological first aid (PFA) compared with a social acknowledgement condition in a sample of 42 participants who spoke about a stressful life event. Demographics and standardized questionnaires, including the state version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale and the Brief Profile of Mood States, assessed anxiety and mood state. Those in the PFA group evidenced significantly lower anxiety scores at 30-minute postdisclosure than at baseline and, although not significant, showed lowered distressed mood compared with baseline at 30-minute postdisclosure. Those in the social acknowledgment condition evidenced increases in anxiety and distressed mood scores, albeit not significantly, at 30 minutes post disclosure compared with their baseline scores. These results provide preliminary empirical evidence for the efficacy of PFA, and implications for intervention and additional assessment are suggested.
Kivity, Yogev; Huppert, Jonathan D
Recent models of social anxiety disorder emphasise the role of emotion dysregulation; however, the nature of the proposed impairment needs clarification. In a replication and extension framework, four studies (N = 193) examined whether individuals with social anxiety (HSAs) are impaired in using cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Self-reports and lab-based tasks of suppression and reappraisal were utilised among individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that, compared to controls, HSAs reported less frequent and effective use of reappraisal and more frequent and effective use of suppression. Counter to most models and our hypotheses, HSAs were more successful than controls in lab-based reappraisal of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. HSAs were less successful than controls in lab-based suppression of shame-arousing pictures as measured by subjective ratings, but not by event-related potentials. The results held even when participants were under social stress (impromptu speech anticipation). Overall, subjective reports of HSAs reveal strong deficits in emotion regulation whereas lab-based measures provided less conclusive evidence of such deficits. These results suggest that individuals with social anxiety experience difficulties implementing their reappraisal abilities in daily life.
Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.
Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael
Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...
Gail A Alvares
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. METHODS: Social anxiety patients (n = 53 were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n = 53. Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with
Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity. Materials and methods: This was a multinational web-based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069. Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women at any gestational week and mothers of children with <1 year of age could participate. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to measure the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms according to severity, which were corrected by survey weight adjustment (descriptive analysis. Within mothers with a psychiatric disorder (n=173, we estimated the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal depressive symptom severity, as standardized EPDS mean scores, via the inverse probability of treatment weight (association analysis. Results: In the descriptive analysis (n=8069, the period prevalence of moderate-to-very severe depressive symptoms was higher in the western and eastern regions relative to the northern region, both in the antenatal period (6.8%–7.5% vs 4.3% and in the postnatal period (7.6% vs 4.7%. One in two mothers with psychiatric disorders used an antidepressant in pregnancy (86 of 173. In the association analysis, women medicated at any time during pregnancy (adjusted β=−0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] =−0.66, −0.02 had a significant postnatal symptom severity reduction compared with the nonmedicated counterpart. This effect was larger (β=−0.74, 95% CI =−1.24, −0.24 when the analysis was restricted to mothers within 6 months after childbirth. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms differs across European countries. Among women with psychiatric disorders, those who had been on treatment with antidepressants during pregnancy were less likely to report postnatal depressive symptoms
Fan, L-B; Blumenthal, J A; Watkins, L L; Sherwood, A
In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S
The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan
Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of
Perry, Sylvia P.; Dovidio, John F.; Murphy, Mary C.; van Ryn, Michelle
Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of Bias Awareness—a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites’ awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased—and prejudice on Whites’ intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in Bias Awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students’ intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students’ intentions to work with minority populations. PMID:25111552
Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle
Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ketil Lenert Hansen
Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.
Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S
To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.
Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232
Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre
The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…
The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.
Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt
Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.
Daniel E. Gustavson
Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances have emphasized the commonality between rumination and worry, often referred to as repetitive negative thinking. Although not studied extensively, repetitive negative thinking may not only account for a substantial overlap between depression and anxiety symptoms but also encapsulate other constructs including one’s tendency to experience unwanted intrusive thoughts or have low levels of mindfulness. In this study, 643 college students completed self-report questionnaire measures of repetitive negative thinking (the Habit Index of Negative Thinking and other relevant constructs including rumination, worry, depression and anxiety symptoms, intrusive thoughts, and mindfulness. To analyze the data, we conducted systematic commonality analyses, which algebraically decomposed shared variances among these measures into various unique components. Results in Study 1 indicated that individual differences in repetitive negative thinking were explained largely by the overlap between rumination and worry, but also by some rumination-specific and worry-specific variance. Moreover, the shared variation in rumination and worry explained the frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms and their overlap. We also found in Study 2 that repetitive negative thinking was positively related to intrusive thoughts and negatively related to mindfulness. These associations were mostly explained by shared variance with rumination and worry, but there was also some mindfulness-specific variance. These results suggest that repetitive negative thinking may indeed lie at the core of the comorbidity between depression and anxiety symptoms, but that it is also a broader construct that encompasses intrusive thoughts and low levels of mindfulness.
Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid
This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K N; Grammaticos, P; Ierodiakonou, C
The differential diagnosis between subclinical hyperthyroidism and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is often a difficult problem to solve without laboratory examination. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether there are differences in the symptom profile between these two disorders. Fifty patients took part in the study: Twenty-five were hyperthyroid patients, and twenty-five were GAD patients. The diagnosis was based on the TSH values and the DSM-IV criteria, respectively. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) and the list of fifty-one symptoms produced by the detailed expansion of HAS items were used to quantify the anxiety symptomatology. The differences in the frequencies between the two diagnostic groups were calculated at each categorical response for every item of both scales. Forward Stepwise Discriminant Function Analysis was performed twice using HAS items and the fifty-one-list items. The symptoms of anxiety in subclinical hyperthyroidism were not identical to those of GAD. Four Hyperthyroid/Anxiety Indices (HAI I-IV) were developed. These indices reach optimum classification of patients (3 of them reach 100% sensitivity and specificity). The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to differentiate between GAD and subclinical cases of hyperthyroidism by the careful study of clinical symptomatology. This may be of particular help in isolated areas without laboratory support, but replication of the indices in other samples is indicated.
van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Verwoerd, Johan R L; de Jong, Peter J
Implicit self-esteem (ISE) refers to the valence of triggered associations when the self is activated. Despite theories, previous studies often fail to observe low ISE in depression and anxiety. It is feasible that sad mood is required to activate dysfunctional self-associations. The present study tested the following hypotheses: i) ISE is lower following a sad mood induction (SMI); ii) the relationship between ISE and level of depression/anxiety symptoms is relatively strong when ISE is measured during sad mood; iii) individuals with higher levels of depression/anxiety symptoms will show a relatively large decrease in ISE following a SMI. In this mixed-designed study, university students completed the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT) either at baseline (control condition; n = 46) or following a SMI (experimental condition; n = 49). To test the third hypothesis, a SMI and IAT were also given in the control condition. Both conditions completed self-report measures of explicit self-esteem (ESE), and symptoms of depression and anxiety. There was no support for the first two hypotheses, but some support that symptoms of anxiety correlated with larger decreases in ISE following a SMI which partly supported the third hypothesis. This disappeared when controlling for multiple testing. Results are limited to non-clinical participants. While ISE was robust against increases in sad mood, there was some tentative support that symptoms of anxiety were related to larger decreases in ISE following a SMI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Bissada, Hany
Individuals with eating disorders are prone to depressive symptoms. This study examines whether depressive symptoms can change in women who complete intensive day treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa (BN), and whether these changes are associated with pre-treatment attachment insecurity. Participants were 141 women with anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 24), anorexia nervosa binge purge type (n = 30), and BN (n = 87) who completed a day hospital treatment programme for eating disorders. They completed a pre-treatment self-report measure of attachment, and a pre-treatment and post-treatment self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Participants experienced significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-treatment. Eating disorder diagnosis was not related to these improvements. However, participants lower in attachment anxiety experienced significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than those who were higher in attachment anxiety. These results suggest that clinicians may tailor eating disorders treatments to patients' attachment patterns and focus on their pre-occupation with relationships and affect regulation to improve depressive symptoms. That depressive symptoms can decrease in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and BN. That improvements in depressive symptoms do not vary according to eating disorder diagnosis in these women. That patients who complete treatment and who have higher attachment anxiety experience less improvements in depressive symptoms compared to those lower in attachment anxiety. That clinicians may attend to aspects of attachment anxiety, such as need for approval and up-regulation of emotions, to improve depressive symptoms in female patients with eating disorders. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Scher, Christine D.; McCreary, Donald R.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Resick, Patricia A.
Empirical research increasingly suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comprised of four factors: re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal. Nonetheless, there remains some inconsistency in the findings of factor analyses that form the bulk of this empirical literature. One source of such inconsistency may be assessment measure idiosyncrasies. To examine this issue, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses of interview and self-report data across three trauma samples. Analyses of the interview data indicated a good fit for a four-factor model across all samples; analyses of the self-report data indicated an adequate fit in two of three samples. Overall, findings suggest that measure idiosyncrasies may account for some of the inconsistency in previous factor analyses of PTSD symptoms. PMID:18206346
The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.
Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Schmitz, Julian; Blechert, Jens; Kramer, Martina; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) and empirical evidence in adults suggest that affected individuals overestimate arousal symptoms such as heart rate (HR) during social stress and worry about their visibility in public. To date, little is known about these aspects in childhood social anxiety, an important precursor of the disorder. We…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration
Clerkin, Elise M; Barnett, Nancy
Our goal was to test the separate and interactive effects of drinking motives and social anxiety symptoms in predicting drinking-related consumption and problems. Participants (N=730; 59.7% female) were undergraduate college students who completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, drinking motives, alcohol consumption, and drinking problems. Greater social anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with less alcohol consumption, and there was some evidence that greater social anxiety symptoms were also associated with greater alcohol-relevant problems. Significant interactions between social anxiety and motives indicated that a) alcohol use was most pronounced for individuals high in enhancement motives and low in social anxiety symptoms; and b) among participants low in coping motives, drinking problems were greater for individuals high (vs. low) in social anxiety symptoms. More fully identifying the individual difference factors that link social anxiety symptoms with drinking outcomes is important for informing prevention and intervention approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dilek Sirvanli Ozen
Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.
Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees’ mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method: Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results: Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion: These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.
Kartal, Dzenana; Kiropoulos, Litza
Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees' mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations-Austria and Australia. Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.
Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.
Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405
Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.
Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H
The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright Â© 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Jonah N; Taylor Dryman, M; Morrison, Amanda S; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Heimberg, Richard G; Gruber, June
The co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression is associated with increased functional impairment and a more severe course of illness. Social anxiety disorder is unique among the anxiety disorders in sharing an affective profile with depression, characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA) and high levels of negative affect (NA). Yet it remains unclear how this shared affective profile contributes to the covariation of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. We examined whether self-reported PA and NA accounted for unique variance in the association between social anxiety and depressive symptoms across three groups (individuals with remitted bipolar disorder, type I [BD; n = 32], individuals with remitted major depressive disorder [MDD; n = 31], and nonpsychiatric controls [n = 30]) at baseline and follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Low levels of PA, but not NA, accounted for unique variance in both concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the BD group; in contrast, high levels of NA, but not PA, accounted for unique variance in concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the MDD group. Limitations include that social anxiety and PA/NA were assessed concurrently and all measurement was self-report. Few individuals with MDD/BD met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder. There was some attrition at follow-up assessments. Results suggest that affective mechanisms may contribute to the high rates of co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression in both MDD and BD. Implications of the differential role of PA and NA in the relationship between social anxiety and depression in MDD and BD and considerations for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.
Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo
Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A
Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID
Full Text Available Miguel A Ruiz,1 Enrique Álvarez,2 Jose L Carrasco,3 José M Olivares,4 María Pérez,5 Javier Rejas6 1Department of Methodology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo, 5Medical Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, 6Health Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods: Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S] were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results: A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval score reductions in subjects receiving
Raines, Amanda M; Walton, Jessica L; McManus, Eliza S; Cuccurullo, Lisa-Ann J; Chambliss, Jessica; Uddo, Madeline; Franklin, C Laurel
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a well-established individual difference variable reflecting a tendency to fear bodily sensations associated with arousal, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite these associations, little research has examined the relations between AS subfactors (eg physical, cognitive, and social) and PTSD symptoms and none have examined these associations in the context of DSM-5 (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) PTSD clusters (ie intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions/mood, and arousal). Participants included 50 veterans presenting to an outpatient Veteran Affairs Clinic for psychological services. Upon intake, veterans completed a brief battery of self-report questionnaires to assist with differential diagnosis and treatment planning. Results revealed unique associations between lower order AS dimensions, in particular the cognitive concerns dimension, and all four DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters. Given the malleable nature of AS cognitive concerns, as well as the growing number of veterans in need of care, future research should determine the extent to which targeting this cognitive risk factor reduces PTSD symptom severity among veterans.
Queen, Alexander H; Stewart, Lindsay M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B
This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The sample included families of 147 preadolescents and adolescents (56.6 % female; 89.8 % Caucasian), 11-18 years old (M = 13.64, SD = 1.98) assigned a principal diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder. When controlling for age and concurrent anxiety symptoms, regression analyses revealed that for boys, both father- and mother-rated family cohesion predicted depressive symptoms. For girls, mother-rated family expressiveness and conflict predicted depressive symptoms. Youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with any family relationship variables, controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that parent-rated family relationship factors may be more related to youth depressive than anxiety symptoms in this clinical sample. In addition, family cohesion, as perceived by parents, may be more related to boys' depression, whereas expressiveness and conflict (as rated by mothers) may be more related to girls' depression. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J
Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.
Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M; Magaz, Ana M; Santed, Miguel A; Sandin, Bonifacio
The present study aimed to examine (a) the relative contribution of perceived parental child-rearing behaviors and attachment on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and (b) the role of attachment as a possible mediator of the association between parental rearing and anxiety and depression. A sample of 1002 children (aged 9-12 years) completed a booklet of self-report questionnaires measuring parental rearing behaviors, attachment towards peers, and DSM anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. We found that parental aversiveness, parental neglect, and fearful/preoccupied attachment, each accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, parental overcontrol was found to account for unique variance in anxiety whereas communication/warmth accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in depression. A relevant finding was that fearful/preoccupied attachment was found to mediate the association between parental rearing behaviors and both anxiety and depression. Parental rearing behaviors and attachment to peers may act as risk factors to the development and/or maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in children. Findings may contribute to outline preventive and/or treatment programs to prevent or reduce both clinical anxiety and depression during childhood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the level of anxiety and depressiveness in patients who had qualified for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT for the treatment of ulcerative lesions in the lower limbs, occurring as a result of diabetic foot syndrome (DFS,. A total of 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot syndrome were enrolled to the study. All patients have received 30 sessions of HBOT. During the therapy blood glucose was measured and photographic documentation was carried out. All patients underwent the following procedures: medical history and socioeconomic interview, psychiatric examination, self-report and objective psychometric tests to measure anxiety and depressiveness. Based on the obtained results, we reported that patients with a greater degree of tissue damage had higher levels of depressive symptoms in the self-report tests as well as in the objective evaluation of the investigator. In terms of location of ulcerative lesions - the level of depressiveness was greater when the affected area included toes, and the level of anxiety was increased when it concerned the heel. Regarding other parameters, statistically significant correlations were not observed.
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin
Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.
Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners
To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of
Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young
van de Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.
The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and
Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D; Verna, Carlalberta; Küseler, Annelise; Herlin, Troels; Pedersen, Thomas K
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may lead to mandibular growth disturbances and interfere with optimal joint and muscle function. Orofacial symptoms are common clinical findings in relation to TMJ arthritis in adolescence. Knowledge about their clinical manifestation is important for TMJ arthritis diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome evaluation. The aim of our prospective observational study was to evaluate and describe the frequency, the main complaints, and the localization of TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms. The smallest detectable differences (SDD) for minimal, average, and maximal pain were estimated. Thirty-three patients with JIA and arthritis-related orofacial symptoms in relation to 55 affected TMJ were included in our questionnaire study (mean age 14.11 yrs). Calculation of the SDD was based on a duplicate assessment 45 min after the first questionnaire was completed. The majority of the patients had common orofacial symptoms during mastication and maximal mouth opening procedures. Persistent orofacial symptoms were rare. The TMJ area in combination with the masseter muscle region was the orofacial region where symptoms were most common. The SDD for minimal, average, and maximal pain were between 10 and 14 mm on a visual analog scale. Our study offers new knowledge about TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms that may aid diagnosis and clinical decision-making. We suggest that TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms could be understood as products of the primary TMJ inflammation in combination with secondary myogenic and functional issues.
Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.
Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...
Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and
van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.
Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and
Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…
Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E
The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…
Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M; Schofield, Peter R; Mitchell, Philip B
Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attainment values were related to depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms; planned mediation models were then used to test the potential for perfectionism to mediate associations between anxiety/stress and BD symptoms. Self-oriented perfectionism was associated with chronic depressive symptoms; socially-prescribed perfectionism was associated with chronic (hypo)manic symptoms. Self-oriented perfectionism mediated relationships between anxiety/stress and chronic depressive symptoms even after controlling for chronic hypomanic symptoms. Similarly, socially-prescribed perfectionism mediated associations between anxiety/stress and chronic hypomanic symptoms after controlling for chronic depressive symptoms. Goal attainment beliefs were not uniquely associated with chronic depressive or (hypo)manic symptoms. Cognitive styles of perfectionism may explain the co-occurrence of anxiety and stress symptoms and BD symptoms. Psychological interventions for anxiety and stress symptoms in BD might therefore address perfectionism in attempt to reduce depression and (hypo)manic symptoms in addition to appropriate pharmacotherapy.
Puka, Klajdi; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou
The objective was to evaluate the association of caregiver and family factors with symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with medically refractory localization-related epilepsy (i.e., failed at least two epilepsy medications). Forty-four children (ages 6-11years) and 65 adolescents (ages 12-18years) and their parents participated in this multicentered, observational, cross-sectional study. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the influence of multiple patient, caregiver, and family characteristics on self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in the children and adolescents. Among children, depressive symptoms were associated with a lower proportion of life with seizures (β=.344, p=.022), caregiver depression (β=.462, p=.002), poorer family relationships (β=.384, p=.010), and poorer family mastery and social support (β=.337, p=.025); in multivariable analysis, proportion of life with epilepsy and parental depression remained significant. No significant predictors of anxiety were found among children. Among adolescents, depressive symptoms were associated with caregiver unemployment (β=.345, p=.005) and anxiety (β=.359, p=.003), low household income (β=.321, p=.012), poorer family mastery and social support (β=.334, p=.007), and greater family demands (β=.326, p=.008); in multivariable analysis, caregiver unemployment and anxiety remained significant. Greater anxiety symptoms among adolescents were associated with females (β=.320, p=.009) and caregiver depression (β=.246, p=.048) and anxiety (β=.392, p=.001) and poorer family mastery and social support (β=.247, p=.047); in multivariable analysis, female sex and caregiver anxiety remained significant. These findings highlight the central role of caregiver psychopathology, which is amenable to intervention, on children and adolescents' symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addressing caregiver psychopathology may improve children and
Khairi, Shafaq; Sagvand, Babak Torabi; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne; Nachtigall, Lisa B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of patients with acromegaly who remained on long-term lanreotide depot after completion of an open-label multicenter phase III clinical trial (SALSA: A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel), compare baseline and long-term follow-up symptoms scores, and correlate scores with individual longitudinal clinical outcomes. Records of all subjects previously enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital site of SALSA were reviewed. Those who remained on lanreotide were interviewed and asked to complete a questionnaire that they had filled out in SALSA in 2007 regarding their current symptomatology and injection side effects, as well as to complete the Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire. Furthermore, clinical, biochemical, and radiographic data related to acromegaly and its comorbidities were tracked throughout follow-up. Six out of 7 patients chose to remain on lanreotide, and 5 of them continued lanreotide depot through last follow-up, for up to 8 years or in 1 case until death. In all cases, lanreotide remained well tolerated, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and pituitary imaging remained well controlled on stable doses. While comorbidities persisted or developed, the self-reported symptom score after up to 8 years of therapy showed a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in symptoms that were reported at baseline. This study shows a significant decrease in frequency or resolution in self-reported symptoms in well-controlled patients receiving long-term lanreotide therapy. AcroQoL = Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire GH = growth hormone GI = gastrointestinal IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1 SALSA = A Multi Center Open Label Study to Assess the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel.
Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole
A sample of 327 patients with primary panic disorder or social phobia completed a questionnaire comprising 77 emotional and cognitive anxiety symptoms from which 12 index scales were constructed. Explorative factor analysis yielded two factors, but confirmatory factor analysis indicated...... that the factor solution was not invariant across diagnoses. Nevertheless, the two-factor structures fitting data from patients with panic disorder and social phobia, respectively, had similarities in content. The first factor, emotions and cognitive-social concerns, comprised emotional expressions (sadness, fear...
Jellema, A.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; van der Horst, H.E.
Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward,
Jellema, P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; Horst, H.E. van der
Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward,
Jellema, P.; Schellevis, F. G.; van der Windt, D. A. W. M.; Kneepkens, C. M. F.; van der Horst, H. E.
When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward, especially in
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daba Wami, Sintayehu; Chercos, Daniel Haile; Dessie, Awrajaw; Gizaw, Zemichael; Getachew, Atalay; Hambisa, Tesfaye; Guadu, Tadese; Getachew, Dawit; Destaw, Bikes
Cotton dust induced respiratory disorders are dramatically increased over the globe, especially the problem is serious in developing countries. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, chronic bronchitis, and byssinosis are common among workers exposed to cotton dust. However, in Ethiopia, the magnitude of the problem is not well known and information is limited about the risk factors. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and associated factors. A Comparative cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 413 (276 exposed and 137 unexposed) participants were included in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select exposed and unexposed groups to cotton dust respectively. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses was performed to identify variables associated with respiratory symptoms and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the strength of associations. Significance level was obtained at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p -value ≤0.05. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was 47.8% (95% CI: 41.3, 53.7%) and 15.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 22.3%) among exposed and control groups respectively. Sex (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.45), service year (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.71) and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.91) were factors significantly associated with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, working department such as; ginning (AOR = 5.1, 95% CI: 2.13, 12.16), spinning (AOR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29), weaving (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 2.46, 14.27) and blowing working departments (AOR = 5.14, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.94) were significantly associated with respiratory disorders. The prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms was higher among workers exposed to cotton dust than unexposed workers. Sex, service year, working department and work unit ventilation were predictor
Nagamani, Sandesh C. S.; Diaz, George A.; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A.; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O.; Korson, Mark S.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H.; Mokhtarani, Masoud
Background Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Methods Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). Results After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and the frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. Conclusions The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. PMID:26296711
Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Diaz, George A; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O; Korson, Mark S; McCandless, Shawn E; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H; Mokhtarani, Masoud
Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas
Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.
Duits, Puck; Cath, Danielle C.; Heitland, Ivo; Baas, Johanna M. P.
Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction. PMID:26955364
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495
Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.
Boyer, Véronique; Vilotitch, Antoine; Marcellin, Fabienne; Demoulin, Baptiste; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno
Twenty years after the advent of combined antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), there is a growing need for up-to-date information about the daily experience of people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socioepidemiological groups and the types of bothersome symptoms reported by PLWH participating in a national survey in France. We analyzed self-reported bothersome symptoms in a representative sample of PLWH (ANRS-VESPA2 survey), most of whom were receiving ART treatment. PLWH (N = 2505) were grouped into three clusters according to the number of bothersome symptoms reported: Cluster A (low number, n = 1848), Cluster B (moderate number, n = 271), and Cluster C (high number, n = 386). Individuals in Cluster A (low number of bothersome symptoms) were less likely to report all the symptom types investigated. Psychological, sexual, and general symptoms were more likely to be reported in Cluster B (moderate number), whereas gastric-, pain-, and appearance-related symptoms were more likely in Cluster C (high number). In multivariate analyses, women not natives of Sub-Saharan Africa and former/active female injecting drug users were more likely to report a medium or high number of symptoms, and lower adherence to ART. Combining new biomedical strategies with coping mechanisms and providing better support to socially vulnerable PLWH may improve this population's quality of health and daily life. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van Asseldonk, Mike
This study explored the relations between self-conscious emotions, personality traits, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical youths. One-hundred-and-eighteen adolescents aged 12-15 years completed the brief shame and guilt questionnaire for children (BSGQ-C) and items of the youth self-report (YSR) to measure shame and guilt, the big five personality questionnaire for children, and the youth anxiety measure for DSM-5. Results for shame indicated that this self-conscious emotion-either measured by the BSGQ-C or the YSR-was uniquely and positively associated with a broad range of anxiety disorders symptoms, and correlated positively with neuroticism and negatively with extraversion. Guilt did not show significant associations with anxiety disorders symptoms once controlling for the influence of shame, and links with personality traits varied dependent on the assessment instrument that was used (BSGQ-C or YSR). Finally, when controlling for neuroticism and extraversion, shame consistently remained a significant correlate of anxiety disorders symptoms. Altogether, these results add to the growing body of evidence indicating that high levels of shame are clearly associated with anxiety pathology.
Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.
Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety
van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety
Lin, Shih-Chieh; Sun, Chien-An; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Liang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Tsan; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching
The aims of this study are to investigate the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration in a Chinese adult population. Data from a nationwide epidemiological survey conducted on residents from randomly selected districts in Taiwan in 2007 were used for this cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 4,197 participants were included in this study. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), were assessed using the Insomnia Self-Assessment Inventory questionnaire. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon their reported sleep duration (insomnia symptoms (OR [95% CI] was 1.54 [1.05-2.47]). However, there was no significant combined effect of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the prevalence of MetS. The current investigation shows that short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms, specifically DIS and DMS, were significant correlates of MetS. These findings should be replicated in prospective studies using both sleep duration and sleep quality measures. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Rosner, Bettina M; Werber, Dirk; Höhle, Michael; Stark, Klaus
Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case-control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009-2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5-14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in severe cases. Appendectomies and post
Background Foodborne Yersinia enterocolitica infections continue to be a public health problem in many countries. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork is the main risk factor for yersiniosis in Germany. Small children are most frequently affected by yersiniosis. In older children and young adults, symptoms of disease may resemble those of appendicitis and may lead to hospitalization and potentially unnecessary appendectomies. Y. enterocolitica infections may also cause sequelae such as reactive arthritis (ReA), erythema nodosum (EN), and conjunctivitis. Methods We studied clinical aspects of yersiniosis, antimicrobial use, and self-reported occurrence of appendectomies, reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and conjunctivitis. To assess post-infectious sequelae participants of a large population-based case–control study on laboratory-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infections conducted in Germany in 2009–2010 were followed for 4 weeks. Results Diarrhea occurred most frequently in children ≤4 years (95%); abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant was most common in children 5–14 years of age (63%). Twenty-seven per cent of patients were hospitalized, 37% were treated with antimicrobials. In 6% of yersiniosis patients ≥5 years of age, appendectomies were performed. Self-reported symptoms consistent with ReA were reported by 12% of yersiniosis patients compared to 5% in a reference group not exposed to yersiniosis. Symptoms consistent with EN were reported by 3% of yersiniosis patients compared to 0.1% in the reference group. Symptoms of conjunctivitis occurred with the same frequency in yersiniosis patients and the reference group. Conclusions Acute Y. enterocolitica infections cause considerable burden of illness with symptoms lasting for about 10 days and hospitalizations in more than a quarter of patients. The proportion of yersiniosis patients treated with antimicrobial drugs appears to be relatively high despite guidelines recommending their use only in
Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge
Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A
While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes
Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.
Jhambh, Ishani; Arun, Priti; Garg, Jasmin
Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Cross-sectional study. A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ); Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES);and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) were administered on all participants. A total of 13 students (5.48%) fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224). The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.
Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.
van de pol, D.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Langenhorst, T.; Maas, M.
One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was
Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole
The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy
This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…
Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…
Kooij, J.J.S.; Boonstra, A.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Bekker, E.M.; Noord, I. de; Buitelaar, J.K.
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. METHOD: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales
Newby, Jill M; Hobbs, Megan J; Mahoney, Alison E J; Wong, Shiu Kelvin; Andrews, Gavin
To investigate the reliability, validity and utility of DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder (IAD) and somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and explore their overlap with DSM-IV Hypochondriasis in a health anxious sample. Treatment-seeking patients with health anxiety (N=118) completed structured diagnostic interviews to assess DSM-IV Hypochondriasis, DSM-5 IAD, SSD, and comorbid mental disorders, and completed self-report measures of health anxiety, comorbid symptoms, cognitions and behaviours, and service utilization. IAD and SSD were more reliable diagnoses than Hypochondriasis (kappa estimates: IAD: 0.80, SSD: 0.92, Hypochondriasis: 0.60). 45% of patients were diagnosed with SSD, 47% with IAD, and 8% with comorbid IAD/SSD. Most patients with IAD fluctuated between seeking and avoiding care (61%), whereas care-seeking (25%) and care-avoidant subtypes were less common (14%). Half the sample met criteria for DSM-IV Hypochondriasis; of those, 56% met criteria for SSD criteria, 36% for IAD, and 8% for comorbid IAD/SSD. Compared to IAD, SSD was characterized by more severe health anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and higher health service use, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. DSM-5 IAD and SSD classifications reliably detect more cases of clinically significant health anxiety than DSM-IV Hypochondriasis. The differences between IAD and SSD appear to be due to severity. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to other samples, and whether diagnostic status predicts treatment response and long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ostacher, Michael J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gold, Alexandra K; Shesler, Leah W; Ketter, Terence A; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Friedman, Edward S; Iosifescu, Dan V; Thase, Michael E; Leon, Andrew C; Trivedi, Madhukar H
People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide, but no clinically useful scale has been validated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties in bipolar disorder of the 7- and 12-item versions of the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report (CHRT-SR), a scale measuring suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, and associated symptoms. The CHRT was administered to 283 symptomatic outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder who were randomized to receive lithium plus optimized personalized treatment (OPT), or OPT without lithium in a six month longitudinal comparative effectiveness trial. Participants were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews, clinician-rated assessments, and self-report questionnaires. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) was 0.80 for the 7-item CHRT-SR and 0.90 for the 12-item CHRT-SR with a consistent factor structure, and three independent factors (current suicidal thoughts and plans, hopelessness, and perceived lack of social support) for the 7-item version. CHRT-SR scores are correlated with measures of depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania scores. The 7- and 12-item CHRT-SR both had excellent psychometric properties in a sample of symptomatic subjects with bipolar disorder. The scale is highly correlated with depression, functioning, and quality of life, but not with mania. Future research is needed to determine whether the CHRT-SR will be able to predict suicide attempts in clinical practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.
Objective The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. Method The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Results Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Conclusions Findings suggest difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population. PMID:22471319
Motoca, Luci M; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K
The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Findings suggest that difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population.
Kimble, L P
Household tasks are highly salient physical activities for women. Inability to perform household tasks may serve as an important marker of limitations imposed by cardiac symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cardiac symptoms on perceived ability to perform household tasks in women with coronary artery disease and to examine relationships among age, whether the woman lived alone, ability to perform household tasks, and cardiac-related quality of life. Forty-one women with confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease and a mean age of 66 years (SD 12 years) were interviewed about the impact of their cardiac symptoms and perceived ability to perform household tasks (Household Activities Scale) and cardiac-related quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire). The women were primarily white (89.4%) and retired (65.9%). Forty-six percent were married, and 26.8% lived alone. "Washing dishes" (51.3%) was the only task a majority of the sample could perform without limitation. Household tasks most commonly reported as no longer performed included carrying laundry (24.4%), vacuuming (30.0%), and scrubbing the floor (51.2%). The task most commonly modified because of cardiac symptoms was changing bed linens (60%). Of the 14 household tasks, women performed a mean of 3.39 (SD 3.36) activities without difficulty. Total number of household activities performed without difficulty was associated with better quality of life in the area of exertional capacity (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Women who lived alone reported greater perceived ability to perform household tasks than women who did not live alone (r = 0.31, P = 0.05). Age was not significantly associated with perceived household task performance (r = -0.22, P = 0.17). Women with coronary artery disease (CAD) perceived cardiac symptoms as disrupting their ability to perform household tasks. Future research is needed to determine the independent impact of cardiac symptoms on functional limitations
Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik
Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...... in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...... associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide...
van de Pol, D; Kuijer, P P F M; Langenhorst, T; Maas, M
One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was performed among elite male volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and in the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire assessed the presence of symptoms and risk factors. Binary logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated - a response rate of 93%. Two sports-related risk factors were associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: 18-30 years playing volleyball [OR = 6.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-29.54] and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength (OR = 2.70; 95% CI 1.05-6.92). No significant other sports-, personal-, or work-related risk factors were found. Playing volleyball for more than 17 years and often/always performing weight training to increase dominant limb strength were independently associated with an increased risk on ischemia-related complaints of the dominant hand in elite male volleyball players. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ferdinand, R F; Verhulst, F C
The ability of the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to predict maladjustment across a 2-year time-span was assessed in a general population sample of 528 18- to 22-year-olds. Referral for mental health services and need for professional help were predicted by total problem scores of the YASR, the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90 and by the internalizing scale of the YASR. Furthermore, the internalizing scale predicted suicide attempts or suicidal ideation, whereas the externalizing scale predicted police contacts. The YASR delinquent behavior syndrome was the only significant predictor of alcohol abuse. The findings supported the validity of the YASR as an instrument for the assessment of psychopathology in young adults.
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh
Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Full Text Available Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh
The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. RESULTS obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The
Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W
We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Skotheim, Siv; Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Øyen, Jannike; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Baste, Valborg; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth
There is a growing body of evidence linking fish consumption and n-3 LCPUFAs to mental health. Still, the results from randomized trials with n-3 LCPUFAs show conflicting results, and it is possible that the combined effect of several nutrients in fish may explain the observed associations. To aim of the present study was to investigate if school meals with fatty fish three times per week for 12 weeks could alter mental health in a sample of typically developing adolescents. In the Fish Intervention Studies-TEENS (FINS-TEENS), adolescents from eight secondary schools (n=425) in Norway, were randomized to receive school meals with fatty fish, meat or n-3 LCPUFA supplements. Mental health was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the differences between the groups were assessed with linear mixed effect models, unadjusted and adjusted for baseline and dietary compliance. The results showed no effects of school meals with fatty fish compared to similar meals with meat or n-3 LCPUFAs on the adolescents' self-reported symptom scores for mental health. Among adolescents scoring above the SDQ cut-offs (high-scorers), the fish- improved less than the meat group in the self-reported symptom scores for total difficulties- and emotional problems. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary, as the analyses for the high-scorer group were underpowered. In conclusion, serving school meals with fatty fish did not alter mental health in a typically developing sample of adolescents. It is possible that serving healthy school meals with meat is more beneficial than similar meals with fatty fish in adolescents scoring high on mental health problems. However, the results should be seen as preliminary, as the dietary compliance in the fish group was low and the analyses in the high score group underpowered. Thus, further studies should investigate the associations between fish consumption and adolescents' mental health.
Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki
The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Gallagher, Michelle; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony
Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12-15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents.
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony
Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12–15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents. PMID:24390470
K. Golmohammadi; M.R. Shairi; M.A. Asghari Moghaddam
Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-postte...
Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.
: The majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a lower ACh...
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; Straten, A. van; Ven, P.M. van de; Langerak, W.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; van Straten, A.; van de Ven, P.M.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.
Background: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Straten, A.H.M.; van de Ven, P.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.
Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Hanne Klith Jensen
Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.
Viana, Andres G; Hanna, Abigail E; Raines, Elizabeth M; Woodward, Emma C; Paulus, Daniel J; Berenz, Erin C; Zvolensky, Michael J
The present investigation examined the role of anxiety symptom severity in the relation between emotional nonacceptance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed adolescents admitted for acute psychiatric care at an inpatient state hospital (N = 50; 52.0% women; 44% white; mean [SD] age, 15.1 [0.51] years; range, 12-17 years). Anxiety symptom severity partially accounted for the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD total symptoms, and fully accounted for the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD symptom cluster severity, even after controlling for covariates. Reverse model testing provided confidence in the direction of hypothesized effects. These findings add to a body of literature underscoring the detrimental effect of nonaccepting reactions to negative emotions in the context of PTSD and provide preliminary support for a possible underlying role of anxiety symptom severity in the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD symptoms.
Barrera, Maru; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Schulte, Fiona; Nathan, Paul C; Hancock, Kelly; Saleh, Amani
This study assessed the effects of a group intervention-Siblings Coping Together (SibCT)-on siblings' and caregivers' anxiety symptoms compared to controls, and potential moderators. Seventy healthy siblings of children on or off treatment (7-16 y old, 41 males) participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 2 arms/groups: SibCT (n = 41) and an attention control (CG) (n = 34). Both groups had eight 2-hour weekly sessions. EG followed SibCT's educational, social, and problem-solving activities. CG had planned games and crafts. Siblings and caregivers self-reported on anxiety symptoms at baseline, intervention end, and 3 months later. Multivariable mixed model analyses examined the intervention effect over time, and potential moderators (gender, on/off ill child's treatment). No main effects of group or time were found in sibling scores. A group × gender interaction (P siblings reported less total anxiety symptoms than male siblings, with no significant gender differences in the control group. Caregivers' total anxiety symptoms declined over time (P siblings in SibCT reported less anxiety compared with caregivers of CG. There was no clear SibCT intervention effect. SibCT may benefit female siblings, and caregivers whose ill child is on active treatment. Contextual factors (gender) seem to influence psychosocial intervention in this population. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka
The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maule, Alexis L; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Sullivan, Kimberly A; Krengel, Maxine H; Yee, Megan K; McClean, Michael; White, Roberta F
Objectives Across diverse groups of Gulf War (GW) veterans, reports of musculoskeletal pain, cognitive dysfunction, unexplained fatigue, chronic diarrhoea, rashes and respiratory problems are common. GW illness is a condition resulting from GW service in veterans who report a combination of these symptoms. This study integrated the GW literature using meta-analytical methods to characterise the most frequently reported symptoms occurring among veterans who deployed to the 1990–1991 GW and to better understand the magnitude of ill health among GW-deployed veterans compared with non-deployed GW-era veterans. Design Meta-analysis. Methods Literature databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to May 2017 reporting health symptom frequencies in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Self-reported health symptom data were extracted from 21 published studies. A binomial-normal meta-analytical model was used to determine pooled prevalence of individual symptoms in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans and to calculate combined ORs of health symptoms comparing GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Results GW-deployed veterans had higher odds of reporting all 56 analysed symptoms compared with GW-era controls. Odds of reporting irritability (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.28 to 4.52), feeling detached (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.83 to 7.03), muscle weakness (OR 3.19, 95% CI 2.73 to 3.74), diarrhoea (OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.51 to 4.17) and rash (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.47 to 4.09) were more than three times higher among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls. Conclusions The higher odds of reporting mood-cognition, fatigue, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls indicates these symptoms are important when assessing GW veteran health status. PMID:29440208
Olsson, Karin; Nilsson, Johan; Hörnsten, Åsa; Näslund, Ulf
Aortic stenosis is the most common valve disease in western countries and has poor prognosis without treatment. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the gold standard, and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new method that is used in high-risk patients who are denied surgery. The purpose of treatment is not only to save life, but also to reduce symptoms and increase health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to describe patients' self-reported outcomes in terms of physical function, symptoms, dependence, HRQoL, and cognitive function after TAVI and SAVR. All patients treated with TAVI during 1 year ( n = 24) and age-matched patients treated with SAVR ( n = 24) were included. Data were collected on the day before and at 6 months after treatment using structural questionnaires. Self-rated function was low before treatment and increased at follow-up. A quarter of all patients reported syncope at baseline, and none reported this at follow-up. Breathlessness was reported by all patients to be the most limiting cardiac symptom, but the TAVI patients reported more severe symptoms. At 6 months' follow-up, symptoms were reduced, but breathlessness and fatigue were still common, especially in the TAVI group. HRQoL, which was very low in the TAVI group at baseline, increased in all dimensions except social function. We found no change in cognitive function or dependence at follow-up. There was no difference in the size of improvement between groups. The results could be helpful when informing future patients in order to give them realistic expectations.
Schiellerup, P.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Locht, H.
with positive fecal culture for Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and E. coli were addressed by questionnaires inquiring about gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the occurrence of joint pain in a previously healthy joint within 4 weeks after onset of infection. A blood sample was requested for HLA......-B27 typing. RESULTS: Of 3146 patients invited, 2105 (67%) responded to the survey questionnaire. The triggering infections were Campylobacter, 1003; Salmonella, 619; E. coli, 290; Shigella, 102; and Yersinia, 91. JPrea was reported by 294 subjects: Campylobacter, 131 (13.1%); Salmonella, 104 (16.......8%); Yersinia, 21 (23.1%); Shigella, 10 (9.8%); and E. coli, 28 (9.7%). There was a significant association between severity of gastroenteritis and development of arthralgia (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for JPrea in an HLA-B27-positive individual was 2.62 (95% CI 1.67-3.93) for the entire group...
Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms while controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms in Turkish university students. A total of 271 university students participated in the present study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Wender Utah Rating Short Scale (WURS-25), the Turkish version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). According to IAS, participants were separated into three groups, namely, moderate/high, mild and without IA groups. The rates of groups were 19.9% (n=54), 38.7% (n=105) and 41.3% (n=112), respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IAS is positively correlated with WURS-25, ASRS (total, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales), neuroticism personality trait, depression and anxiety scores, whereas it is negatively correlated with extraversion personality trait. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that depression and anxiety symptoms, introversion and neuroticism personality traits and the severity of ADHD symptoms (particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) are the predictors for IAS score, respectively. The severity of ADHD symptoms has predicted the severity of IA even after controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. University students with severe ADHD symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms may be considered as a risk group for IA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia
There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.
Stednitz, Jayme N.; Epkins, Catherine C.
This study examined, in 102 mother-daughter dyads, whether (a) girls' social skills and loneliness are related to girls' social anxiety, after adjusting for girls' depressive symptoms, and (b) mothers' social functioning (social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness) is related to girls' social anxiety, after accounting for girls' social…
Research has shown that Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders found in adolescents today. Its main symptoms are disproportionate fear and anxiety (worrying) about work-related or school-related events or activities and social relations. Adolescents suffering from
Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M
Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Bratberg, Grete H; Hjemdal, Odin; Colton, Matthew
To explore longitudinally gender differences in the associations between psychosocial functioning, subjective well-being and self-esteem among adolescents with and without symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data were obtained from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, in which 1,092 boys and 1,262 girls (86% of all invited) completed an extensive self-report questionnaire at baseline (mean age 14.4 years) and at follow-up (mean age 18.4 years). Gender was a moderator variable in the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and impairment, meaning that boys' functioning was impaired to a larger extent than girls' functioning. A statistically significant interaction effect between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found at follow-up in terms of subjective well-being (p self-esteem (p self-esteem than boys who had no symptoms at both time points. No similar differences were found among the girls. Previous and ongoing symptoms of anxiety and depression had more negative consequences for boys than for girls. These findings may contribute to improved assessment and intervention methods tailored differently for each gender.
Curran, J L; Datto, G
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Levinson, Cheri A.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Calebs, Benjamin; Forbush, Kelsie; Kordy, Hans; Watson, Hunna; Hofmeier, Sara; Levine, Michele; Crosby, Ross D.; Peat, Christine; Runfola, Cristin D.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moesner, Markus; Marcus, Marsha D.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms. Results showed that fear of weight gain was central to BN psychopathology, whereas binge eating, purging, and restriction were less central in the symptom network. Symptoms related to sensitivity to physical sensations (e.g., changes in appetite, feeling dizzy, wobbly) were identified as bridge symptoms between BN, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We discuss our findings with respect to cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches for BN. These findings suggest that treatments for BN should focus on fear of weight gain, perhaps through exposure therapies. Further, interventions focusing on exposure to physical sensations may also address BN psychopathology, as well as co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:28277735
Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie; Calebs, Benjamin; Forbush, Kelsie; Kordy, Hans; Watson, Hunna; Hofmeier, Sara; Levine, Michele; Crosby, Ross D; Peat, Christine; Runfola, Cristin D; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moesner, Markus; Marcus, Marsha D; Bulik, Cynthia M
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition ( DSM-IV ) diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms. Results showed that fear of weight gain was central to BN psychopathology, whereas binge eating, purging, and restriction were less central in the symptom network. Symptoms related to sensitivity to physical sensations (e.g., changes in appetite, feeling dizzy, and wobbly) were identified as bridge symptoms between BN, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We discuss our findings with respect to cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches for BN. These findings suggest that treatments for BN should focus on fear of weight gain, perhaps through exposure therapies. Further, interventions focusing on exposure to physical sensations may also address BN psychopathology, as well as co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature abounds on the prevalent nature of Self Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SRMS among computer users, but studies that actually compared this with non computer users are meagre thereby reducing the strength of the evidence. This study compared the prevalence of SRMS between computer and non computer users and assessed the risk factors associated with SRMS. Methods A total of 472 participants comprising equal numbers of age and sex matched computer and non computer users were assessed for the presence of SRMS. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and discomforts from the neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet were obtained using the Standardized Nordic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users both over the past 7 days (χ2 = 39.11, p = 0.001 and during the past 12 month durations (χ2 = 53.56, p = 0.001. The odds of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms was least for participants above the age of 40 years (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64 over the past 7 days and OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77 during the past 12 months and also reduced in female participants. Increasing daily hours and accumulated years of computer use and tasks of data processing and designs/graphics significantly (p Conclusion The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users and younger age, being male, working longer hours daily, increasing years of computer use, data entry tasks and computer designs/graphics were the significant risk factors for reporting musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users. Computer use may explain the increase in prevalence of SRMS among the computer users.
Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu
The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…
Kendler, Kenneth S.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Loken, Erik K.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Reynolds, Chandra; Boomsma, Dorret; Lichtenstein, Paul; Silberg, Judy; Gardner, Charles O.
Symptoms of anxiety and depression are relatively stable over time. Can this stability be explained by genetic influences, or is it caused by the long-lasting effects of accumulating environmental experiences? To address this question, we analyzed longitudinally assessed symptoms of anxiety and
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
Research has shown that Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders found in adolescents today. Its main symptoms are disproportionate fear and anxiety (worrying) about work-related or school-related events or activities and social relations. Adolescents suffering from GAD symptoms have difficulty keeping fear and worries in check. This causes mounting stress and impairs their functioning. GAD sufferers tend to worry about issues stemming from social relationships...
Full Text Available Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study, 20 students with social anxiety disorder were studied in Shahed University in 2014-15 academic year. The subjects, selected via stepwise cluster sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and experimental (task concentration training groups. Data was collected using the social anxiety questionnaire and the structured clinical interview. Five one-hour task-concentration treatment sessions were conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T test. Findings: The mean scores of social anxiety and its sub-scales were not significantly different in experimental and control groups at the pretest stage (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest differences of the scores of social anxiety and its subscales including avoidance, fear, and physiologic discomfort between the groups were significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: The task-concentration training techniques reduce the social anxiety symptoms in persons with social anxiety disorders.
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to investigate these links both longitudinally and concurrently in middle childhood. Children in grades 3 and 5 (N = 74) completed measures of secure, a...
Newby, Jill M; Smith, Jessica; Uppal, Shivani; Mason, Elizabeth; Mahoney, Alison E J; Andrews, Gavin
To examine the efficacy of an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for health anxiety compared to an active psychoeducation control group. Individuals (N = 86, mean age: 30 years, 87% female) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder or somatic symptom disorder with health anxiety were randomized to either a 6-lesson clinician-guided iCBT program for health anxiety (n = 45) or an active control group who received anxiety psychoeducation, clinical support, and monitoring (control, n = 41) over a 12-week period. Both groups experienced significant improvements between baseline and posttreatment on self-report measures of health anxiety, depression, general anxiety, and functional impairment. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that the iCBT group experienced greater improvements in health anxiety on the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) compared to controls (between-groups effect size = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [0.87, 1.93]), and a greater proportion of the iCBT group showed clinically reliable change on the SHAI (84% vs. 34% in the control group). Similarly, the iCBT group outperformed the control group on secondary measures of depression, generalized anxiety, functional impairment, maladaptive cognitions, body hypervigilance, safety behaviors and avoidance, and intolerance of uncertainty. Gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up in the iCBT group. iCBT for health anxiety is more effective than psychoeducation, clinical support, and monitoring, and presents an efficacious and accessible treatment option for people with health anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Boparai, Sameen; Borelli, Jessica L; Partington, Lindsey; Smiley, Patricia; Jarvik, Ella; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Seaman, Lauren C; Nurmi, Erika L
Recent research suggests that lower mother-child language style matching (LSM) is associated with greater physiological reactivity and insecure attachment in school-aged children, but to date no studies have explored this measure of parent-child behavioral matching for its association with children's anxiety symptoms, a well-known correlate of attachment insecurity and heightened physiological reactivity. There is also considerable evidence of genetic risk for anxiety, including possession of the OPRM1 minor allele, 118G. In the current study (N = 44), we expand upon what is known about children's genetic and environmental risk for anxiety by examining the unique and interactive effects of mother-child LSM and the OPRM1 polymorphism A118G on school-aged children's separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. SAD symptoms were measured both concurrently with LSM and OPRM1 genotype and two years later through self-report. No significant associations emerged between LSM or OPRM1 and concurrent Time 1 SAD symptoms. However, lower LSM and 118G minor allele possession were both associated with greater SAD symptoms at Time 2; further, the interaction between LSM and OPRM1 genotype significantly predicted SAD symptoms beyond the main effects of the two variables. Possession of the minor allele was only associated with greater SAD symptoms among children in low LSM dyads, whereas children with the minor allele in high LSM dyads showed non-significantly lower SAD symptoms. These findings and a proportion affected analysis provide support for a differential susceptibility model of gene by environment interactions for the OPRM1 gene. We discuss the implications for predicting children's separation anxiety across development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Navarro, José Blas; Osa, Núria de la; Penelo, Eva; Bulbena, Antoni
To obtain joint hypermobility classes in children from the general population and to study their characteristics in relation to anxiety measures. A total of 336 nine-year-old children from the general population were clinically assessed through 9 items of hypermobility, and their parents reported about the severity of anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis was estimated to group the children according to the presence of hypermobility symptoms, and the obtained classes were related to anxiety. A 2-class solution, labeled as high hypermobility and low hypermobility, best fitted the data. Children in the high hypermobility group scored higher in separation anxiety, social phobia, physical injury fears, and total anxiety than did those in the low group. When applying the threshold reference scores to the total anxiety score, 7.4% of children in the high hypermobility group versus 6% in the low group were reported to experience clinical elevations on total anxiety. High symptoms of hypermobility are associated with higher scores in anxiety symptoms in children from the general population. Children with frequent symptoms of hypermobility may benefit from screening for anxiety symptoms because a subset of them are experiencing clinical elevations and may need comprehensive physical and psychological treatment.
Green, Shulamite A; Berkovits, Lauren D; Baker, Bruce L
The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in presentation and trajectory of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and children with typical cognitive development (TD). Examined anxiety disorders and symptoms in children with ID (n=74) or TD (n=116) annually from ages 5 through 9 using a parent structured interview and questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine odds of meeting anxiety criteria and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine anxiety trajectory. Children with ID had significantly higher rates of clinical levels of anxiety on the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 8 and 9 and higher rates of separation anxiety disorder at age 5 compared to those with TD. Children with ID were also more likely to have externalizing problems co-occurring with anxiety. The rate of increase of anxiety symptoms over time was positive and similar in the two groups, and neither group showed sex differences in anxiety rates. Results suggest that children with ID have both higher rates of anxiety across time and are delayed in showing typical decreases in separation anxiety in early childhood. Implications for intervention are discussed in terms of the importance of screening for and treating anxiety in children with ID.
Olatunji, B.O.; Feldman, G.; Smits, J.A.J.; Christian, K.M.; Zalta, A.K.; Pollack, M.H.; Simon, N.M.
Pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but few studies have examined the nature of decline of anxiety and depression during pharmacotherapy for GAD and even fewer studies have examined predictors of symptom decline. This study examined the decline in
Muller, Julius; Parizotto, Eneida; Antrobus, Richard; Francis, James; Bunce, Campbell; Stranks, Amanda; Nichols, Marshall; McClain, Micah; Hill, Adrian V S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Gilbert, Sarah C
Influenza challenge trials are important for vaccine efficacy testing. Currently, disease severity is determined by self-reported scores to a list of symptoms which can be highly subjective. A more objective measure would allow for improved data analysis. Twenty-one volunteers participated in an influenza challenge trial. We calculated the daily sum of scores (DSS) for a list of 16 influenza symptoms. Whole blood collected at baseline and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post challenge was profiled on Illumina HT12v4 microarrays. Changes in gene expression most strongly correlated with DSS were selected to train a Random Forest model and tested on two independent test sets consisting of 41 individuals profiled on a different microarray platform and 33 volunteers assayed by qRT-PCR. 1456 probes are significantly associated with DSS at 1% false discovery rate. We selected 19 genes with the largest fold change to train a random forest model. We observed good concordance between predicted and actual scores in the first test set (r = 0.57; RMSE = -16.1%) with the greatest agreement achieved on samples collected approximately 72 h post challenge. Therefore, we assayed samples collected at baseline and 72 h post challenge in the second test set by qRT-PCR and observed good concordance (r = 0.81; RMSE = -36.1%). We developed a 19-gene qRT-PCR panel to predict DSS, validated on two independent datasets. A transcriptomics based panel could provide a more objective measure of symptom scoring in future influenza challenge studies. Trial registration Samples were obtained from a clinical trial with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02014870, first registered on December 5, 2013.
Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Jaume Aguado,3 Xiaomei Peng,4 Josep Maria Haro3 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objective: To investigate the impact of anxiety symptoms on depression outcomes in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (n=714. Methods: The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17, overall severity, somatic symptoms, and quality of life (QOL (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Anxiety was measured using items 10 and 11 from the HAMD-17. Linear, tobit, and logistic multiple regression models analyzed the impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes. Baseline anxiety was related to age and the presence of pain symptoms at baseline. Results: Regression models showed that a higher level of anxiety was associated with a lower frequency of remission and lower QOL at 3 months. Patients with lower baseline anxiety symptoms had higher remission rates (odds ratio for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.829 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.723–0.951]. Patients with higher levels of baseline anxiety had a lower QOL at 3 months (a decrease in EQ-5D tariff score for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.023 [95% CI: 0.045–0.001]. Conclusion: In conclusion, the presence of anxiety symptoms negatively impacts the outcomes of depression. Keywords: depression, anxiety, Asia, observational, outcomes
Katon, Wayne; Lin, Elizabeth H B; Kroenke, Kurt
Primary care patients with anxiety and depression often describe multiple physical symptoms, but no systematic review has studied the effect of anxiety and depressive comorbidity in patients with chronic medical illnesses. MEDLINE databases were searched from 1966 through 2006 using the combined search terms diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), asthma, COPD, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with depression, anxiety and symptoms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with >100 patients were included as were all randomized controlled trials that measure the impact of improving anxiety and depressive symptoms on medical symptom outcomes. Thirty-one studies involving 16,922 patients met our inclusion criteria. Patients with chronic medical illness and comorbid depression or anxiety compared to those with chronic medical illness alone reported significantly higher numbers of medical symptoms when controlling for severity of medical disorder. Across the four categories of common medical disorders examined (diabetes, pulmonary disease, heart disease, arthritis), somatic symptoms were at least as strongly associated with depression and anxiety as were objective physiologic measures. Two treatment studies also showed that improvement in depression outcome was associated with decreased somatic symptoms without improvement in physiologic measures. Accurate diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and in optimizing the management of somatic symptom burden.
Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin
Some adolescents exhibit resilience even in the face of high levels of stress exposure. Despite this relationship, studies that investigate explanations for how resilience interacts with risk to produce particular outcomes and why this is so are lacking. The effect of resilience across the relationship between stress and symptoms of anxiety and stress and symptoms of depression was tested to provide explanations for how resilience interacts with stress and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. In a cross-sectional survey, 533 Ghanaian adolescents aged 13-17 years (M=15.25, SD=1.52), comprising 290 girls and 237 boys completed the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, Adolescent Stress Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, and Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. The results indicated that resilience partially mediated the relationship between stress, and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. Effects of stress were negatively associated with resilience, and positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. In a differential moderator effect, resilience moderated the relationship between stress and symptoms of depression but not stress and symptoms of anxiety. Although the findings in this study are novel, they do not answer questions about protective mechanisms or processes. Evidence that resilience did not have the same effect across stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression may support resilience as a dynamic process model. Access to different levels of resilience shows that enhancing resilience while minimizing stress may improve psychiatric health in adolescents' general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl
Previous research on social anxiety has clearly identified interpersonal relationships as important for social anxiety symptoms. Few studies, however, have utilized longitudinal designs and have examined mechanisms that might explain links between negative interpersonal relationships and changes in youths' social anxiety over time. Recent models of social anxiety suggest that negative interpersonal relationships are linked to social anxiety through effects on social skills and behaviors. Using an autoregressive design and a sample of 416 two-parent families (51% female, 91% White), this study examined whether connections among parent-adolescent hostility, teacher support (6th grade), and changes in early adolescent social anxiety symptoms (6th to 8th grades) are mediated by youths' compliance with peers (7th grade). Results indicated that youths who experienced greater parent-adolescent hostility and lower teacher support engaged in greater compliance with peers. In turn, those who engaged in greater compliance with peers experienced increases in social anxiety symptoms. Significant indirect effects were substantiated for only parent-adolescent hostility. Associations were unique to adolescent social anxiety after accounting for depressive symptoms. Associations did not differ for early adolescent girls and boys. The results reveal that nuanced social processes involving social behaviors and relationships with parents and teachers have important and potentially unique implications for changes in early adolescent social anxiety symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Seib, Charrlotte; McCarthy, Alexandra; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Balaam, Sarah; Ware, Robert S; Anderson, Debra
Earlier life stressors can increase the risk of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms in women after cancer, though our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we tested alternative life course models to determine which best described associations between exposure to stressors in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and self-reported health in women previously treated for breast, gynaecological, and blood cancer. Data were drawn from 351 Australian women within 2 years of completing active cancer treatment who were participating in the Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP) randomised controlled trial. A model-building framework compared "accumulative risk" and "sensitive period" stress exposure hypotheses with the saturated model to determine best fit. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Participants with the greatest number of stressful life events (SLEs) reported higher anxiety scores and more depressive symptoms. Alternative life course models for psychological distress (measured through the CES-D and SAS) and stress were compared with the saturated model (i.e., the accumulative risk). The more restrictive "sensitive period" models were the best fit for depressive symptoms though none was significantly better than another. In contrast, an "early sensitive" model provided the best fit for anxiety data. Anxiety scores were higher in women with early life stressors. This study highlights the need for whole-of-life supportive care approaches for women previously treated for cancer, which should include targeted strategies for effective management of stress, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kugler, Brittany B; Phares, Vicky; Salloum, Alison; Storch, Eric A
The development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSs) following a trauma is related to impairment, diminished quality of life, and physical health issues. Yet it is not clear why some trauma-exposed individuals experience negative outcomes while others do not. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of several influential factors related to PTS severity and negative outcomes. One hundred and twenty-two trauma-exposed adults were administered the following self-report measures: the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, the Trauma History Questionnaire-Short, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale 21, Sheehan Disability Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, and an abbreviated Patient Health Questionnaire. PTS severity was positively correlated with depressive symptom severity (r = 0.54, p effects were found for PTS severity (β = -0.38, p life. No interaction was found between PTS severity and AS with any negative outcome. PTS severity mediated the relationship between AS and physical health issues (0.05; 95% CI: 0.02-0.08). This study helps clarify the role of various factors in the relationship between trauma and negative outcomes. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Tsai, Su-Ying; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Liao, Li-Ling
Few studies have focused on premenstrual symptoms in employees. This study explored the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in 7,193 female employees aged 18-55 years in a large electronics manufacturer in Taiwan from August 2014 to December 2014 and examined whether regular exercise was associated with premenstrual symptoms. Information was collected on demographics, lifestyle, menstrual history, menstrual pain, and premenstrual symptoms. Half of the participants reported irregular menstruation; 79.4% reported a moderate menstruation amount, and half reported little impact of menstrual pain at work. In order of prevalence, symptoms were "easy to fatigue" (24%), "backache" (21.2%), and "abdominal bloating" (17.4%). Participants who engaged in regular exercise reported fewer backaches (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.91), somatic discomfort (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.96), headache (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98), diarrhea (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.96), constipation (aaOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.78), less irritability (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65-0.94), feeling morose and depressed (aOR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), crying (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.87), and emotional lability (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.58-0.91). Regular exercise was associated with decreased menstrual pain (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). Our findings provide a better understanding of premenstrual symptoms in female workers, allowing for the development of premenstrual health programs to improve their health and quality of life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between
Haverkamp, Gertrud L G; Loosman, Wim L; van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; Chandie Shaw, Prataap K; Smets, Yves F C; Vleming, Louis-Jean; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Honig, Adriaan; Siegert, Carl E H
Among immigrant chronic dialysis patients, depressive and anxiety symptoms are common. We aimed to examine the association of acculturation, i.e. the adaptation of immigrants to a new cultural context, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in immigrant chronic dialysis patients. The DIVERS study is a prospective cohort study in five urban dialysis centers in the Netherlands. The association of five aspects of acculturation ("Skills", "Social integration", "Traditions", "Values and norms" and "Loss") and the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was determined using linear regression analyses, both univariate and multivariate. A total of 249 immigrant chronic dialysis patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 51% and 47%, respectively. "Skills" and "Loss" were significantly associated with the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively ("Skills" β=0.34, CI: 0.11-0.58, and "Loss" β=0.19, CI: 0.01-0.37; "Skills" β=0.49, CI: 0.25-0.73, and "Loss" β=0.33, CI: 0.13-0.53). The associations were comparable after adjustment. No significant associations were found between the other subscales and depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrates that less skills for living in the Dutch society and more feelings of loss are associated with the presence of both depressive and anxiety symptoms in immigrant chronic dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wu, Yi-Le; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yi-Feng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan
The aim of this study was to explore the change and associated risk and protective factors of social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed in a general primary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children in grades 3, 4, and 7. Children's social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scales for Children (SASC) at three assessments. The overall prevalence of children's elevated social anxiety symptoms ranged from 15.2% to 16.4% across three assessments. Children's overall mean SASC scores were 5.6 (SD =3.7), 5.3 (SD =3.8), and 5.3 (SD =4.1) at three assessments, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, children's social anxiety symptom levels and change among different subgroups was not stable across 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, severe family dysfunction, quality of life, positive coping, negative coping, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were predictive factors for childhood elevated social anxiety symptoms. The findings suggested that the overall social anxiety symptoms showed a relatively stable pattern over time. The identified risk and protective factors may provide scientific evidence for school, family, and health authorities to conduct necessary intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…
Tendais, I; Figueiredo, B
Does mode of conception [spontaneous/after infertility treatment (IT)], type of pregnancy (singleton/twin) and parent gender have an effect on anxiety and depression levels and trajectories during pregnancy and the post-partum period? Conception after IT was associated with a transitory increase in anxiety during the perinatal period for parents of singletons, while for IT parents of twins higher levels of psychopathological symptoms tended to persist during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Most previous studies have shown that successful IT is not associated with poor psychological well-being during pregnancy and the post-partum period, but there is also some evidence for heightened pregnancy-related anxiety, lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy. Parents of twins experience increased postnatal anxiety and depression. This prospective longitudinal study assessed 267 couples (N = 534) at each trimester of pregnancy, after childbirth and at 3 months post-partum. The sample comprised 36 couples who had conceived after IT (19 twin pairs and 17 singletons) and 231 couples who had conceived spontaneously (SC; 28 twin pairs and 203 singletons). Couples were recruited at four public hospitals in Portugal, and self-report measures of anxiety and depression symptoms were administered. IT parents reported higher anxiety after childbirth than parents who SC, regardless of pregnancy type. IT parents of twins showed higher anxiety at mid-pregnancy, as well as higher anxiety and depression at 3 months post-partum than IT parents of singletons. Among IT mothers, those who had twins exhibited higher depression after childbirth than those who had singletons. Differences according to mode of conception, pregnancy type and parents gender over time were also noted. During pregnancy, IT parents of twins showed no significant change in depression scores, while the other groups depression scores statistically significantly decreased over time. From pregnancy to the post
Hughey, Jacob J; Ray, Bonnie K; Lee, Anne R; Voorhees, Kristin N; Kelly, Ciaran P; Schuppan, Detlef
The only treatment for celiac disease (CeD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). The restrictive nature of the GFD makes adherence a challenge. As an integral part of CeD management, multiple professional organizations recommend regular follow-up with a healthcare provider (HCP). Many CeD patients also participate in patient advocacy groups (PAGs) for education and support. Previous work found that follow-up of CeD patients is highly variable. Here we investigated the self-reported factors associated with HCP follow-up among individuals diagnosed with CeD who participate in a PAG. We conducted a survey of members of Beyond Celiac (a PAG), collecting responses from 1832 U.S. adults ages 19-65 who reported having CeD. The survey queried HCP follow-up related to CeD and included validated instruments for dietary adherence (CDAT), disease-specific symptoms (CSI), and quality of life (CD-QOL). Overall, 27% of respondents diagnosed with CeD at least five years ago reported that they had not visited an HCP about CeD in the last five years. The most frequent reason for not visiting an HCP was "doing fine on my own" (47.6%). Using multiple logistic regression, we identified significant associations between whether a respondent reported visiting an HCP about CeD in the last five years and the scores for all three validated instruments. In particular, as disease-specific symptoms and quality of life worsened, the probability of having visited an HCP increased. Conversely, as dietary adherence worsened, the probability decreased. Our results suggest that many individuals with CeD manage their disease without ongoing support from an HCP. Our results thus emphasize the need for greater access to high quality CeD care, and highlight an opportunity for PAGs to bring together patients and HCPs to improve management of CeD.
Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin
We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Save-Pédebos, Jessica; Bellavoine, Vanina; Goujon, Estelle; Danse, Marion; Merdariu, Dana; Dournaud, Pascal; Auvin, Stéphane
Many studies have shown that anxiety disorders are common in children with epilepsy. We explored symptoms of anxiety simultaneously in children and their parents. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale in children and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adult in parents. We included 118 parents and 67 children, who were divided into three groups: (1) first seizure, (2) epilepsy, and (3) nonepileptic paroxysmal event. We found that the level of anxiety in parents and children differed. We observed a significant increase in the anxiety level of parents whose children have had a first seizure, while we found a significant increase in the anxiety level of children and adolescents followed for epilepsy. These findings suggest that there is no direct relationship in the anxiety of the parents and their child. Further studies are needed to understand this variation over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H
Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.
Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M
Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korte, Kristina J; Unruh, Amanda S; Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B
The use of safety aids, cognitive or behavioral strategies used to reduce or cope with anxiety, has emerged as a key construct of interest in anxiety disorders due to their role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. It has been suggested that individuals with anxiety engage in safety aid use to reduce their anxiety and feel more in control of a situation; however, no studies to date have examined the association between perceived control, that is, perceived level of control over internal events in anxiety provoking situations, and the use of safety aids. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of perceived control, the use of safety aids, and symptoms of social anxiety. It was predicted that the association between safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms would be mediated by perceived control. This prediction was examined in a large sample of 281 participants. As predicted, perceived control was a significant mediator of the association between the use of safety aids and social anxiety symptoms. This effect remained significant after running a multiple mediation model with distress tolerance added as a competing mediator. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H
Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean...
Bayat, Noushin; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Salimzadeh, Ahmad; Izadi, Morteza; Saleh, Davoud Kazemi; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin
Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with chronic medical conditions (n = 1872). Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients had one of the following five medical conditions: coronary artery disease (n = 675), renal transplantation (n = 383), chronic hemodialysis (n = 68), rheumatoid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis) (n = 666) and viral hepatitis (n = 80). Independent factors included socio-demographic data, pain disability, and somatic comorbidities (Ifudu index). Outcomes included symptoms of anxiety and depression through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Two multinomial regression models were used to determine the predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms. After controlling the effect of age, sex, educational level, comorbidities, disability and pain, rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis were predictors of higher anxiety symptoms, while coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis were predictors of depression symptoms. Although all chronic conditions may require psychological consideration; be that as it may, different chronic diseases are dissimilar in terms of their mental health need. Anxiety for rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis as well as depression for coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis is more important.
Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew
Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S
Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.
Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M
Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.
Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M.; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attain...
Mazzone, Luigi; Ducci, Francesca; Scoto, Maria Cristina; Passaniti, Eleonora; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Vitiello, Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy
Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.
Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.
This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…
Wernand, J.J.; Kunseler, F.C.; Oosterman, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Schuengel, C.
The aim of the study was to examine parenting self-efficacy in relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Five hundred thirty-three first-time pregnant women completed questionnaires at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of pregnancy that measure parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive
Amaya, Andrea Crane; Campbell, Marilyn
Introduction: This cross-cultural study compared both the symptoms of anxiety and their severity in a community sample of children from Colombia and Australia. Method: The sample comprised 516 children (253 Australian children and 263 Colombian children), aged 8 to 12-years-old. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) was used to measure both…
Watts, Sarah E.; Weems, Carl F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages among selective attention, memory bias, cognitive errors, and anxiety problems by testing a model of the interrelations among these cognitive variables and childhood anxiety disorder symptoms. A community sample of 81 youth (38 females and 43 males) aged 9-17 years and their parents completed…
The hypothesis that symptoms of anxiety and depression contribute to the development of hypertension has been controversial. Rutledge and Hogan found that the risk of developing hypertension is approximately 8% higher among people with psychological distress compared to those with minimal distress. People suffering from either severe depression or anxiety were two to three times more likely to develop hypertension.\\r\
Rasing, S.P.A.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We
Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.
Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…
Rutten, Sonja; Ghielen, Ires; Vriend, Chris; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Berendse, Henk W; Leentjens, Albert F G; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Smit, Jan H; van den Heuvel, Odile A
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a major impact on wellbeing. They nevertheless receive limited scientific attention. This study aimed to establish the symptom dimensions of anxiety in PD, and their relationship with depression,
Rutten, S.; Ghielen, I.; Vriend, C.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Berendse, H.W.; Leentjens, A.F.G.; van der Werf, Y.D.; Smit, J.H.; van den Heuvel, O.A.
Introduction: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a major impact on wellbeing. They nevertheless receive limited scientific attention. This study aimed to establish the symptom dimensions of anxiety in PD, and their relationship with depression,
Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems during childhood and adolescence. This study examined the course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescents from the general population over three phases. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred and forty-two participants (mean-age of 13.52) from a baseline sample of 1514 (mean-age of 10.23) were followed up three times. Of the 1514 children, those with emotional risk and controls without risk constituted the second-phase sample (n = 562; mean-age of 11.25). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-SCARED was administered in all three phases. Fifty-six percent and 32% of respondents showed total scores above the SCARED cutoff point at one and three years follow-up, respectively. Eight percent showed fluctuating symptoms. Fifty-five percent of respondents showed high scores for any subtype of anxiety over three years. Social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms were the most prevalent and persistent. Participants with persistent separation anxiety showed the highest co-occurrence with symptoms of other psychopathological disorders. Participants with persistent anxiety showed lower academic performance. Being male was a protective factor against persistence. The data support anxiety maintenance during early adolescence. Early adolescence is a critical period which may involve other serious academic, social, and family problems.
Rasmussen, Andrew; Ventevogel, Peter; Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine
The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20--somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing--and a two-factor structure for ASCL--jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p khun subscale were equally associated with variance in trauma exposures. However, interactions between gender and jigar khun suggested that, relative to SRQ-20, the jigar khun subscale was more strongly associated with household wealth for women; similarly, gender interactions with aggression indicated that the aggression subscale was more strongly associated with trauma and wealth. Two central elements of Afghan conceptualizations of mental distress--aggression and the syndrome jigar khun--were captured by the ASCL and not by the SRQ-20. The appropriateness of the culturally-grounded instrument was more salient for women, indicating that the validity of instruments may be gender-differentiated. Transcultural validation processes for tools measuring
St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien
To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as
Preciado, Andrea; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly
Over half of pregnant women report anxiety symptoms and these symptoms may be precipitated by stressful experiences. Anxiety rates may be higher in Mexican-American women who experience sociocultural stressors, such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination. However, the role of such stressors on the trajectory of anxiety symptoms across pregnancy is not yet known. Mexican-American women (n=151) completed surveys across pregnancy about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and state anxiety. Multilevel modeling found that acculturation (Anglo orientation, b=0.050, SE=0.379, t (137.561)=0.134, p=0.894; Mexican orientation, b=0.775, SE=0.692, t (133.424)=1.121, p=0.264) and perceived discrimination (b=-1.259, SE=0.921, t (137.489)=-1.367, p=0.174) were not associated with the trajectory of anxiety symptoms. However, acculturative stress, even while controlling for perceived stress, was associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms that were elevated early in pregnancy (b=-0.045, SE=0.022, t (135.749)=-2, p=0.047). This work highlights the unique role of acculturative stress in risk for prenatal anxiety in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muris, P; Meesters, C; Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Campbell, J
The present study examined thought-action fusion (TAF) in a large sample of normal adolescents (n=427). Participants completed the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire for Adolescents (TAFQ-A) and scales measuring trait anxiety, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Results showed that the TAFQ-A is a reliable instrument assessing two dimensions of TAF, viz. Morality (i.e., the belief that unacceptable thoughts are morally equivalent to overt actions) and Likelihood (i.e., the belief that thinking of an unacceptable or disturbing situation will increase the probability that that situation actually occurs). Furthermore, TAF was not only associated with symptoms of OCD, but also with symptoms of other anxiety disorders and depression. However, when controlling for levels of trait anxiety, most connections between TAF and anxiety disorders symptoms disappeared. Symptoms of OCD and generalised anxiety remained significantly related to TAF. Altogether, the data are supportive of the notion that TAF is involved in a broad range of anxiety disorders and in particular OCD.
Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S
The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Ragni B. Haukaas
Full Text Available The Attention Training Technique (ATT and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT, a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group (n = 40 or a MSC-group (n = 41. The students were not assessed with diagnostic interviews but had self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants listened to audiotapes of ATT or MSC before discussing in groups how to apply these principles for their everyday struggles. Participants also listened to audiotapes of ATT and MSC as homework between sessions. Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression accompanied by significant increases in mindfulness, self-compassion, and attention flexibility post-intervention. These results were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Improvement in attention flexibility was the only significant unique predictor of treatment response. The study supports the use of both ATT and MSC for students with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, it suggests that symptom improvement is related to changes in attention flexibility across both theoretical frameworks. Future studies should focus on how to strengthen the ability for attention flexibility to optimize treatment for emotional disorder.
Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Shanbehzadeh, Sanaz; Salavati, Mahyar; Tavahomi, Mahnaz; Khatibi, Ali; Talebian, Saeed; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro
Psychometric testing of the Persian version of Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the PASS-20 in nonspecific chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. The PASS-20 is a self-report questionnaire that assesses pain-related anxiety. The Psychometric properties of this instrument have not been assessed in Persian-speaking chronic LBP patients. One hundred and sixty participants with chronic LBP completed the Persian version of PASS-20, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). To evaluate test-retest reliability, 60 patients filled out the PASS-20, 6 to 8 days after the first visit. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], standard error of measurement [SEM], and minimal detectable change [MDC]), internal consistency, dimensionality, and construct validity were examined. The ICCs of the PASS-20 subscales and total score ranged from 0.71 to 0.8. The SEMs for PASS-20 total score was 7.29 and for the subscales ranged from 2.43 to 2.98. The MDC for the total score was 20.14 and for the subscales ranged from 6.71 to 8.23. The Cronbach alpha values for the subscales and total score ranged from 0.70 to 0.91. Significant positive correlations were found between the PASS-20 total score and PCS, TSK, FABQ, ODI, BDI, STAI-T, and pain intensity. The Persian version of the PASS-20 showed acceptable psychometric properties for the assessment of pain-related anxiety in Persian-speaking patients with chronic LBP. 3.
Bayat, Noushin; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Salimzadeh, Ahmad; Izadi, Morteza; Saleh, Davoud Kazemi; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with ch...
Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M
Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Preexamination period is an exceptionally stressful time for schoolgoing children and adolescents, and the propensity of having anxiety symptoms increases. Aim: This study aimed to assess the presence of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 619 children from Class VIII to XI. All of them were given a structured questionnaire for sociodemographic profile and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire. Association of various variables with presence of anxiety symptoms was assessed. Statistics was analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Totally 170 children (27.5% had anxiety symptoms, similarly the various subgroups had increased frequency compared to the known prevalence in this age group. Age, years spent in the current school, living with parents, presence of domestic stressors, and grade deterioration, all were significantly associated with increased frequency of these symptoms. Similarly, association with various subgroups is described. Conclusion: This study attempts to give evidence of increased anxiety symptoms, during preexamination phase, compared to the reported prevalence in this age group, and thus to address this becomes imperative which will improve their performance and also the mental health preventing distress along with psychological and behavioral problems.
Rebecca J. Brooker
Full Text Available Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant fear-based negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant fear-based negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.
Kleberg, Johan Lundin; Högström, Jens; Nord, Martina; Bölte, Sven; Serlachius, Eva; Falck-Ytter, Terje
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) have partly overlapping symptoms. Gaze avoidance has been linked to both SAD and ASD, but little is known about differences in social attention between the two conditions. We studied eye movements in a group of treatment-seeking adolescents with SAD (N = 25), assessing SAD and ASD dimensionally. The results indicated a double dissociation between two measures of social attention and the two symptom dimensions. Controlling for social anxiety, elevated autistic traits were associated with delayed orienting to eyes presented among distractors. In contrast, elevated social anxiety levels were associated with faster orienting away from the eyes, when controlling for autistic traits. This distinction deepens our understanding of ASD and SAD.
Fish, Matthew T; Russoniello, Carmen V; O'Brien, Kevin
Anxiety is a natural reaction to stress, but when excessive, it can develop into a debilitating disorder. Traditional treatments such as pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating anxiety symptoms but are often costly and stigmatizing. This study tested whether a regimen of prescribed casual videogame (CVG) play could reduce individuals' anxiety symptom severity in a depressed population. CVGs are defined as fun, easy to play, spontaneous, and extremely popular. Data were taken from a larger study on depression and CVGs. Participants were screened for depression using a score of ≥5 (mild depression) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. After completing pre-intervention questionnaires, participants were randomized into the experimental (n=30) or control (n=29) group. Participants in the experimental group were prescribed a CVG of their choice to play three times per week, for 30 minutes, over a 1-month period. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to test the hypothesis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction of group by time for state and trait anxiety measures, supporting the hypothesis that anxiety severity would be different by group post-intervention. When state and trait anxiety measures were compared using within-subjects contrasts and between-group analyses, significant decreases in anxiety symptom severity were demonstrated. A prescribed regimen of CVG play significantly reduced state and trait anxiety symptom severity as measured by the STAI. Clinicians should consider using these easy-to-use and low-cost CVGs to address symptoms associated with state and trait anxiety.
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in men presenting to a sexual dysfunction clinic in Bloemfontein with erectile dysfunction (ED; to determine the relationship, if any, between age and mood/anxiety symptoms in such patients; and to make clinicians aware of the co-morbidity of anxiety/mood symptoms and ED. Methods. An observational analytical study was undertaken of 100 consecutive male patients of all ages presenting with ED (with a score less than 20 on the 5-item intensity scale for ED. Age, race, marital and employment status were noted as well as social habits including smoking and alcohol use. The presence of known medical conditions and surgical procedures was ascertained. All current prescription medication was recorded. Panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia were rated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, while the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to rate depressive symptoms. Results. Thirty-three per cent of respondents had depressive symptoms, and of this group 36% had a co-morbid anxiety disorder. In total, 21% of patients had an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders were more common with moderate to severe ED. No anxiety disorders occurred in patients with mild ED. The majority of participants suffering from severe ED were evenly spread in age from 30 to 69 years. Participants suffering from moderate to severe ED were more likely to have medical conditions, most notably hypertension. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that men suffering from ED are likely to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder (42%, with the prevalence of depressive symptoms (33% and anxiety disorders (21% being higher than in the general population. Significant concomitant medical conditions (most notably hypertension were more common in men with moderate to severe ED.
Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Bennebroek Evertsz', F; Thijssens, N A M; Stokkers, P C F; Grootenhuis, M A; Bockting, C L H; Nieuwkerk, P T; Sprangers, M A G
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms may not receive the care they need. Provision of care requires insight into the factors affecting these psychiatric symptoms. The study was designed to examine the extent to which: (1) IBD patients with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms receive mental treatment and (2) clinical and socio-demographic variables are associated with these symptoms. 231 adult IBD patients (79% response rate), attending a tertiary care center, completed standardized measures on anxiety and depressive symptoms (HADS), quality of life (SF-12) and mental health care use (TIC-P). Diagnosis and disease activity were determined by the gastroenterologist. 43% had high levels of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, indicative of a psychiatric disorder (HADS ≥ 8), of whom 18% received psychological treatment and 21% used psychotropic medication. In multivariate analysis, high disease activity was associated with anxiety (OR=2.72 | psymptoms and poor quality of life, psychiatric complaints in IBD patients were undertreated. Screening for and treatment of psychiatric symptoms should become an integral part of IBD medical care. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents’ level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent–child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers’ ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children’s anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children. PMID:22410755
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Jessie S. M. Chan
Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.
Davis, Kyle; Goodman, Sherryl H; Leiferman, Jenn; Taylor, Mary; Dimidjian, Sona
Yoga may be well suited for depressed and anxious pregnant women, given reported benefits of meditation and physical activity and pregnant women's preference for nonpharmacological treatments. We randomly assigned 46 pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety to an 8-week yoga intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in order to examine feasibility and preliminary outcomes. Yoga was associated with high levels of credibility and satisfaction as an intervention for depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Participants in both conditions reported significant improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety over time; and yoga was associated with significantly greater reduction in negative affect as compared to TAU (β = -0.53, SE = 0.20, p = .011). Prenatal yoga was found to be a feasible and acceptable intervention and was associated with reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression; however, prenatal yoga only significantly outperformed TAU on reduction of negative affect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rodic, Donja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther
Somatoform Disorders or Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders are a major public health problem.The pathophysiology underlying these disorders is not yet understood. The aim of this study was to explore if sensory responsiveness could contribute to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying two key symptoms of Somatoform Disorders, namely somatic symptoms and illness anxiety. We measured vibrotactile perception thresholds with the HVLab Perception Meter and examined their association with somatic symptoms, illness anxiety and trait anxiety. A sample of 205 volunteers participated in the study. Sensory responsiveness was neither associated with somatic symptoms (β = -0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.37, 0.39) nor trait anxiety (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.30, 0.07). However, lower vibrotactile perception thresholds were associated with increased scores of the overall illness anxiety scale (β = -0.65; 95% CI, -1.21, -0.14) and its constituent subscale disease conviction (β = -2.07; 95% CI, -3.94, -0.43). Our results suggest that increased sensory responsiveness is associated with illness anxiety and hence should be examined further as potential target within the etiopathology of somatoform disorders.
The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.
Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel
Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Koh, Jun Sung; Ko, Hyo Jung; Wang, Sheng-Min; Cho, Kang Joon; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Soo-Jung; Pae, Chi-Un
This study investigated the relationship of personality, depression, somatization, anxiety with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). The LUTS/BPH patients were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the PHQ-15, and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The LUTS/BPH symptoms were more severe in patients with depression (p=0.046) and somatization (p=0.024), respectively. Neurotic patients were associated with greater levels of depression, anxiety and somatisation (p=0.0059, p=0.004 and p=0.0095, respectively). Patients with high extraversion showed significantly low depression (p=0.00481) and anxiety (p=0.035) than those with low extraversion. Our exploratory results suggest patients with LUTS/BPH may need careful evaluation of psychiatric problem including depression, anxiety and somatization. Additional studies with adequate power and improved designs are necessary to support the present exploratory findings.
Mahroon, Zaid A; Borgan, Saif M; Kamel, Charlotte; Maddison, Wendy; Royston, Maeve; Donnellan, Claire
Medical training can be a stressful experience and may negatively impact mental health for some students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students in one international medical university in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to determine associations between these symptoms, the students' characteristics, and their satisfaction with life. This is a cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire, distributed to 350 enrolled medical students. We used Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to measure global cognitive judgments of one's life satisfaction. Sociodemographic details including social background and academic information were also documented. Forty percent (n = 124) of the participants had depressive symptoms, of which 18.9% (n = 58) met the criteria for mild, 13% (n = 40) for moderate, and 8.5% (n = 26) for severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with Arab ethnicity (χ 2 = 5.66, p = .017), female gender (χ 2 = 3.97, p = .046), relationship with peers (p Anxiety symptoms were present in 51% (n = 158) of students. Anxiety symptoms were associated with female gender (χ 2 = 11.35, p anxiety symptoms among medical students was high. Medical universities in the Middle East may need to allocate more resources into monitoring and early detection of medical student distress. Medical education providers are encouraged to provide adequate pastoral and psychological support for medical students, including culturally appropriate self-care programs within the curriculum.
de Vries, Jolanda; van der Steeg, Alida F.; Roukema, Jan A.
The aim was to examine the role of trait anxiety and diagnosis on depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with early stage breast cancer or benign breast problems. A prospective follow-up study was performed in order to find predictors of depressive symptoms and fatigue. From the 169 participating
Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.
Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…
Modafferi, Sergio; Stornelli, Maddalena; Chiarotti, Flavia; Cardona, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero
The current study evaluated the relationship between tic, sleep disorders and specific psychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive symptoms). Assessment of 36 consecutive children and adolescents with tic disorders included: the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess the severity of tic symptoms; the Self-administered scale for children and adolescents (SAFA) to evaluate the psychopathological profile; a specific sleep questionnaire consisting of 45 items to assess the presence of sleep disorders. An age and sex-matched control group was used for comparisons. Sleep was significantly more disturbed in patients with tic disorders than in controls. Difficulties in initiating sleep and increased motor activity during sleep were the most frequent sleep disturbances found in our sample. Patients showed also symptoms of anxiety (SAFA A), depressed mood (SAFA D) and doubt-indecision (SAFA O). Additionally, difficulties in initiating sleep resulted associated with other SAFA subscales relative to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression symptoms. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms (SAFA A) resulted associated with increased motor activity during sleep. Findings confirm literature studies reporting high frequency of sleep problems, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in patients with tic disorders, and support the hypothesis that intrusive thoughts and other emotional disturbances might disrupt the sleep onset of these patients. These results suggest the importance of a thorough assessment of sleep and psychiatric disturbances in patients with tic disorders. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meijer, J. L.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Stolk, R. P.; Kotov, R.; Ormel, J.; Burger, H.
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we
MacPherson, P S; Stewart, S H; McWilliams, L A
Preliminary studies have implicated childhood exposure to parental problem drinking as a possible factor in the development of anxiety sensitivity (AS). The present retrospective study was designed to examine the role of exposure to distressing parental problem drinking behaviors, over and above the role of parental alcoholism, in the development of various AS components (psychological, physical, and social concerns) in the offspring. We also examined the possible mediating role of AS components in explaining relations between parental drinking problems and anxiety-related symptoms in the adult offspring. A sample of 213 university students provided retrospective reports of both distress related to parental drinking [Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST)] and parental alcoholism [maternal and paternal forms of the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST)]. Participants also reported on their own current AS levels [AS Index (ASI)], general anxiety symptoms [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale (STAI-T)], and lifetime history of uncued panic attacks [Panic Attack Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R)]. Scores on the CAST predicted AS psychological and physical concerns (but not social concerns) over and above participant gender and parental alcoholism measured by the SMASTs. Moreover, AS psychological concerns proved a consistent modest mediator of the relations between parental problem drinking on the CAST and both general anxiety and uncued panic outcomes in the offspring. Thus, exposure to distressing parental problem drinking behavior may be one factor that contributes to elevated AS psychological concerns in the child, which in turn may contribute to the development of anxiety disorder symptoms in the offspring.
Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of "Engaging with Complaints", "Suppressing Emotion", experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for age, income, education level, job satisfaction, and working hours per week. The results showed that people who were 'Always Engaging with Complaints' (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.83-7.96 for male, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.07-7.66 for female) and 'Always Suppressing Emotion' (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.33-4.08 for male, OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.67-4.77 for female) were more likely to experience depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those 'Rarely Engaging with Complaints' and 'Rarely Suppressing Emotion', respectively. Additionally, there was an interactive relationship between those job characteristics. Our nationwide study demonstrates that mental health problems are incrementally related to how much service workers must engage with complaining customers and suppressing emotion at work.
Yang, Haibo; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Fang, Ruojiao; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D
Background: A large number of empirical studies pertaining to the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms have accumulated. However, there is still a lack of studies specific to youths. Objective: This study sought to investigate the latent dimensions of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Method: Participants were 836 students (407 females and 428 males). Self-reported measures including the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the anxiety and depression subscales of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administered to participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was implemented to test competing factor models. Results: A seven-factor model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviours, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors emerged as the best fitting model, and PTSD's factors displayed distinguishable correlations with external measures of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The findings provide and extend empirical evidence supporting the newly refined seven-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and have implications for further trauma-related clinical practice and research.
Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S
Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.
Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly; Albano, Anne Marie; Bar-Haim, Yair; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Beidel, Deborah; Bender, Patrick; Borelli, Jessica; Broeren, Suzanne; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Craske, Michelle; Crawford, Erika; Creswell, Cathy; DeSousa, Diogo; Dodd, Helen; Eley, Thalia; Hoff Esbjørn, Barbara; Hudson, Jennifer; de Hullu, Eva; Farrell, Lara; Field, Andy; Fliek, Lorraine; Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquin; Grills, Amie; Hadwin, Julie; Hogendoorn, Sanne; Holly, Lindsay; Huijding, Jorg; Ishikawa, Shin ichi; Kendall, Philip; Knappe, Susanne; LeBeau, Richard; Leikanger, Einar; Lester, Kathryn; Loxton, Helene; McLellan, Lauren; Meesters, Cor; Nauta, Maaike; Ollendick, Thomas; Pereira, Ana; Pina, Armando; Rapee, Ron; Sadeh, Avi; Spence, Susan; Storch, Eric A.; Vreeke, Leonie; Waite, Polly; Wolters, Lidewij
The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a
The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men
Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of aging, anxiety, and depression, and to determine if sexual dysfunction could be a differentiating characteristic in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Methods: One hundred seventy-six male psychiatric outpatients participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing symptoms of aging, depression, and anxiety. Symptoms of aging were assessed by the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Erectile dysfunction was considered if a response to item 15 on the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale (impaired sexual potency was rated with 4 or 5 points. Affective disturbance was assessed by the total scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Age was correlated with less anxiety and more sexual symptoms. Anxiety and depression were associated with more severe symptoms of aging, and depression was associated with more sexual symptoms than was anxiety. Impaired sexual potency was the only sexual symptom not significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Depression was associated with an interspousal age gap of ≥6 years. The point prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 28.4%, and age and affective disturbance were associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Impaired sexual potency should raise the suspicion of androgen deficiency rather than depression
Brandt, Charles P; Paulus, Daniel J; Jardin, Charles; Heggeness, Luke; Lemaire, Chad; Zvolensky, Michael J
Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) are a health disparity subg