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Sample records for self-report survey administered

  1. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Jamie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  2. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  3. Social Desirability, Non-Response Bias and Reliability in a Long Self-Report Measure: Illustrations from the MMPI-2 Administered to Brunei Student Teachers

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    Mundia, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-report inventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…

  4. Disclosure of sensitive behaviors across self-administered survey modes: a meta-analysis.

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    Gnambs, Timo; Kaspar, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors that are in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey experiments reporting 460 effect sizes (total N =125,672). Self-reported prevalence rates of several sensitive behaviors for which motivated misreporting has been frequently observed were compared across self-administered paper-and-pencil versus computerized surveys. The results revealed that computerized surveys led to significantly more reporting of socially undesirable behaviors than comparable surveys administered on paper. This effect was strongest for highly sensitive behaviors and surveys administered individually to respondents. Moderator analyses did not identify interviewer effects or benefits of audio-enhanced computer surveys. The meta-analysis highlighted the advantages of computerized survey modes for the assessment of sensitive topics.

  5. Self-reported recognition of undiagnosed life threatening conditions in chiropractic practice: a random survey

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    Daniel Dwain M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify the type and frequency of previously undiagnosed life threatening conditions (LTC, based on self-reports of chiropractic physicians, which were first recognized by the chiropractic physician. Additionally this information may have a preliminary role in determining whether chiropractic education provides the knowledge necessary to recognize these events. Methods The study design was a postal, cross-sectional, epidemiological self-administered survey. Two thousand Doctors of Chiropractic in the US were randomly selected from a list of 57878. The survey asked respondents to state the number of cases from the list where they were the first physician to recognize the condition over the course of their practice careers. Space was provided for unlisted conditions. Results The response rate was 29.9%. Respondents represented 11442 years in practice and included 3861 patients with a reported undiagnosed LTC. The most commonly presenting conditions were in rank order: carcinoma, abdominal aneurysm, deep vein thrombosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, subdural hematoma and a large group of other diagnoses. The occurrence of a previously undiagnosed LTC can be expected to present to the chiropractic physician every 2.5 years based on the responding doctors reports. Conclusion Based on this survey chiropractic physicians report encountering undiagnosed LTC’s in the normal course of practice. The findings of this study are of importance to the chiropractic profession and chiropractic education. Increased awareness and emphasis on recognition of LTC is a critical part of the education process and practice life.

  6. [Psychosocial work factors and self-reported health in the French national SUMER survey].

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    Lesuffleur, Thomas; Chastang, Jean-François; Cavet, Marine; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between psychosocial work factors, using well-known theoretical models and emerging concepts, and self-reported health in the national population of French employees. This study was based on the data of the French national representative SUMER 2010 survey. The sample included 46,962 employees, 26,883 men and 20,079 women, with an 87% participation rate. Self-reported health was measured by means of a single question and was analysed as a binary variable. Psychosocial work factors included factors related to job strain and effort-reward imbalance models, workplace violence and working hours. Associations between psychosocial work factors and self-reported health were studied using weighted logistic regression models adjusted for covariates (age, occupation, economic activity, and other types of occupational exposure). Low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, low social support (from supervisors for men), low reward (low esteem and low job promotion for both genders and job insecurity for men), bullying and verbal abuse for both genders were associated with self-reported health. This study emphasizes the role of psychosocial work factors as risk factors for poor self-reported health and suggests that the implementation of preventive measures to reduce exposure to psychosocial work factors should be an objective for the improvement of health at work.

  7. Psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour: a survey comparing physicians and nurses in intensive care units.

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    von Lengerke, T; Lutze, B; Graf, K; Krauth, C; Lange, K; Schwadtke, L; Stahmeyer, J; Chaberny, I F

    2015-09-01

    Research applying psychological behaviour change theories to hand hygiene compliance is scarce, especially for physicians. To identify psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour (HHB) of physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire that applied concepts from the Health Action Process Approach on hygienic hand disinfection was conducted in 10 ICUs and two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units at Hannover Medical School, Germany. Self-reported compliance was operationalized as always disinfecting one's hands when given tasks associated with risk of infection. Using seven-point Likert scales, behavioural planning, maintenance self-efficacy and action control were assessed as psychological factors, and personnel and material resources, organizational problems and cooperation on the ward were assessed as perceived environmental factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In total, 307 physicians and 348 nurses participated in this study (response rates 70.9% and 63.4%, respectively). Self-reported compliance did not differ between the groups (72.4% vs 69.4%, P = 0.405). While nurses reported stronger planning, self-efficacy and action control, physicians indicated better personnel resources and cooperation on the ward (P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic Self-report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C): Working towards an integrated survey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Bryant T; Wolpin, Seth; Lober, William B; Bush, Nigel; Fann, Jesse R; Berry, Donna L

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Informatics Research Group and Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems at the University of Washington are working with interdisciplinary teams to improve patient care and tracking of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes by creating an extensible web-based survey and intervention platform. The findings and cumulative experience from these processes have led to incremental improvements and variations in each new implementation of the platform. This paper presents progress in the first year of a three-year NIH study entitled Electronic Self Report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C). The project's goals are to enhance and evaluate the web-based computerized patient self-reporting and assessment system at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Preliminary work and lessons learned in the modification of the platform and enhancements to the system will be described.

  9. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  10. Reliability and validity of self-reported smoking in an anonymous online survey with young adults.

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    Ramo, Danielle E; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2011-11-01

    The Internet offers many potential benefits to conducting smoking and other health behavior research with young adults. Questions, however, remain regarding the psychometric properties of online self-reported smoking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported smoking and smoking-related cognitions obtained from an online survey. Young adults (N = 248) age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited online and completed a survey of tobacco and other substance use. Measures of smoking behavior (quantity and frequency) and smoking-related expectancies demonstrated high internal consistency reliability. Measures of smoking behavior and smoking stage of change demonstrated strong concurrent criterion and divergent validity. Results for convergent validity varied by specific constructs measured. Estimates of smoking quantity, but not frequency, were comparable to those obtained from a nationally representative household interview among young adults. These findings generally support the reliability and validity of online surveys of young adult smokers. Identified limitations may reflect issues specific to the measures rather than the online data collection methodology. Strategies to maximize the psychometric properties of online surveys with young adult smokers are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. [Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru].

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    Wong, Paolo; Gutiérrez, César; Romaní, Franco

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the frequency of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal), together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94). The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65), male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22), legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55), alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32) and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2.45, 95%CI 1.63-3.68). The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  12. Are population health surveys reliable for self-reporting conditions and relative well-being for those with asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Whiffen

    2018-06-01

    Linkage of survey data can provide useful insights into relative levels of self-reported illnesses and subjective well-being but can also be used effectively to explore the risks that other morbidities present to mental wellbeing.

  13. Factors associated with self-reported diabetes according to the 2013 National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS). METHODS Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2013, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question “Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?,” was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6.2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7.0% vs. 5.4%), and among older adults, reaching 19.8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11.8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes. A relation between diabetes and hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS After adjustment according to age, schooling and sex, diabetes was shown to be associated with higher age, lower schooling, past smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension, as well as with a self-declared poor state of health, indicating a pattern of risk factors common to many chronic non-communicable diseases and the association of the disease with morbidity. PMID:28591347

  14. Health care among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil, National Health Survey, 2013.

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Chueiri, Patricia Sampaio; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-12-01

    To describe the care measurements provided to patients with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (2013) were used. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in which the subjects with self-reported diabetes mellitus answered questions concerning their use of health services and access to medicine. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 6.2%, while 11.5% of the population had never undergone a glucose testing. From the adults with diabetes mellitus, 80.2% had taken medications two weeks before the interview, 57.4% used the Popular Pharmacy Program, 73.2% received medical care, and 47.1% were cared for in the Health Basic Units. In 65.2%, the physician who cared for them in the last appointment was the same from previous ones, 95.3% of the patients were able to perform the required complementary examinations, and 83.3% could go to the appointments with a specialist. About 35.6 and 29.1% of the subjects with diabetes mellitus reported feet and eyes examination, respectively. About 13.4% declared previous hospitalization owing to diabetes or any complications, and 7.0% mentioned limitations in their daily activities owing to the disease. In general, women and the elderly people, those with higher education levels, white, and those living in the south and southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence of the disease and greater access to services, medicine, and appointments. The care reported by patients with diabetes, which is essential to maintain their quality of life and prevent serious outcomes, seemed, in most cases, to be adequate.

  15. Factors associated with self-reported diabetes according to the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS. METHODS Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2013, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question “Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?,” was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6.2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7.0% vs. 5.4%, and among older adults, reaching 19.8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11.8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes. A relation between diabetes and hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS After adjustment according to age, schooling and sex, diabetes was shown to be associated with higher age, lower schooling, past smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension, as well as with a self-declared poor state of health, indicating a pattern of risk factors common to many chronic non-communicable diseases and the association of the disease with morbidity.

  16. Privacy effects on self-reported drug use: interactions with survey mode and respondent characteristics.

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    Aquilino, W S

    1997-01-01

    This chapter examines the impact of interview privacy on self-reported illicit drug use. In 1991, interviews were completed with an urban-suburban sample of 2,417 adults aged 18 to 45. Results show that the presence of third parties during the interview significantly influences respondents' willingness to reveal illicit drug use. Among married respondents, presence of a spouse resulted in higher reporting of illicit drug use, while the presence of adults other than the spouse had a consistent negative effect on drug use reports. A parent's presence during the interview significantly reduced respondents' willingness to report illicit drug use. The pattern of findings suggests that the direction of effects due to third party presence is linked to two factors: the extent of the third party's knowledge of the information requested, and the degree of personal stake the third party may have in the respondent's answers. The differential impact of privacy by interview mode was also examined. Tests of interactions between privacy and interview mode failed to support the hypothesis that the use of self-administered answer sheets reduces privacy effects compared with interviewer-administered interviews.

  17. Cell-phone use and self-reported hypertension: national health interview survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual users of cell phone and landline, and predominantly cell-phone users. The main outcome of interest was self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension (n = 6,793). Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75-0.98, P trend  =  .005) among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m(2). Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  18. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported physical activity among blacks: estimates from national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Taylor, Wendell C; Heath, Gregory W; Macera, Caroline A

    2007-11-01

    National surveillance data provide population-level estimates of physical activity participation, but generally do not include detailed subgroup analyses, which could provide a better understanding of physical activity among subgroups. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of self-reported regular physical activity among black adults using data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=19,189), the 2004 National Health Interview Survey (n=4263), and the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3407). Analyses were conducted between January and March 2006. Datasets were analyzed separately to estimate the proportion of black adults meeting national physical activity recommendations overall and stratified by gender and other demographic subgroups. The proportion of black adults reporting regular PA ranged from 24% to 36%. Regular physical activity was highest among men; younger age groups; highest education and income groups; those who were employed and married; overweight, but not obese, men; and normal-weight women. This pattern was consistent across surveys. The observed physical activity patterns were consistent with national trends. The data suggest that older black adults and those with low education and income levels are at greatest risk for inactive lifestyles and may require additional attention in efforts to increase physical activity in black adults. The variability across datasets reinforces the need for objective measures in national surveys.

  20. Comparison of self-reported dietary intakes from the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall, 4-d food records, and food-frequency questionnaires against recovery biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Dodd, Kevin W; Kipnis, Victor; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Schoeller, Dale A; Baer, David J; Midthune, Douglas; Troiano, Richard P; Bowles, Heather; Subar, Amy F

    2018-01-01

    A limited number of studies have evaluated self-reported dietary intakes against objective recovery biomarkers. The aim was to compare dietary intakes of multiple Automated Self-Administered 24-h recalls (ASA24s), 4-d food records (4DFRs), and food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) against recovery biomarkers and to estimate the prevalence of under- and overreporting. Over 12 mo, 530 men and 545 women, aged 50-74 y, were asked to complete 6 ASA24s (2011 version), 2 unweighed 4DFRs, 2 FFQs, two 24-h urine collections (biomarkers for protein, potassium, and sodium intakes), and 1 administration of doubly labeled water (biomarker for energy intake). Absolute and density-based energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were calculated. The prevalence of under- and overreporting of self-report against biomarkers was estimated. Ninety-two percent of men and 87% of women completed ≥3 ASA24s (mean ASA24s completed: 5.4 and 5.1 for men and women, respectively). Absolute intakes of energy, protein, potassium, and sodium assessed by all self-reported instruments were systematically lower than those from recovery biomarkers, with underreporting greater for energy than for other nutrients. On average, compared with the energy biomarker, intake was underestimated by 15-17% on ASA24s, 18-21% on 4DFRs, and 29-34% on FFQs. Underreporting was more prevalent on FFQs than on ASA24s and 4DFRs and among obese individuals. Mean protein and sodium densities on ASA24s, 4DFRs, and FFQs were similar to biomarker values, but potassium density on FFQs was 26-40% higher, leading to a substantial increase in the prevalence of overreporting compared with absolute potassium intake. Although misreporting is present in all self-report dietary assessment tools, multiple ASA24s and a 4DFR provided the best estimates of absolute dietary intakes for these few nutrients and outperformed FFQs. Energy adjustment improved estimates from FFQs for protein and sodium but not for potassium. The ASA24, which now can be

  1. Self-Reported Rationing Behavior Among US Physicians: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler, Robert D; Mundell, Tim; Hurst, Samia A; Goold, Susan Dorr; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Tilburt, Jon C; Danis, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Rationing is a controversial topic among US physicians. Understanding their attitudes and behaviors around rationing may be essential to a more open and sensible professional discourse on this important but controversial topic. To describe rationing behavior and associated factors among US physicians. Survey mailed to US physicians in 2012 to evaluate self-reported rationing behavior and variables related to this behavior. US physicians across a full spectrum of practice settings. A total of 2541 respondents, representing 65.6 % of the original mailing list of 3872 US addresses. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of physician attitudes and self-reported behaviors, with neutral language representations of the behaviors as well as an embedded experiment to test the influence of the word "ration" on perceived responsibility. Overall percentage of respondents reporting rationing behavior in various contexts and assessment of attitudes toward rationing. In total, 1348 respondents (53.1 %) reported having personally refrained within the past 6 months from using specific clinical services that would have provided the best patient care, because of health system cost. Prescription drugs (n = 1073 [48.3 %]) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 922 [44.5 %]) were most frequently rationed. Surgical and procedural specialists were less likely to report rationing behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95 % CI], 0.8 [0.9-0.9] and 0.5 [0.4-0.6], respectively) compared to primary care. Compared with small or solo practices, those in medical school settings reported less rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.4 [0.2-0.7]). Physicians who self-identified as very or somewhat liberal were significantly less likely to report rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.7 [0.6-0.9]) than those self-reporting being very or somewhat conservative. A more positive opinion about rationing tended to align with greater odds of rationing. More than one-half of respondents engaged in

  2. [A self administered survey to assess bullying in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecannelier, Felipe; Varela, Jorge; Rodríguez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Marianela; Flores, Fernanda; Ascanio, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    Bullying is common in schools and has negative consequences. It can be assessed using a self-reported instrument. To validate a Spanish self-reporting tool called "Survey of High School Bullying Abuse of Power" (MIAP). The instrument has 13 questions, of which 7 are multiple choice, rendering a total of 49 items. It was applied to 2.341 children of seventh and eighth grade attending private, subsidized and municipal schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Expert judge analysis and estimated reliability using the Cronbach Alpha were used to validate the survey. The instrument obtained a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.8892, classified as good. This analysis generated four scales that explained 30.9% of the variance. They were called "Witness Bullying" with 18 items, accounting for 11.4% of the variance, "Bullying Victim" with 12 items, accounting for 7.5% of the variance, "Bullying Perpetrator and Severe bullying Victim", with 10 items explaining 6.4% of the variance and "Aggressor Bullying" with 6 items accounting for 5.7% of the variance. The MIAP can recognize four basic factors that facilitate the analysis and understanding of bullying, with good levels of reliability and validity. The remaining questions also deliver valuable information.

  3. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  4. Correction of body-mass index using body-shape perception and socioeconomic status in adolescent self-report surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas; Chau, Nearkasen

    2014-01-01

    To propose a simple correction of body-mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height (reported BMI) using gender, body shape perception and socioeconomic status in an adolescent population. 341 boys and girls aged 17-18 years were randomly selected from a representative sample of 2165 French adolescents living in Paris surveyed in 2010. After an anonymous self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire asking for height, weight, body shape perception (feeling too thin, about the right weight or too fat) and socioeconomic status, subjects were measured and weighed. BMI categories were computed according to Cole's cut-offs. Reported BMIs were corrected using linear regressions and ROC analyses and checked with cross-validation and multiple imputations to handle missing values. Agreement between actual and corrected BMI values was estimated with Kappa indexes and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). On average, BMIs were underreported, especially among girls. Kappa indexes between actual and reported BMI were low, especially for girls: 0.56 95%CI = [0.42-0.70] for boys and 0.45 95%CI = [0.30-0.60] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and body shape perception gave the most balanced results for both genders: the Kappa and ICC obtained were 0.63 95%CI = [0.50-0.76] and 0.67, 95%CI = [0.58-0.74] for boys; 0.65 95%CI = [0.52-0.78] and 0.74, 95%CI = [0.66-0.81] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and socioeconomic status led to similar corrections while the ROC analyses were inaccurate. Using body shape perception, or socioeconomic status and gender is a promising way of correcting BMI in self-administered questionnaires, especially for girls.

  5. Self-reporting bias in Chinook salmon sport fisheries in Idaho: implications for roving creel surveys

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    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-reporting bias in sport fisheries of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho was quantified by comparing observed and angler-reported data. A total of 164 observed anglers fished for 541 h and caught 74 Chinook Salmon. Fifty-eight fish were harvested and 16 were released. Anglers reported fishing for 604 h, an overestimate of 63 h. Anglers reported catching 66 fish; four less harvested and four less released fish were reported than observed. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that when angler-reported data were used, total catch was underestimated by 14–15 fish (19–20%) using the ratio-of-means estimator to calculate mean catch rate. Negative bias was reduced to six fish (8%) when the means-of-ratio estimator was used. Multiple linear regression models to predict reporting bias in time fished had poor predictive value. However, actual time fished and a categorical covariate indicating whether the angler fished continuously during their fishing trip were two variables that were present in all of the top a priori models evaluated. Underreporting of catch and overreporting of time fished by anglers present challenges when managing Chinook Salmon sport fisheries. However, confidence intervals were near target levels and using more liberal definitions of angling when estimating effort in creel surveys may decrease sensitivity to bias in angler-reported data.

  6. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    Gender is a one of the most important social determinants of health inequality. Ukrainian life expectancy gender gap is almost ten years in favor of women. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (N=5158) of a European Social Survey are used to show gender differences in self-reported health (IBM SPSS 22...

  8. Factors associated with self-reported diabetes according to the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS). Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2013, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question "Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?," was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6.2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7.0% vs. 5.4%), and among older adults, reaching 19.8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11.8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes. A relation between diabetes and hypertension was found. After adjustment according to age, schooling and sex, diabetes was shown to be associated with higher age, lower schooling, past smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension, as well as with a self-declared poor state of health, indicating a pattern of risk factors common to many chronic non-communicable diseases and the association of the disease with morbidity. Analisar os fatores associados ao diabetes autorreferido entre adultos entrevistados na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Estudo transversal utilizando dados da PNS realizada em 2013, a partir de entrevistas com adultos (≥ 18 anos) de 64.348 domicílios brasileiros. A prevalência de diabetes autorreferido, avaliada pela pergunta "Algum médico já lhe disse que o sr(a) tem diabetes?", foi relacionada a caracter

  9. Concordance of health states in couples: Analysis of self-reported, nurse administered and blood-based biomarker data in the UK Understanding Society panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davillas, Apostolos; Pudney, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    We use self-reported health measures, nurse-administered measurements and blood-based biomarkers to examine the concordance between health states of partners in marital/cohabiting relationships in the UK. A model of cumulative health exposures is used to interpret the empirical pattern of between-partner health correlation in relation to elapsed relationship duration, allowing us to distinguish non-causal correlation due to assortative mating from potentially causal effects of shared lifestyle and environmental factors. We find important differences between the results for different health indicators, with strongest homogamy correlations observed for adiposity, followed by blood pressure, heart rate, inflammatory markers and cholesterol, and also self-assessed general health and functional difficulties. We find no evidence of a "dose-response relationship" for marriage duration, and show that this suggests - perhaps counterintuitively - that shared lifestyle factors and homogamous partner selection make roughly equal contributions to the concordance we observe in most of the health measures we examine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Profiles for Endometriosis in Japanese Women: Results From a Repeated Survey of Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Nagai, Kazue; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kubota, Toshiro; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors for endometriosis may differ according to diagnosis methodologies, such as study populations and diagnostic accuracy. We examined risk profiles in imaging-diagnosed endometriosis with and without surgical confirmation in a large population of Japanese women, as well as the differences in risk profiles of endometriosis based on history of infertility. Methods Questionnaires that included items on sites of endometriosis determined by imaging techniques and surgical procedure were mailed to 1025 women who self-reported endometriosis in a baseline survey of the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (n = 15 019). Results Two hundred and ten women had surgically confirmed endometriosis (Group A), 120 had imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without a surgical procedure (Group B), and 264 had adenomyosis (Group C). A short menstrual cycle at 18–22 years of age and cigarette smoking at 30 years of age were associated with significantly increased risk of endometriosis (Group A plus Group B), while older age was associated with risk of adenomyosis (Group C). In women with a history of infertility, a short menstrual cycle was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometriosis in both Group A and Group B, but risk profiles of endometriosis were different between Group A and Group B in women without a history of infertility. Conclusions Women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and those with imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without surgery have basically common risk profiles, but these risk profiles are different from those with adenomyosis. The presence of a history of infertility should be taken into consideration for evaluation of risk profiles. PMID:25716280

  11. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  12. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  13. Self-reported patient safety competence among Canadian medical students and postgraduate trainees: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Ginsburg, Liane; Goldstein, David H

    2015-02-01

    Quality and patient safety (PS) are critical components of medical education. This study reports on the self-reported PS competence of medical students and postgraduate trainees. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered to medical students and postgraduate trainees in January 2012. PS dimension scores were compared across learning settings (classroom and clinical) and year in programme. Sixty-three percent (255/406) of medical students and 32% (141/436) of postgraduate trainees responded. In general, both groups were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills (eg, hand hygiene) and least confident in learning about sociocultural aspects of safety (eg, understanding human factors). Medical students' confidence in most aspects of safety improved with years of training. For some of the more intangible dimensions (teamwork and culture), medical students in their final year had lower scores than students in earlier years. Thirty-eight percent of medical students felt they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, and the majority of medical students (85%) and postgraduate trainees (78%) agreed it was difficult to question authority. Our results suggest the need to improve the overall content, structure and integration of PS concepts in both classroom and clinical learning environments. Decreased confidence in sociocultural aspects of PS among medical students in the final year of training may indicate that culture in clinical settings negatively affects students' perceived PS competence. Alternatively, as medical students spend more time in the clinical setting, they may develop a clearer sense of what they do not know. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. Methods We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002–04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Results Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for “poor” or “very poor” self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for “severe” or “extreme” on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and

  15. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Verdes, Emese; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-07-30

    While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002-04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for "poor" or "very poor" self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for "severe" or "extreme" on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and gender characteristics of the society. Large female-male differences in self-reported

  16. Self-reported health status of older adults in Malaysia and Singapore: evidence from the 2007 Global Ageing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafiz T. A.; Flynn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of self-reported health (SRH) among older adults in Malaysia and Singapore. The study uses data collected in the Global Ageing Study (GLAS) 2007, one of the largest surveys of its kind, specially designed to investigate attitudes towards later life, ageing and retirement. Data were collected from 1002 and 1004 respondents from Malaysia and Singapore respectively. The study found that Singaporeans report a healthier life than Malaysians. T...

  17. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, Aids

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting.

  19. The relationship between workplace learning and midwives' and nurses' self-reported competence: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Masako; Sato, Yoko; Niitani, Mayumi; Uemura, Chizuru

    2015-12-01

    Nurses have to maintain and improve their nursing competence in order to provide the best patient care possible. Workplace learning has the potential to improve nursing competence. Previous studies have examined the effect of training on competence development. However, the effects of other aspects of learning, such as learning from practice, feedback, reflection, and from others have not been investigated previously. Furthermore, it is uncertain what methods of learning nurses with different clinical experience adopt and how these learning methods relate to their self-reported competence. The objectives of this study were to identify the methods of learning used by less and more experienced nurses, and to explore what methods of workplace learning would be associated with the self-reported competence of both groups of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was utilised. The study was conducted at two university-affiliated hospitals in Japan. A convenience sample of 954 nurses/midwives (hereafter referred to as nurses), who were involved in direct patient care, were recruited and 494 nurses returned usable questionnaires. A survey method was used to collect data. The Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, the Learning Experience Scale and the Japanese version of Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, along with demographic questions, were included in the questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between learning and nurses' self-evaluation of competence. This analysis was carried out for less experienced nurses (≤5 years of clinical experience) and experienced nurses (>5 years of experience). The results showed that learning was correlated with the levels of competence that nurses considered they had. When the specific types of learning were examined in relation to self-reported competence, there were a similarity and differences between less and more experienced nurses. For both groups of nurses, learning through

  20. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  1. Accuracy of self-reported survey data on assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; McLain, Alexander C; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Luke, Barbara; Yeung, Edwina H

    2016-08-01

    It is unknown whether data obtained from maternal self-report for assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history are accurate for use in research studies. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported in assisted reproductive technology treatment and reproductive history from the Upstate KIDS study in comparison with clinical data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. Upstate KIDS maternal questionnaire data from deliveries between 2008 and 2010 were linked to data reported to Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. The 617 index deliveries were compared as to treatment type (frozen embryo transfer and donor egg or sperm) and use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching. Use of injectable medications, self-report for assisted reproductive technology, or frozen embryo transfer prior to the index deliveries were also compared. We report agreement in which both sources had yes or both no and sensitivity of maternal report using Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System as the gold standard. Significance was determined using χ(2) at P < 0.05. Universal agreement was not reached on any parameter but was best for treatment type of frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 96%; sensitivity, 93%) and use of donor eggs (agreement, 97%; sensitivity, 82%) or sperm (agreement, 98%; sensitivity, 82%). Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (agreement, 78%: sensitivity, 78%) and assisted hatching (agreement, 57%; sensitivity, 38%) agreed less well with self-reported use (P < .0001). In vitro fertilization (agreement, 82%) and frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 90%) prior to the index delivery were more consistently reported than was use of injectable medication (agreement, 76%) (P < .0001). Women accurately report in vitro fertilization treatment but are less accurate about procedures handled in the

  2. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

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    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  3. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Objective The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item’s susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. Methods A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. Results When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression

  4. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-09-26

    Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item's susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression analysis showed respondents who were male

  5. Prevalence, correlates, and description of self-reported diabetes in brazilian capitals - results from a telephone survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betine Pinto Moehlecke Iser

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases.We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases, a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥ 18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population.The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9-6.7, increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90% reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8% of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6% reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication.The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals.

  6. Prevalence, correlates, and description of self-reported diabetes in brazilian capitals - results from a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; de Moura, Lenildo; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases. We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases), a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥ 18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9-6.7), increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90%) reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8%) of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6%) reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication. The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals.

  7. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

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    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  8. Meal context and food preferences in cancer patients: results from a French self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdoux-Ninot, Estelle; Kilgour, Robert D; Janiszewski, Chloé; Jarlier, Marta; Meuric, Jocelyne; Poirée, Brigitte; Buzzo, Solange; Ninot, Grégory; Courraud, Julie; Wismer, Wendy; Thezenas, Simon; Senesse, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined patient self-reports of descriptions, experiences and consequences of meal disturbances and food preferences within a cultural context (i.e., French meal traditions) in various treated cancer patients along their disease trajectory. Over 800 questionnaires were sent to 20 cancer treatment centres in France. During a 9-month period, 255 questionnaires were received from five centres. Inclusion criteria included those French patients over 18 years of age, could read and understand French, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score between 0 and 2, experienced treatment-induced nutrition changes and/or had decreased oral intake. Dietetic staff assessed clinical characteristics while patients completed a 17-item questionnaire. The majority of patients were diagnosed with breast, gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and head and neck cancers (62 %). Half of the patients (49 %) experienced weight loss >5 %. The main treatment-induced side effects were fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, hypersensitivity to odors and GI tract transit disorders. These discomforts affected eating and drinking in 83 % of patients, inducing appetite loss and selected food aversion. Food preference appeared heterogeneous. Food taste, odor and finally appearance stimulated appetite. Finally, dietary behaviors and satisfaction were driven by the extent to which food was enjoyed. During oncologic treatments, eating and drinking were affected in more than three-quarters of patients. As recommended by practice guidelines, nutritional assessment and follow-up are required. Personalized nutritional counseling should include the role of the family, patient's meal traditions, and food habits.

  9. Self-reported well-being and associated factors among industrial workers in Brazil: findings from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Ginar da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate self-perception of well-being and associated factors among industrial workers in Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a representative sample from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Self-reported of well-being was investigated by questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. For 93% of the 47,477 industrial workers, the perception of well-being was positive. Those who had the highest chances of being in the category of best perception of well-being were: male workers (OR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.28; 1.43; those aged under thirty years old (OR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.12; 1.39; those from Southern Brazil (OR = 1.99; 95%CI: 1.83; 2.16; and people with a high income. The prevalence of positive well-being was high. Sociodemographic, behavioral and social support characteristics, as well as the characteristics related to self-report on health were associated with well-being.

  10. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances in a US nationally representative survey: Prevalence, correlates, and a call for new survey methods to prevent underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Martins, Silvia S; Su, Mark K; Ompad, Danielle C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the US and worldwide. However, there is little published epidemiological survey data estimating the prevalence of use in the US. Data on self-reported NPS use came from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2009-2013), a national representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals in the US. Subjects were asked to provide names of (non-traditional) drugs they used that they were not specifically asked about. We examined lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported use of new and uncommon synthetic drugs (NPS) among subjects ages 12-34-years-old. 1.2% of subjects self-reported any use of the 57 NPS we examined. Use of psychedelic tryptamines (primarily DMT) was most common, followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C series) and synthetic cannabinoids. Prevalence of self-reported use of NPS increased from 2009 to 2013 and use was most common among males, whites, older subjects, those of lower income, and among those residing in cities. Lifetime use of various other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA) was highly prevalent among NPS users. This the first study reporting on use of a variety of NPS in a nationally representative US sample; however, use appears to be underreported as other national data suggest higher rates of NPS (e.g., synthetic cannabinoid) use. Developing more adaptable survey tools and systematically assessing NPS use would allow researchers to ask about hundreds of NPS and improve reporting as new drugs continue to rapidly emerge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrepancies between self-reported smoking and carboxyhemoglobin: an analysis of the second national health and nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, L M; Klesges, R C; Cigrang, J A

    1992-01-01

    Environmental, self-report, and demographic factors mediated the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and carboxyhemoglobin among 2114 smokers and 3918 nonsmokers. Self-reported nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels between 2% and 3% were more likely to be self-reported ex-smokers, to live in a larger community, and to be younger, less educated, and male than were self-reported nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels of less than 2%. Self-reported nonsmokers with strong evidence of cigarette consumption (carboxyhemoglobin level greater than 3%) were more likely to be self-reported ex-smokers, younger, less educated, and non-White than were nonsmokers with carboxyhemoglobin levels of less than 2%. PMID:1609905

  12. Family physician's knowledge, beliefs, and self-reported practice patterns regarding hyperlipidemia: a National Research Network (NRN) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Charles B; Galliher, James M; McBride, Patrick E; Bonham, Aaron J; Kappus, Jennifer A; Hickner, John

    2006-01-01

    Family physicians have the potential to make a major impact on reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease through the optimal assessment and management of hyperlipidemia. We were interested in assessing the knowledge, beliefs, and self-reported practice patterns of a representative sample of family physicians regarding the assessment and management of hyperlipidemia 2 years after the release of the evidence-based National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. A 33-item survey was mailed to a random sample (N = 1200) of members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in April of 2004, with 2 follow-up mailings to nonresponders. Physicians were queried about sociodemographic characteristics, their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practice patterns regarding the assessment and management of hyperlipidemia. Four case scenarios also were presented. Response rate was 58%. Over 90% of surveyed family physicians screened adults for hyperlipidemia as part of a cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. Most (89%) did this screening by themselves without the support of office staff, and 36% reported routine use of a flow sheet. Most had heard of the ATP III guidelines (85%), but only 13% had read them carefully. Only 17% of respondents used a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculator usually or always. Over 90% of those responding reported using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as the treatment goal but only 76% reported using non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a secondary goal of therapy. We found a large variability in knowledge, beliefs, and practice patterns among practicing family physicians. We found general agreement on universal screening of adults for hyperlipidemia as part of cardiovascular disease prevention strategy and use of LDL cholesterol as a treatment goal. Many other aspects of the NCEP ATP III guidelines, such as use of a systematic, multidisciplinary approach, using non

  13. Validity of Self-reported Healthcare Utilization Data in the Community Health Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Hwayoung; Lee, Kunsei; Chang, Sounghoon; Hovell, Melbourne F; Kim, Young-Taek; Kim, Yuna; Kang, Gilwon; Tak, Yangju; Im, Jeehye

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Community Health Survey (CHS), we analyzed data from 11,217 participants aged ≥ 19 yr, in 13 cities and counties in 2008. Three healthcare utilization indices (admission, outpatient visits, dental visits) as comparative variables and the insurance benefit claim data of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service as the gold-standard were used. The sensitivities of admission, outpatient visits, and dental visits in CHS were 54.8%, 52.1%, and 61.0%, respectively. The specificities were 96.4%, 85.6%, and 82.7%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate the validity of nationwide health statistics resulting from questionnaire surveys and shows that CHS needs a lot of efforts to reflect the true health status, health behavior, and healthcare utilization of the population. PMID:22065895

  14. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...

  15. Healthcare experiences of gender diverse Australians: a mixed-methods, self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W; Coleman, Katrina; Due, Clemence

    2014-03-06

    To date the healthcare experiences of gender diverse Australians have received little attention. Previous international research indicates a range of both negative and positive healthcare experiences amongst this diverse population, with negative experiences being those most frequently reported. An online survey was designed to examine the healthcare experiences of gender diverse Australians. The survey included Likert scales asking participants to rate their mental and physical health, and their experiences with psychiatrists, general practitioners and surgeons (in terms of perceived comfort, discrimination and information provision). Open-ended questions provided the opportunity for participants to further elaborate on their experiences. Data were collected between June 2012 and July 2013. Quantitative data analysis was conducted utilising SPSS 17.0, including ANCOVAs and correlations to examine the relationships between variables. Qualitative data were coded by the authors in terms of negative or positive responses and the validity of ratings were assessed utilising Cohen's kappa. 110 people assigned male at birth (MAAB) and 78 people assigned female at birth (FAAB) completed two separate surveys. All identified as gender diverse as defined in this paper. 70% of participants had accessed a psychiatrist. Participants MAAB rated their experiences with psychiatrists more highly than participants FAAB. 80% of participants had accessed a general practitioner. Comfort with, and respect from, general practitioners were both positively correlated with mental health, whilst discrimination was negatively correlated with mental health. 42.5% of participants had undertaken sex-affirming surgery. Those who had such surgery reported higher levels of physical and mental health than those who had not undertaken surgery. Participants MAAB reported more positive experiences of surgery than did participants FAAB. Findings highlight the need for increased education of medical

  16. Self-reported practices among traditional birth attendants surveyed in western Kenya: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Sherri; Konana, Olive; Liechty, Edward; Garces, Ana; Gisore, Peter; Marete, Irene; Tenge, Constance; Shipala, Evelyn; Wright, Linda; Esamai, Fabian

    2016-08-12

    The high rate of home deliveries conducted by unskilled birth attendants in resource-limited settings is an important global health issue because it is believed to be a significant contributing factor to maternal and newborn mortality. Given the large number of deliveries that are managed by unskilled or traditional birth attendants outside of health facilities, and the fact that there is on-going discussion regarding the role of traditional birth attendants in the maternal newborn health (MNH) service continuum, we sought to ascertain the practices of traditional birth attendants in our catchment area. The findings of this descriptive study might help inform conversations regarding the roles that traditional birth attendants can play in maternal-newborn health care. A structured questionnaire was used in a survey that included one hundred unskilled birth attendants in western Kenya. Descriptive statistics were employed. Inappropriate or outdated practices were reported in relation to some obstetric complications and newborn care. Encouraging results were reported with regard to positive relationships that traditional birth attendants have with their local health facilities. Furthermore, high rates of referral to health facilities was reported for many common obstetric emergencies and similar rates for reporting of pregnancy outcomes to village elders and chiefs. Potentially harmful or outdated practices with regard to maternal and newborn care among traditional birth attendants in western Kenya were revealed by this study. There were high rates of traditional birth attendant referrals of pregnant mothers with obstetric complications to health facilities. Policy makers may consider re-educating and re-defining the roles and responsibilities of traditional birth attendants in maternal and neonatal health care based on the findings of this survey.

  17. Health-related quality of life and self-reported long-term conditions: a population-based survey

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    Ivan R. Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate and compare the effect of self-reported long-term health conditions and sociodemographic factors on perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods: A population-based survey of adults (18 to 65 years living in Brasilia, Brazil, was conducted in 2012. Descriptive and multivariate analyses using a Tobit model were performed with data on sociodemographic variables, self-reported conditions, and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D health states, providing utility scores (preferred health state between 0 and 1 for HRQoL estimates. Results: The mean utility of 1,820 adults interviewed (mean age: 38.4±12.6 years was 0.883 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.874-0.892, with 76.2% in the highest utility range (0.8 to 1.0. EQ-5D dimensions with moderate problems were pain/discomfort (33.8% and anxiety/depression (20.5%. Serious problems were reported by only 0.3% of the sample in the mobility and self-care domain and by 3.1% in the pain/discomfort domain. Multivariate analysis revealed reduced HRQoL in individuals with depression, diabetes, and hypertension. Living in satellite towns (outside the city core, belonging to a lower economic class, or not being formally employed were also associated with decreased HRQoL. Beta coefficients for these impacts ranged from -0.033 (not formally employed to -0.141 (depression, reflecting the strongest impact. Conclusion: Of the long-term health conditions studied, depression had the greatest impact on HRQoL. Social class, employment status, and place of residence also affected HRQoL.

  18. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

  19. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. Objective To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Methods A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. Results The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. Conclusion The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. PMID:27524887

  20. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanandy P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Sivanandy,1 Mari Kannan Maharajan,1 Kingston Rajiah,1 Tan Tyng Wei,2 Tan Wee Loon,2 Lim Chong Yee2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.Objective: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.Methods: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.Results: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.Conclusion: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. Keywords

  1. Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  2. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  3. Exploring Online Students' Self-Regulated Learning with Self-Reported Surveys and Log Files: A Data Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Yoo, Jin Soung

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers who are interested in studying students' online self-regulated learning (SRL) have heavily relied on self-reported surveys. Data mining is an alternative technique that can be used to discover students' SRL patterns from large data logs saved on a course management system. The purpose of this study was to identify students' online…

  4. Assessing the risk of self-diagnosed malaria in urban informal settlements of Nairobi using self-reported morbidity survey

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    Mugisha Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the belief that Nairobi is a low risk zone for malaria, little empirical data exists on malaria risk in the area. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of perceived malaria and some associated factors in Nairobi informal settlements using self-reported morbidity survey. Methods The survey was conducted from May to August 2004 on 7,288 individuals in two informal settlements of Nairobi. Participants were asked to report illnesses they experienced in the past 14 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of perceived-malaria. The model included variables such as site of residence, age, ethnicity and number of reported symptoms. Results Participants reported 165 illnesses among which malaria was the leading cause (28.1%. The risk of perceived-malaria was significantly higher in Viwandani compared to Korogocho (OR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.10–2.26. Participants in age group 25–39 years had significantly higher odds of perceived-malaria compared to those under-five years (OR 2.07, 95%CI: 1.43–2.98. The Kikuyu had reduced odds of perceived-malaria compared to other ethnic groups. Individuals with five and more symptoms had higher odds compared to those with no symptoms (OR 23.69, 95%CI: 12.98–43.23. Conclusion Malaria was the leading cause of illness as perceived by the residents in the two informal settlements. This was rational as the number of reported symptoms was highly associated with the risk of reporting the illness. These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive assessment of malaria epidemiology in Nairobi to be able to offer evidence-based guidance to policy on malaria in Kenya and particularly in Nairobi.

  5. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

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    Somes Grant W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65% was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25% were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009 even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4. Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for

  6. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I

    2011-09-23

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic

  7. Automation of Survey Data Processing, Documentation and Dissemination: An Application to Large-Scale Self-Reported Educational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunjae; Shim, Minsuk K.; Felner, Robert D.

    Automation of the survey process has proved successful in many industries, yet it is still underused in educational research. This is largely due to the facts (1) that number crunching is usually carried out using software that was developed before information technology existed, and (2) that the educational research is to a great extent trapped…

  8. Relationship of self-liking, self-competence with self-reported oral health status among 15-year-old children of Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey

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    Anjan Giriraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological constructs have been found to have potential effects in the improvement of health. Self-esteem (expressed in the form of sub-constructs: Self-liking and self-competence is a construct, which makes one realize the self. This in turn will result in positive oral-health-seeking behavior and improvement in oral health status. Aim: To assess the relationship of self-liking, self-competence with self-reported oral health status in children aged 15 years, in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted on 220 15-year-old subjects in Davangere City. Specially designed pro forma containing Romanian self-administered questionnaire to record the self-reported oral health status and Tafarodi's SLC scale to measure self-liking/self-competence was used. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A majority of the participants were found to have moderate self-competence and self-liking and their self-reported oral health status was expressed as "excellent." They reported very less or no untreated decayed teeth and no extracted teeth or gingival bleeding. Conclusion: The participants with better self-competence and self-liking perceived their oral health status as good. They reported lesser incidence of oral diseases and discomfort. Self-esteem and oral health were found to be positively related.

  9. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

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    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  10. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  11. An internet survey on self-reported food allergy in Greece: clinical aspects and lack of appropriate medical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M P; Chliva, C; Sergentanis, T N; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Psaltopoulou, T

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy (FA) represents a common and worldwide disorder but in publications referring to FA the reported diagnosis is rarely confirmed. Consequently, the subjectively assessed FA may negatively affect the quality of life of patients and their families. We have conducted this internet survey in order to estimate the self-reported perception of FA in Greece. A standard anonymous questionnaire was posted for a 3-month period on http://www.in.gr, a Greek popular Internet portal. Each individual could participate only once. Participants were screened for the presence or history of FA by a key question and were then asked to provide information on symptoms, course and management. A total of 3673 adult subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 18-74, females 61.3%), reporting FA were included in analysis. Most reported reactions were related to fruits (14.9%), seafood (10.7%) and nuts (9.2%). The first episode occurred principally during the second (29.2%) and third (30.9%) decade within 3 h from consumption (82.2%). Predominant symptoms were urticaria and oral allergy syndrome (almost 25% each one). Nearly half of the participants sought no medical advice, while 31.4% asked for an allergist's consultation. Almost 21% of reactors were hospitalized; nuts, severity of symptoms (lower respiratory and/or cardiovascular), onset in lower age, previous exercise and concomitant alcohol and/or aspirin intake were positively associated with hospitalization. Although FA causes severe anaphylactic episodes, almost 50% of individuals who experience symptoms perceived as FA do not seek medical advice. Awareness programmes must be carried out in order to increase consciousness about this potentially fatal medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pontes, Halley M.; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18–29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. PMID:28425777

  13. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  14. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D; Pontes, Halley M; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.

  15. Prevalence and Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Self-Reported Asthma: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Seven Chinese Cities

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    Qing-Ling Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. Results: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person (p < 0.05. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and smoking, we found independent occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07–4.89, occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43–7.30, having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20–5.69 and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26–5.57. Conclusions: Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.

  16. Prevalence and Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Self-Reported Asthma: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Seven Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Ling; Du, Yue; Xu, Geng; Zhang, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Dong-Dong; Lv, Wei; Liu, Shi-Xi; Li, Pei-Zhong; Shi, Jian-Bo; Ou, Chun-Quan

    2016-11-04

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person ( p occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07-4.89), occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43-7.30), having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20-5.69) and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26-5.57). Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.

  17. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  18. Survey mode matters: adults' self-reported statistical confidence, ability to obtain health information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Chisolm, Deena J; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    This study examined adults' self-reported understanding and formatting preferences of medical statistics, confidence in self-care and ability to obtain health advice or information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication measured through dual survey modes (random digital dial and mail). Even while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, significant differences in regard to adults' responses to survey variables emerged as a function of survey mode. While the analyses do not allow us to pinpoint the underlying causes of the differences observed, they do suggest that mode of administration should be carefully adjusted for and considered.

  19. Comparison of the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index and a self-report format of the self-administered Lequesne-Algofunctional index in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Sangha, O; Stucki, S; Michel, B A; Tyndall, A; Dick, W; Theiler, R

    1998-03-01

    To compare the metric properties and validity of German versions of the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) and a self-administered questionnaire-format of the Lequesne-Algofunctional-Index in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower extremities. Cross-sectional analysis of the instruments' internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alpha) and construct validity (correlation with radiological OA-severity and limitation in range-of-motion) in ambulatory patients and patients before hip arthroplasty. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a subsample after 10 days. Data from 51 patients out of 91 contacted could be analyzed. Twenty-nine patients had knee and 22 patients had hip OA. Both the WOMAC and Lequesne OA-indices and their scales or sections had a satisfactory test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient 0.43-0.96). All scales of the WOMAC were internally consistent (Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.81-0.96) and associated with radiological OA-severity and joint range of motion. However, only the function but not the symptom sections (Cronbach's coefficient alpha knee: 0.55; hip: 0.63) of the self-administered Lequesne OA index were internally consistent for both, patients with knee and hip OA. Also, the symptom components were not or only weakly associated with radiological OA-severity and joint range of motion. Although our results are based on a German version using a self-report format we may caution using the self-administered Lequesne OA index without prior testing of its metric properties and validity.

  20. Convergence of self-reports and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior: a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jan; Peeters, Maria C W

    2009-05-01

    Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's behaviors. Theoretical framework is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model, which proposes in general that specific job resources should match specific job demands to reduce deviant behavioral outcomes such as CWB. To test the extent to which job incumbent self-report and coworker report of CWB in health care work converge, and the extent to which job incumbent-reported work-related antecedents (i.e., job demands and job resources) similarly predict both self-reported and coworker-reported behaviors (in line with DISC theory). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted, using data from two different sources (self-reports and coworker reports). A large organization for residential elderly care in the Northern urban area in The Netherlands. Self-report and coworker questionnaires were distributed to 123 health care workers, of which 73 people returned the self-report questionnaire (59% response rate). In addition, 66 out of 123 coworker questionnaires were returned (54% coworker response rate). In total 54 surveys of job incumbents and coworkers could be matched. Next to descriptive statistics, t-test, and correlations, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Correlations and a t-test demonstrated significant convergence between job incumbent and coworker reports of CWB. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both job incumbent and coworker data consistently demonstrated CWB to be related to its work-related antecedents. Specifically, findings showed that both physical and emotional job resources moderated the relation between physical job demands and CWB. The current findings provide stronger evidence

  1. Body Mass Index and Rural Status on Self-Reported Health in Older Adults: 2004-2013 Medicare Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain whether rural status impacts self-reported health and whether the effect of rural status on self-reported health differs by obesity status. We identified 22,307 subjects aged ≥60 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2013. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-12 assessed self-reported health status. Rural/urban status was defined using metropolitan statistical area. Weighted regression models ascertained the relative contribution of predictors (including rural and BMI) on each subscale. Mean age was 70.7 years. Rural settings had higher proportions classified as obese (30.7 vs 27.6%; P rural residents had lower physical health status (41.7 ± 0.3) than urban (43.4 ± 0.1; P rural/urban by BMI. Individuals classified as underweight or obese had lower physical health compared to normal, while the differences were less pronounced for mental health. No differences in mental health existed between rural/urban status. A BMI * rural interaction was significant for physical but not mental health. Rural residents report lower self-reported physical health status compared to urban residents, particularly older adults who are obese or underweight. No interaction was observed between BMI and rural status. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  3. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy

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    Mammina Caterina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

  5. Sociodemographic Correlates of Sexlessness Among American Adults and Associations with Self-Reported Happiness Levels: Evidence from the U.S. General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Tam, Wilson S; Muennig, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Although sexual activity is commonly believed to be a key component of emotional well-being, little is known about the factors associated with the absence of sexual activity or its associations with self-reported happiness. Using the U.S. General Social Survey-National Death Index 2008 dataset, a series of nationally representative surveys (1988-2002), this study analyzed the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with past-year sexlessness and self-reported happiness among American adults (n = 17,744). After adjustment for marital status, there were no significant time trends evident in the proportion of American adults reporting past-year sexlessness. Among participants (age = 18-89 years), 15.2% of males and 26.7% of females reported past-year sexlessness while 8.7% of males and 17.5% of females reported no sex for 5 years or more. For both genders, past-year sexlessness was most strongly associated with older age and being currently non-married in the multivariable models. Among males, the multivariable analysis also showed that sexlessness was associated with providing less than 20% of the household income (OR 2.27). In female participants, sexlessness was associated with very low income, poor health, lower financial satisfaction, absence of children, and having conservative sexual attitudes (OR 1.46-3.60). For both genders, Black race was associated with a much lower likelihood of sexlessness among currently non-married adults. The purported detrimental impact of sexlessness on self-reported happiness levels was not evident in this large, nationally representative study after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Sexless Americans reported very similar happiness levels as their sexually active counterparts.

  6. Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey

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    Talala Kirsi M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-sectional survey “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population” (AVTK, from the years 1979 to 2002, divided into five study periods. Indicators for socio-economic status included employment status from the survey, and educational level and household income from the Statistics Finland register data. We studied the age group of 25–64 years (N = 70115; average annual response rate 75%. Outcome measures were single questions of self-reported insomnia and stress. Results The overall prevalence of insomnia was 18-19% and that of stress 16-19%. Compared to the first study period, 1979–1982, the prevalence of stress increased until study period 1993–1997. The prevalence of insomnia increased during the last study period, 1998–2002. Respondents who were unemployed or had retired early reported more insomnia and stress over time among both men and women. Lower education was associated with more insomnia especially among men; and conversely, with less stress among both sexes. Compared to the highest household income level, those in the intermediate levels of income had less stress whereas those in the lowest income levels had more stress among both sexes. Income level differences in insomnia were less consistent. In general, socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress fluctuated some, but did not change substantially over the study period 1979–2002. Conclusions Self-reported insomnia and stress were more common during later study periods. The

  7. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

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    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  8. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreis Irene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration

  9. Are Indigenous Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported Health Professional-Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders Among Canadian First Nations Adults?: Findings from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Brar, Ramanpreet; Brar, Samanpreet; Maltby, Alana; Wilk, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed anxiety disorders among Canadian First Nations adults living off-reserve, and assessed the relationship between anxiety disorders and Indigenous determinants of health (Status Indian, residential school attendance, knowledge of Indigenous language, and participation in traditional activities) using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed using bootstrap weights. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 14.5% among off-reserve First Nations adults. There was an increased odds of anxiety disorders among those participating in traditional activities compared to their counterparts (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.90). No association was found between anxiety disorders and other Indigenous determinants of health. There is a high prevalence of self-reported anxiety among First Nations adults living off-reserve. However, further studies are warranted to identify and assess the role of Indigenous determinants of health for anxiety disorders and other prevalent mental health conditions in this population.

  10. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Risk of self-reported Chlamydia trachomatis infection by social and lifestyle factors: a study based on survey data from young adults in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogan, Charlotte; Cnattingius, Sven; Månsdotter, Anna

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the associations between demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, and the risk of self-reported chlamydial infection among young adults (20-29 years old) in Stockholm, Sweden. This study was based on the Stockholm Public Health Survey of 2006 (N = 4278). Demographic factors (gender, age, and country of birth), socio-economic factors (individual and parental educational levels, individual income level, and employment status), and lifestyle factors (body mass index, mental health, alcohol consumption, and partnership status) were taken into account. Possible associations were analysed by logistic regression. The risk of self-reported chlamydial infection decreases with age, is higher among individuals both who personally, and whose parents, were educated to high school level compared to university level education, and is higher among those employed, unemployed or on sick-leave/pre-retired compared to students. The risk of chlamydial infection is also higher among subjects who report greater alcohol consumption, and those who live without a partner. After considering demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, the associations with age, educational level, employment status and alcohol consumption are strong and statistically significant. Indicators of risk-taking behaviours, especially in settings with generally little educational ambition or options, should be incorporated in the design of STI prevention strategies.

  12. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  13. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

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    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  14. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

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    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  15. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2001-2010 - a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet) meta-analysis. For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-3.01), but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14-1.65). Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60-1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60-4.09) than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77-2.27). Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61-1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57-2.46, respectively. Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4):435-445. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  17. Self-reported occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Franco, Marco da Silveira; Santos, Flavia Vinhaes; Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

    2017-01-01

    to provide an overview of occupational accidents among Brazil's adult population. descriptive study using data from the 2013 National Health Survey. A total of 4.9 million workers mentioned having suffered some kind of work-related accident, which is equivalent to 3.4% (CI95% 4.6-5.6) of Brazil's adult population. Prevalence rates were higher among men, young adults aged between 18 and 39 years, and black people and in the North Region of the country. Prevalence was highest in the State of Para and lowest in the State of Rio de Janeiro State. Around one third of all accidents were commuting accidents, 50.4% (CI95% 45.3-55.5) of people who had suffered an occupational accident were prevented from carrying out some kind of routine activity due to the accident, 8.8% (CI95% 6.4-11.2) were hospitalized and 19% (CI95% 15.3-22.7) had sequelae resulting from occupational accidents. the data provided by the National Health Survey comprises an unprecedented and invaluable source of information on these issues in Brazil. The results of the survey confirm that occupational accidents are underreported, since official figures do not cover individuals working in the informal sector.

  18. Use of complementary and alternative therapies by patients with self-reported chronic back pain: a nationwide survey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Violaine; St Pierre, Yvan; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Rossignol, Michel; Bourgeois, Pierre; Joseph, Lawrence; Adam, Viviane; Penrod, John R; Clarke, Ann E; Fautrel, Bruno

    2005-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is gaining popularity among patients with chronic back pain. We looked for factors associated with CAM use. The data came from the cross-sectional household component of the 1996-1997 National Population Health Survey on the health status and behaviors of Canadians. The sample comprising 66.999 individuals aged 20 years or older represented 21 million adults. Cross tabulations were used to estimate the percentage of CAM use among adults with chronic back pain. Factors independently associated with CAM use during the year before the surveys were identified using multiple logistic regression. CAM use was highest in the subgroup of Canadian adults reporting chronic back pain (39.07%). CAM use was associated with younger age, being married, having a higher level of education, and earning a higher income. Overall, the CAM users reported less pain, greater analgesic use, more depression, and more co-morbidities. In addition to CAM, these patients used conventional medical services. Our results show that patients with chronic back pain who use CAM are more active, more involved in social life, and healthier, suggesting better management of their condition. They use CAM in addition to, rather than instead of, conventional care. CAM use in these patients may be ascribable to dissatisfaction with mainstream physicians.

  19. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: A survey of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2017-06-01

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls (i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth) was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  20. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and onset of self-reported peptic ulcer in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M.; Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Hu, Chiyi; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Khalaf, Mohammad Salih; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent research demonstrating concurrent associations between mental disorders and peptic ulcers has renewed interest in links between psychological factors and ulcers. However, little is known about associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Nor has the potentially confounding role of childhood adversities been explored. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a wide range of temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent onset of ulcer, without and with adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and childhood adversities. Methods Face-to-face household surveys conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,096,486).The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Peptic ulcer onset was assessed in the same interview by self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent ulcer onset. Results After comorbidity and sociodemographic adjustment, depression, social phobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, alcohol and drug abuse disorders were significantly associated with ulcer onset (ORs 1.3-1.6). Increasing number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with ulcer onset in a dose-response fashion. These associations were only slightly attenuated by adjustment for childhood adversities. Conclusions A wide range of mental disorders were linked with the self-report of subsequent peptic ulcer onset. These associations require confirmation in prospective designs, but are suggestive of a role for mental disorders in contributing to ulcer vulnerability, possibly through abnormalities in the physiological stress response associated with mental disorders. PMID:23915767

  2. Self-reported competence, attitude and approach of physicians towards patients with dementia in ambulatory care: Results of a postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bussche Hendrik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caring for patients with dementia is a demanding task. Little is known as to whether physicians feel competent enough to perform this task or whether a lack of self-perceived competence influences attitudes and professional approach. Even less is known with respect to potential differences between general practitioners (GPs and specialists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between the self-perceived competence, attitude and professional approach of physicians in ambulatory care in Germany. A further aim was to compare GPs and specialists with regard to differences in these areas. Methods A standardised postal survey was sent to 389 GPs and 239 neurologists and psychiatrists in six metropolitan areas in Germany. The 49-item questionnaire consisted of attitudinal statements to be rated on a Likert-type scale. Return rates were 54 percent for GPs and 40 percent for specialists. Statistical methods used to analyze data included correlation analysis, cluster analysis and ordinal regression analysis. Results No differences were found between GPs and specialists with regard to their general attitude towards caring for patients with dementia. Approximately 15 percent of both disciplines showed a clearly negative attitude. Self-reported competence was strongly associated with general attitude. In particular among GPs, and less so among specialists, a strong positive association was found between self-reported competence, general attitude and professional approach (e.g. early detection, active case finding and cooperation with caregivers. Differences between GPs and specialists were smaller than expected and appear to predominantly reflect task differences within the German health care system. Conclusion Training opportunities which enable in particular GPs to enhance not only their competence but also their general attitude towards dementia care would appear to be beneficial and might carry positive

  3. A survey of mindset theories of intelligence and medical error self-reporting among pediatric housestaff and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathesan, Mithila; Vitberg, Yaffa M; Pusic, Martin V

    2016-02-11

    Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting.  We sent an anonymous electronic survey to pediatric residents and attending pediatricians at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Respondents completed the "Theories of Intelligence Inventory" which classifies individuals on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (Fixed Mindset) to 6 (Growth Mindset). Subsequent questions collected data on respondents' recall of medical errors by self or others. We received 176/349 responses (50 %). Participants were equally distributed between mindsets with 84 (49 %) classified as "fixed" and 86 (51 %) as "growth". Residents, fellows and attendings did not differ in terms of mindset. Mindset did not correlate with the small number of reported medical errors. There is no dominant theory of intelligence (mindset) amongst pediatric physicians. The distribution is similar to that seen in the general population. Mindset did not correlate with error reports.

  4. Self-reported cardiac risks and interest in risk modification among volunteer firefighters: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Patrick; Ablah, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Coronary heart disease causes approximately 45% of firefighter deaths annually. Although firefighters have clinically significant cardiac risks, a paucity of research and data exists. To evaluate firefighters' cardiac risk factors as well as their motivation to resolve these risk factors. During a 3-month period, volunteer firefighters representing the 79 fire departments serving Nassau and Suffolk counties in Long Island, NY, were asked to complete a nonvalidated, 19-item questionnaire regarding their health habits, medical history, and demographics. A total of 730 surveys were returned among a potential study population of 20,590 volunteer firefighters. More than three-quarters of respondents met the criteria for being overweight or obese, and nearly 40% reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or both. Most respondents expressed at least some interest in attending a fire department-sponsored health lecture and participating in a fitness program. Firefighters expressed desire to learn more about risk factor modifications and have fire departments take a more active role in helping firefighters improve their health. The effectiveness of resources and intervention programs should be assessed.

  5. Teachers' Mastery Goals: Using a Self-Report Survey to Study the Relations between Teaching Practices and Students' Motivation for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2018-02-01

    Employing achievement goal theory (Ames Journal of Educational psychology, 84(3), 261-271, 1992), we explored science teachers' instruction and its relation to students' motivation for science learning and school culture. Based on the TARGETS framework (Patrick et al. The Elementary School Journal, 102(1), 35-58, 2001) and using data from 95 teachers, we developed a self-report survey assessing science teachers' usage of practices that emphasize mastery goals. We then used this survey and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses to study the relations between 35 science teachers' mastery goals in each of the TARGETS dimensions, the decline in their grade-level 5-8 students' ( N = 1.356) classroom and continuing motivation for science learning, and their schools' mastery goal structure. The findings suggest that adolescents' declining motivation for science learning results in part from a decreasing emphasis on mastery goals by schools and science teachers. Practices that relate to the nature of tasks and to student autonomy emerged as most strongly associated with adolescents' motivation and its decline with age.

  6. The problem of bias when nursing facility staff administer customer satisfaction surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodlewsky, R Tamara; Decker, Frederic H

    2002-10-01

    Customer satisfaction instruments are being used with increasing frequency to assess and monitor residents' assessments of quality of care in nursing facilities. There is no standard protocol, however, for how or by whom the instruments should be administered when anonymous, written responses are not feasible. Researchers often use outside interviewers to assess satisfaction, but cost considerations may limit the extent to which facilities are able to hire outside interviewers on a regular basis. This study was designed to investigate the existence and extent of any bias caused by staff administering customer satisfaction surveys. Customer satisfaction data were collected in 1998 from 265 residents in 21 nursing facilities in North Dakota. Half the residents in each facility were interviewed by staff members and the other half by outside consultants; scores were compared by interviewer type. In addition to a tabulation of raw scores, ordinary least-squares analysis with facility fixed effects was used to control for resident characteristics and unmeasured facility-level factors that could influence scores. Significant positive bias was found when staff members interviewed residents. The bias was not limited to questions directly affecting staff responsibilities but applied across all types of issues. The bias was robust under varying constructions of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. A uniform method of survey administration appears to be important if satisfaction data are to be used to compare facilities. Bias is an important factor that should be considered and weighed against the costs of obtaining outside interviewers when assessing customer satisfaction among long term care residents.

  7. Sleep disorders among French anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in public hospitals: a self-reported electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisa; Blasco, Valery; Antonini, François; Rey, Marc; Reydellet, Laurent; Harti, Karim; Nafati, Cyril; Albanèse, Jacques; Leone, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders can affect the health of physicians and patient outcomes. To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among French anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in a public hospital. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in French public hospitals. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to assess the degree of excessive daytime sleepiness. Among 1504 responders, 677 (45%) physicians reported sleep disorders. The independent factors associated with sleep disorders were reporting of sleep disorders [odds ratio (OR) 12.04, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) 8.89 to 16.46], sleep time less than 7 h (OR 8.86, 95% CI 6.50 to 12.20), work stress (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.83), stress at home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.53), anxiolytic use (OR 3.69, 95% CI 2.23 to 6.25), psychotropic drug use (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 11.52) and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.45). Six hundred and seventy-six (44%) responders reported excessive daytime sleepiness during their professional activity. The independent factors associated with excessive daytime sleepiness were female sex (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.34), tea consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.91), regular practice of nap (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.09), stress at home (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.68), more than four extended work shifts monthly (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.56) and sleep disorders (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.29). Reporting sleep disorder duration and a sleep time less than 7 h were the two major risk factors for sleep disorders. Female sex was the major risk factor for excessive daytime sleepiness. French anaesthesiologists did not report more sleep disorders than the general population, but their alertness is impaired by a factor of two.

  8. Self-reported competence in long term care provision for adult cancer survivors: A cross sectional survey of nursing and allied health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faithfull, S; Samuel, Carol; Lemanska, Agnieszka; Warnock, Clare; Greenfield, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survival is increasing as patients live longer with a cancer diagnosis. This success has implications for health service provision in that increasing numbers of adults who have received cancer therapy are requiring monitoring and long-term health care by a wide range of practitioners. Given these recent trends there is a need to explore staff perceptions and confidence in managing the consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment in cancer survivors to enhance an integrated cancer service delivery. This study examines the self-reported perceptions of competence in nurses and professionals allied to medicine providing survivorship services caring for adults after cancer treatment in both secondary and primary care. A cross sectional survey of the adult cancer workforce using a self-assessment tool for assessing confidence in providing long-term cancer patient management. This study was a health service evaluation. The study was conducted within the United Kingdom. Respondents were 618 health care professionals of these 368 were specialist adult cancer nurses in oncology and the community setting and 250 cancer allied health professionals. The survey tool was developed with experts in cancer management, nurses professionals allied to medicine such as physiotherapists and dieticians, educationalists, patient groups as well as health service managers. Competence was assessed in 4 domains clinical practice, symptom management, care co-ordination and proactive management. Perceptions of training needs were also ascertained. Data were collected using an Internet survey distributed through cancer services, community settings and professional institutions. In total 618 practitioners who responded were providing services for adults' 1-year post cancer therapy. Practitioners felt confident in managing psychosocial care and communicating with patients. Deficits in self-reported confidence were found in long-term medications management, care planning, long-term and

  9. Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Jamsek, Jan; Huckvale, Kit; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily P; Car, Josip

    2015-07-27

    Self-administered survey questionnaires are an important data collection tool in clinical practice, public health research and epidemiology. They are ideal for achieving a wide geographic coverage of the target population, dealing with sensitive topics and are less resource-intensive than other data collection methods. These survey questionnaires can be delivered electronically, which can maximise the scalability and speed of data collection while reducing cost. In recent years, the use of apps running on consumer smart devices (i.e., smartphones and tablets) for this purpose has received considerable attention. However, variation in the mode of delivering a survey questionnaire could affect the quality of the responses collected. To assess the impact that smartphone and tablet apps as a delivery mode have on the quality of survey questionnaire responses compared to any other alternative delivery mode: paper, laptop computer, tablet computer (manufactured before 2007), short message service (SMS) and plastic objects. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, IEEEXplore, Web of Science, CABI: CAB Abstracts, Current Contents Connect, ACM Digital, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Health Management Information Consortium, the Campbell Library and CENTRAL. We also searched registers of current and ongoing clinical trials such as ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We also searched the grey literature in OpenGrey, Mobile Active and ProQuest Dissertation & Theses. Lastly, we searched Google Scholar and the reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. We performed all searches up to 12 and 13 April 2015. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs), crossover trials and paired repeated measures studies that compared the electronic delivery of self-administered survey questionnaires via a smartphone or tablet app with any other delivery mode. We included data obtained from

  10. Convergence of self-reports and coworker-reports of counterproductive work behavior : a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Peeters, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's

  11. Heart disease attributed to occupational noise, vibration and other co-exposure: Self-reported population-based survey among Bulgarian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M. Dzhambov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main mortality cause worldwide. Noise and vibration are considered to be occupational risk factors, but little is known about their cardiovascular effects in Bulgaria in terms of gender and various professional groups. The aim of this study has been to investigate the risk of prevalent CVD, associated with occupational noise and vibration exposure. Material and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from 3 waves of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2001–2010 – a nationally-representative cross-sectional questionnaire survey covering 3149 workers aged ≥ 15 years in Bulgaria. Data on self-reported heart disease were linked to self-reported occupational noise and vibration, adjusting for other factors. Results from the 3 waves were pooled together using the inverse variance heterogeneity (IVhet meta-analysis. Results: For noise, the risk was elevated among women (relative risk (RR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53–3.01, but not men (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.14–1.65. Long-term workers had RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.60–1.69. For vibration, the risk was increased in all participants. It was higher among men (RR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.60–4.09 than it was among women (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.77–2.27. Among long-term, industrial, and service workers it was RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02–2.40; RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.61–1.98, and RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.57–2.46, respectively. Conclusions: Occupational vibration was a risk factor for prevalent heart disease in Bulgaria. Noise was an alleged risk factor only among long-term workers and women. Med Pr 2016;67(4:435–445

  12. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  13. Exposure to self-reported occupational noise and diabetes - A cross-sectional relationship in 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2017-06-19

    Almost nothing is known about the effect of occupational noise on diabetes, and this is particularly relevant given the wide spread of both noise exposure and diabetes. This study has aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Europe. This study is based on 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014) - a multi-country population-based questionnaire survey, which covered 28 221 Europeans aged ≥ 15 years old. Data on self-reported noise exposure, diabetes and other sociodemographic and work-related factors was available. The odds of prevalent diabetes were explored using unconditional logistic regression. In the total sample (N = 23 486), participants ever exposed to very loud noise had no substantive increase in the odds of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.32). There were subgroups with non-significantly increased odds: men (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87-1.45), the elderly (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91-1.31), ethnic minority members (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.62), those with secondary education (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.41) and those living in small cities/towns (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). Low-skilled white-collar workers had OR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64). Among participants employed during the preceding 5 years the odds were OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.61). Self-reported occupational noise was not associated with increased odds of prevalent diabetes in the total sample. Sensitivity analyses revealed some subgroups with non-significantly higher odds. Our results suggest that further delve into the relationship between occupational noise and diabetes is feasible and warranted. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):537-551. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  15. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  16. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  17. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation

  18. Factors associated with self-reported HBV vaccination among HIV-negative MSM participating in an online sexual health survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Matthews

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States remain unvaccinated against hepatitis B. We sought to understand which factors are associated with vaccination among HIV-negative MSM.Data were from a 2010 web-based survey of adult MSM. We calculated the prevalence of self-reported hepatitis B vaccination among 1,052 HIV-negative or HIV-untested men who knew their hepatitis B vaccination status, and used multivariate logistic regression to determine associated factors. 679 (64.5% MSM reported being vaccinated. Younger men were more likely to report being vaccinated than older men, and there was a significant interaction between age and history of hepatitis B testing. Men with at least some college education were at least 2.1 times as likely to be vaccinated as men with a high school education or less (95% CI = 1.4-3.1. Provider recommendation for vaccination (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.4-7.4 was also significantly associated with receipt of vaccination.Providers should assess sexual histories of male patients and offer those patients with male sex partners testing for hepatitis infection and vaccinate susceptible patients. There may be particular opportunities for screening and vaccination among older and more socioeconomically disadvantaged MSM.

  19. Self-reported influence of television-based direct-to-consumer advertising on patient seasonal allergy and asthma medication use: An internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Shields, Kelly M

    2008-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DDTCA) of medications, a marketing tool used by the pharmaceutical industry to increase patient awareness of products, affects both consumer behavior and, ultimately, physician prescribing practices. Billions of dollars are budgeted each year for DTCA, and its influence is far-reaching. However, little information is available about patient-initiated physician interactions in which television-bbased DTCA has played a role in consumer behavior. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of television-based DTCA on treatment changes in patient-initiated medication use. A 68-item survey instrument consisting of dichotomous, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions was constructed and sent to a convenience sample of US residents during 3 consecutive months ending in February 2005. The survey, which was accessed through an Internet link provided in the e-mail, was designed to capture data about patient perceptions and behaviors regarding television-based DTCA of prescription medications used for seasonal allergy and asthma as well as demographic information. Inferential and descriptive analyses were performed. Key tests included Crosstabs analysis and normal approximation to the binomial test with the z score. Surveys were sent to 2500 individuals. A total of 427 valid surveys were returned for a 17.1% response rate. Of the 402 respondents (94.1%) who stated that they had seen DTCA for seasonal allergy medication, 50 (12.4%) said they had discussed the advertised medication with their physician and 22 of those discussions (44.0%) resulted in a change in treatment. Three hundred forty-two respondents (80.1%) stated that they had viewed DTCA for prescription asthma medications, and 23 of those respondents (6.7%) said that they had discussed the brand of asthma medication viewed on television with their physician. Those discussions resulted in a change in treatment for 9 respondents (39.1%). Within th his limited, self-reported

  20. Availability of critical care resources to treat patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in Africa: a self-reported, continent-wide survey of anaesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baelani, Inipavudu; Jochberger, Stefan; Laimer, Thomas; Otieno, Dave; Kabutu, Jane; Wilson, Iain; Baker, Tim; Dünser, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether resources necessary to implement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines and sepsis bundles are available in Africa. This self-reported, continent-wide survey compared the availability of these resources between African and high-income countries, and between two African regions (Sub-Sahara Africa vs. South Africa, Mauritius and the Northern African countries). The study was conducted as an anonymous questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among anaesthesia providers attending a transcontinental congress. Based on the respondents' country of practice, returned questionnaires were grouped into African and high-income countries. The questionnaire contained 74 items and evaluated all material resources required to implement the most recent Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Group comparisons were performed with the Chi2, Fisher's Exact or Mann Whitney U test, as appropriate. The overall response rate was 74.3% (318/428). Three-hundred-seven questionnaires were analysed (African countries, n = 263; high-income countries, n = 44). Respondents from African hospitals were less likely to have an emergency room (85.5 vs. 97.7%, P = 0.03) or intensive care unit (73.8 vs. 100%, P resources available to implement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines in entirety. The percentage of implementable recommendations was lower in African than in high-income countries (72.6 (57.7 to 87.7)% vs. 100 (100 to 100)%, P resources to implement the majority of strong Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommendations and the sepsis bundles may allow modification of current sepsis guidelines based on available resources and implementation of a substantial number of life-saving interventions into sepsis care in Africa.

  1. Self-Reported Bothersome Symptoms Across Different Socioepidemiological Groups of People Living With HIV Attending French Hospitals: Results From the ANRS-VESPA2 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Véronique; Vilotitch, Antoine; Marcellin, Fabienne; Demoulin, Baptiste; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Twenty years after the advent of combined antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), there is a growing need for up-to-date information about the daily experience of people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socioepidemiological groups and the types of bothersome symptoms reported by PLWH participating in a national survey in France. We analyzed self-reported bothersome symptoms in a representative sample of PLWH (ANRS-VESPA2 survey), most of whom were receiving ART treatment. PLWH (N = 2505) were grouped into three clusters according to the number of bothersome symptoms reported: Cluster A (low number, n = 1848), Cluster B (moderate number, n = 271), and Cluster C (high number, n = 386). Individuals in Cluster A (low number of bothersome symptoms) were less likely to report all the symptom types investigated. Psychological, sexual, and general symptoms were more likely to be reported in Cluster B (moderate number), whereas gastric-, pain-, and appearance-related symptoms were more likely in Cluster C (high number). In multivariate analyses, women not natives of Sub-Saharan Africa and former/active female injecting drug users were more likely to report a medium or high number of symptoms, and lower adherence to ART. Combining new biomedical strategies with coping mechanisms and providing better support to socially vulnerable PLWH may improve this population's quality of health and daily life. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  3. Ethnic variation in validity of classification of overweight and obesity using self-reported weight and height in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempos Christopher T

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the validity of classification of overweight and obesity based on self-reported weight in representative samples of Hispanic as compared to other American populations despite the wide use of such data. Objective To test the null hypothesis that ethnicity is unrelated to bias of mean body mass index (BMI and to sensitivity of overweight or obesity (BMI >= 25 kg/m2 derived from self-reported (SR versus measured weight and height using measured BMI as the gold standard. Design Cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III conducted in 1988–1994. Participants American men and women aged 20 years and over (n = 15,025. Measurements SR height, weight, cigarette smoking, health status, and socio-demographic variables from home interview and measured weight and height. Results In women and Mexican American (MA men SR BMI underestimated true prevalence rates of overweight or obesity. For other men, no consistent difference was seen. Sensitivity of SR was similar in non-Hispanic European Americans (EA and non-Hispanic African Americans (AA but much lower in MA. Prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 is consistently underestimated by self-report, the gap being greater for MA than for other women, but similar for MA and other men. The mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI was greater in MA (men -0.37, women -0.76 kg/m2 than in non-Hispanic EA (men -0.22, women -0.62 kg/m2. In a regression model with the difference between self-reported and measured BMI as the dependent variable, MA ethnicity was a significant (p Conclusion Under-estimation of the prevalence of overweight or obesity based on height and weight self-reported at interview varied significantly among ethnic groups independent of other variables.

  4. Patients' level of satisfaction and self-reports of intention to comply following consultation with nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan; Naughton, Corina; Allen, Deirdre; Hyde, Abbey; O'Boyle, Kathy; Felle, Patrick; Treacy, Margaret Pearl; Butler, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Prescriptive authority for nurses and midwives was introduced in Ireland in 2007. This allows nurses and midwives who have completed a prescribing preparation programme to independently prescribe a wide-range of medications. To date little is known of patient outcomes such as satisfaction with the consultation process and intention to comply as a consequence of the introduction of nurse and midwife prescribing. There are four principal objectives within this study: (1) to measure the level of patients' satisfaction with education and advice received from a nurse or midwife with a prescribing remit; (2) to measure patients' satisfaction with the consultation process; (3) to measure patients' self-reports of their intention to comply with the prescriber's prescription and advice; and (4) to identify the variables that predict patients' intention to comply with the prescription and advice provided by a nurse or midwife with prescriptive authority. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A total of one hundred and forty respondents completed the survey. Respondents consisted of adult patients who had received a prescription from a nurse prescriber in a general hospital, women who had received a prescription from a midwife in a maternity hospital and parents whose child received a prescription from a nurse in a children's hospital. Instruments used to measure patient outcomes included the Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and the compliance intent subscale of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS). A linear multiple regression model was performed to identify the variables that predicted patients' intent to comply. Patients and parents surveyed were highly satisfied with the care they received from nurses and midwives with prescriptive authority. Respondents also reported that they received comprehensive education and advice. Predictors of compliance intent included patient satisfaction with the time spent with the nurse or midwife during the prescribing

  5. Self-reported hepatitis A vaccination as a predictor of hepatitis A virus antibody protection in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Maxine M; Monina Klevens, R; Jiles, Ruth B; Murphy, Trudy V

    2015-07-31

    To estimate the predictive value of self-reported hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) receipt for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody (anti-HAV) from either past infection or vaccination, as an indicator of HAV protection. Using 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we assigned participants to 4 groups based on self-reported HepA receipt and anti-HAV results. We compared characteristics across groups and calculated three measures of agreement between self-report and serologic status (anti-HAV): percentage concordance, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values. Using logistic regression we investigated factors associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Demographic and other characteristics varied significantly across the 4 groups. Overall agreement between self-reported HepA receipt and serological results was 63.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.9-65.2); PPV and NPV of self-reported vaccination status for serological result were 47.0% (95% CI 44.2-49.8) and 69.4% (95% CI 67.0-71.8), respectively. Mexican American and foreign-born adults had the highest PPVs (71.5% [95% CI 65.9-76.5], and 75.8% [95% CI 71.4-79.7]) and the lowest NPVs (21.8% [95% CI 18.5-25.4], and 20.0% [95% CI 17.2-23.1]), respectively. Young (ages 20-29 years), US-born, and non-Hispanic White adults had the lowest PPVs (37.9% [95% CI 34.5-41.5], 39.1% [95% CI, 36.0-42.3], and 39.8% [36.1-43.7]), and the highest NPVs (76.9% [95% CI 72.2-81.0, 78.5% [95% CI 76.5-80.4)], and 80.6% [95% CI 78.2-82.8), respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses found age, race/ethnicity, education, place of birth and income to be significantly associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. When assessing hepatitis A protection, self-report of not having received HepA was most likely to identify persons at risk for hepatitis A infection (no anti-HAV) among young, US-born and non

  6. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to

  7. A Survey of Self-Reported Food Allergy and Food-Related Anaphylaxis among Young Adult Students at Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a survey on self-reported food allergy to milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, and sesame, as well as reported food-related anaphylaxis and epinephrine prescription practices among Kuwaiti students attending Kuwait University. One thousand questionnaires that included data on age, gender, presence of food allergies, and associated details were distributed. All participants reporting an allergy were categorized as having a perceived food allergy. Those with a convincing clinical history and history of undergoing diagnostic food allergy testing were further categorized as having a probable food allergy. Of the 1,000 questionnaires, 865 (86.5%) were completed. Of the 865 students, 104 (12.02%) reported food allergy (perceived), and 47 of these (45.19%) were probable food allergies. For milk (46.7%), peanut (35.7%), fish (60%), and sesame (50%), probable food allergy occurred in early childhood (≤5 years) while those of egg (44.4%) and wheat (57.1%) occurred in late childhood (6-10 years), and shellfish (40%) occurred in early adolescence (11-15 years). Of the 47 students with a probable food allergy, 28 (59.6%) were moderate to severe: 20 (71%) of these moderate-to-severe allergy cases reported at least 1 food-related anaphylactic episode while 8 (29%) denied such episodes. Equally important, of the 28 students, 6 (21%) received an autoinjectable epinephrine prescription, while 22 (79%) did not receive any. In this study the reported occurrence of perceived food allergy was low and probable food allergy occurred mostly in early childhood. Milk, egg, and nut allergies were the most commonly reported in both groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Differing trends in the association between obesity and self-reported health in Portugal and Switzerland. Data from national health surveys 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Ravasco, Paula; Paccaud, Fred

    2012-08-01

    The escalating prevalence of obesity might prompt obese subjects to consider themselves as normal, as this condition is gradually becoming as frequent as normal weight. In this study, we aimed to assess the trends in the associations between obesity and self-rated health in two countries. Data from the Portuguese (years 1995-6, 1998-6 and 2005-6) and Swiss (1992-3, 1997, 2002 and 2007) National Health Surveys were used, corresponding to more than 130,000 adults (64,793 for Portugal and 65,829 for Switzerland). Body mass index and self-rated health were derived from self-reported data. Obesity levels were higher in Portugal (17.5% in 2005-6 vs. 8.9% in 2007 in Switzerland, p Switzerland (21.8% in 2005-6 vs 3.9% in 2007, p Switzerland, the prevalence of "bad" or "very bad" rates among obese participants, increased from 6.5% in 1992-3 to 9.8% in 2007, while in Portugal it decreased from 41.3% to 32.3%. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of stating one self's health as "bad" or "very bad" among obese relative to normal weight participants, almost doubled in Switzerland: from 1.38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.87) in 1992-3 to 2.64 (95% CI: 2.14-3.26) in 2007, and similar findings were obtained after sample weighting. Conversely, no such trend was found in Portugal: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-1.48) in 1995-6 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.70) in 2005-6. Obesity is increasing in Switzerland and Portugal. Obesity is increasingly associated with poorer self-health ratings in Switzerland but not in Portugal.

  9. Twelve-month prevalence and predictors of self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among Korean adolescents in a web-based nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Hyun, Min Kyung; Choi, Seong Mi; Kim, Ji-Min; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate in South Korea was the highest among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in 2011. Although the suicide rate in adolescents is lower than that of adults and is reported to be decreasing in young males in some countries, it has consistently increased in recent years in South Korea. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of suicidal ideation and attempt in the past 12 months. A total sample of 72,623 adolescents aged 12-18 years who responded to a web-based anonymous self-reported survey between September and October 2010 was used for the analysis. The suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates were 19.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Being female, having a poor perceived socioeconomic status and a poor perceived academic performance, subjective feelings of depression, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, perceived general medical health, and experiences of any involvement with sexual intercourse were the contributing factors that predicted elevated risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. In contrast to previous reports in other countries, the suicide attempt rate in Korean female adolescents peaked at age 13 years, and there were no differences in suicidal ideation in females by age. There were no differences in both suicidal ideation and attempt rates in males by age. A multidisciplinary approach that takes into consideration the characteristics of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation or suicide attempt is warranted for developing prevention and treatment programs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  10. Prevalence and association of self-reported anxiety, pain, and oral parafunctional habits with temporomandibular disorders in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karibe, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Kisaki; Okamoto, Ayuko; Kawakami, Tomomi; Kato, Yuichi; Warita-Naoi, Sachie

    2015-01-21

    Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents. A total of 1,415 subjects (11-15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.

  11. Assessing "chaotic eating" using self-report and the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey: No association between BMI and variability in meal or snack timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Annie R; Johnson, Laura; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2018-03-24

    Although regular meal timings are recommended for weight loss, no study has characterised irregularity in the timing of eating occasions or investigated associations with body-mass index (BMI). Here, we characterise "chaotic eating" as the tendency to eat at variable times of day. In two studies, we used a novel measure to explore the relationship between BMI and chaotic eating. In Study 1 (N = 98) we measured BMI and used a self-report measure to assess the usual range of times that meals and snacks are consumed over a seven-day period, as well as meal and snack frequency. A separate meal and snack 'chaotic eating index' was derived from the number of possible thirty-minute snack- or meal-slots, divided by the frequency of these eating events. After adjusting for age, gender, and dietary habits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) we found no relationship between BMI and chaotic eating of meals (β = -0.07, p = 0.73) or snacks (β = -0.10, p = 0.75). In Study 2, we calculated the same chaotic eating index (meals and snacks) using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey of adults 2000-2001 (seven-day diet diaries; N = 1175). Again, we found little evidence that BMI is associated with chaotic eating of meals (β = 0.16, p = 0.27) or snacks (β = 0.15, p = 0.12). Together, these results suggest that irregular eating timings do not promote weight gain and they challenge guidelines that recommend regularity in meal timings for weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Elementary and Middle School Teachers' Self-Reported Use of Positive Behavioral Supports for Children with ADHD: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Katie C.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Evans, Steven W.; Manos, Michael J.; Hannah, Jane N.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined elementary and middle school teachers' self-reported use of behavioral supports for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a national sample of teachers. This information is important given increased attention and emphasis on universal and targeted strategies within problem-solving models in schools.…

  13. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Bazata, Debbra D; Clark, Nathaniel G; Gavin, James R; Green, Andrew J; Lewis, Sandra J; Reed, Michael L; Stewart, Walter; Chapman, Richard H; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2007-10-03

    Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 200,000 households in the US, to identify individuals, age > or = 18 years of age, with diabetes or risk factors associated with diabetes. Follow-up disease impact questionnaires were then mailed to a representative, stratified random sample of individuals (n = 22,001) in each subgroup of interest (those with diabetes or different numbers of risk factors for diabetes). Estimated national prevalence of diabetes and other conditions was calculated, and compared to prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Response rates were 63.7% for the screening, and 71.8% for the follow-up baseline survey. The SHIELD screening survey found overall prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) was 8.2%, with increased prevalence with increasing age and decreasing income. In logistic regression modeling, individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes if they had abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.50; p or =28 kg/m2 (OR = 4.04; p self-report only) to those from NHANES 1999-2002 (self-report, clinical and laboratory evaluations), the prevalence of diabetes was similar. SHIELD allows the identification of respondents with and without a current diagnosis of the illness of interest, and potential longitudinal evaluation of risk factors for future diagnosis of that illness.

  14. Using computer-assisted survey instruments instead of paper and pencil increased completeness of self-administered sexual behavior questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, Simone; Lewis, Dyani; Vaisey, Alaina; Smyth, Eris; Wood, Anna; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Lorch, Rebecca; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane

    2015-01-01

    To compare the data quality, logistics, and cost of a self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire administered either using a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI) or by paper and pencil in a primary care clinic. A self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire was administered to 16-29 year olds attending general practice. Questionnaires were administered by either paper and pencil (paper) or CASI. A personal digital assistant was used to self-administer the CASI. A total of 4,491 people completed the questionnaire, with 46.9% responses via CASI and 53.2% by paper. Completion of questions was greater for CASI than for paper for sexual behavior questions: number of sexual partners [odds ratio (OR), 6.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.32, 14.11] and ever having had sex with a person of the same gender (OR, 2.89; 95% CI: 1.52, 5.49). The median number of questions answered was higher for CASI than for paper (17.6 vs. 17.2; P questionnaire compared with $11.83 for paper. Electronic devices using CASI are a tool that can increase participants' questionnaire responses and deliver more complete data for a sexual behavior questionnaire in primary care clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of self-reported childhood physical abuse by adults and factors predictive of inconsistent reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Harris, T Robert; Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of self-reported child physical abuse (CPA) or CPA reporting practices. We estimated reliability and prevalence of self-reported CPA and identified factors predictive of inconsistent CPA reporting among 2,256 participants using surveys administered in 1995 and 2000. Reliability of CPA was fair to moderate (kappa = 0.41). Using a positive report from either survey, the prevalence of moderate (61.8%) and severe (12.0%) CPA was higher than at either survey alone. Compared to consistent reporters of having experienced CPA, inconsistent reporters were less likely to be > or = 30 years old (vs. 18-29) or Black (vs. White) and more likely to have report one type (vs. > or = 2) of CPA. These findings may assist researchers conducting and interpreting studies of CPA.

  16. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  17. Activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine in Argentina: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, Ana M.; Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine in Argentine is carried out at 292 centres, distributed all over the country, mainly concentrated in the capital cities of the provinces. With the purpose of knowing the activity levels of radiopharmaceuticals that were administered to patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine, a national survey was conducted, during 2001 and 2002. This survey was answered voluntarily by 107 centres. Sixty-four percent of the participants centres are equipped with SPECT system while the other centres have a gamma camera or scintiscanner. There were 37 nuclear medicine procedures, chosen among those most frequently performed, were included in the survey. In those diagnostic procedures were included tests for: bone, brain, thyroid, kidney, liver, lung and cardiovascular system; and also activities administered for some therapeutic procedures. The nuclear medicine physicians reported the different radiopharmaceutical activities administered to typical adult patients. In this paper are presented the average radiopharmaceutical activity administered for each of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included in the survey and the range and distribution of values. In order to place these data in a frame of reference, these average values were compared to the guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine mentioned at the Safety Series no. 115. From this comparison it was noticed that the activities administered in the 40% of the diagnostic procedures included in the survey were between ±30% of the reference values. For those nuclear medicine procedures that could not be compared with the above mentioned guidance levels, the comparison was made with values published by UNSCEAR or standards recommended by international bodies. As a result of this study, it is important to point out the need to continue the gathering of data in a wider scale survey to increase the knowledge about national trends. It is also essential to widely

  18. Self-reported hepatitis A vaccination as a predictor of hepatitis A virus antibody protection in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Maxine M.; Klevens, R. Monina; Jiles, Ruth B.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the predictive value of self-reported hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) receipt for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody (anti-HAV) from either past infection or vaccination, as an indicator of HAV protection. Methods Using 2007–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we assigned participants to 4 groups based on self-reported HepA receipt and anti-HAV results. We compared characteristics across groups and calculated three measures of agreement between self-report and serologic status (anti- HAV): percentage concordance, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values. Using logistic regression we investigated factors associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Results Demographic and other characteristics varied significantly across the 4 groups. Overall agreement between self-reported HepA receipt and serological results was 63.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.9–65.2); PPV and NPV of self-reported vaccination status for serological result were 47.0% (95% CI 44.2–49.8) and 69.4% (95% CI 67.0–71.8), respectively. Mexican American and foreign-born adults had the highest PPVs (71.5% [95% CI 65.9–76.5], and 75.8% [95% CI 71.4–79.7]) and the lowest NPVs (21.8% [95% CI 18.5–25.4], and 20.0% [95% CI 17.2–23.1]), respectively. Young (ages 20–29 years), US-born, and non-Hispanic White adults had the lowest PPVs (37.9% [95% CI 34.5–41.5], 39.1% [95% CI, 36.0–42.3], and 39.8% [36.1–43.7]), and the highest NPVs (76.9% [95% CI 72.2–81.0, 78.5% [95% CI 76.5–80.4)], and 80.6% [95% CI 78.2–82.8), respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses found age, race/ethnicity, education, place of birth and income to be significantly associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Conclusions When assessing hepatitis A protection, self-report of not having received HepA was most likely to identify persons at risk

  19. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2...... was significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW

  20. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  1. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM, subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6 and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4. Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9, and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8. Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement.

  2. Visual Design, Order Effects, and Respondent Characteristics in a Self-Administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent survey design research has shown that small changes in the structure and visual layout of questions can affect respondents' answers. While the findings have provided strong evidence of such effects, they are limited by the homogeneity of their samples, in that many of these studies have used random samples of college students. In this paper, we examine the effects of seven experimental alterations in question format and visual design using data from a general population survey that allows us to examine the effects of demographic differences among respondents. Results from a 2005 random sample mail survey of 1,315 households in a small metropolitan region of the United States suggest that the visual layout of survey questions affects different demographic groups in similar ways.

  3. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor.The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency.Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  4. Sociodemographic factors associated with self-reported exercise and physical activity behaviors and attitudes of South Australians: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susie; Halbert, Julie; Mackintosh, Shylie; Quinn, Stephen; Crotty, Maria

    2012-03-01

    To determine self-reported physical activity barriers, behaviors, and beliefs about exercise of a representative sample and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Face-to-face interviews conducted between September and December 2008, using a random stratified sampling technique. Barriers injury and illness were associated with being older, single, and not engaged in full-time work; lack of time was associated with being married, younger, female, and working full-time; and lack of motivation and cost were associated with being younger than 65 years. Advancing age was significantly associated (p exercise in, while all age groups (74%) felt that walking was the most important type of exercise for older adults. A better understanding of these factors may improve uptake of and adherence to exercise programs across the ages.

  5. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P activity (P activity (P activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. How Medicaid agencies administer mental health services: results from a 50-state survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, James; Barrett, Allison

    2008-10-01

    This brief report describes some notable variations in how state Medicaid agencies administer and fund Medicaid mental health services. Hour-long telephone interviews were conducted with all state and District of Columbia Medicaid directors or their designees. Responses indicated that Medicaid and mental health agencies were located within the same umbrella agency in 28 states, potentially facilitating collaboration. The mental health agency provided funding for some Medicaid mental health services in 32 states, and counties provided such funding in 22 states. Medicaid agencies generally delegated more authority to state mental health agencies in states where some Medicaid funding came from mental health sources and also in states where both agencies were in the same umbrella agency. The increasing role of Medicaid in funding state mental health services, combined with new federal limits on Medicaid financing of these services, underscores the importance of interagency collaboration and better alignment of Medicaid and mental health responsibilities.

  7. Statistical Analysis of the Worker Engagement Survey Administered at the Worker Safety and Security Team Festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    The Worker Safety and Security Team (WSST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory holds an annual festival, WSST-fest, to engage workers and inform them about safety- and securityrelated matters. As part of the 2015 WSST-fest, workers were given the opportunity to participate in a survey assessing their engagement in their organizations and work environments. A total of 789 workers participated in the 23-question survey where they were also invited, optionally, to identify themselves, their organization, and to give open-ended feedback. The survey consisted of 23 positive statements (i.e. “My organization is a good place to work.”) with which the respondent could express a level of agreement. The text of these statements are provided in Table 1. The level of agreement corresponds to a 5-level Likert scale ranging from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.” In addition to assessing the overall positivity or negativity of the scores, the results were partitioned into several cohorts based on the response meta-data (self-identification, comments, etc.) to explore trends. Survey respondents were presented with the options to identify themselves, their organizations and to provide comments. These options suggested the following questions about the data set.

  8. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  10. Wireless data collection of self-administered surveys using tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Kyle W; Lan, Mars; Arnold, Corey; Vahidi, Mani; Arangua, Lisa; Gelberg, Lillian; Bui, Alex A T

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and expeditious collection of survey data by coordinators in the field is critical in the support of research studies. Early methods that used paper documentation have slowly evolved into electronic capture systems. Indeed, tools such as REDCap and others illustrate this transition. However, many current systems are tailored web-browsers running on desktop/laptop computers, requiring keyboard and mouse input. We present a system that utilizes a touch screen interface running on a tablet PC with consideration for portability, limited screen space, wireless connectivity, and potentially inexperienced and low literacy users. The system was developed using C#, ASP.net, and SQL Server by multiple programmers over the course of a year. The system was developed in coordination with UCLA Family Medicine and is currently deployed for the collection of data in a group of Los Angeles area clinics of community health centers for a study on drug addiction and intervention.

  11. Allergists' self-reported adherence to anaphylaxis practice parameters and perceived barriers to care: an American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology member survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stanley; Dowling, Paul; O'Rourke, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Anaphylaxis is life-threatening and requires rapid medical intervention. Knowledge of treatment guidelines and addressing barriers to care are essential for appropriate management. To investigate allergists' self-reported practices in managing patients at risk for anaphylaxis, specifically in following practice parameters for diagnosis, treatment, and appropriate use of epinephrine, and to identify perceived barriers to care. Online questionnaires were distributed to members of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. The US physicians who self-identified as "allergist/immunologist" were eligible to participate. The first 500 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Nearly all (≥95%) reported adherence to practice parameters in prescribing an epinephrine auto-injector and instructing patients on its use, taking a detailed allergy history, counseling patients on avoidance measures, and educating patients on the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. More than 90% stated they determined the best diagnostic procedures to identify triggers and coordinated laboratory and allergy testing. Adherence to practice parameters was less robust for providing patients with written action plans and in-office anaphylaxis preparedness. Perceived barriers to care included a significant proportion of patients who were uncomfortable using epinephrine auto-injectors and inadequate knowledge of anaphylaxis among referral physicians. Allergists overwhelmingly adhere to practice parameter recommendations for the treatment and management of anaphylaxis, including appropriate use of epinephrine as first-line treatment, educating patients, and testing to diagnose anaphylaxis and identify its triggers. Opportunities for improvement include preparing staff and patients for anaphylactic events, providing written action plans, and improving knowledge of referring physicians. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Vaccination behaviour influences self-report of influenza vaccination status: a cross-sectional study among health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Llupià

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published influenza vaccination coverage in health care workers (HCW are calculated using two sources: self-report and vaccination records. The objective of this study was to determine whether self-report is a good proxy for recorded vaccination in HCW, as the degree of the relationship is not known, and whether vaccine behaviour influences self-reporting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered survey during September 2010. Considering the vaccination record as the gold standard of vaccination, the properties of self-report as a proxy of the record (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were calculated. Concordance between the vaccination campaigns studied (2007-2010 was made using the Kappa index, and discordance was analyzed using McNemar's test. RESULTS: 248 HCW responded. The 95% confidence intervals of coverage according to the vaccination record and to self-report overlapped, except for 2007, and the Kappa index showed a substantial concordance, except for 2007. McNemar's test suggested that differences between discordant cases were not due to chance and it was found that the proportion of unvaccinated discordant cases was higher than that of vaccinated discordant cases. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, self-reported influenza vaccination coverage in HCW in the previous two years is a good proxy of the vaccination record. However, vaccination behaviour influences the self-report and explains a trend to overestimate coverage in self-reporting compared to the vaccination record. The sources of coverage should be taken into account whenever comparisons are made.

  13. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  14. Do associations between employee self-reported organisational assessments and attitudinal outcomes change over time? An analysis of four Veterans Health Administration surveys using structural equation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available and their changes over time. Exposure and outcome measures are employee-assessed in all the surveys. Because it can accommodate both latent and measured variables into the model, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is used to capture and quantify the relationship...

  15. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Do associations between employee self-reported organizational assessments and attitudinal outcomes change over time? An analysis of four Veterans Health Administration surveys using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sonali; Chen, Ming-Hui; Warren, Nicholas; Hodgson, Michael

    2011-12-01

    This paper evaluates relationships between healthcare employees' perceptions of three hospital organizational constructs (Leadership, Support and Resources), and their assessment of two employee-related outcomes (employee satisfaction and retention) and two patient-related outcomes (patient satisfaction and quality of care). Using four all-employee surveys conducted by the Veterans Health Administration in the United States between 1997 and 2006, we examine the strength of these relationships and their changes over time. Exposure and outcome measures are employee-assessed in all the surveys. Because it can accommodate both latent and measured variables into the model, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is used to capture and quantify the relationship structure. The aim of the project is to identify possible intervention foci. The analyses revealed that employee-related outcomes are improved by increases in Leadership and Support, and, not surprisingly, the outcome variable of employee satisfaction reduced turnover intention. The employee assessed patient-related outcomes of satisfaction and quality of care were most improved by increases in Resources. Results also indicate that the three organizational constructs and the web of associations characterized by SEM underwent changes over the study period, perhaps in relation to changes in VHA policy emphases, changes in survey wording and other possible unmeasured factors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A survey exploring self-reported indoor and outdoor footwear habits, foot problems and fall status in people with stroke and Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine; Ashburn, Ann; Cole, Mark; Donovan-Hall, Margaret; Burnett, Malcolm; Robison, Judy; Mamode, Louis; Pickering, Ruth; Bader, Dan; Kunkel, Dorit

    Ill-fitting shoes have been implicated as a risk factor for falls but research to date has focused on people with arthritis, diabetes and the general older population; little is known about people with neurological conditions. This survey for people with stroke and Parkinson's explored people's choice of indoor and outdoor footwear, foot problems and fall history. Following ethical approval, 1000 anonymous postal questionnaires were distributed to health professionals, leads of Parkinson's UK groups and stroke clubs in the wider Southampton area, UK. These collaborators handed out survey packs to people with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke or Parkinson's. Three hundred and sixty three completed surveys were returned (218 from people with Parkinson's and 145 from people with stroke). Most respondents wore slippers indoors and walking shoes outdoors and considered comfort and fit the most important factors when buying footwear. Foot problems were reported by 43 % (95 % confidence intervals 36 to 52 %; stroke) and 53 % (95 % confidence interval 46 to 59 %; Parkinson's) of respondents; over 50 % had never accessed foot care support. Fifty percent of all respondents reported falls. In comparison to non-fallers, a greater proportion of fallers reported foot problems (57 %), with greater proportions reporting problems impacting on balance and influencing choice of footwear ( p  footwear habits and choice of footwear; however many did not receive foot care support. These findings highlight that further exploration of footwear and foot problems in these populations is warranted to provide evidence based advice on safe and appropriate footwear to support rehabilitation and fall prevention.

  18. Self-reported confidence in patient safety knowledge among Australian undergraduate nursing students: A multi-site cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Parmenter, Glenda; Hutchinson, Marie; Mannix, Judy; Power, Tamara; Chaboyer, Wendy; Latimer, Sharon; Mills, Jane; Siegloff, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety is critical to the provision of quality health care and thus is an essential component of nurse education. To describe first, second and third year Australian undergraduate nursing students' confidence in patient safety knowledge acquired in the classroom and clinical settings across the three years of the undergraduate nursing program. A cross-sectional online survey conducted in 2015. Seven Australian universities with campuses across three states (Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia). A total of 1319 Australian undergraduate nursing students. Participants were surveyed using the 31-item Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey (H-PEPSS). Descriptive statistics summarised the sample and survey responses. Paired t-tests, ANOVA and generalized-estimating-equations models were used to compare responses across learning settings (classroom and clinical), and year of nursing course. Participants were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills and least confident in learning about the sociocultural dimensions of working in teams with other health professionals, managing safety risks and understanding human and environmental factors. Only 59% of students felt confident they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, 75% of students agreed it was difficult to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority, and 78% were concerned they would face disciplinary action if they made a serious error. One patient safety subscale, Recognising and responding to remove immediate safety risks, was rated significantly higher by third year nursing students than by first and second year students. Two broader aspects of patient safety scales, Consistency in how patient safety issues are dealt with by different preceptors, and System aspects of patient safety are well covered in our program, were rated significantly higher by first year nursing students than by second and third year students. One scale

  19. Paramedic self-reported exposure to violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace: a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair L; Jensen, Jan L; Tavares, Walter; Drennan, Ian R; Saleem, Humaira; Dainty, Katie N; Munro, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Australia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere have found that paramedics experience violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace. The objective of this study was to describe and explore violence experienced by paramedics in the ground ambulance setting, including types of violence experienced, by whom the violence was perpetrated, actions taken by paramedics, and effects of these episodes. A cross-sectional study utilizing a mixed-methods paper survey was provided to a convenience sample of rural, suburban, and urban-based ground ambulance paramedics in two Canadian provinces. Paramedics were asked to describe episodes of verbal assault, intimidation, physical assault, sexual harassment, and sexual assault they were exposed to during the past 12 months. Qualitative questions inquired about the impact of these experiences. Response selections were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and qualitative data was analyzed using descriptive content analysis. A total of 1,884 paramedics were invited to participate and 1,676 responded (89.0%). Most participants (75%) reported experiencing violence in the past 12 months. The most common form of violence reported was verbal assault (67%), followed by intimidation (41%), physical assault (26%), sexual harassment (14%), and sexual assault (3%). Patients were identified as the most common perpetrators of violence. Serious sequellae were qualitatively reported. The majority of Canadian paramedics surveyed experience violence in the workplace, which can lead to serious personal and professional sequellae. Strategies should be devised and studied to reduce violent events toward paramedics and to mitigate the impact such events have on the wellbeing of paramedics.

  20. Care and self-reported outcomes of care experienced by women with mental health problems in pregnancy: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Jomeen, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-01-01

    mental health problems in pregnancy and the postnatal period are relatively common and, in pregnancy, are associated with an increase in adverse outcome. It is recommended that all women are asked about their emotional and mental health and offered treatment if appropriate. to describe the care received by women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, and to describe the effects of support, advice and treatment on outcomes in the postnatal period. this study used cross-sectional survey data collected in 2014 which described women's experience of maternity care. England PARTICIPANTS: a random sample of women who had a live birth in January 2014. the questionnaire asked about sociodemographic characteristics, whether women were asked about emotional and mental health in pregnancy, support and treatment offered, about postnatal wellbeing, and questions relating to attachment to their baby. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between mental health and outcomes taking account of sociodemographic characteristics. the survey response rate was 47%. Women with antenatal mental health problems were significantly more worried at the prospect of labour and birth, had lower satisfaction with the experience of birth, worse postnatal mental health, and indications of poorer attachment to their baby. They received substantially more care than other women but they did not always view this positively. Support, advice and treatment for mental health problems had mixed effects. this study describes the significant additional care provided to women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, the mixed effects of support, advice and treatment, and the poor perception of staff interaction among women with mental health problems. health care professionals may need additional training to effectively support women with mental health problems during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  1. Self-reported child abuse in the home: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and correlates among public secondary school students in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Rijal, Shristi; Pathak, Ramjee Prasad

    2018-06-19

    To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district. In each school, we administered the questionnaires to the students in a classroom selected randomly. To assess the correlates, we ran multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by schools. Among the 962 students, 88.88% had experience of at least one form of abuse throughout their lifetime. Psychological abuse was the most prevalent form of abuse (previous year: 75.19%; lifetime: 76.15%) followed by physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect and sexual abuse. Adults were the most common perpetrators of child abuse (37.55%). The correlates identified in this study mostly aligned with the global literature on correlates of abuse. Female students were more likely to report neglect (previous year: adjusted OR (AOR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.04; lifetime: AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.02), but no gender difference was observed with other forms of abuse. Students living with a single parent had a greater likelihood of exposure to violence (previous year: AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.94; lifetime: AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.53), neglect (previous year: AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.69; lifetime: AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.81) and sexual abuse (previous year: AOR 3.03, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.37; lifetime: AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.14). Over 88% of students reported experiencing child abuse in the home in one or more forms throughout their lifetime. Delineating the reasons for the high burden and its

  2. Self-reported injection practices among people who use drugs in French prisons: Public health implications (ANRS-Coquelicot survey 2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Trouiller, Philippe; Chollet, Aude; Molinier, Marie; Duchesne, Lucie; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalences of injection practices and needle/syringe sharing in people who use drugs in French prisons, and to investigate associated factors. Using the ANRS-Coquelicot survey (2011-2013), a random sample of 1718 people who used drugs in free society was included. Information regarding a history of incarceration, drug-injection practices inside prison and needle/syringe sharing was collected during interviews. In our sample, 65.5% reported a history of injection and 57.4% had been incarcerated at least once. Among those who reported both of these conditions, 14% reported injection practices inside prison, 40.5% of whom had shared needles/syringes. In the multivariable model, the following variables were associated with injection practices inside prison: being a Russian-speaking detainee, having spent more time in prison, and having started to inject before 1996 and especially before 1987. Being Russian speaking was also associated with needle/syringe sharing in prison. The prevalences of injection practices and needle/syringe sharing in prisons are alarmingly high. Effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases among people who use drugs in the prison setting are essential. The implementation of international recommendations on the principle of equivalence between prisons and the community is still very limited in most countries, and should be complemented with tailored interventions for the most vulnerable prison populations, especially Russian-speaking detainees. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Differences in self-reported outcomes of open prostatectomy patients and robotic prostatectomy patients in an international web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter Kevin; Laws, Thomas A; Pinnock, Carol; Moul, Judd W; Esterman, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    To compare patient reported outcomes between robotic assisted surgery and non-robotic assisted surgery. This was an international web-based survey based on a qualitative research and literature review, an internet-based questionnaire was developed with approximately 70 items. The questionnaire included both closed and open-ended questions. Responses were received from 193 men of whom 86 had received either open (OP) or robotic (RALP) surgery. A statistically significant (p=0.027), ranked analysis of covariance was found demonstrating higher recent distress in the robotic (RALP) surgery group. Although not statistically significant, there was a pattern of men having robotic (RALP) surgery reporting fewer urinary and bowel problems, but having a greater rate of sexual dysfunction. Men who opt for robotic surgery may have higher expectations for robotic (RALP) surgery, when these expectations are not fully met they may be less likely to accept the consequences of this major cancer surgery. Information regarding surgical choice needs to be tailored to ensure that men diagnosed with prostate cancer are fully informed of not only short term surgical and physical outcomes such as erectile dysfunction and incontinence, but also of potential issues with regards to masculinity, lifestyle and sexual health. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Self-reported health as a cultural health determinant in Arab and Jewish Israelis MABAT--National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Kaplan, Giora; Haviv-Messika, Amalia; Tarabeia, Jalal; Green, Manfred S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2005-09-01

    Subjective health (SH) status serves as a measure of health in many studies of health-related issues as it is a good predictor of mortality, morbidity, and use of health services. The measure is used in many population groups. However, the degree to which it measures the same condition in different ethnic groups is not clear. Within Israel's first National Health and Nutrition Survey (MABAT) conducted during 1999-2001, face-to-face interviews were held with 3222 Israeli interviewees, 2379 Jews and 843 Arabs, aged between 25-64 years. Respondents reported their SH, co-morbidity, and other socioeconomic characteristics. Arabs reported higher levels of SH than Jews. In logistic regression analysis, co-morbidity was a much stronger correlate of poorer SH in the Arab than in the Jewish population. The association between socioeconomic variables depended on ethnic group and sex. The findings indicate that SH in Jews and Arabs does not necessarily have the same meaning in relation to objective measures of health, and caution should be exercised in the use of this measure in different population groups with different cultures. Arabs tend to evaluate health better than Jews even though life expectancy is lower and morbidity and mortality are higher in the former population group. Yet diagnosis of a disease increases the frequency of reporting lower SH, more in Arabs than in Jews.

  5. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  6. Inverse probability weighting and doubly robust methods in correcting the effects of non-response in the reimbursed medication and self-reported turnout estimates in the ATH survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Tommi; Kaikkonen, Risto; Virtala, Esa; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-11-06

    To assess the nonresponse rates in a questionnaire survey with respect to administrative register data, and to correct the bias statistically. The Finnish Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) in 2010 was based on a national sample and several regional samples. Missing data analysis was based on socio-demographic register data covering the whole sample. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust (DR) methods were estimated using the logistic regression model, which was selected using the Bayesian information criteria. The crude, weighted and true self-reported turnout in the 2008 municipal election and prevalences of entitlements to specially reimbursed medication, and the crude and weighted body mass index (BMI) means were compared. The IPW method appeared to remove a relatively large proportion of the bias compared to the crude prevalence estimates of the turnout and the entitlements to specially reimbursed medication. Several demographic factors were shown to be associated with missing data, but few interactions were found. Our results suggest that the IPW method can improve the accuracy of results of a population survey, and the model selection provides insight into the structure of missing data. However, health-related missing data mechanisms are beyond the scope of statistical methods, which mainly rely on socio-demographic information to correct the results.

  7. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  8. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsø Karen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+ or without (CVD- medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic

  9. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa TA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Infant's Unexplained Breast Preference for Nursing One Breast: A Self-Administered Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdi, Sameer Yaseen; Al Omran, Sadek Abdullah; Al-Aamri, Maryam Ali; Al Nasser, Mohammad Hasan; Al Omran, Abbas Moosa

    2015-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended by international bodies as the only source of infant nutrition during the first 6 months of life. Sometimes infants prefer to nurse on one breast for no obvious reason (hereafter called infant's unexplained breast preference [IUBP]). IUBP might reduce the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. The prevalence of IUBP is unknown because most of the literature on IUBP so far has been anecdotal. This study's objective was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IUBP among healthy infants in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study between March and August 2013 in the Al-Ahsa area, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Healthy infants who had been born at full term (≥37 weeks of gestation) and were 2-24 months of age were included. We distributed 600 self-administered surveys to mothers who attended vaccination clinics in nine primary healthcare centers. Of 478 mothers who responded to the survey, 121 (25.3%) reported unilateral breastfeeding. IUBP was the most common reason for unilateral breastfeeding, with a prevalence of 13.6% (65/478). IUBP developed at a median age of 1 month (range, 1 day-9 months) and was familial in 42.9% of cases. It was the only reason for formula feeding during the first 6 months of life in 18.5% of cases. IUBP is common, develops very early in life, and can be familial and a reason for formula feeding. However, these findings need to be confirmed in other studies of other populations.

  11. Prescription pattern of antibiotic and analgesic in endodontic treatment in Kuwaiti population: A self-administered Survey

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    Manal J Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment of involved teeth can necessitate prescription of analgesics and antimicrobials. The literature suggests confusion amongst practitioners regarding the need for adjunctive medication, mainly during non-surgical endodontic treatment, often leading to over-prescription. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the current clinical practice of dentists participated in this study with respect to antibiotic and analgesic prescription patterns in their endodontic treatment management in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Prescription patterns for antibiotics and analgesics were analyzed based on the responses to self-administered questionnaire (n = 169. Information was collected based on different clinical endodontic diagnostic scenarios. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 17.0 to determine relationships between prescription patterns, age, gender, and dental qualification (specialists and general dentists. Results: Ninety-two percent of dentists prescribed analgesics for the management of endodontic pain. While 16% prescribed antibiotics for severe dental pain; 62% prescribed antibiotics for acute apical abscesses. Significantly more male dentists prescribed antibiotics for dental pain than female dentists. No significant difference was found between general dental practitioners′ and specialists′ attitude toward drug prescriptions. Amoxicillin and ibuprofen were the most commonly prescribed medications. Conclusion: While the majority of dentists appeared to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics appropriately, some did not. This research confirmed previous studies and established a need for imparting information of evidence-based prescriptions protocols for the dentists surveyed in this study in Kuwait.

  12. Autorreporte de accidentes de tránsito en una encuesta nacional en la población urbana de Perú Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Wong

    2010-06-01

    accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. Materials and methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal, together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. Results. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94. The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65, male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22, legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55, alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32 and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2,45, 95%CI 1,63-3,68. Conclusions. The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  13. SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING IN ARGENTINA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL SURVEY ON QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER ADULTS 2012 (ENCaViAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Colantonio, Sonia E; Celton, Dora E

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate educational and income inequalities in self-reported health (SRH), and physical functioning (limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL)/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)), among 60-year-old and older adults in Argentina. Using cross-sectional data from the Argentinian National Survey on Quality of Life of Older Adults 2012 (Encuesta Nacional sobre Calidad de Vida de Adultos Mayores, ENCaViAM), gender-specific socioeconomic inequalities in SRH and ADL and IADL limitations were studied in relation to educational level and household per capita income. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) - an index of the relative size of socioeconomic inequalities in health - was used. Socioeconomic inequalities in the studied health indicators were found - except for limitations in ADL among women - favouring socially advantaged groups. The results remained largely significant after full adjustment, suggesting that educational and income inequalities, mainly in SRH and IADL, were robust and somehow independent of age, marital status, physical activity, the use of several medications, depression and the occurrence of falls. The findings add to the existing knowledge on the relative size of the socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health indicators among Argentinian older adults, which are to the detriment of lower socioeconomic groups. The results could be used to inform planning interventions aimed at decreasing socioeconomic inequalities in health, to the benefit of socially disadvantaged adults.

  14. Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS

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    Ellert Ute

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information.

  15. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  16. Faculty self-reported experience with racial and ethnic discrimination in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-03-01

    Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.

  17. Online self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE): validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana; Dusadiisariyavong, Asadang; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret; Anuraktam, Khajornyod

    2014-07-01

    To develop an online, self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE) and to determine the internal consistency, face and content validity of the questionnaire. The online, self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. It comprised five domains: personal, work-related, work environment, physical health and psychosocial factors. The questionnaire's content was validated by an occupational medical doctor and three physical therapy lecturers involved in ergonomic teaching. Twenty-five lay people examined the feasibility of computer-administered and the user-friendly language. The item correlation in each domain was analyzed by the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; alpha). The content of the questionnaire was considered congruent with the testing purposes. Eight hundred and thirty-five computer users at the PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited registered to the online self-report questionnaire. The internal consistency of the five domains was: personal (alpha = 0.58), work-related (alpha = 0.348), work environment (alpha = 0.72), physical health (alpha = 0.68) and psychosocial factor (alpha = 0.93). The findings suggested that the OSCWE had acceptable internal consistency for work environment and psychosocial factors. The OSCWE is available to use in population-based survey research among computer office workers.

  18. Self-reported financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; King-Shier, Kathryn; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; Ronksley, Paul E; Weaver, Robert G; Tonelli, Marcello; Hennessy, Deirdre; Manns, Braden J

    2014-05-01

    People with chronic conditions who do not achieve therapeutic targets have a higher risk of adverse health outcomes. Failure to meet these targets may be due to a variety of barriers. This article examines self-reported financial barriers to health care among people with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions. A population-based survey was administered to western Canadians with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions (n = 1,849). Associations between self-reported financial barriers and statin use, the likelihood of stopping use of prescribed medications, and emergency department visits or hospitalizations were assessed. More than 10% respondents reported general financial barriers (12%) and lack of drug insurance (14%); 4% reported financial barriers to accessing medications. Emergency department visits or hospitalizations were 70% more likely among those reporting a general financial barrier. Those reporting a financial barrier to medications were 50% less likely to take statins and three times more likely to stop using prescribed medications. Individuals without drug insurance were nearly 30% less likely to take statins. In this population, self-reported financial barriers were associated with lower medication use and increased likelihood of emergency department visits or hospitalization.

  19. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-04-01

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  20. Concordance of self-reported and medical chart information on cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xiao Ou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information is an important tool for collecting clinical information for epidemiologic studies and in clinical settings where electronic medical records are not employed and shared. Methods Using data collected from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 5,042 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Shanghai, China, we compared the concordance of patient questionnaire responses to a survey administered approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis with medical chart information obtained from the diagnostic hospitals for several disease and treatment-related variables. Results Of 5,042 SBCSS participants, medical chart information was available for 4,948 women (98.1%. Concordance between patient self-reported and medical chart information was high for the majority of disease-related variables, including: diagnosing hospital (agreement: 98.7%, kappa: 0.99, type of surgery conducted (94.0%, 0.53, ER/PR status (94.5%, 0.91, and tumor position (98.2%, 0.97, as well as for important calendar dates, such as date of diagnosis, surgery, and first chemotherapy treatment. The 10 most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs were all reported with agreement rates of at least 82%, with associated kappa values that ranged from 0.41 for calcium folinate to 0.76 for vinorelbine. Conclusions Our study found high validity for patient self-reported information for a variety of disease and treatment-related variables, suggesting the utility of self-reports as an important source of clinical information for both epidemiological research and patient care.

  1. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Results: Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Conclusion: Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients. PMID:28853327

  2. Medical students' perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J

    2017-01-01

    Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients.

  3. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  4. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  5. Use of and confidence in administering outcome measures among clinical prosthetists: Results from a national survey and mixed-methods training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Spaulding, Susan E; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Gailey, Robert; Morgan, Sara J; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    Outcome measures can be used in prosthetic practices to evaluate interventions, inform decision making, monitor progress, document outcomes, and justify services. Strategies to enhance prosthetists' ability to use outcome measures are needed to facilitate their adoption in routine practice. To assess prosthetists' use of outcome measures and evaluate the effects of training on their confidence in administering performance-based measures. Cross-sectional and single-group pretest-posttest survey. Seventy-nine certified prosthetists (mean of 16.0 years of clinical experience) were surveyed about their experiences with 20 standardized outcome measures. Prosthetists were formally trained by the investigators to administer the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor. Prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor was measured before and after training. The majority of prosthetists (62%) were classified as non-routine outcome measure users. Confidence administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor prior to training was low-to-moderate across the study sample. Training significantly (p measures. Interactive training resulted in a statistically significant increase of prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor and may facilitate use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Frequency of outcome measure use in the care of persons with limb loss has not been studied. Study results suggest that prosthetists may not regularly use standardized outcome measures and report limited confidence in administering them. Training enhances confidence and may encourage use of outcome measures in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. The impact of health on individual retirement plans: self-reported versus diagnostic measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2009-01-01

    provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...

  7. Gender differences in self-reported drinking-induced disinhibition of sexual behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    administered the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS). We made several comparisons of behavioral patterns using the ARSD scale of the DIDS for each gender: kissing or having sex vs. no sexual contact, or having sex versus kissing or no contact. In general, men reported more ARSD than women. Men who......Sex and drinking go hand-in-hand in Western societies. Men also tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women. At a vacation resort,we conducted a survey of young men and women regarding self-reported alcohol-related sexual disinhibition (ARSD), and we...... reported either kissing or having sex the night before reported significantly more ARSD than men not reporting either kissing or having sex. Women who had had sex the night before reported more ARSD than women who had either kissed or not reported any sexual contact on the night before, but women who had...

  8. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  9. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  10. Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students ...

  11. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  12. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  13. Relationship between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement and self-reported symptoms in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.

  14. Suicidal behavior, negative affect, gender, and self-reported delinquency in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.

  15. The association of self-reported sleep, weight status, and academic performance in fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Nanette; McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O

    2013-02-01

    To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students' health behaviors affect academic performance. Fifth-grade students completed an online school-administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. One third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched television ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of television watching. Sufficient sleep (≥9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily television watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and television watching were associated with academic performance. More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students' health academic performance as well. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  16. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  18. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  19. Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson’s Disease Patients in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Andrew Finseth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used by Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69±11; 60% male completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%, prayer (59%, massage (45%, and relaxation (32%. Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms.

  20. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorten Tim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD. Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+, to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results, makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are

  1. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  2. Surveillane of Middle and High School Mental Health Risk by Student Self-Report Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget V Dever

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community

  3. Subcutaneously administered antibiotics: a national survey of current practice from the French Infectious Diseases (SPILF) and Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) society networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, E; Paccalin, M; Roubaud-Baudron, C; Fraisse, T; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2015-04-01

    A national survey was performed to explore antibiotic prescription by the subcutaneous (sc) route among French infectious diseases and geriatric practitioners. Among the participating physicians, 367 (96.1%) declared administering sc antibiotics at some point. Ceftriaxone was prescribed sc by all but one, and ertapenem, teicoplanin, aminoglycosides and amoxicillin by 33.2%, 39.2%, 35.1% and 15.3%, respectively. The sc route was resorted to mainly in case of unavailable oral, intravenous or intramuscular routes, especially during palliative care. Pain, skin necrosis and lack of efficacy were the main adverse effects, reported by 70.8%, 12.8% and 19.9% of practitioners, respectively. Further studies are needed to precise the indications, modalities and tolerance of sc antibiotic use. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a Comprehensive Assessment of Food Parenting Practices: The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet Family Food Practices Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Tabak, Rachel G; Bryant, Maria; Ward, Dianne S

    2017-02-01

    Parents' food parenting practices influence children's dietary intake and risk for obesity and chronic disease. Understanding the influence and interactions between parents' practices and children's behavior is limited by a lack of development and psychometric testing and/or limited scope of current measures. The Home Self-Administered Tool for Environmental Assessment of Activity and Diet (HomeSTEAD) was created to address this gap. This article describes development and psychometric testing of the HomeSTEAD family food practices survey. Between August 2010 and May 2011, a convenience sample of 129 parents of children aged 3 to 12 years were recruited from central North Carolina and completed the self-administered HomeSTEAD survey on three occasions during a 12- to 18-day window. Demographic characteristics and child diet were assessed at Time 1. Child height and weight were measured during the in-home observations (following Time 1 survey). Exploratory factor analysis with Time 1 data was used to identify potential scales. Scales with more than three items were examined for scale reduction. Following this, mean scores were calculated at each time point. Construct validity was assessed by examining Spearman rank correlations between mean scores (Time 1) and children's diet (fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, sweets) and body mass index (BMI) z scores. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in mean scores between time points, and single-measure intraclass correlations were calculated to examine test-retest reliability between time points. Exploratory factor analysis identified 24 factors and retained 124 items; however, scale reduction narrowed items to 86. The final instrument captures five coercive control practices (16 items), seven autonomy support practices (24 items), and 12 structure practices (46 items). All scales demonstrated good internal reliability (α>.62), 18 factors demonstrated construct

  5. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices among Ontario high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majowicz, Shannon E; Diplock, Kenneth J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Bredin, Chad T; Rebellato, Steven; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Dubin, Joel A

    2016-03-16

    To measure the food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices of high school students in Ontario. We administered a school-wide paper survey to the student body (n = 2,860) of four Ontario high schools. We developed the survey by selecting questions from existing, validated questionnaires, prioritizing questions that aligned with the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education's educational messages and the food safety objectives from the 2013 Ontario High School Curriculum. One in five students reported currently handling food in commercial or public-serving venues; of these, 45.1% had ever taken a course that taught them how to prepare food (e.g., food and nutrition classes, food handler certification). Food safety knowledge among respondents was low. For example, 17.3% knew that the best way to determine whether hamburgers were cooked enough to eat was to measure the temperature with a food thermometer. Despite low knowledge, most respondents (72.7%) reported being confident that they could cook safe, healthy meals for themselves and their families. Safe food handling practices were frequently self-reported. Most students (86.5%) agreed that being able to cook safe, healthy meals was an important life skill, although their interest in learning about safe food handling and concern about foodborne disease were less pronounced. Our findings suggest that food safety knowledge is low, yet confidence in preparing safe, healthy meals is high, among high school students. Because work and volunteer opportunities put students in contact with both the public and food, this group is important to target for increased education about safe food handling.

  6. Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Hosono, A; Shibata, K; Tsujimura, S; Oka, K; Fujita, H; Kamiya, M; Kondo, F; Wakabayashi, R; Yamada, T; Suzuki, S

    2017-12-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years. They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between 2007 and 2011. Participants' height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height, weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference (men, 0.87; women, 0.73). Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference (mean difference, 0.8 cm), whereas women significantly underestimated theirs (mean difference, 5.1 cm). The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0.83 for men and 0.57 for women. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women.

  7. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  8. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. Methods The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level. Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. Results For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. Conclusion This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi

  9. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Abdous, Belkacem; Valois, Pierre; Gosselin, Pierre; Sidi, Elhadji A Laouan

    2016-02-12

    This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level) were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level) in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level). Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index) and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning) under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi-level insights pave the way for the development of a

  10. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  11. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  12. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  13. Adherence to self-administered tuberculosis treatment in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a cross-sectional survey in Homa Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Nackers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good adherence to treatment is crucial to control tuberculosis (TB. Efficiency and feasibility of directly observed therapy (DOT under routine program conditions have been questioned. As an alternative, Médecins sans Frontières introduced self-administered therapy (SAT in several TB programs. We aimed to measure adherence to TB treatment among patients receiving TB chemotherapy with fixed dose combination (FDC under SAT at the Homa Bay district hospital (Kenya. A second objective was to compare the adherence agreement between different assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey amongst a series of new TB patients receiving 6 months of standard TB chemotherapy with FDC under SAT. Adherence was assessed at home with urine testing for Isoniazid (INH, pill count, interviewer-administered questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS. RESULTS: In November 2008 and in June 2009, 212 of 279 eligible patients were assessed for adherence. Overall, 95.2% [95%CI: 91.3-97.7] of the patients reported not having missed a tablet in the last 4 days. On the VAS, complete adherence was estimated at 92.5% [95%CI: 88.0-95.6]. INH urine test was positive for 97.6% [95%CI: 94.6-99.2] of the patients. Pill count could be assessed among only 70% of the interviewed patients. Among them, it was complete for 82.3% [95%CI: 75.1-88.1]. Among the 212 surveyed patients, 193 (91.0% were successfully treated (cured or treatment completed. The data suggest a fair agreement between the questionnaire and the INH urine test (k = 0.43 and between the questionnaire and the VAS (k = 0.40. Agreement was poor between the other adherence tools. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SAT, together with the FDC, allows achieving appropriate adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a high TB and HIV burden area. The use of a combination of a VAS and a questionnaire can be an adequate approach to monitor adherence to TB treatment in routine program

  14. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of self-report outcome measures for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Brian J; Morgan, Sara J; Askew, Robert L; Salem, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Documentation of clinical outcomes is increasingly expected in delivery of prosthetic services and devices. However, many outcome measures suitable for use in clinical care and research have not been psychometrically tested with prosthesis users. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, mode-of-administration (MoA) equivalence, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) of standardized, self-report instruments that assess constructs of importance to people with lower limb loss. Prosthesis users (n = 201) were randomly assigned to groups based on MoA (i.e., paper, electronic, or mixed-mode). Participants completed two surveys 2 to 3 d apart. Instruments included the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions-Applied Cognition/General Concerns, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Profile, and Socket Comfort Score. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated all instruments are appropriate for group-level comparisons and select instruments are suitable for individual-level applications. Several instruments showed evidence of possible floor and ceiling effects. All were equivalent across MoAs. SEM and MDC were quantified to facilitate interpretation of outcomes and change scores. These results can enhance clinicians' and researchers' ability to select, apply, and interpret scores from instruments administered to prosthesis users.

  16. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. The Impact of Validity Screening on Associations between Self-Reports of Bullying Victimization and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Self-report surveys are widely used to measure adolescent risk behavior and academic adjustment, with results having an impact on national policy, assessment of school quality, and evaluation of school interventions. However, data obtained from self-reports can be distorted when adolescents intentionally provide inaccurate or careless responses.…

  18. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  19. Associations between Peer Victimization, Self-Reported Depression and Social Phobia among Adolescents: The Role of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…

  20. [Fact-finding survey on regional healthcare services for patients with epilepsy based on a questionnaire administered to public health centers in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masami; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Egami, Hirofumi; Nishida, Hideki; Oka, Shinji; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The prevalence of epilepsy is about 1%, and its incidence is increasing with the aging population. In addition to their medical problems, epilepsy patients face many social problems, including schooling, working, and maintaining their driver's licenses. However, these problems are not fully recognized by the regional healthcare centers (HCCs), and the inadequacy of collaboration between medical services, healthcare, and welfare is sometimes pointed out. Under these circumstances, this fact-finding survey was administered in the form of a questionnaire to HCCs across the nation for the purpose of improving the support system and educational activities for epilepsy in Japan. A mail-back survey on regional healthcare services for epilepsy patients was sent out to 490 HCCs across the nation. Public health nurses (PHNs) responded to the self-completed questionnaire on behalf of each HCC. The questionnaire was comprised of the presence or absence of consultations on epilepsy, content of the consultations, and holding of workshops, lectures, or conferences in the community covered by the HCC. We obtained responses from 347 HCCs (response rate 71%). Seventy-three percent of the PHNs had experience with consultations regarding the medical and healthcare issues associated with epilepsy. However, only 10% of the PHNs responded that they could provide appropriate consultation for these issues. The content of the consultations mainly included medical services, clinical symptoms of epilepsy, and anxieties about their social life and their future. Workshops, lectures, or conferences on epilepsy were held for residents or health and welfare professionals in only 8% of the communities. This percentage is lower than those (21-70%) for other intractable or mental disorders that are mainly managed by HCCs (Prestrictions. To improve these situations, regional education programs for

  1. Burnout and self-reported suboptimal patient care amongst health care workers providing HIV care in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazenga, Alick C.; Simon, Katie; Yu, Xiaoying; Ahmed, Saeed; Nyasulu, Phoebe; Kazembe, Peter N.; Ngoma, Stanley; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2018-01-01

    Background The well-documented shortages of health care workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are further intensified by the increased human resource needs of expanding HIV treatment programs. Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and a sense of low personal accomplishment (PA). HCWs’ burnout can negatively impact the delivery of health services. Our main objective was to examine the prevalence of burnout amongst HCWs in Malawi and explore its relationship to self-reported suboptimal patient care. Methods A cross-sectional study among HCWs providing HIV care in 89 facilities, across eight districts in Malawi was conducted. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory defined as scores in the mid-high range on the EE or DP subscales. Nine questions adapted for this study assessed self-reported suboptimal patient care. Surveys were administered anonymously and included socio-demographic and work-related questions. Validated questionnaires assessed depression and at-risk alcohol use. Chi-square test or two-sample t-test was used to explore associations between variables and self-reported suboptimal patient care. Bivariate analyses identified candidate variables (p burnout. In the three dimensions of burnout, 55% reported moderate-high EE, 31% moderate-high DP, and 46% low-moderate PA. The majority (89%) reported engaging in suboptimal patient care/attitudes including making mistakes in treatment not due to lack of knowledge/experience (52%), shouting at patients (45%), and not performing diagnostic tests due to a desire to finish quickly (35%). In multivariate analysis, only burnout remained associated with self-reported suboptimal patient care (OR 3.22, [CI 2.11 to 4.90]; pBurnout was common among HCWs providing HIV care and was associated with self-reported suboptimal patient care practices/attitudes. Research is needed to understand factors that contribute to and protect against burnout and that inform the

  2. Fear of crime and its relationship to self-reported health and stress among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macassa, Gloria; Winersjö, Rocio; Wijk, Katarina; McGrath, Cormac; Ahmadi, Nader; Soares, Joaquim

    2017-12-13

    Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County. The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47-2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  3. Concordance of self-report and measured height and weight of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Phillips, Beatrice; Hoerr, Sharon L; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18-24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to obese (30 to obese (≥ 35). Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = .97; P students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Self-reports or Claims to Assess Disease Prevalence: It's Complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Patricia; Gaudette, Étienne; Zhao, Henu; Tysinger, Bryan; Seyedin, Roxanna; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-08-01

    Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include: (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; and (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence. Self-reported data from 3 sources are included: the Health and Retirement Study, the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Claims-based disease measurements are provided from Medicare claims linked to Health and Retirement Study and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, comprehensive claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare enrollees, and private health insurance claims from Humana Inc. Prevalence of diagnosed disease in the US elderly are computed and compared across sources. Two medical conditions are considered: diabetes and heart attack. Comparisons of diagnosed diabetes and heart attack prevalence show similar trends by source, but claims differ from self-reports with regard to levels. Selection into insurance plans, disease definitions, and the reference period used by algorithms are identified as sources contributing to differences. Claims and self-reports both have strengths and weaknesses, which researchers need to consider when interpreting estimates of prevalence from these 2 sources.

  5. Evaluation of an online training for improving self-reported evidence-based decision-making skills in cancer control among public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, A B; Ballew, P; Elliott, M B; Haire-Joshu, D; Kreuter, M W; Brownson, R C

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the effect of the online evidence-based cancer control (EBCC) training on improving the self-reported evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) skills in cancer control among Nebraska public health professionals. Cross-sectional group comparison. Previously developed EBDM measures were administered via online surveys to 201 public health professionals at baseline (comparison group) and 123 professionals who took part in the training. Respondents rated the importance of and their skill level in 18 EBCC skills. Differences were examined using analysis of variance models adjusted for gender, age, years at agency, and years in position, and stratified by respondent educational attainment. Among professionals without an advanced degree, training participants reported higher overall skill scores (P = .016) than the baseline non-participant group, primarily driven by differences in the partnerships and collaboration and evaluation domains. No differences in importance ratings were observed. Among professionals with advanced degrees, there were no differences in skill scores and small differences in importance scores in the expected direction (P studies. EBCC led to improved self-reported EBDM skills among public health professionals without an advanced degree, though a gap remained between the self-reported skills and the perceived importance of the skills. Further research on training content and modalities for professionals with higher educational attainment and baseline skill scores is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Kee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI

  7. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M

    2017-06-02

    Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height

  8. Investigation of four self-report instruments (FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, HC-PAIRS) to measure healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs toward low back pain: Reliability, convergent validity and survey of New Zealand osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Rushworth, Wendy M; Mason, Jesse

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare practitioner beliefs influence advice and management provided to patients with back pain. Several instruments measuring practitioner beliefs have been developed but psychometric properties for some have not been investigated. To investigate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Tool (FABT), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Health Care Providers (TSK-HC), the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ), and the Health Care Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS). A secondary aim was to explore beliefs of New Zealand osteopaths and physiotherapists regarding low back pain. FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, and HC-PAIRS were administered twice, 14 days apart. Data from 91 osteopaths and 35 physiotherapists were analysed. The FABT, TSK-HC and Back-PAQ each demonstrated excellent internal consistency, (Cronbach's α = 0.92, 0.91, and 0.91 respectively), and excellent test-retest reliability (lower limit of 95% CI for intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Correlations between instruments (Pearson's r = 0.51 to 0.77, p  0.47) for mean differences in scores, for all instruments, between professions. This study found excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good convergent validity for the FABT, TSK-HC, and Back-PAQ. Previously reported internal consistency, test-retest and convergent validity of the HC-PAIRS were confirmed, and test-retest reliability was excellent. There were significant scoring differences on each instrument between professions, and while both groups demonstrated fear avoidant beliefs, physiotherapist respondent scores indicated that as a group, they held fewer fear-avoidant beliefs than osteopath respondents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  10. Trends in self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian adults: an analysis of data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey, 1998-2008 Tendência temporal de hipertensão arterial autorreferida em adultos: uma análise da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Correa Muniz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the time trend in self-reported arterial hypertension from 1998 to 2008 in individuals older than 20 years in Brazil. Data were analyzed on prevalence of hypertension from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD for the years 1998, 2003, and 2008. The analysis considered the sampling complexity and included 203,419, 238,591, and 257,816 individuals in the years 1998, 2003, and 2008, respectively. The time trend in hypertension was analyzed by sex, family income, geographic regions of Brazil, and area of residence (urban versus rural, and the prevalence rates were adjusted for age. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 12.5% in 1998, 13% in 2003, and 13.9% in 2008, with an annual increase of 1.07%. The highest increases occurred in the Southeast Region (1.41%, in men (1.82%, and in urban areas (1.15%. The study showed a rise in the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in all income brackets and with increasing age. Knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension is essential for backing activities to prevent and control the problem, especially among the more vulnerable subgroups.O estudo avaliou a tendência temporal de hipertensão arterial autorreferida no período de 1998 a 2008, em indivíduos acima de 20 anos, no Brasil. Foram analisados os dados de prevalência de hipertensão da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD de 1998, 2003 e 2008. A análise considerou a complexidade amostral e incluiu 203.419, 238.591 e 257.816 indivíduos nos anos de 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente. A tendência de hipertensão foi descrita por sexo, renda domiciliar, macrorregiões do Brasil e zona de residência, e as prevalências foram ajustadas por idade. A prevalência de hipertensão foi de 12,5% em 1998, 13% em 2003 e 13,9% em 2008, com incremento anual de 1,07%. Maior aumento anual ocorreu na Região Sudeste (1,41%, entre homens (1,82% e na zona urbana (1,15%. Observou-se crescimento nas prevalências de

  11. Institutional practices and policies in acid-base testing: a self reported Croatian survey study on behalf of the Croatian society of medical biochemistry and laboratory medicine Working Group for acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey study was to assess the current practices and policies in use related to the various steps in the blood gas testing process, across hospital laboratories in Croatia. First questionnaire was sent by email to all medical biochemistry laboratories (N = 104) within general, specialized and clinical hospitals and university hospital centres to identify laboratories which perform blood gas analysis. Second questionnaire with detailed questions about sample collection, analysis and quality control procedures, was sent only to 47 laboratories identified by the first survey. Questionnaire was designed as combination of questions and statements with Likert scale. Third questionnaire was sent to all participating laboratories (N=47) for additional clarification for either indeterminate or unclear answers. Blood gas analysis is performed in 47/104 hospital laboratories in Croatia. In 25/41 (0.61) of the laboratories capillary blood gas sampling is the preferred sample type for adult patient population, whereas arterial blood sample is preferentially used in only 5/44 laboratories (0.11). Blood sampling and sample processing for capillary samples is done almost always by laboratory technicians (36/41 and 37/44, respectively), whereas arterial blood sampling is almost always done by the physician (24/29) and only rarely by a nurse (5/28). Sample acceptance criteria and sample analysis are in accordance with international recommendations for majority of laboratories. 43/44 laboratories participate in the national EQA program. POCT analyzers are installed outside of the laboratory in 20/47 (0.43) institutions. Laboratory staff is responsible for education and training of ward personnel, quality control and instrument maintenance in only 12/22, 11/20 and 9/20 institutions, respectively. Practices related to collection and analysis for blood gases in Croatia are not standardised and vary substantially between laboratories. POCT analyzers are not under the

  12. Trends in levels of self-reported psychological distress among individuals who seek psychiatric services over eight years: a comparison between age groups in three population surveys in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Lundin, Andreas; Lewis, Glyn; Fredlund, Peeter; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina

    2017-10-11

    Psychiatric service use has increased in Sweden and in other developed countries, particularly among young people. Possible explanations include lower threshold for help-seeking among young people, but evidence is scarce. We analysed the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Stockholm public health surveys for changes in the mean level of psychological distress among adult users of psychiatric in- and outpatient services in four age groups: 18-24, 25-44, 45-64 and ≥65 years. Psychological distress was measured via the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), using the Likert scoring method 0-1-2-3. In- and out-patient psychiatric service use within 6 months from the surveys was obtained from registers. The mean level of distress among young adults 18-24 years who utilize psychiatric services decreased between 2002 (mean GHQ-12 score, 95% confidence interval 20.5, 18.1-23.0) and 2010 (16.2, 14.6-17.7), while it remained fairly stable in older age groups. Results were similar in sex-stratified analyses, although the decrease was statistically significant only among young women 18-24 years. At the end of the follow-up, the level of distress among patients was similar for all age-groups. There were no differences between age groups in the level of distress when seeking care at the end of the follow-up period, supporting that there is no age-specific over- or under-consumption of psychiatric care in later years. However, the lowered threshold for help-seeking among young adults over time might have contributed to increases in psychiatric service use in the young age group. Public health policy and service delivery planning should consider the needs of the widening group of young users of psychiatric services.

  13. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to providing contraceptive information and counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Peter; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate pharmacy staff perspectives of a 2-year pharmacy intervention aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy in 18- to 30-year-old women. Pharmacy staff completed a 48-item, self-administered paper survey consisting of scaled and open-ended questions. 55 community pharmacies in 12 Iowa counties. All pharmacy staff participated, including pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and other pharmacy employees. Online continuing education (CE) training was made available to all pharmacy staff. Promotional materials including posters, brochures, and shelf talkers were displayed in all of the pharmacies. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to displaying posters, brochures, and shelf talkers in their pharmacies and providing contraceptive information and counseling to patients/customers. A total of 192 (43% return rate) pharmacy staff responded. Only 44% of respondents consistently provided contraceptive information and counseling, yet more than 90% felt that talking with patients/customers about contraceptives was easy, and more than 50% could do so privately. The study showed increased pharmacy staff desire to make this topic a priority. Community pharmacy staff can play a key role in educating and counseling young adult women about contraceptive health and pregnancy planning. This study indicates that staff are comfortable providing this service and that patients/customers are open to receiving guidance from pharmacists. However, pharmacy staff are missing additional opportunities to provide information and counseling. There is also a need for greater attention to provision of nonprescription contraceptive education.

  14. The Efficacy of Self-Report Measures in Predicting Social Phobia in African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Petrie, Jenny M; Richards, Allyn

    2015-03-01

    Empirical literature pertaining to anxiety in African Americans has been relatively sparse. More recent studies indicate that the construct of social fear is different in African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Although some of these studies have examined factor structure utilizing self-report measures of anxiety in African American samples, none to date have examined the clinical utility of these measures in predicting anxiety diagnoses, particularly social phobia. A total of sixty-five African American adults from the community completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II), Social Anxiety Interaction Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV) was administered to all participants to specify differential diagnoses of anxiety and related disorders. Twenty-three African American adults were diagnosed with social phobia leaving 42 diagnostic controls. Results suggest that the social anxiety factors were highly predictive of a social phobia diagnosis (AUC=.84 to .90; CI .73-.98, p<.01) and sensitivity and specificity rates revealed optimal cutoff scores for each measure. The optimal cutoff scores reveal the clinical utility of the social fear factor from these measures in screening for social phobia in African Americans. Future direction and implications are discussed. Psychinfo, PubMed, Medline. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Differences in self-reported physical limitation among older women and men in Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Zeinab; Yount, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt. 435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes. Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM. Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.

  17. The reliability, validity, and accuracy of self-reported absenteeism from work: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Surveying Teens in School to Assess the Prevalence of Problematic Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…

  19. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  20. Indonesian infertility patients’ health seeking behaviour and patterns of access to biomedical infertility care: an interviewer administered survey conducted in three clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients’ patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Results Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women’s age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. Conclusions The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and

  1. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Shelley, Mack; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-03-07

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design ( n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45). Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being ( p fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  2. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS with a cross-sectional study design (n = 7970, we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45. Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being (p < 0.05. However, respondents’ preferences regarding fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  3. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  4. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  5. Fear of crime and its relationship to self-reported health and stress among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Macassa

    2018-01-01

    Design and Methods: The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. Results: There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47- 2.66 and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41 respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21 but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86. Conclusions: Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  6. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  7. Self-reported quality care for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...

  8. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  9. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  10. Convergence of self-report scales and Rorschach indexes of psychological distress: the moderating role of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berant, Ety; Newborn, Michal; Orgler, Smadar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the weak associations found in research between self-report measures and the Rorschach test (Exner, 1978, 1991), from the perspective of Bornstein's (2002) "process dissociation framework." Specifically, in the study, we focused on the associations between self-report measures of psychological distress and their corresponding Rorschach indexes while inspecting the moderating role of self-disclosure. A total of 59, nonpatient Israeli adults participated in a 2-session study. In the first session, they completed self-report scales measuring self-disclosure and psychological distress (suicidality, depression, and loneliness). In the second session, the Rorschach test was administered and coded. The participants were divided into high and low self-disclosure groups. A convergence between self-report and Rorschach measures of psychological distress was found only among high self-disclosers. In the discussion, we address the theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.

  11. Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akano, Obinna F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  13. Validation of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale with American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaopeng; Paulson, Sharon E.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale with an American college sample (n = 404, 322 females, 88.9% Whites). Data were collected through an online survey, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test several proposed factor models from previous studies. The results…

  14. Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and socio-economic variations in clinical and self-reported malaria in Accra, Ghana: Evidence from facility data and a community survey. ... Conclusions: Understanding these seasonal and geographic patterns have implications for both prevention and treatment of malaria-like morbidity in both children and adults ...

  15. Self-report disability in an international primary care study of psychological illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VonKorff, M; Ustun, TB; Ormel, J; Kaplan, [No Value; Simon, GE

    We assessed the replicability of reliability and validity of a brief self-report disability scale, adapted from the Medical Outcomes Survey (short form), in a 15-center, cross-national, multilingual study of psychological illness among primary care patients (n = 5438). Across all 15 centers in the

  16. Social capital across urban neighborhoods: A comparison of self-report and observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.M.; Jobling, R.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous self-report survey research has demonstrated significant variation in social trust and neighborhood social ties between two neighborhoods of contrasting socioeconomic fortunes within the same English city. Residents in a deprived neighborhood reported that they trusted their neighbors less

  17. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-07-22

    Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in the second survey and the working hours recorded by the company was calculated for the following four time frames: daily working hours, monthly overtime working hours in the last month, average overtime working hours in the last 3 months, and the frequency of long working months (≥45 h/month) within the last 12 months. For reproducibility, the intraclass correlation between the first (September 2013) and second surveys (December 2013) was calculated for each of the four time frames. The Spearman correlations between self-reported working hours and those based on company records were 0.74, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.89 for daily, monthly, 3-monthly, and yearly time periods, respectively. The intraclass correlations for self-reported working hours between the two questionnaire surveys were 0.63, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.87 for the respective time frames. The results of the present study among Japanese male employees suggest that the validity of self-reported working hours is high for all four time frames, whereas the reproducibility is moderate to high.

  18. The Power Dynamics and Politics of Survey Design: Measuring Workload Associated with Teaching, Administering and Supporting Work-Integrated Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindie; Rowe, Anna; Cantori, Alex; Bilgin, Ayse; Mukuria, Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) courses can be more time consuming and resource intensive to design, teach, administer and support than classroom-based courses, as they generally require different curricula and pedagogical approaches as well as additional administrative and pastoral responsibilities. Workload and resourcing issues are reported as…

  19. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  20. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.

  1. On the reliability of self-reported health: Evidence from Albanian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vaillant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the reliability of self-assessed measures of health using panel data collected in Albania by the World Bank in 2002, 2003 and 2004 through the Living Standard Measurement Study project. As the survey includes questions on a self-assessed measure of health and on more objective health problems, both types of information are combined with a view to understanding how respondents change their answers to the self-reported measures over time. Estimates from random effects ordered Probit models show that differences in self-reported subjective health between individuals are much more marked than those over time, suggesting a strong state dependence in subjective health status. The empirical analysis also reveals respondent consistency, from both a subjective and an objective viewpoint. Self-reported health is much more influenced by permanent shocks than by more transitory illness or injury.

  2. Self-reported noise exposure as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    men and women when adjusting for demographic factors and health behavior. After further adjustment for physical workload at work the association between noise exposure and sickness absence disappeared for women, but not for men. Men that reported to be exposed to loud noise between one......Self-reported noise exposure is on the rise in Denmark. Little is known, however, about the social consequences, including sickness absence, of noise exposure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between self-reported noise exposure and long-term sickness absence....... The association was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model to analyze outcomes in Danish register data on the basis of Danish survey data (5357 employees aged 18-69 in 2000). The analyses showed that self-reported noise exposure was significantly associated with long-term sickness absence for both...

  3. Accuracy of self-reported drinking: observational verification of 'last occasion' drink estimates of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, Jeremy; Livingston, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As a formative step towards determining the accuracy of self-reported drinking levels commonly used for estimating population alcohol use, the validity of a 'last occasion' self-reporting approach is tested with corresponding field observations of participants' drinking quantity. This study is the first known attempt to validate the accuracy of self-reported alcohol consumption using data from a natural setting. A total of 81 young adults (aged 18-25 years) were purposively selected in Perth, Western Australia. Participants were asked to report the number of alcoholic drinks consumed at nightlife venues 1-2 days after being observed by peer-based researchers on 239 occasions. Complete observation data and self-report estimates were available for 129 sessions, which were fitted with multi-level models assessing the relationship between observed and reported consumption. Participants accurately estimated their consumption when engaging in light to moderate drinking (eight or fewer drinks in a single session), with no significant difference between the mean reported consumption and the mean observed consumption. In contrast, participants underestimated their own consumption by increasing amounts when engaging in heavy drinking of more than eight drinks. It is suggested that recent recall methods in self-report surveys are potentially reasonably accurate measures of actual drinking levels for light to moderate drinkers, but that underestimating of alcohol consumption increases with heavy consumption. Some of the possible reasons for underestimation of heavy drinking are discussed, with both cognitive and socio-cultural factors considered.

  4. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls: self-report of psychosocial status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14 to 16 years, with a detailed self-report interview technique. Hyperactivity was a risk factor for later development, even allowing for the coexistence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity predicted academic problems and interpersonal relationship problems. Relationships with parents, by contrast, were not portrayed to be as problematic as relationships with peers and the opposite sex. Their psychological, social and occupational functioning was objectively rated to be more deviant and their self-report showed them to be more ambivalent about their future. There was a trend for hyperactivity to be self-reported as a risk for the development of continuing symptomatology but neither hyperactivity nor conduct problems were self-reported to be a risk for antisocial behaviour, substance misuse or low self-esteem in adolescence. However, they were at risk for the development of state anxiety. The results suggested girls' pattern of functioning may differ from that of boys because girls self-report a more pervasive range of social dysfunction than that previously reported in boys.

  5. Do Workers Underreport Morbidity? The Accuracy of Self-reports of Chronic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Jürges, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    We use matched Danish health survey and register data to investigate discrepancies between register-based diagnoses and self-reported morbidity. We hypothesize that false negatives (medical diagnoses existing in the register but not reported in the survey) arise partly because individuals fear ca...... career repercussions of being discovered suffering a chronic or severe illness that potentially lowers productivity. We find evidence of substantial underreporting, which is indeed systematically higher for individuals in the labor market....

  6. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A Composite Self-Report: Reasons for Taking Science Courses as Given by Cocoa High School Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Frances H.

    A self-report instrument (questionnaire/reaction scale) was developed and administered to students in grades 9-12 to: (1) determine the number of science courses taken by each grade level; (2) estimate the number of science courses requested for future years and indicate where recruitment efforts would be needed; (3) examine other-directed reasons…

  8. Collecting Sensitive Self-Report Data with Laptop Computers: Impact on the Response Tendencies of Adolescents in a Home Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Andrew J.; Aquilino, William S.; Wright, Debra L.

    1999-01-01

    Explored effects of computerized, self-administered data collection techniques in research on adolescents' self-reported substance use and psychological well-being. Adolescents completing sensitive questions on only laptop computers reported higher levels of substance use and indicated higher levels of depression and irritability; they perceived…

  9. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  10. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Aggarwal, A; Liu, Z; Acheson, M; Rehm, C D; Moudon, A V; Drewnowski, A

    2016-03-01

    To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. The Seattle Obesity Study II was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007 to 2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared with receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and κ-statistics. Bias by sociodemographics was also examined. Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores or eating out. However, the highest-income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland-Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods-mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: -123.5 to 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores and mean difference 1.7 for eating out. The κ-statistics showed good agreement for each (κ 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high-income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts.

  11. Self-report measure of financial exploitation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2010-12-01

    this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  12. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  13. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  14. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedefaw A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95

  15. Reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance of the Dominic Interactive across European countries: Cross-country utility of a child mental health self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Otten, R.; Vermulst, A.A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Goelitz, D.; Keyes, K.M.; Koc, C.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kovess, V.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children's mental health. However, use of young children's self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV–based child mental health self-report

  16. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  17. Computer use at work is associated with self-reported depressive and anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeshik; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Yoo, Min-Sang; Lee, Dongwook; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    With the development of technology, extensive use of computers in the workplace is prevalent and increases efficiency. However, computer users are facing new harmful working conditions with high workloads and longer hours. This study aimed to investigate the association between computer use at work and self-reported depressive and anxiety disorder (DAD) in a nationally representative sample of South Korean workers. This cross-sectional study was based on the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011), and 48,850 workers were analyzed. Information about computer use and DAD was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. We investigated the relation between computer use at work and DAD using logistic regression. The 12-month prevalence of DAD in computer-using workers was 1.46 %. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the odds ratio for DAD was higher in workers using computers more than 75 % of their workday (OR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.30-2.20) than in workers using computers less than 50 % of their shift. After stratifying by working hours, computer use for over 75 % of the work time was significantly associated with increased odds of DAD in 20-39, 41-50, 51-60, and over 60 working hours per week. After stratifying by occupation, education, and job status, computer use for more than 75 % of the work time was related with higher odds of DAD in sales and service workers, those with high school and college education, and those who were self-employed and employers. A high proportion of computer use at work may be associated with depressive and anxiety disorder. This finding suggests the necessity of a work guideline to help the workers suffering from high computer use at work.

  18. Social determinants of self-reported health for Canada's indigenous peoples: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, R; Absher, N; Obiagwu, M; Qarmout, T; Steeves, M; Yaghoubi, M; Tikoo, R; Szafron, M; Dell, C; Farag, M

    2018-04-14

    In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada. Our analysis shows that being older, female, and living in urban settings were significantly associated with negative ratings of self-reported health status among the indigenous respondents. Additionally, we found that higher income and levels of education were strongly and significantly associated with positive ratings of self-reported health status. Compared with indigenous peoples with an education level of grade 8 or lower, respondents with higher education were 10 times (5.35-22.48) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health. Respondents who earned more than $40,000 annually were three times (2.17-4.72) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health compared with those who earned less than $20,000 annually. When interacted with income, we also found that volunteering in the community is associated with better self-reported health. There are known protective determinants (income and education) and risk determinants (location of residence, gender, and age) which are associated with self-reported health status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples. For indigenous-specific determinants, volunteering in the community appears to be associated with self-perceived health status. Thus, addressing these determinants will be necessary to achieve better health outcomes for indigenous peoples in Canada. Next steps include developing indigenous-specific social determinants of health indicators that adequately measure culture, connection

  19. Agent Orange exposure and prevalence of self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

  20. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  1. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  2. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  3. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Designing hunting regulation under population uncertainty and self-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...

  5. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyawaki

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort.The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36-55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1 gingival hemorrhage and (2 tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits.Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.85].Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

  7. Prescribed and self-reported seasonal training of distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; Hopkins, W G

    1995-12-01

    A survey of 123 distance-running coaches and their best runners was undertaken to describe prescribed seasonal training and its relationship to the performance and self-reported training of the runners. The runners were 43 females and 80 males, aged 24 +/- 8 years (mean +/- S.D.), training for events from 800 m to the marathon, with seasonal best paces of 86 +/- 6% of sex- and age-group world records. The coaches and runners completed a questionnaire on typical weekly volumes of interval and strength training, and typical weekly volumes and paces of moderate and hard continuous running, for build-up, pre-competition, competition and post-competition phases of a season. Prescribed training decreased in volume and increased in intensity from the build-up through to the competition phase, and had similarities with 'long slow distance' training. Coaches of the faster runners prescribed longer build-ups, greater volumes of moderate continuous running and slower relative paces of continuous running (r = 0.19-0.36, P training close to competition pace. The mean training volumes and paces prescribed by the coaches were similar to those reported by the runners, but the correlations between prescribed and reported training were poor (r = 0.2-0.6). Coaches may therefore need to monitor their runners' training more closely.

  8. Athlete Self-Report Measure Use and Associated Psychological Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335 had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively.

  9. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudijk, Bram; Donders, Rogier; Stalmeier, Peep

    2017-06-01

    Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural dimensions using the World Values Survey (WVS), namely the traditional/rational-secular and the survival/self-expression dimension. We investigate whether there is an association between the WVS cultural dimensions and SRH, both within and between countries. Data from 51 countries in the WVS is used and combined with macroeconomic data from the Worldbank database. The association between SRH and the WVS cultural dimensions is tested within each of the 51 countries and multilevel mixed models are used to test differences between these countries. Socio-demographic and macroeconomic variables are used to correct for non-cultural variables related to SRH. Within countries, the survival/self-expression dimension was positively associated with SRH, while in most countries there was a negative association for the traditional/rational-secular dimension. Values range between 4 and 17% within countries. Further analyses show that the associations within countries and between countries are similar. Controlling for macroeconomic and socio-demographic factors did not change our results. The WVS cultural dimensions predict SRH within and between countries. Contrary to our expectations, traditional/rational-secular values were negatively associated with SRH. As SRH is associated with cultural values between countries, cultural values could be considered when interpreting SRH between countries.

  10. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Headache and musculoskeletal complaints among subjects with self reported whiplash injury. The HUNT-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Oystein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury and the relationship to chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs and headache in a large unselected adult population. Methods Between 1995 and 1997, all inhabitants 20 years and older in Nord-Trondelag county in Norway were invited to a comprehensive health survey. Out of 92,936 eligible for participation, a total of 59,104 individuals (63.6% answered the question about whiplash injury (whiplash. Among these, 46,895 (79.3% responded to the questions of musculoskeletal complaints and headache. Results The total life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury was 2.9%, for women 2.7% and for men 3.0%. There was a significant association between self reported whiplash injury and headache (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.4, and chronic MSCs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.8-3.8, evident for all ten anatomical sites investigated. The association was most pronounced for those with a combination of headache and chronic MSC for both men (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 3.6-6.2 and women (OR = 5.2; 95% CI 3.7-7.1. Conclusions Subjects with self reported whiplash injury had significantly more headache and musculoskeletal complaints than those without, and may in part be due to selective reporting. The causal mechanism remains unclear and cannot be addressed in the present study design.

  12. Self-Reported Health and Gender: The Role of Social Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of social norms in accounting for differences in self-reported health as reported by men and women. Using the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS, 2010), we first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider – i.e. general self-assessed health but also more specific symptoms such as skin problems, backache, muscular pain in upper and lower limbs, headache and eyestrain, stomach ache, respiratory dif...

  13. The Svalbard study 1988-89: a unique setting for validation of self-reported alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H

    1995-04-01

    The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.

  14. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  15. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  16. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  17. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current

  18. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  19. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  2. Weight Bias: A Systematic Review of Characteristics and Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Emilie; Alberga, Angela; Russell-Mathew, Shelly; McLaren, Lindsay; von Ranson, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias. We rated each questionnaire's psychometric properties based on initial validation reports and subsequent use, and examined item language. Our systematic review identified 40 original self-report questionnaires. Most questionnaires were brief, demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and tapped key cognitive and affective dimensions of weight bias such as stereotypes and blaming. Current psychometric evidence is incomplete for many questionnaires, particularly with regard to the properties of test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change as well as discriminant and structural validity. Most questionnaires were developed prior to debate surrounding terminology preferences, and do not employ people-first language in the items administered to participants. We provide information and recommendations for clinicians and researchers in selecting psychometrically sound measures of weight bias for various purposes and populations, and discuss future directions to improve measurement of this construct. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Severe preeclampsia and maternal self-report of oral health, hygiene, and dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Berggren, Erica K; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

    2013-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service use before or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant females at the time of prenatal ultrasound and outcomes were ascertained by chart abstraction. The χ(2) test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service use between females with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive females. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for severe preeclampsia. A total of 48 (10%) of 470 females reported ≥2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months before pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. Fifty-one (11%) reported previous periodontal treatment. Twenty-eight (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Females with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR = 3.71; 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.83) than females without a history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service use before or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Maternal self-report of previous periodontal treatment before pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.

  4. Website design: technical, social and medical issues for self-reporting by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J; Stables, Rod; Matata, Bashir; Lisboa, Paulo J G; Laws, Andy; Almond, Peter

    2014-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the Internet for interacting with patients, both in terms of healthcare information provision and information gathering. In this article, we examine the issues in designing healthcare websites for elderly users. In particular, this article uses a year-long case study of the development of a web-based system for self-reporting of symptoms and quality of life with a view to examine the issues relating to website design for elderly users. The issues identified included the technical, social and medical aspects of website design for elderly users. The web-based system developed was based on the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions health-status questionnaire, a commonly used tool for patient self-reporting of quality of life, and the more specific coronary revascularisation outcome questionnaire. Currently, self-reporting is generally administered in the form of paper-based questionnaires to be completed in the outpatient clinic or at home. There are a variety of issues relating to elderly users, which imply that websites for elderly patients may involve different design considerations to other types of websites.

  5. Validation of self-reported diabetes in a representative sample of São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Mello Fontanelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults, participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo. Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3, specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9, positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8, and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2. The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5 than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.

  6. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  8. Body Mass Index: Accounting for Full Time Sedentary Occupation and 24-Hr Self-Reported Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Schuna, John M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Liu, Wei; Hamrick, Karen S.; Johnson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used linked existing data from the 2006–2008 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the Current Population Survey (CPS, a federal survey that provides on-going U.S. vital statistics, including employment rates) and self-reported body mass index (BMI) to answer: How does BMI vary across full time occupations dichotomized as sedentary/non-sedentary, accounting for time spent in sleep, other sedentary behaviors, and light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activities? Methods We classifie...

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported oral health status: the experience of Thailand after implementation of the universal coverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkotra, Tewarit

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify the extent to which socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status among Thais is present after the country implemented the Universal Coverage policy and to decompose the determinants and their associations with inequality in self-reported oral health status in particular with the worse condition. The study employed a concentration index to measure socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status, and the decomposition method to identify the determinants and their associations with inequality in oral health-related measures. Data from 32,748 Thai adults aged 15-75 years from the nationally representative Health &Welfare Survey and Socio-Economic Survey 2006 were used in analyses. Reports of worse oral health status of the lower socioeconomic-status group were more common than their higher socioeconomic-status counterparts. The concentration index (equaling -0.208) corroborates the finding of pro-poor inequality in self-reported worse oral health. Decomposition analysis demonstrated certain demographic-, socioeconomic-, and geographic characteristics are particularly associated with poor-rich differences in self-reported oral health status among Thai adults. This study demonstrated socioeconomic-related inequality in oral health is discernable along the entire spectrum of socioeconomic status. Inequality in perceived oral health status among Thais is present even while the country has virtually achieved universality of health coverage. The study also indicates population subgroups, particularly the poor, should receive consideration for improving oral health status as revealed by underlying determinants.

  10. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate...... more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation...... and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS...

  11. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between...... individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. METHODS: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking...... or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used...

  12. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  13. Self-reported Sleep Duration and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a General Population of Japanese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sentaro; Arima, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Zaid, Maryam; Torii, Sayuki; Horie, Minoru; Murata, Kiyoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Aim: There are few data regarding associations between sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis in Japan. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of self-reported sleep duration with calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Japanese men. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1093 randomly selected men from Kusatsu City, Japan. Average sleep duration on weekdays was estimated through questionnaire; CAC by computed tomography; and carotid IMT by ultrasonography. Results: The prevalence of CAC was 50.0% for participants with sleep duration 0.1). Conclusion: Self-reported sleep duration was not associated with increased CAC or carotid IMT in a general population of Japanese men. PMID:28747590

  14. Self-reported periodontal conditions among Dutch women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive

  15. Water sanitation, access, use and self-reported diarrheal disease in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Gabriela E; Bearman, Gonzalo; Sanogo, Kakotan; Stevens, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Only 79% of individuals living in rural Honduras use improved water sources. Inadequate drinking water quality is related to diarrheal illness, which in Honduras contributes to 18.6 episodes of diarrhea per child year in children under five years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare access to drinking water and sanitation, as well as self-reported diarrheal disease incidence among three proximal communities in the Department of Yoro area of Honduras. An 11-item language-specific, interviewer-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 263 randomly selected adults attending a June 2011 medical brigade held in the communities of Coyoles, La Hicaca, and Lomitas. Chi-square with Fisher exact tests were utilized to compare water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among these communities. Coyoles and La Hicaca used private faucets as their primary water sources. Coyoles had the greatest use of bottled water. Lomitas used rivers as their primary water source, and did not use bottled water. Mostly, females were responsible for acquiring water. Usage of multiple water sanitation methods was most common in Coyoles, while no sanitation method was most common in Lomitas. In Lomitas and La Hicaca, water filters were mostly provided via donation by non-governmental organizations. Lomitas had the highest reported incidence of diarrhea among self and other household members. Critical differences in water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among three geographically distinct, yet proximal, communities highlights the need for targeted interventions even in geographically proximal rural areas.

  16. Relapse Risk Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP): A New Self-Report Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn; Carpenter, William; Waters, Heidi C; Gerlanc, Nicole M; Legacy, Susan N; Ruetsch, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The Relapse Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP) was developed as a six-question self-report screener that measures indicators of Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation to assess patient stability and predict imminent relapse. This paper describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the RASP. The RASP and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered to patients with schizophrenia (n=166) three separate times. Chart data were collected on a subsample of patients (n=81). Psychometric analyses of RASP included tests of reliability, construct validity, and concurrent validity of items. Factors from RASP were correlated with subscales from PANSS (sensitivity to change and criterion validity [agreement between RASP and evidence of relapse]). Test-retest reliability returned modest to strong agreement at the item level and strong agreement at the questionnaire level. RASP showed good item response curves and internal consistency for the total instrument and within each of the two subscales (Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation). RASP Total Score and subscales showed good concurrent validity when correlated with PANSS Total Score, Positive, Excitement, and Anxiety subscales. RASP correctly predicted relapse in 67% of cases, with good specificity and negative predictive power and acceptable positive predictive power and sensitivity. The reliability and validity data presented support the use of RASP in settings where addition of a brief self-report assessment of relapse risk among patients with schizophrenia may be of benefit. Ease of use and scoring, and the ability to administer without clinical supervision allows for routine administration and assessment of relapse risk.

  17. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent self-reported diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Piazza, Marina; Tachimori, Hisateru; Hu, Chiyi; Lim, Carmen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; Kiejna, Andrzej; Levinson, Daphna; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The associations between mental disorders and cancer remain unclear. It is also unknown whether any associations vary according to life stage or gender. This paper examines these research questions using data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed the lifetime prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders in face-to-face household population surveys in nineteen countries (n = 52,095). Cancer was indicated by self-report of diagnosis. Smoking was assessed in questions about current and past tobacco use. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequently reported cancer. Results After adjustment for comorbidity, panic disorder, specific phobia and alcohol abuse were associated with a subsequently self-reported diagnosis of cancer. There was an association between number of mental disorders and the likelihood of reporting a cancer diagnosis following the onset of the mental disorder. This suggests that the associations between mental disorders and cancer risk may be generalised, rather than specific to a particular disorder. Depression is more strongly associated with self-reported cancers diagnosed early in life and in women. PTSD is also associated with cancers diagnosed early in life. Conclusion This study reports the magnitude of the associations between mental disorders and a self-reported diagnosis of cancer and provides information about the relevance of comorbidity, gender and the impact at different stages of life. The findings point to a link between the two conditions and lend support to arguments for early identification and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24529039

  18. Tobacco use and self-reported morbidity among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of

  19. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  20. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  1. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  2. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  3. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.

  4. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  5. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  6. Self-reported hearing loss in baby boomers from the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study: audiometric correspondence and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hunter, Michael L; Friedland, Peter L; Atlas, Marcus D

    2013-06-01

    The baby boomer population will become high users of the health-care system in coming years. Self-report of hearing loss at a primary health-care visit may offer timely referrals to audiological services, but there has been no population-based study of self-reported hearing loss in the baby boomer generation. To determine the clinical value and audiometric correspondence of self-reported hearing loss as a screening tool for the baby boomer population. A population-based study, Busselton Healthy Ageing Study (BHAS), surveying baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964 from the shire of Busselton, Western Australia. A randomized sample of noninstitutionalized baby-boomers listed on the electoral roll (n = 6690) and resident in the shire are eligible to participate. This study reports on data from the first 1004 attendees (53.5% female) with a mean age of 56.23 (SD = 5.43). Data from a self-report question on hearing loss and diagnostic pure tone audiometry was utilized for this study. Analysis included screening performance measures of self-report compared to audiometric cut-offs, receiver operator curve (ROC) to determine optimal level, analysis of variance to compare hearing status to self-report, and binary logistic regression to determine best audiometric predictors. Of the sample, 16% self-reported hearing loss (72.1% males). Logistic regression indicated 4000 Hz as the most important individual frequency related to self-report while the four-frequency average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) >25 dB in the worse ear was the most significant averaged cutoff with 68% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Of those who self-reported a hearing loss, 80% had either a four-frequency average hearing loss >25 dB in the worse ear or a high-frequency average (4000 and 8000 Hz) hearing loss greater than 35 dB in the worse ear. Baby boomer adults who self-report hearing impairment on direct inquiry are most likely to have a hearing loss. A simple question at a primary health care

  7. Regional differences in the validity of self-reported use of health care in Belgium: selection versus reporting bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van der Heyden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Care Module of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS is aimed to obtain comparable information on the use of inpatient and ambulatory care in all EU member states. In this study we assessed the validity of self-reported information on the use of health care, collected through this instrument, in the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS, and explored the impact of selection and reporting bias on the validity of regional differences in health care use observed in the BHIS. Methods To assess reporting bias, self-reported BHIS 2008 data were linked with register-based data from the Belgian compulsory health insurance (BCHI. The latter were compared with similar estimates from a random sample of the BCHI to investigate the selection bias. Outcome indicators included the prevalence of a contact with a GP, specialist, dentist and a physiotherapist, as well as inpatient and day patient hospitalisation. The validity of the estimates and the regional differences were explored through measures of agreement and logistic regression analyses. Results Validity of self-reported health care use varies by type of health service and is more affected by reporting than by selection bias. Compared to health insurance estimates, self-reported results underestimate the percentage of people with a specialist contact in the past year (50.5 % versus 65.0 % and a day patient hospitalisation (7.8 % versus 13.9 %. Inversely, survey results overestimated the percentage of people having visited a dentist in the past year: 58.3 % versus 48.6 %. The best concordance was obtained for an inpatient hospitalisation (kappa 0.75. Survey data overestimate the higher prevalence of a contact with a specialist [OR 1.51 (95 % CI 1.33–1.72 for self-report and 1.08 (95 % CI 1.05–1.15 for register] and underestimate the lower prevalence of a contact with a GP [ORs 0.59 (95 % CI 0.51–0.70 and 0.41 (95 % CI 0.39–0.42 respectively] in

  8. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  9. Informationally administered reward enhances intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Seon-Cheol; Medalia, Alice; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback. Participants were asked to play two cognitive games of equalized difficulty. Accuracy, self-reported intrinsic motivation, free-choice intrinsic motivation (i.e., game play during a free-choice observation period), and perceived competency were measured. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in the cognitive games were similar between the two participant groups. The informationally administered reward significantly enhanced self-reported intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in both the groups. The likelihood that individuals with schizophrenia would play the game during the free-choice observation period was four times greater in the informationally administered reward condition than that in the no-feedback condition. Our findings suggest that, in the context of cognitive remediation, individuals with schizophrenia would benefit from informationally administered rewards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory (LHT is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy, and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow. The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  11. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  12. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stefanie; Garland, Suzanne; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure-the SenseWear Armband (SWA)-to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and SWA data. A total of 58

  13. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self-reported

  14. Evaluating measurement invariance across assessment modes of phone interview and computer self-administered survey for the PROMIS measures in a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Chen, Ronald C; Usinger, Deborah S; Reeve, Bryce B

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate measurement invariance (phone interview vs computer self-administered survey) of 15 PROMIS measures responded by a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors. Participants were part of the North Carolina Prostate Cancer Comparative Effectiveness and Survivorship Study. Out of the 952 men who took the phone interview at 24 months post-treatment, 401 of them also completed the same survey online using a home computer. Unidimensionality of the PROMIS measures was examined using single-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Measurement invariance testing was conducted using longitudinal CFA via a model comparison approach. For strongly or partially strongly invariant measures, changes in the latent factors and factor autocorrelations were also estimated and tested. Six measures (sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, diarrhea, illness impact-negative, illness impact-positive, and global satisfaction with sex life) had locally dependent items, and therefore model modifications had to be made on these domains prior to measurement invariance testing. Overall, seven measures achieved strong invariance (all items had equal loadings and thresholds), and four measures achieved partial strong invariance (each measure had one item with unequal loadings and thresholds). Three measures (pain interference, interest in sexual activity, and global satisfaction with sex life) failed to establish configural invariance due to between-mode differences in factor patterns. This study supports the use of phone-based live interviewers in lieu of PC-based assessment (when needed) for many of the PROMIS measures.

  15. The impact of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-petersen, Annemette Coop; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances, and whether these health indicators measure similar aspects of health in this analysis. Data came from a 2006 Danish unemployment survey among a random...... on individual prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses, information on re-employment and various socio-demographic variables. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses to investigate the impact of self-reported health and prescription...... medicine purchases measured in 2006 on re-employment chances in 2007 and 2008. Our analyses show that unemployed workers with poor self-reported health and workers who had prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses were less likely to be re-employed in 2007 and 2008. Furthermore, the impact...

  16. Housing and Health: Very Old People with Self-Reported Parkinson’s Disease versus Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H. Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore whether aspects of housing and health among very old people with self-reported Parkinson’s disease (PD differ from matched controls. Methods. Data from the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study were used to identify people with self-reported PD (n=20 and three matched controls/individual (n=60. The matching criteria were age (mean = 82 years, sex, country, and type of housing. The analyses targeted problems in activities of daily living, objective and perceived aspects of housing, for example, number of environmental barriers, accessibility (i.e., person-environment fit, and usability. Results. The number of physical environmental barriers did not differ (P=0.727 between the samples. The PD sample had more (P<0.001 accessibility problems than controls and perceived their homes as less (P=0.003 usable in relation to activities. They were less independent and had more functional limitations (median 5 versus 2; P<0.001, and 70% experienced loss of stamina or poor balance. Conclusions. Due to the fact that they have more functional limitations than very old people in general, those with self-reported PD live in housing with more accessibility problems. This explorative study has implications for rehabilitation as well as societal planning, but larger studies including people with a confirmed PD diagnosis are needed.

  17. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Biomarkers Among NHANES Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Britni R; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W; Atienza, Audie A; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Berrigan, David

    2015-05-01

    Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth. Data came from 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma. In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14-0.21; girls: r = 0.07-0.11; P girls, there were no significant associations between biomarkers and any measures of physical activity. Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.

  19. Undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety in the classroom and clinical settings: an annual cross-sectional study (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukewich, Julia; Edge, Dana S; Tranmer, Joan; Raymond, June; Miron, Jennifer; Ginsburg, Liane; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Given the increasing incidence of adverse events and medication errors in healthcare settings, a greater emphasis is being placed on the integration of patient safety competencies into health professional education. Nurses play an important role in preventing and minimizing harm in the healthcare setting. Although patient safety concepts are generally incorporated within many undergraduate nursing programs, the level of students' confidence in learning about patient safety remains unclear. Self-reported patient safety competence has been operationalized as confidence in learning about various dimensions of patient safety. The present study explores nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety during their undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program. Cross-sectional study with a nested cohort component conducted annually from 2010 to 2013. Participants were recruited from one Canadian university with a four-year baccalaureate of nursing science program. All students enrolled in the program were eligible to participate. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered annually. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey captures how the six dimensions of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute Safety Competencies Framework and broader patient safety issues are addressed in health professional education, as well as respondents' self-reported comfort in speaking up about patient safety issues. In general, nursing students were relatively confident in what they were learning about the clinical dimensions of patient safety, but they were less confident about the sociocultural aspects of patient safety. Confidence in what they were learning in the clinical setting about working in teams, managing adverse events and responding to adverse events declined in upper years. The majority of students did not feel comfortable speaking up about patient safety issues. The nested cohort analysis confirmed these

  20. Social capital, political trust and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.

  1. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rhead

    Full Text Available As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence.Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560 provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates.94.3% (528/560 and 92.7% (519/560 of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well.Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that

  2. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhead, Rebecca; Masimirembwa, Collen; Cooke, Graham; Takaruza, Albert; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mutsimhi, Cosmas; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560) provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates. 94.3% (528/560) and 92.7% (519/560) of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well. Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that ART adherence

  3. How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Unrecorded alcohol has increased in the Nordic countries during recent years, above all in terms of cross-border trade. This implies that trends and levels of per capita consumption would look different without estimates of this source of alcohol, estimates that in Sweden and other countries are made through surveys. The overall aim is to analyse the validity of Swedish survey estimates of alcohol bought in the cross-border trade and possibly to develop weights that can be applied to such estimates. The analysis consists of comparing self-reported purchases of spirits, wine, cider/alcopops and beer at retail monopoly (Systembolaget) during 2008 (n = 18,000) with actual sales during the same period overall and monthly. Of the recorded amount of purchases at Systembolaget, 87% was reported in the survey, compared with the 40-60% usually found for self-reported consumption. Significant differences across beverages were revealed, showing a lower coverage rate for beer and spirits and a higher coverage rate for wine and cider. Changes in purchases of all beverages were captured fairly well, at least changes taking place from one month to another. Self-reported alcohol purchases achieve a higher coverage rate than found typically in studies based on self-reported use of alcohol. If adjustments are to be made to correct for underreporting in self-reported data on alcohol purchases, different weights should be applied to different beverages. Furthermore, at least major changes in how much alcohol is purchased in the population can be monitored using well-designed population surveys.

  4. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  5. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  6. Children's self-reported pain at the dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the

  7. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  8. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  9. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  10. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  11. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  12. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  13. A Self-Report Measure of Assertiveness in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jane M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…

  14. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  15. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  16. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  17. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  18. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural

  19. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  20. Cognitive abilities relate to self-reported hearing disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;

  1. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  2. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  3. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  4. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  5. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  6. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  7. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV

  8. Blouse sizing using self-reported body dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual

  9. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified male circumcision status in Nyanza region, Kenya: Evidence from the TASCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyo-June, Elijah; Agot, Kawango; Mboya, Edward; Grund, Jonathan; Musingila, Paul; Emusu, Donath; Soo, Leonard; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    Self-reported male circumcision (MC) status is widely used to estimate community prevalence of circumcision, although its accuracy varies in different settings depending on the extent of misreporting. Despite this challenge, self-reported MC status remains essential because it is the most feasible method of collecting MC status data in community surveys. Therefore, its accuracy is an important determinant of the reliability of MC prevalence estimates based on such surveys. We measured the concurrence between self-reported and physically verified MC status among men aged 25-39 years during a baseline household survey for a study to test strategies for enhancing MC uptake by older men in Nyanza region of Kenya. The objective was to determine the accuracy of self-reported MC status in communities where MC for HIV prevention is being rolled out. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was measured among 4,232 men. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC status followed by physical examination to verify the actual MC status whose outcome was recorded as fully circumcised (no foreskin), partially circumcised (foreskin is past corona sulcus but covers less than half of the glans) or uncircumcised (foreskin covers half or more of the glans). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported MC status were calculated using physically verified MC status as the gold standard. Out of 4,232 men, 2,197 (51.9%) reported being circumcised, of whom 99.0% were confirmed to be fully circumcised on physical examination. Among 2,035 men who reported being uncircumcised, 93.7% (1,907/2,035) were confirmed uncircumcised on physical examination. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was almost perfect, kappa (k) = 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%-99.1%. The sensitivity of self-reporting being circumcised was 99.6% (95% CI, 99.2-99.8) while specificity of self-reporting uncircumcised was 99.0% (95% CI, 98.4-99.4) and did not differ

  10. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-04-02

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly

  11. Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Saito, Eiko; Sultana, Papia; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with payments for health care in a city in Bangladesh. Methods A cluster-sampled probability survey of 1593 households in the city of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, was conducted in 2011. Multilevel logistic regression – with adjustment for any clustering within households – was used to examine the risk of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days. A multilevel Poisson regression model, with adjustment for clustering within households and individuals, was used to explore factors potentially associated with the risk of health-care-related “distress” financing (e.g. paying for health care by borrowing, selling, reducing food expenditure, removing children from school or performing additional paid work). Findings According to the interviewees, about 45% of the surveyed individuals had suffered at least one episode of illness in the previous 30 days. The most frequently reported illnesses among children younger than 5 years and adults were common tropical infections and noncommunicable diseases, respectively. The risks of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days were relatively high for adults older than 44 years, women and members of households in the poorest quintile. Distress financing, which had been implemented to cover health-care payments associated with 13% of the reported episodes, was significantly associated with heart and liver disease, asthma, typhoid, inpatient care, the use of public outpatient facilities, and poverty at the household level. Conclusion Despite the subsidization of public health services in Bangladesh, high prevalences of distress financing – and illness – were detected in the surveyed, urban households. PMID:24052682

  12. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  13. Self- Reported Comorbid Pains in Severe Headaches or Migraines in a US National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, Octavia; Adams, Sally H; Gansky, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Aims To compare prevalence of self-reported comorbid temporomandibular joint muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type, neck, back and joint pains in people with severe headache or migraine; analyze these self-reported pains in the 2000–2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) by gender and age for Non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Blacks (African Americans). Methods NHIS data included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, health status, and common pain types: severe headache or migraine, TMJMD-type, neck, and low back in the last 3 months, as well as prior month joint pains. Analyses included survey prevalence estimation and survey logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results 189,967 adults, 48% males, 52% females; 73% White, 12% Hispanic, and 11% Black were included. 29,712 (15%) of the entire sample reported severe headache or migraine, 19,228 (64%) had severe headache or migraine with at least one comorbid pain. 10,200 (33%) reported 2 or more comorbid pains, with no gender difference, and with Hispanics (n=1,847 or 32%) and Blacks (n=1,301 or 30%) less likely to report 2 or more comorbid pains than Whites (n=6,747 or 34%) (OR=0.91, p=0.032; OR=0.82, pheadache or migraine is often associated with other common pains, seldom existing alone. Two or more comorbid pains are common, similarly affecting gender and racial/ethnic groups. PMID:22553936

  14. Self-reported impulsivity in Huntington's disease patients and relationship to executive dysfunction and reward responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia L; Potts, Geoffrey F; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Cimino, Cynthia R

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures. It was expected that HD patients would report higher impulsivity and executive dysfunction and that these measures would relate to a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS) were completed, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a reward-based flanker task with punishing and rewarding conditions were administered to 22 HD patients and 14 control participants. HD patients reported higher trait impulsivity (BIS-11) and executive dysfunction (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, FrSBE) but not increased impulsivity on the BIS/BAS relative to controls. Higher BIS-11 scores were related to increased self-reported executive dysfunction and the attention/working memory factor of the MMSE. On a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task, BAS was uniquely related to increased accuracy on rewarding trials of the flanker task, but was not related to punishing trials in HD patients. The relationships found suggest that trait impulsivity is reported higher in HD and may not be driven by altered reward evaluation and the appetitive nature of stimuli but rather by increased executive dysfunction and lack of sensitivity to punishment. Impulsivity in HD may represent a combination of trait impulsivity, altered dopaminergic circuitry, and executive dysfunction. Understanding impulsivity in HD is

  15. The relationship between social desirability bias and self-reports of health, substance use, and social network factors among urban substance users in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Edwards, Catie; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Tobin, Karin E

    2017-10-01

    Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self-reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods. There were highly statistically significant differences in levels of social desirability response bias by levels of depressive symptoms, drug use stigma, physical health status, recent opiate and cocaine use, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, and size of social networks. There were no associations between health service utilization measures and social desirability bias. In multiple logistic regression models, even after including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a measure of depressive symptomology, social desirability bias was associated with recent drug use and drug user stigma. Social desirability bias was not associated with enrollment in prior research studies. These findings suggest that social desirability bias is associated with key health measures and that the associations are not primarily due to depressive symptoms. Methods are needed to reduce social desirability bias. Such methods may include the wording and prefacing of questions, clearly defining the role of "study participant," and assessing and addressing motivations for socially desirable responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Education and Self-Reported Health: Evidence from 23 Countries on the Role of Years of Schooling, Cognitive Skills and Social Capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borgonovi

    Full Text Available We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16-65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust.

  17. Agreement between self-reports and on-site inspections of compliance with a workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2012-09-01

    This study compares self-reports on compliance with a workplace smoking ban with on-site inspections of the same workplace, in the Netherlands, to assess the validity of self-reported compliance by employees. A total of 360 companies had participated in the telephone survey (in October and November 2006) and were also visited by inspectors directly after the survey to establish compliance. The sampling frame included companies with 5 or more employees, stratified according to the number of employees and type of economic activity. We calculated the agreement, the under- or overestimation and the predictive values, and explored nonresponse research. The percent agreement on compliance between the two measures was 77.5%, the McNemar test was not significant, and the agreement coefficient with first order correction was .68, indicating moderately strong agreement. Furthermore, the results indicate a slight overestimation of compliance. Concerning the predictive values, we found most variance among the self-reported noncompliance: 55.2% of those reporting noncompliance did in fact comply. This study allows to conclude that self-reports on compliance with a workplace smoking ban are largely valid and that social desirability is negligible. For agencies enforcing the workplace smoking ban, these results indicate that a strategy to identify noncompliance among responding companies might be useful. Moreover, such a strategy reduces the burden of inspecting among complying companies.

  18. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  20. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rowers’ Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes. PMID:28983443

  2. Rowers' Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley; Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes.

  3. The World Health Organization Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Screening Scale for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-05-01

    Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD, 123 were male (45.9%); mean (SD) age was 33.1 (11.4) years

  4. The World Health Organization Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Screening Scale for DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A.; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. Objectives To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Design, Setting, and Participants Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Results Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met

  5. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  6. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  7. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  8. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  9. Self-reports on students' learning processes are academic metacognitive knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.

  10. Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Asbjørn Thalund; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    back regions (27 points). LTSA was defined as ten or more consecutive workdays with sick leave. RESULTS: The PPT maps revealed the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical sensitivity among cleaners. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper back within the last 7 days correlated......BACKGROUND: Pressure pain threshold mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) within the last 12...... months among cleaners. METHODS: About 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. Subsequently, PPTs were measured at (1) tibialis anterior (control location, 1 point), (2) the neck-shoulder (48 points) and (3) the low...

  11. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  12. Self-reported delinquency in a probation service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.

  13. Test–Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior History in Urbanized Nigerian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen O. Dareng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies assessing risk of sexual behavior and disease are often plagued by questions about the reliability of self-reported sexual behavior. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of self-reported sexual history among urbanized women in a prospective study of cervical HPV infections in Nigeria.MethodsWe examined test–retest reliability of sexual practices using questionnaires administered at study entry and at follow-up visits. We used the root mean squared approach to calculate within-person coefficient of variation (CVw and calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC using two way, mixed effects models for continuous variables and (κ^ statistics for discrete variables. To evaluate the potential predictors of reliability, we used linear regression and log binomial regression models for the continuous and categorical variables, respectively.ResultsWe found that self-reported sexual history was generally reliable, with overall ICC ranging from 0.7 to 0.9; however, the reliability varied by nature of sexual behavior evaluated. Frequency reports of non-vaginal sex (agreement = 63.9%, 95% CI: 47.5–77.6% were more reliable than those of vaginal sex (agreement = 59.1%, 95% CI: 55.2–62.8%. Reports of time-invariant behaviors were also more reliable than frequency reports. The CVw for age at sexual debut was 10.7 (95% CI: 10.6–10.7 compared with the CVw for lifetime number of vaginal sex partners, which was 35.2 (95% CI: 35.1–35.3. The test–retest interval was an important predictor of reliability of responses, with longer intervals resulting in increased inconsistency (average change in unreliability for each 1 month increase = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.07–0.38, p = 0.005.ConclusionOur findings suggest that overall, the self-reported sexual history among urbanized Nigeran women is reliable.

  14. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Self-report of reading disabilities for adults: ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Giménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.

  17. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  19. Development and validation of a new self-report measure of pain behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Keefe, Francis; Jensen, Mark P; Roddey, Toni S; Callahan, Leigh F; Revicki, Dennis; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Salem, Rana; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  1. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  3. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between self-reported working conditions and registered health and safety results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høivik, Dordi; Baste, Valborg; Brandsdal, Einar; Moen, Bente E

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported working conditions and registered health and safety results in a petroleum company in Norway. We analyzed data from company surveys of working and organizational conditions in 2003 and 2004 and data from the company's files of sickness absence, personal injuries, serious incidents, and undesirable incidents in 2003 and 2004 as well as personal injuries from 2000 to 2004 using Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. Good perception of confidence in management in 2003 and 2004 was significantly negatively correlated with the number of personal injuries from 2000 to 2004. Management style and trust in the manager are important factors for predicting personal injuries. The company's working and organizational survey might be used as an indicator for injury risk.

  5. An exploration of the impact of invalid MMPI-2 protocols on collateral self-report measure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C

    2011-11-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the impact of invalid MMPI-2 (Butcher et al., 2001) response styles on MMPI-2 scale scores, limited research has specifically explored the effects that such response styles might have on conjointly administered collateral self-report measures. This study explored the potential impact of 2 invalidating response styles detected by the Validity scales of the MMPI-2, overreporting and underreporting, on scores of collateral self-report measures administered conjointly with the MMPI-2. The final group of participants included in analyses was 1,112 college students from a Midwestern university who completed all measures as part of a larger study. Results of t-test analyses suggested that if either over- or underreporting was indicated by the MMPI-2 Validity scales, the scores of most conjointly administered collateral measures were also significantly impacted. Overall, it appeared that test-takers who were identified as either over- or underreporting relied on such a response style across measures. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  6. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  7. Digit Ratio (2D:4D Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bönte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  8. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, C M; Mumghamba, E G

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH ( P promotion are recommended.

  9. Exploring socioeconomic disparities in self-reported oral health among adolescents in california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of

  10. Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.

  11. Health Behaviors and Self-Reported Health Among Cancer Survivors by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.

  12. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  13. Is violent radicalisation associated with poverty, migration, poor self-reported health and common mental disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep Bhui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders, and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. RESULTS: 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year. People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

  14. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.

  15. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  17. The NBOMe hallucinogenic drug series: Patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects in a large international sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Barratt, Monica; Williams, Martin; Horne, Abi; Winstock, Adam

    2014-08-01

    The NBOMe compounds are a novel series of hallucinogenic drugs that are potent agonists of the 5-HT2A receptor, have a short history of human consumption and are available to buy online, in most countries. In this study, we sought to investigate the patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey exploring the patterns of drug use was conducted in 2012 (n = 22,289), including questions about the use of 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and 25I-NBOMe and comparison drugs. We found that 2.6% of respondents (n = 582) reported having ever tried one of the three NBOMe drugs and that at 2.0%, 25I-NBOMe was the most popular (n = 442). Almost all (93.5%) respondents whose last new drug tried was a NBOMe drug, tried it in 2012, and 81.2% of this group administered the drug orally or sublingually/buccally. Subjective effects were similar to comparison serotonergic hallucinogens, though higher 'negative effects while high' and greater 'value for money' were reported. The most common (41.7%) drug source was via a website. The NBOMe drugs have emerged recently, are frequently bought using the internet and have similar effects to other hallucinogenic drugs; however, they may pose larger risks, due to the limited knowledge about them, their relatively low price and availability via the internet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Usefulness of self-report questionnaires for psychological assessment of patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis and patients' views of the questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to determine the relevance and applicability of psychological questionnaires to patients seeking help for tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. This was a questionnaire-based survey. The following questionnaires were administered: Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report (PDSS-SR), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated version (PSWQ-A). In addition, a patient feedback questionnaire was completed asking about the extent to which each questionnaire was relevant to them and how strongly they would recommend its use in the assessment of patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis. A total of 150/402 consecutive patients seen in a one-year period completed the questionnaires. 65% of patients had abnormal scores for one or more of the questionnaires. All questionnaires except the PDSS-SR were rated as relevant and recommended for use. The GAD-7, SHAI, Mini-SPIN, OCI-R, PSWQ-A and PHQ-9 are recommended for evaluation of psychological problems for patients seeking help for tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. Abnormal results on these questionnaires may indicate the need for referral for possible treatment of psychological problems.

  19. Continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy using self-reporting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Herbert; Kaci, Ledia; Xue, Xiaonan

    2004-03-01

    We performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence. Between October 2000 and February 2002 all men who underwent RRP were encouraged to complete the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Beginning October 2002 a single question capturing the patient global self-assessment of continence status was added to the postoperative continence assessment. The study design was cross-sectional since only continence surveys submitted between October 2002 through February 2003 were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa coefficient was determined for the relationship between the patient global assessment of continence vs the definition of continence based on pad requirement, problem due to incontinence and frequency of incontinence. Continence progressively improved 3 to 24 months following RRP for all continence outcomes. At 24 months following RRP 97.1% of men considered themselves continent, while 97.1%, 94.1% and 97.1% were considered continent using continence definitions, including the requirement of no or 1 pad in a 24-hour interval, no or slight bother due to incontinence and total control or occasional dribbling, respectively. Our 3 definitions of continence derived from responses to the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index had excellent agreement with patient global self-assessment of continence (kappa coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83). The majority of men achieve continence without invasive intervention following RRP. Final continence status should be ascertained at 24 months. The patient global assessment of continence provides face validity for other definitions of continence based on responses to validated self-administered questionnaires.

  20. Factors associated with self-reported number of teeth in a large national cohort of Thai adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiengprugsawan Vasoontara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health in later life results from individual's lifelong accumulation of experiences at the personal, community and societal levels. There is little information relating the oral health outcomes to risk factors in Asian middle-income settings such as Thailand today. Methods Data derived from a cohort of 87,134 adults enrolled in Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University who completed self-administered questionnaires in 2005. Cohort members are aged between 15 and 87 years and resided throughout Thailand. This is a large study of self-reported number of teeth among Thai adults. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse factors associated with self-reported number of teeth. Results After adjusting for covariates, being female (OR = 1.28, older age (OR = 10.6, having low income (OR = 1.45, having lower education (OR = 1.33, and being a lifetime urban resident (OR = 1.37 were statistically associated (p Conclusions This study addresses the gap in knowledge on factors associated with self-reported number of teeth. The promotion of healthy childhoods and adult lifestyles are important public health interventions to increase tooth retention in middle and older age.

  1. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  2. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  3. Direct and self-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours by weight status in school-aged children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.

  4. Telephone versus internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia: psychometric evaluation of a method to reduce the impact of missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor

    2013-10-18

    Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.

  5. The association between social capital measures and self-reported health among Muslim majority nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-soo

    2014-10-01

    Much evidence suggests that social capital (e.g. networks, trust, organizational memberships) has a significant effect on self-reported health. Previous research, however, has focused primarily on Western countries. The current research seeks to remedy this problem by investigating the association between multiple social capital indicators and subjective health in a novel empirical setting. The data come from the Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries (1999-2006) which consists of probabilistic samples from Muslim majority nations. Three-way multilevel analysis is used to examine the social determinants of health. Statistical results from hierarchical linear modeling shows that frequent contact with strong and intermediate ties (i.e. family members and friends, respectively) is significant, while interaction with weak ties (coworkers) has no association. General trust and trust in the central government are also significantly related to subjective health, as is trust in religious authority, albeit in an inverse way. This study calls for a more contingent view of the relationship between social capital and self-reported health. Future research needs to take this into consideration in hypothesizing and testing the potential health benefits of social capital.

  6. The association between access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-12-05

    Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  7. How Common is Men's Self-Reported Sexual Interest in Prepubescent Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombert, Beate; Schmidt, Alexander F; Banse, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Hoyer, Jürgen; Neutze, Janina; Osterheider, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in nonclinical/nonforensic male populations. However, prevalences for community men's self-reported sexual interest in children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed men's self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on the community level and examined the link between strictly defined sexual fantasies and behaviors involving prepubescent children. In an online survey of 8,718 German men, 4.1% reported sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children, 3.2% reported sexual offending against prepubescent children, and 0.1% reported a pedophilic sexual preference. Sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children were positively related to sexual offending against prepubescent children. Sexual interest in children was associated with subjectively perceived need for therapeutic help. In contrast to findings from forensic samples, men who reported child pornography use exclusively were identified as a subgroup differing from contact sexual offenders against prepubescent children and men who reported both child pornography use and contact sexual offenses against prepubescent children. The empirical link between child-related sexual fantasies and sexual victimization of prepubescent children and high levels of subjective distress from this inclination underscore the importance of evidence-based child sexual abuse prevention approaches in the community. Findings are discussed in terms of their relation to pedophilic disorder.

  8. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacLure

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  9. Self-reported tattoo reactions in a cohort of 448 French tattooists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Self-reported complaints in people having tattoos, including swelling, itch, and photosensitivity, are frequent. Tattooists are usually heavily tattooed with multiple extended colored tattoos and constitute a specific population of interest. To assess the prevalence of cutaneous complications on tattoos among a cohort of French tattooists. An observational self-reported internet survey was performed among the tattooists of the French Tattoo Union in November 2013 to report on complaints about their tattoos. Of the 448 respondents, 42.6% reported a "tattoo reaction" on a least one of their previous tattoos: transient itch (45.7%), wax-and-waning swelling (57%), and swelling after sun exposure (23%). A tattoo "allergy" on one color of the tattoo was found in 8%. Permanent itch, swelling, and cutaneous infection were rare. No skin cancer on tattoos was reported. The binary regression analysis revealed that the area of the tattooed body surface was the main driver of the risk of developing a tattoo reaction, mainly transient or permanent swelling triggered by sun exposure or not. The tattoo reaction, transient itch, and swelling on tattoos seemed to be associated with the sun protection habits of the tattooed individuals. Professional tattooists have a high prevalence of minor complaints (transient itch and swelling) and photosensitivity on their tattoos such as in the general tattooed population. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Mental Wellbeing and Self-reported Symptoms of Reproductive Tract Infections among Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama A. Khopkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.  

  11. Self-reported confidence and skills of general practitioners in management of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley Browne, Mark; Lee, Adeline; Prabhu, Radha

    2007-10-01

    To identify the predictors of self-reported confidence and skills of GPs in management of patients with mental health problems. Cross-sectional survey, with questionnaire presented to 246 GPs working in 62 practices throughout Gippsland. Rural general practices in Gippsland. One hundred and thirty-four GPs across Gippsland. GPs completed a questionnaire assessing self-perception of knowledge and skills in recognition and management of common mental health problems. Of 134 GPs, 45% reported that they have a specific interest in mental health, and 39% of GPs reported that they had previous mental health training. Only 22% of GPs describe having both an interest and prior training in mental health care. Age and years since graduation are not significantly related to self-reported confidence and skills. The results of this study highlight that self-professed interest and prior training in mental health are associated. Self-professed interest in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health disorders. Similarly, prior training in mental health care predicts confidence and self-perceived skills in recognition, assessment and management of common mental health problems. Self-professed interest in mental health issues is also associated with hours of participation in continuing medical education related to mental health care. Unfortunately, only a minority described having both interest and prior training in mental health care.

  12. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Workplace injustice and self-reported disease and absenteeism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Seung-Sup; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether experience of workplace injustice was associated with self-reported occupational health using a nationally representative sample of Korean workers. We used the first wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) and included 7,007 wage employees as the study population. Workplace injustice included the experience of discrimination, violence, or harassment, and occupational health was measured as self-reported health problems and absenteeism. Personal, occupational, and job-related characteristics were included as covariates. An average of 7.2% of workers reported experiencing at least one workplace injustice over the past 12 months. Female workers were significantly more likely to experience age and gender discrimination, and unwanted sexual attention than male workers. Both male and female workers who experienced any workplace injustice (i.e., discrimination, harassment, or violence) reported approximately two- to threefold increased risk for physical and mental health problems (i.e., backaches, muscular pain, stomach pain, overall fatigue, headaches, anxiety/depression, sleeping problems, and injury) and absenteeism due to accidents or due to health problems. Perceived injustice at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational disease and absenteeism for Korean wage employees. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  15. Parental separation in childhood and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2016-12-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women residing in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women and examines the association between Arab and Chaldean ethnicity and heart disease among a sample of women. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women aged > or = 18 years who completed a survey that was distributed at churches, mosques, and small businesses in southeast Michigans. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and self-reported heart disease before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. A sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women 18 years of age and older. The overall prevalence of heart disease was 5.1%. Estimates were higher for Arabs (7.1%), lower for Chaldeans (6.6%), and lowest among African Americans (1.8%). In the unadjusted model, Chaldeans and Arabs were four times more likely to have heart disease than were African Americans. However, in the fully adjusted model, the association between Chaldean or Arab ethnicity and heart disease was no longer statistically significant. Arab or Chaldean ethnicity was not significantly associated with self-reported heart disease among women, which suggests that other factors account for this relationship. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health behavior information.

  17. Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoenborn Charlotte A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Body Mass Index (BMI based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI" in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Methods Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Results Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55, gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. Conclusion BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases

  18. Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A

    2009-11-19

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI") in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55), gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the survey

  19. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  1. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  2. Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.

  3. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...

  4. Use of self-report to predict ability to walk 400 meters in mobility-limited older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Stephen P; Brach, Jennifer S; Newman, Anne B; Heeren, Tim C; Guralnik, Jack M; Fielding, Roger A

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether the ability to walk 400 m could be predicted from self-reported walking habits and abilities in older adults and to develop an accurate self-report measure appropriate for observational trials of mobility when functional measures are impractical to collect. Cross-sectional. University-based human physiology laboratory. One hundred fifty community-dwelling older men and women (mean age+/-standard error= 79.8+/-0.3). An 18-item questionnaire assessing walking habits and ability was administered to each participant, followed by a 400-m walk test. Ninety-eight (65%) volunteers were able to complete the 400-m walk; 52 (35%) were unable. Logistic regression was performed using response items from a questionnaire as predictors and 400-m walk as the outcome. Three questions (Do you think you could walk one-quarter of a mile now without sitting down to rest. Because of a health or physical problem, do you have difficulty walking 1 mile? Could you walk up and down every aisle of a grocery store without sitting down to rest or leaning on a cart?) were predictive of 400-m walking ability and were included in the model. If participants answered all three questions compatible with the inability to walk 400 m, there was a 91% probability that they were unable to walk 400 m, with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 97%. A three-item self-report developed in the study was able to accurately predict mobility disability. The utility of this instrument may be in evaluating self-reported mobility in large observational trials on mobility when functional mobility tasks are impractical to collect.

  5. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-consciousness concept and assessment in self-report measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilveira, Amanda; DeSouza, Mariane L.; Gomes, William B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale). Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analyzed as follows: (1) correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2) factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3) factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between SCSs, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants’ inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than 100 years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious. PMID:26191030

  7. Therapist's interpersonal style and therapy benefit as the determinants of personality self-reports in clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziahmetović, Nina; Alispahić, Sabina; Tuce, Đenita; Hasanbegović-Anić, Enedina

    2016-02-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. In (counter)transference relationship therapist's interpersonal style, implying the perceived relation of therapist to a client (patient) in terms of control, autonomy, care and positive feedback, has been shown to be important. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between therapist's interpersonal style and clients' personality self-reports. Within therapist's interpersonal style, preliminary validation of the Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale has been conducted, which included double translation method, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability tests of the derived components. This research was conducted on a group of 206 clients, attending one of the four psychotherapy modalities: psychoanalysis, gestalt therapy, cognitive-behavioral and systemic family therapy. Beside Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale, Big Five Questionnaire and Therapy Benefit Scale were administered, showing good internal consistency. Principal component analysis of therapist's interpersonal style singled out two components Supportive Autonomy and Ignoring Control, explaining 42% of variance. Two-factor model of the therapist's styles was better fitted in confirmatory factor analysis than the original 4-factor model. Structural model showing indirect and direct effects of therapist's interpersonal styles on self-reports in clients indicates good fitness (χ²(12) = 8.932, p = 0.709; goodness-of-fit index = 0.989), with Ignoring Control having direct effect on Stability, Supportive Autonomy on Therapy Benefit, and Therapy Benefit on Plasticity. The results of this study indicate the importance of further research on therapist's interpersonal style, as well as further validation of the instrument that measures this construct. Besides, a client's perception that the therapy is being helpful could instigate more explorative and approach-oriented behavior, what indirectly might contribute to a client's stability.

  8. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fonagy

    Full Text Available Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ, designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and Eating Disorder (ED (n = 108 and normal controls (n = 295. Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C and Uncertainty (RFQ_U about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  9. Hipertensão arterial na cidade de São Paulo: prevalência referida por contato telefônico Hipertensión arterial en la ciudad de São Paulo: prevalencia referida por contacto telefónico Hypertension in the city of São Paulo: self-reported prevalence assessed by telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Mion Jr

    2010-07-01

    ,8% presentan historia de accidente cerebro vascular, 27,8% cardiopatía y 38,7% hipercolesterolemia; 71,2% recibieron orientación de disminuir la sal, 64,6% de realizar actividad física, 60,0% para perder peso y 26,2% de controlar el stress; y 78,9% medían la presión regularmente. Hubo relación estadísticamente significativa (p BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of hypertension in São Paulo, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: There were 613 telephone interviews using directories of household landlines. The sample was calculated with an estimated prevalence of hypertension in 20.0%. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 23.0% and 9.0% of respondents reported that the value of their last pressure measurement was greater than 140/90 mmHg, but they were unaware that they were hypertensive, with a total prevalence 32.0%. Hypertensive patients reported that: 89.0% were under treatment and 35.2% were controlled; 27.0% miss medical appointments; 16.2% stop taking drugs; 14.8% have a history of stroke; 27.8% had heart disease and 38.7% had hypercholesterolemia; 71.2% received advice to reduce salt, 64.6% to perform physical activity, 60.0% to lose weight loss and 26.2% to control stress; and 78.9% measured pressure regularly. There was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05 for: 1 missing medical appointments with longer treatment and irregular health monitoring; 2 stop taking the drugs with smoking, alcohol and failure to monitore health; 3 carry out treatment for hypertension with dyslipidemia, higher age and longer use of contraceptives for women; and 4 body mass index changed with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled systolic blood pressure and use of more than one anti-hypertension drug. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo resembles the prevalence found in other studies.

  10. Associations between self-reported and objective physical environmental factors and use of a community rail-trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, P J; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R; Reininger, B; Ureda, J R; Thompson, S J

    2001-02-01

    To effectively promote physical activIty, researchers and policy makers have advocated for greater use of environmental approaches, such as the construction of community paths and trails. However, research on the use of these facilities is limited. In this cross-sectional community study, we examined associations between self-reported and objective physical environmental variables and use of the Minuteman Bikeway (Arlington, MA) in a random sample of 413 adults. Sociodemographic and perceived environmental variables were measured with a mail survey during September 1998. Geographic information system (GIS) data were used to geocode survey respondents' homes and create three objective environmental variables: distance to the Bikeway, steep hill barrier, and a busy street barrier. In logistic models, age and female gender showed statistically significant inverse associations with Bikeway use over the previous 4-week period. Increases in self-reported (OR = 0.65) and GIS distance (OR = 0.57) were associated with decreased likelihood of Bikeway use. Absence of self-reported busy street (OR = 2.01) and GIS steep hill barriers (OR = 1.84) were associated with Bikeway use. Environmental barriers such as travel distance and hilly terrain should be considered when planning community trails. A better understanding of such factors may lead to more effective promotion of trail use. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  11. Item bias in self-reported functional ability among 75-year-old men and women in three Nordic localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Era, P; Davidsen, M

    1996-01-01

    to geographical locality and gender. Information about self-reported functional ability was gathered from surveys on 75-year-old men and women in Glostrup (Denmark), Göteborg (Sweden) and Jyväskylä (Finland). The data were collected by structured home interviews about mobility and Physical activities of daily......The purpose of this article is to analyse item bias in a measure of self-reported functional ability among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities. The present item bias analysis examines whether the construction of a functional ability index from several variables results in bias in relation...... living (PADL) in relation to tiredness, reduced speed and dependency and combined into three tiredness-scales, three reduced speed-scales and two dependency-scales. The analysis revealed item bias regarding geographical locality in seven out of eight of the functional ability scales, but nearly no bias...

  12. Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning habitual sleep reduction and its adverse consequences among general population in modern societies has received wide publicity in the mass media, although scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis is scarce. Similarly, there is an extensively distributed belief, at least...... in Finland, that the prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms is increasing, but evidence for this is even sparser. These issues are important because of the known increased risk of mortality and health risks associated with sleep duration deviating from 7 to 8 h. To reveal possible trends in self......-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms, we reanalyzed all available data from surveys carried out in Finland from 1972 to 2005. The main results were that a minor decrease of self-reported sleep duration has taken place in Finland, especially among working aged men. However, the size...

  13. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  14. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  15. Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Mocroft, Amanda; Lazarus, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV...... management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. METHODS: A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared...... with clinics in all other EuroSIDA regions combined (non-EE). Characteristics were compared between regions using Fishers exact test. RESULTS: A total of 80/97 clinics responded (82.5%, 12/15 in EE, 68/82 in non-EE). Participating clinics reported seeing a total of 133,532 patients [a median of 1300 per clinic...

  16. Self-reported urinary incontinence in elderly and its associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernandes Bolina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Household survey, cross-sectional and observational study that aimed to verify the socio-demographic factors and self-reported mor