Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several
Magalhães Junior, Hipólito V; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Lima, Kenio C; Ferreira, Maria Angela F
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with signs and symptoms which may be present in older adults, but they are rarely noticed as a health concern by older people. The earliest possible identification of this clinical condition is needed by self-reported population-based screening questionnaire, which are valid and reliable for preventing risks to nutritional status, increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to identify self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults to evaluate their methodological quality for population-based studies. An extensive search of electronic databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS), PsycINFO (APA), Lilacs and Scielo) was conducted in the period from April to May 2017 using previously established search strategies by the two evaluators. The methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the included studies were evaluated by the COSMIN (Consensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) checklist and the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues, respectively. The analysed information was extracted from three articles which had conducted studies on the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia by self-reported screening questionnaires, showing poor methodological quality and flaws in the methodological description to demonstrate its psychometric properties. This study did not find any self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia with suitable methodological quality and appropriate evidence in its psychometric properties for elders. Therefore, the self-reported questionnaires within the diagnostic proposal require greater details in its process for obtaining valid and reliable evidence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most perso...
Shraga, Roman; Yarnall, Sarah; Elango, Sonya; Manoharan, Arun; Rodriguez, Sally Ann; Bristow, Sara L; Kumar, Neha; Niknazar, Mohammad; Hoffman, David; Ghadir, Shahin; Vassena, Rita; Chen, Serena H; Hershlag, Avner; Grifo, Jamie; Puig, Oscar
Current professional society guidelines recommend genetic carrier screening be offered on the basis of ethnicity, or when using expanded carrier screening panels, they recommend to compute residual risk based on ethnicity. We investigated the reliability of self-reported ethnicity in 9138 subjects referred to carrier screening. Self-reported ethnicity gathered from test requisition forms and during post-test genetic counseling, and genetic ancestry predicted by a statistical model, were compared for concordance. We identified several discrepancies between the two sources of self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. Only 30.3% of individuals who indicated Mediterranean ancestry during consultation self-reported this on requisition forms. Additionally, the proportion of individuals who reported Southeast Asian but were estimated to have a different genetic ancestry was found to depend on the source of self-report. Finally, individuals who reported Latin American demonstrated a high degree of ancestral admixture. As a result, carrier rates and residual risks provided for patient decision-making are impacted if using self-reported ethnicity. Our analysis highlights the unreliability of ethnicity classification based on patient self-reports. We recommend the routine use of pan-ethnic carrier screening panels in reproductive medicine. Furthermore, the use of an ancestry model would allow better estimation of carrier rates and residual risks.
Canfell, Karen; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane; Cameron, Rebecca; Baker, Krys; Brown, Anna
The Million Women Study is a cohort study of women aged 50-64 years in England and Scotland. As a component of the follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate if they had an abnormal cervical smear in the previous five years. This study compared self-reported cervical abnormalities with screening records obtained from the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. For 1944 randomly selected Million Women Study participants in Oxfordshire, screening records were assessed over a six-year period prior to the date of self-reporting. The six-year period was chosen to allow for errors in the recall of timing of abnormal smears. A total of 68 women (3.5%) had a record of at least one equivocal or abnormal smear within the last six years, whereas 49 women (2.5%) self-reported an abnormality. There was a strong trend for an increased probability of self-reporting a history of an abnormal smear as the severity of the recorded abnormality increased (P screening programme records show an abnormal smear, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality increases with the severity of the recorded lesion. Almost all women with a record of negative or inadequate smear(s) correctly interpret the result and do not self-report an abnormality.
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Son, Esther; Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen
This study examines the accuracy of self-report of cervical and breast cancer screening by women with intellectual disability ("n" ?=? 155). Data from face-to-face interviews and medical records were analyzed. Total agreement, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Total…
Teatske M Altenburg
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the association between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk exists among obese adolescents. We examined the association between screen time (TV and computer time and cardiometabolic risk in obese Dutch adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the current cross-sectional study, baseline data of 125 Dutch overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years participating in the Go4it study were included. Self-reported screen time (Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults and clustered and individual cardiometabolic risk (i.e. body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density (LDL-C, high-density (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, glucose and insulin were assessed in all participants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We found no significant relationship between self-reported total screen time and clustered cardiometabolic risk or individual risk factors in overweight and obese adolescents. Unexpectedly, self-reported computer time, but not TV time, was slightly but significantly inversely associated with TC (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.003;-0.000] and LDL-C (B = -0.002; CI = [-0.001;0.000]. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescents we could not confirm the hypothesised positive association between screen time and cardiometabolic risk. Future studies should consider computer use as a separate class of screen behaviour, thereby also discriminating between active video gaming and other computer activities.
Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H
Background Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, languag...
Velligan, Dawn; Carpenter, William; Waters, Heidi C; Gerlanc, Nicole M; Legacy, Susan N; Ruetsch, Charles
The Relapse Assessment for Schizophrenia Patients (RASP) was developed as a six-question self-report screener that measures indicators of Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation to assess patient stability and predict imminent relapse. This paper describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the RASP. The RASP and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were administered to patients with schizophrenia (n=166) three separate times. Chart data were collected on a subsample of patients (n=81). Psychometric analyses of RASP included tests of reliability, construct validity, and concurrent validity of items. Factors from RASP were correlated with subscales from PANSS (sensitivity to change and criterion validity [agreement between RASP and evidence of relapse]). Test-retest reliability returned modest to strong agreement at the item level and strong agreement at the questionnaire level. RASP showed good item response curves and internal consistency for the total instrument and within each of the two subscales (Increased Anxiety and Social Isolation). RASP Total Score and subscales showed good concurrent validity when correlated with PANSS Total Score, Positive, Excitement, and Anxiety subscales. RASP correctly predicted relapse in 67% of cases, with good specificity and negative predictive power and acceptable positive predictive power and sensitivity. The reliability and validity data presented support the use of RASP in settings where addition of a brief self-report assessment of relapse risk among patients with schizophrenia may be of benefit. Ease of use and scoring, and the ability to administer without clinical supervision allows for routine administration and assessment of relapse risk.
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities…
We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...
We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...
LeBlanc, Allana G; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S
Demographic, family, and home characteristics play an important role in determining childhood sedentary behaviour. The objective of this paper was to identify correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and correlates of self-reported screen time (ST) in Canadian children. Child- and parent-reported household, socio-demographic, behavioural, and diet related data were collected; directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were also collected for each child. Participants with complete demographic, anthropometric, and either SED (n=524, 41% boys) or ST (n=567, 42% boys) data from the Canadian site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) were included in analysis. Sixteen potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel general linear models, adjusting for sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socio-economic status. All explanatory variables moderately associated (peducation, and unhealthy eating pattern score and negatively associated with healthy eating pattern score, and weekend breakfast consumption. Few common correlates existed between boys and girls. Several factors were identified as correlates of SED and/or of ST in Canadian children; however, few correlates were common for both SED and ST, and for both boys and girls. This suggests that a single strategy to reduce SED and ST is unlikely to be effective. Future work should examine a variety of other, non-screen based sedentary behaviours and their potential correlates in the hopes of creating tailored public health messages to reduce SED and ST in both boys, and girls.
Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H
Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, language ability, self-rated health, employment status, age category (for cervical cancer screening), and gender (for fecal occult blood testing). We linked multiple data sources for this study, including the Canadian Community Health Survey and provincial-level health databases. Using administrative data as our gold standard, we calculated validity measures for self-report (i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values), calculated report-to-record ratios, and conducted a multivariable regression analysis to determine which characteristics were independently associated with over-reporting of screening. Specificity was less than 70% overall and for all subgroups for cervical and breast cancer screening, and sensitivity was lower than 80% overall and for all subgroups for fecal occult blood testing FOBT. Report-to-record ratios were persistently significantly greater than 1 across all cancer screening types, highest for the FOBT group: 1.246 [1.189-1.306]. Regression analyses showed no consistent patterns, but sociodemographic characteristics were associated with over-reporting for each screening type. We have found that in Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, there is a pervasive tendency for people to over-report their cancer screening histories. Sociodemographic status also appears to influence over-reporting. Public health practitioners and policymakers need to be aware of the limitations of self-report and adjust their methods
Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian
The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.
Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J
The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.
Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.
This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…
Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly
Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834
Full Text Available The increased use of technology within the educational field gives rise to the need for developing valid instruments to measure key constructs associated with performance. We present some self-report instruments developed and/or validated in the Italian context that could be used to assess achievement emotions and correlates, within the theoretical framework of Pekrun’s control-value model. First, we propose some data related to the construction of two instruments developed to assess ten achievement emotions: the Brief Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, BR-AEQ, used with college students, and the Graduated Achievement Emotions Set, GR-AES, used with primary school students. Second, we describe some data concerning the validation within the Italian context of two instruments assessing achievement goals as antecedents of achievement emotions: the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised, AGQ-R, and its more recent version based on the 3 X 2 achievement goal model.
Background Health impairments can result in disability and changed work productivity imposing considerable costs for the employee, employer and society as a whole. A large number of instruments exist to measure health-related productivity changes; however their methodological quality remains unclear. This systematic review critically appraised the measurement properties in generic self-reported instruments that measure health-related productivity changes to recommend appropriate instruments for use in occupational and economic health practice. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, Econlit and Embase were systematically searched for studies whereof: (i) instruments measured health-related productivity changes; (ii) the aim was to evaluate instrument measurement properties; (iii) instruments were generic; (iv) ratings were self-reported; (v) full-texts were available. Next, methodological quality appraisal was based on COSMIN elements: (i) internal consistency; (ii) reliability; (iii) measurement error; (iv) content validity; (v) structural validity; (vi) hypotheses testing; (vii) cross-cultural validity; (viii) criterion validity; and (ix) responsiveness. Recommendations are based on evidence syntheses. Results This review included 25 articles assessing the reliability, validity and responsiveness of 15 different generic self-reported instruments measuring health-related productivity changes. Most studies evaluated criterion validity, none evaluated cross-cultural validity and information on measurement error is lacking. The Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) was most frequently evaluated with moderate respectively strong positive evidence for content and structural validity and negative evidence for reliability, hypothesis testing and responsiveness. Less frequently evaluated, the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) showed strong positive evidence for internal consistency and structural validity, and moderate positive evidence for hypotheses testing and criterion validity. The
Knight-Madden, J M; Reid, M; Younger, N; Francis, D; McFarlane, S; Wilks, R
The sickle gene frequency in the Jamaican population has not changed over a generation. It is unknown whether routine antenatal screening for sickle cell trait (SCT) has affected women's knowledge of their SCT status. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported SCT in parous women to the prevalence in nulliparous women, men and to the observed prevalence of SCT measured in an antenatal clinic. All participants in the nationally representative Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 were asked whether they had the SCT. The impact of gender, age, educational attainment, geographical location, and pregnancy on self-reported SCT were assessed. The prevalence of SCT in women attending a large antenatal clinic concurrently was compared to that reported by women of child-bearing age in the lifestyle survey. Self-report significantly underestimated the prevalence of SCT (2·9% versus 10·1%, Peducation were more likely than those with presecondary education (P = 0·01) and women more likely than men (3·2% versus 1·1%, P = 0·001) to report having SCT. Women who had been pregnant were no more likely than other women to report having SCT (3·1% versus 4·1%, P = 0·4). Attendance at antenatal clinic where SCT screening is routine, is not associated with increased self-report of SCT. Screening programs must ensure that, as well as technically accurate screening, there is effective communication of the results of screening for SCT to those tested to help reduce the public health burden of sickle cell disease in tropical countries.
Matarese, Maria; Lommi, Marzia; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
The aims of this study were as follows: to identify instruments developed to assess self-care in healthy adults; to determine the theory on which they were based; their validity and reliability properties and to synthesize the evidence on their measurement properties. Many instruments have been developed to assess self-care in many different populations and conditions. Clinicians and researchers should select the most appropriate self-care instrument based on the knowledge of their measurement properties. Systematic review of measurement instruments according to the protocol recommended by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Studies testing measurement properties of self-report instruments assessing self-care in healthy adults, published in the English language and in peer review journals were selected. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the studies with the COSMIN checklist and the quality of results using specific quality criteria. Twenty-six articles were included in the review testing the measurement properties of nine instruments. Seven instruments were based on Orem's Self-care theory. Not all the measurement properties were evaluated for the identified instruments. No self-care instrument showed strong evidence supporting the evaluated measurement properties. Despite the development of several instruments to assess self-care in the adult population, no instrument can be fully recommended to clinical nurses and researchers. Further studies of high methodological quality are needed to confirm the measurement properties of these instruments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brodey, Benjamin; Purcell, Susan E; Rhea, Karen; Maier, Philip; First, Michael; Zweede, Lisa; Sinisterra, Manuela; Nunn, M Brad; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brodey, Inger S
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care. First, study staff drafted approximately 1200 self-report items representing individual granular symptoms in the diagnostic criteria for the 8 primary SCID-CV modules. An expert panel iteratively reviewed, critiqued, and revised items. The resulting items were iteratively administered and revised through 3 rounds of cognitive interviewing with community mental health center participants. In the first 2 rounds, the SCID was also administered to participants to directly compare their Likert self-report and SCID responses. A second expert panel evaluated the final pool of items from cognitive interviewing and criteria in the DSM-5 to construct the SAGE-SR, a computerized adaptive instrument that uses branching logic from a screener section to administer appropriate follow-up questions to refine the differential diagnoses. The SAGE-SR was administered to healthy controls and outpatient mental health clinic clients to assess test duration and test-retest reliability. Cutoff scores for screening into follow-up diagnostic sections and criteria for inclusion of diagnoses in the differential diagnosis were evaluated. The expert panel reduced the initial 1200 test items to 664 items that panel members agreed collectively represented the SCID items from the 8 targeted modules and DSM criteria for the covered
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of physical activity is an essential part of understanding patterns and influences of behaviour, designing interventions, and undertaking population surveillance and monitoring, but it is particularly problematic when using self-report instruments with young people. This study reviewed available self-report physical activity instruments developed for use with children and adolescents to assess their suitability and feasibility for use in population surveillance systems, particularly in Europe. Methods Systematic searches and review, supplemented by expert panel assessment. Results Papers (n = 437 were assessed as potentially relevant; 89 physical activity measures were identified with 20 activity-based measures receiving detailed assessment. Three received support from the majority of the expert group: Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents (PAQ-C/PAQ-A, Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance Survey (YRBS, and the Teen Health Survey. Conclusions Population surveillance of youth physical activity is strongly recommended and those involved in developing and undertaking this task should consider the three identified shortlisted instruments and evaluate their appropriateness for application within their national context. Further development and testing of measures suitable for population surveillance with young people is required.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin
We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…
Cor, M Ken
Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: National surveys in low-income countries increasingly rely on self-reported measures of health. The ease, speed, and economy of collecting self-reports of health make such collection attractive for rapid appraisals. However, the interpretation of these measures is complicated since different cultures understand and respond to the same question in different ways. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to develop a culturally sensitive tool to study the self-reported health (SRH of the local adult population in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was carried out in the 2009 rainy season. The sample included 27 men and 25 women aged 18 or older who live in semi-urban Nouna, Burkina Faso. Three culturally adapted instruments were tested: a SRH question, a wooden visual analogue scale (VAS, and a drawn VAS. Respondents were asked to explain their answers to each instrument. The narratives were analyzed with the content analysis technique, and the prevalence of poor SRH was estimated from the quantitative data by stratification for respondent background variables (sex, age, literacy, education, marital status, ethnicity, chronic diseases. The correlation between the instruments was tested with Spearman's correlation test. Results: The SRH question showed a 38.5% prevalence of poor SRH and 44.2% prevalence with both VAS. The correlation between the VAS was 0.89, whereas the correlation between the VAS and the SRH question was 0.60–0.64. Nevertheless, the question used as the basis of each instrument was culturally sensitive and clear to all respondents. Analysis of the narratives shows that respondents clearly differentiated between the various health statuses. Conclusion: In this pilot, we developed and tested a new version of the SRH question that may be more culturally sensitive than its non-adapted equivalents. Additional insight into this population's understanding and reporting of health was also obtained. A larger sample is needed
Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela
Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…
Moore, Stephanie A.; Widales-Benitez, Oscar; Carnazzo, Katherine W.; Kim, Eui Kyung; Moffa, Kathryn; Dowdy, Erin
Universal screening is increasingly becoming part of prevention and early intervention best practice in schools. Although the number of schools engaging in universal screening has increased over the past decade, emotional and behavioral problems are often their primary focus. Problem-focused screening, however, does not address positive…
Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin
The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.
Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J; Commins, John M; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J; Moler, James E; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Neuhouser, Marian L; Prentice, Ross L; Rhodes, Donna; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F; Tinker, Lesley F; Willett, Walter; Kipnis, Victor
Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for dietary measurement error treat an individual's usual intake as a fixed quantity. However, usual intake, if defined as average intake over a few months, varies over time. We describe a model that accounts for such variation and for the proximity of biomarker measurements to self-reports within the framework of a meta-analysis, and apply it to the analysis of data on energy, protein, potassium, and sodium from a set of five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers as reference instruments. We show that this time-varying usual intake model fits the data better than the fixed usual intake assumption. Using this model, we estimated attenuation factors and correlations with true longer-term usual intake for single and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and compared them with those obtained under the "fixed" method. Compared with the fixed method, the estimates using the time-varying model showed slightly larger values of the attenuation factor and correlation coefficient for FFQs and smaller values for 24HRs. In some cases, the difference between the fixed method estimate and the new estimate for multiple 24HRs was substantial. With the new method, while four 24HRs had higher estimated correlations with truth than a single FFQ for absolute intakes of protein, potassium, and sodium, for densities the correlations were approximately equal. Accounting for the time element in dietary validation is potentially important, and points toward the need for longer-term validation studies.
van der Aalst, Carlijn M; de Koning, Harry J
Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, so data linked to smoking behaviour are important in lung cancer screening trials. However, self-reporting data concerning smoking behaviour are mainly used. The aim of this study was to biochemically determine the validity and reliability of self-reported smoking status among smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer participating in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial. For this sub study, a random sample of 475 men was selected who were scheduled for the fourth screening round in the NELSON trial. They were asked to complete a short questionnaire to verify the smoking behaviour for the previous seven days and a blood sample was collected to measure the cotinine level. The validity (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV)) and reliability (Kappa) of the self-reported smoking status compared to the cotinine level (as golden standard) were determined. Both a completed questionnaire as well as a cotinine level were available for 199 (41.9%) participants. Based on these data, Se and Sp were respectively 98% (95%-Confidence Interval (CI): 91-99) and 98% (95%-CI: 93-100). PPV and NPV were 98% and 96% and Kappa was 0.96. In conclusion, the validity of the self-reported smoking status turned out to be reliable amongst men at high risk for developing lung cancer who participate in the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is one of the most commonly used concepts to evaluate positive changes after trauma. The principal scales used internationally to evaluate this phenomenon have not yet a Brazilian Portuguese version. Objectives This study aimed to translate and adapt to the Brazilian context the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Methods The procedures included translation, back translation, expert committee’s evaluation, and pilot testing in the target population. Results All items of all three instruments had a good content validity index after evaluation by four experts and three reformulations. The back translation of the final version also demonstrated that all Brazilian Portuguese versions convey the same meaning as the original English version. The final version was pilot tested with 30 undergraduate students, and all the items were above the cut-off point. Discussion This study was able to produce Brazilian versions of the PTGI, CBI, and ERRI. Further studies are underway to determine the reliability, factorial validity, and convergent validity of the subscales of the instruments.
Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881
Loayza H.,Maria Paz; Ponte,Talles S.; Carvalho,Clarissa G.; Pedrotti,Michell R.; Nunes,Paula V.; Souza,Camila M.; Zanette,Camila B.; Voltolini,Sara; Chaves,Marcia L. F.
Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years). The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder...
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C
Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD, 123 were male (45.9%); mean (SD) age was 33.1 (11.4) years
Ustun, Berk; Adler, Lenard A.; Rudin, Cynthia; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J.
Importance Recognition that adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common, seriously impairing, and usually undiagnosed has led to the development of adult ADHD screening scales for use in community, workplace, and primary care settings. However, these scales are all calibrated to DSM-IV criteria, which are narrower than the recently developed DSM-5 criteria. Objectives To update for DSM-5 criteria and improve the operating characteristics of the widely used World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) for screening. Design, Setting, and Participants Probability subsamples of participants in 2 general population surveys (2001-2003 household survey [n = 119] and 2004-2005 managed care subscriber survey [n = 218]) who completed the full 29-question self-report ASRS, with both subsamples over-sampling ASRS-screened positives, were blindly administered a semistructured research diagnostic interview for DSM-5 adult ADHD. In 2016, the Risk-Calibrated Supersparse Linear Integer Model, a novel machine-learning algorithm designed to create screening scales with optimal integer weights and limited numbers of screening questions, was applied to the pooled data to create a DSM-5 version of the ASRS screening scale. The accuracy of the new scale was then confirmed in an independent 2011-2012 clinical sample of patients seeking evaluation at the New York University Langone Medical Center Adult ADHD Program (NYU Langone) and 2015-2016 primary care controls (n = 300). Data analysis was conducted from April 4, 2016, to September 22, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the revised ASRS. Results Of the total 637 participants, 44 (37.0%) household survey respondents, 51 (23.4%) managed care respondents, and 173 (57.7%) NYU Langone respondents met DSM-5 criteria for adult ADHD in the semistructured diagnostic interview. Of the respondents who met
Loayza H. Maria Paz
Full Text Available Epidemiological research points to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among insomniacs. We carried out a cross-sectional study with medical students with the aim of evaluating the association between insomnia and suspicion of psychiatric disorder; 302 medical students were included (184 males and 118 females; mean age = 20.47±1.89 years. The main association was tested by logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of positivity in a screening test for psychiatric disorder was 22.19%; and of insomnia, 28.15%. Difficulty initiating sleep (OR=3.45, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=7.61, falling asleep later (OR=1.99 and waking up earlier (OR=1.91 were associated with suspicion of psychiatric disorder. As a group, the variables difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, falling asleep after 11 pm, and waking up before 6 am presented an odds ratio of 5.96 for positivity in the screening for psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, difficulty maintaining sleep (OR=2.24 was associated with "being female," and falling asleep later (OR=0.43 was associated with "being male". These results underscore the importance of determining in what cases difficulty sleeping may have severe clinical repercussions or affect performance.
Cesari, Matteo; Demougeot, Laurent; Boccalon, Henri; Guyonnet, Sophie; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine
The "frailty syndrome" (a geriatric multidimensional condition characterized by decreased reserve and diminished resistance to stressors) represents a promising target of preventive interventions against disability in elders. Available screening tools for the identification of frailty in the absence of disability present major limitations. In particular, they have to be administered by a trained assessor, require special equipment, and/or do not discriminate between frail and disabled individuals. Aim of this study is to verify the agreement of a novel self-reported questionnaire (the "Frail Non-Disabled" [FiND] instrument) designed for detecting non-mobility disabled frail older persons with results from reference tools. Data are from 45 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years. Participants were asked to complete the FiND questionnaire separately exploring the frailty and disability domains. Then, a blinded assessor objectively measured the frailty status (using the phenotype proposed by Fried and colleagues) and mobility disability (using the 400-meter walk test). Cohen's kappa coefficients were calculated to determine the agreement between the FiND questionnaire with the reference instruments. Mean age of participants (women 62.2%) was 72.5 (standard deviation 8.2) years. Seven (15.6%) participants presented mobility disability as being unable to complete the 400-meter walk test. According to the frailty phenotype criteria, 25 (55.6%) participants were pre-frail or frail, and 13 (28.9%) were robust. Overall, a substantial agreement of the instrument with the reference tools (kappa = 0.748, quadratic weighted kappa = 0.836, both p valuesFiND disability domain and the 400-meter walk test was excellent (kappa = 0.920, pFiND questionnaire presents a very good capacity to correctly identify frail older persons without mobility disability living in the community. This screening tool may represent an opportunity for diffusing awareness about frailty
Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Terwee, Caroline B; Amick, Benjamin C; Bültmann, Ute
During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in occupational health practice and research, the measurement properties (eg, reliability, validity, responsiveness) must be evaluated. The objective of this study is to appraise critically and compare the measurement properties of self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments among workers with CMD. A systematic review was performed searching three electronic databases. Papers were included that: (i) mainly focused on the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of a self-reported health-related work-functioning instrument; (ii) were conducted in a CMD population; and (iii) were fulltext original papers. Quality appraisal was performed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Five papers evaluating measurement properties of five self-reported health-related work-functioning instruments in CMD populations were included. There is little evidence available for the measurement properties of the identified instruments in this population, mainly due to low methodological quality of the included studies. The available evidence on measurement properties is based on studies of poor-to-fair methodological quality. Information on a number of measurement properties, such as measurement error, content validity, and cross-cultural validity is still lacking. Therefore, no evidence-based decisions and recommendations can be made for the use of health-related work functioning instruments. Studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the existing instruments' measurement properties.
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Self-report surveys are widely used to measure adolescent risk behavior and academic adjustment, with results having an impact on national policy, assessment of school quality, and evaluation of school interventions. However, data obtained from self-reports can be distorted when adolescents intentionally provide inaccurate or careless responses.…
Newman, Michelle G.; Holmes, Marilyn; Zuellig, Andrea R.; Kachin, Kevin E.; Behar, Evelyn
This study examined the Panic Disorder Self-Report (PDSR), a new self-report diagnostic measure of panic disorder based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). PDSR diagnoses were compared with structured interview diagnoses of individuals with generalized anxiety…
Darom, Efraim; Rich, Yisrael
To measure pupils' inconsistency in replying to a self-report questionnaire regarding attitudes toward school, 6,000 elementary and secondary school students participated in a nation-wide project to construct and validate the Israeli Quality of School Life Questionnaire (IQSL). (PN)
Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A
To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and
Chum, Antony; Skosireva, Anna; Tobon, Juliana; Hwang, Stephen
Self-reported health measures are important indicators used by clinicians and researchers for the evaluation of health interventions, outcome assessment of clinical studies, and identification of health needs to improve resource allocation. However, the application of self-reported health measures relies on developing reliable and valid instruments that are suitable across diverse populations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the SF-12v.2, an instrument for measuring self-rated physical and mental health, for homeless adults with mental illness. Various interventions have been aimed at improving the health of homeless people with mental illness, and the development of valid instruments to evaluate these interventions is imperative. We measured self-rated mental and physical health from a quota sample of 575 homeless people with mental illness using the SF-12v2, EQ-5D, Colorado Symptoms Index, and physical/mental health visual analogue scales. We examined the construct validity of the SF-12v2 through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and using ANOVA/correlation analyses to compare the SF-12v2 to the other instruments to ascertain discriminant/convergent validity. Our CFA showed that the measurement properties of the original SF-12v2 model had a mediocre fit with our empirical data (χ2 = 193.6, df = 43, p physical and mental health status for a homeless population with mental illness.
Lofters, A K; Slater, M; Vahabi, M
Cancer screening is a core component of family medicine but screening inequalities are well documented in Canada for foreign-born persons. Although people of Muslim faith and culture are the fastest growing immigrant population in Canada, there is little information in the literature about their cancer screening practices. Determining screening gaps could inform practice-based quality improvement initiatives. We conducted a retrospective chart review combining patient-level medical record data with self-reported religious affiliation to examine the relationship between religion and cancer screening in a large multi-site urban family practice. Religious affiliation was classified as Muslim, other affiliation, or atheist/no religious affiliation. 5311 patients were included in the study sample. Muslim patients were significantly less likely to prefer English for spoken communication than the other two groups, less likely to be Canadian-born, more likely to have a female family physician, and were over-represented in the lowest income quintile. Muslim women were most likely to be up-to-date on breast cancer screening (85.2 vs. 77.5 % for those with other religions vs. 69.5 % for those with no religious affiliation). There were no significant differences in cancer screening by physician sex. In this pilot study conducted within a primary care practice, we used self-reported data on religious affiliation to examine possible inequities in cancer screening and observed intriguing variations in screening by self-identified religious affiliation. Future efforts to collect and use similar patient-level data should incorporate non-official languages and intensively outreach to patients with less health system contact. Regardless, the family medicine context may be the ideal setting to collect and act on patient-level sociodemographic data such as religious affiliation.
Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…
Christina Jen-Chia Hsieh
Full Text Available Early identification and treatment are associated with improved outcomes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Screening for the presence of these disorders usually involves time-intensive interviews that may not be practical in settings where mental health providers are limited. Thus, individuals at earlier stages of illness are often not identified. The Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP Screen is a self-report questionnaire originally developed to identify clinical risk for developing bipolar or psychotic disorders. The goal of the current study was to investigate the utility of the WERCAP Screen and two complementary questionnaires, the WERC Stress Screen and the WERC Substance Screen, in identifying individuals with established schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Participants consisted of 35 bipolar disorder (BPD and 34 schizophrenia (SCZ patients, as well as 32 controls (CON, aged 18-30 years. Univariate analyses were used to test for score differences between groups. Logistic regression and ROC curves were used to identify diagnostic predictors. Significant group differences were found for the psychosis section of the WERCAP (pWERCAP; p 20 (AUC: 0.87; sensitivity: 0.91; specificity: 1.0; while that for the pWERCAP to identify schizophrenia was a score of >13 (AUC: 0.89; sensitivity: 0.88; specificity: 0.88. These results indicate that the WERCAP Screen may be useful in screening individuals for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and that identifying stress and substance use severity can be rapidly done using self-report questionnaires. Larger studies in undiagnosed individuals will be needed to test the WERCAP Screen’s ability to identify mania or psychosis in the community.
Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A
Support and education for parents faced with managing a child with atopic dermatitis is crucial to the success of current treatments. Interventions aiming to improve parent management of this condition are promising. Unfortunately, evaluation is hampered by lack of precise research tools to measure change. To develop a suite of valid and reliable research instruments to appraise parents' self-efficacy for performing atopic dermatitis management tasks; outcome expectations of performing management tasks; and self-reported task performance in a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis. The Parents' Eczema Management Scale (PEMS) and the Parents' Outcome Expectations of Eczema Management Scale (POEEMS) were developed from an existing self-efficacy scale, the Parental Self-Efficacy with Eczema Care Index (PASECI). Each scale was presented in a single self-administered questionnaire, to measure self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-reported task performance related to managing child atopic dermatitis. Each was tested with a community sample of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, and psychometric evaluation of the scales' reliability and validity was conducted. A community-based convenience sample of 120 parents of children with atopic dermatitis completed the self-administered questionnaire. Participants were recruited through schools across Australia. Satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all three scales. Construct validity was satisfactory, with positive relationships between self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and general perceived self-efficacy; self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and self-reported task performance; and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis and outcome expectations. Factor analyses revealed two-factor structures for PEMS and PASECI alike, with both scales containing factors related to performing routine management tasks, and managing the
Abramovitch, Amitai; Reese, Hannah; Woods, Douglas W; Peterson, Alan; Deckersbach, Thilo; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine
The gold-standard measure of tic severity in tic disorders (TD), the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), is a semistructured clinician-administered interview that can be time consuming and requires highly trained interviewers. Moreover, the YGTSS does not provide information regarding frequency and intensity of specific tics because all motor and all vocal tics are rated as a group. The aim of the present study is to describe and test the Adult Tic Questionnaire (ATQ), a measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults, and to report its preliminary psychometric properties. The ATQ is a brief self-report questionnaire that provides information regarding frequency, intensity, and severity of 27 specific tics. In addition, the ATQ produces total frequency, intensity, and severity scores for vocal and motor tics, as well as a global total tic severity score. Results showed that the ATQ demonstrated very good internal consistency and temporal stability. The total, vocal, and motor tic severity scales of the ATQ showed strong correlation with corresponding subscales of the YGTSS, indicating strong convergent validity. Weak correlations with measures of severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, indicated strong discriminant validity. The ATQ, a promising measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults with TD, may be a valuable supplement to the current recommended assessment battery for TD. Furthermore, the ATQ enables clinicians and researchers to track changes in the frequency and intensity of specific tics, which is important given their complex and dynamic nature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Higgins Angela Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of screening for decreasing the risk of death from colorectal cancer (CRC has been shown, yet many patients in primary care are still not undergoing screening according to guidelines. There are known variations in delivery of preventive health care services among primary care physicians. This study compared self-reported CRC screening rates and patient awareness of the need for CRC screening of patients receiving care from family medicine (FPs vs. internal medicine (internists physicians. Methods Nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized beneficiaries who received medical care from FPs or internists in 2006 (using Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The main outcome was the percentage of patients screened in 2007. We also examined the percentage of patients offered screening. Results Patients of FPs, compared to those of internists, were less likely to have received an FOBT kit or undergone home FOBT, even after accounting for patients' characteristics. Compared to internists, FPs' patients were more likely to have heard of colonoscopy, but were less likely to receive a screening colonoscopy recommendation (18% vs. 27%, or undergo a colonoscopy (43% vs. 46%, adjusted odds ratios [AOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]-- 0.65, 0.51-0.81 or any CRC screening (52% vs. 60%, AOR, CI--0.80, 0.68-0.94. Among subgroups examined, higher income beneficiaries receiving care from internists had the highest screening rate (68%, while disabled beneficiaries receiving care from FPs had the lowest screening rate (34%. Conclusion Patients cared for by FPs had a lower rate of screening compared to those cared for by internists, despite equal or higher levels of awareness; a difference that remained statistically significant after accounting for socioeconomic status and access to healthcare. Both groups of patients remained below the national goal of 70 percent.
Hawley, Rachael; Madden, Rosamond H; Brentnall, Jennie; Serratore, Deborah; Grant, Samantha; Luft, Inbal; Bundy, Anita
To examine the usability of the self-report instrument, Your Ideas about Participation and Environment (YIPE), among adults with a brain injury by exploring the value and acceptability of the instrument. A qualitative descriptive research design was used for the purpose of testing and developing the YIPE for use among adults with a brain injury. The study involved administering the YIPE followed by in-depth interviewing about the experience of taking the instrument with seven adults with a brain injury, recruited through a community-based support service organization. A descriptive thematic approach was used to analyse the content of the interview data, categorize common ideas and identify areas for improvement within the instrument. Participants were generally positive about the importance of the participation and environment topics and willing to engage in self report. The YIPE (2012), resulting from changes made to the language and structure, was found to be more useable, valued and accepted by these participants than the previous version, YIPE (2011). The YIPE was found to be a useful tool among study participants. The YIPE topics were found to have importance and relevance when considering participants' satisfaction with areas of life and aspects of environment requiring change. More development of the tool is required in terms of the wording, format and method of administration to improve the overall usability of the instrument. Implications for Rehabilitation The preliminary results from this small sample study illustrated that people with brain injury were able to use an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-based tool, and confirmed the importance of considering both participation and the environment together. People with cognitive impairments associated with brain injury reported on areas of everyday life where they were satisfied or dissatisfied. They related their satisfaction to environmental factors that were facilitators
Erhart, Michael; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions). Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model) were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA) for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83) and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA=0.07) and child reports (RMSEA=0.06). Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r=0.44-0.63 vs. r=0.33-0.59) in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were observed for known-groups validity. Our study showed that parent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several instruments are available to assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL based on self reports as well as proxy reports from parents. Previous studies have found only low-to-moderate agreement between self and proxy reports, but few studies have explicitly compared the psychometric qualities of both. This study compares the reliability, factorial validity and convergent and known group validity of the self-report and parent-report versions of the HRQoL KINDL-R questionnaire for children and adolescents. Methods Within the nationally representative cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, 6,813 children and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years completed the KINDL-R generic HRQoL instrument while their parents answered the KINDL proxy version (both in paper-and-pencil versions. Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor-analysis models (linear structural equation model were obtained. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Known-groups differences were examined (ANOVA for obese children and children with a lower familial socio-economic status. Results The parent reports achieved slightly higher Cronbach's alpha values for the total score (0.86 vs. 0.83 and most sub-scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable fit of the six-dimensional measurement model of the KINDL for the parent (RMSEA = 0.07 and child reports (RMSEA = 0.06. Factorial invariance across the two versions did not hold with regards to the pattern of loadings, the item errors and the covariation between latent concepts. However the magnitude of the differences was rather small. The parent report version achieved slightly higher convergent validity (r = 0.44 – 0.63 vs. r = 0.33 – 0.59 in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. No clear differences were
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict
Niessen, Maurice A. J.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Linszen, Don
Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild…
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Donker, Tara; Martin Abello, Katherina; Marks, Isaac; Cuijpers, Pim
The advent of web-based treatments for anxiety disorders creates a need for quick and valid online screening instruments, suitable for a range of social groups. This study validates a single-item multimedia screening instrument for agoraphobia, part of the Visual Screener for Common Mental Disorders
McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K
To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dür, Mona; Steiner, Günter; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Dejaco, Clemens; Prodinger, Birgit; Stoffer, Michaela Alexandra; Binder, Alexa; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja Alexandra
Self-reported outcome instruments in health research have become increasingly important over the last decades. Occupational therapy interventions often focus on occupational balance. However, instruments to measure occupational balance are scarce. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a generic self-reported outcome instrument to assess occupational balance based on the experiences of patients and healthy people including an examination of its psychometric properties. We conducted a qualitative analysis of the life stories of 90 people with and without chronic autoimmune diseases to identify components of occupational balance. Based on these components, the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) was developed. Construct validity and internal consistency of the OB-Quest were examined in quantitative data. We used Rasch analyses to determine overall fit of the items to the Rasch model, person separation index and potential differential item functioning. Dimensionality testing was conducted by the use of t-tests and Cronbach's alpha. The following components emerged from the qualitative analyses: challenging and relaxing activities, activities with acknowledgement by the individual and by the sociocultural context, impact of health condition on activities, involvement in stressful activities and fewer stressing activities, rest and sleep, variety of activities, adaptation of activities according to changed living conditions and activities intended to care for oneself and for others. Based on these, the seven items of the questionnaire (OB-Quest) were developed. 251 people (132 with rheumatoid arthritis, 43 with systematic lupus erythematous and 76 healthy) filled in the OB-Quest. Dimensionality testing indicated multidimensionality of the questionnaire (t = 0.58, and 1.66 after item reduction, non-significant). The item on the component rest and sleep showed differential item functioning (health condition and age). Person separation index was 0
Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S
To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.
Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232
Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Velden, Helena J W; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; de Jong, Cor A J
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. Because resources for extensive and thorough diagnostic assessment are often limited, reliable screening instruments for PTSD are needed. The aim of the current study was to test two short PTSD measures for diagnostic efficiency in predicting PTSD compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The sample consisted of 197 SUD patients receiving residential substance use treatment who completed questionnaires regarding substance use and trauma-related symptoms, all abstinent from substance for 4weeks. The PTSD section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINIplus) and the Self-Report Inventory for PTSD (SRIP) are compared to the CAPS. Results showed low sensitivity (.58) and high specificity (.91) for the PTSD section of the MINIplus. The SRIP showed high sensitivity (.80) and moderately high specificity (.73) at a cut-off score of 48. The prevalence of PTSD as measured with the CAPS was 25.4% current and 46.2% lifetime. Results indicate that the MINIplus, a short clinical interview, has insufficient quality as a screener for PTSD. The SRIP, however, is a reliable instrument in detecting PTSD in a SUD inpatient population in The Netherlands. Screening for PTSD is time efficient and increases detection of PTSD in SUD treatment settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Twenge, Jean M; Krizan, Zlatan; Hisler, Garrett
Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Villabø, Marianne A; Lauth, Bertrand
The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) is a widely used self-report questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with well documented predictive validity of the total score and subscales in internalizing and mixed clinical samples. However, no data exist on the screening efficiency in an inpatient sample of adolescents. To examine the psychometric properties and screening efficiency of the MASC in a high comorbid inpatient sample. The current study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to investigate the predictive value of the MASC total and subscale scores for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), DSM-IV diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and social phobia (SoP) in a highly comorbid inpatient sample of adolescents (11-18 years). The MASC total score predicted any anxiety disorder (AD) and GAD moderately well. Physical symptoms predicted GAD moderately well. Social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic did not predict SoP or SAD, respectively. Physical symptoms and harm avoidance also predicted the presence of major depressive disorder. The findings support the utility of the MASC total score to predict the presence of any AD and GAD. However, the utility of the social anxiety and separation anxiety/panic subscales showed limited utility to predict the presence of SAD and SoP, respectively. The MASC has probably a more limited function in screening for AD among a highly comorbid inpatient sample of severely affected adolescents. Our results should be interpreted in the light of a small, mixed sample of inpatient adolescents.
Duncan Mitch J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial configurations of office environments assessed by Space Syntax methodologies are related to employee movement patterns. These methods require analysis of floors plans which are not readily available in large population-based studies or otherwise unavailable. Therefore a self-report instrument to assess spatial configurations of office environments using four scales was developed. Methods The scales are: local connectivity (16 items, overall connectivity (11 items, visibility of co-workers (10 items, and proximity of co-workers (5 items. A panel cohort (N = 1154 completed an online survey, only data from individuals employed in office-based occupations (n = 307 were used to assess scale measurement properties. To assess test-retest reliability a separate sample of 37 office-based workers completed the survey on two occasions 7.7 (±3.2 days apart. Redundant scale items were eliminated using factor analysis; Chronbach’s α was used to evaluate internal consistency and test re-test reliability (retest-ICC. ANOVA was employed to examine differences between office types (Private, Shared, Open as a measure of construct validity. Generalized Linear Models were used to examine relationships between spatial configuration scales and the duration of and frequency of breaks in occupational sitting. Results The number of items on all scales were reduced, Chronbach’s α and ICCs indicated good scale internal consistency and test re-test reliability: local connectivity (5 items; α = 0.70; retest-ICC = 0.84, overall connectivity (6 items; α = 0.86; retest-ICC = 0.87, visibility of co-workers (4 items; α = 0.78; retest-ICC = 0.86, and proximity of co-workers (3 items; α = 0.85; retest-ICC = 0.70. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 differences, in theoretically expected directions, were observed for all scales between office types, except overall connectivity. Significant associations were
Soler, Joaquim; Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; García-Rizo, Clemente; Vega, Daniel; Elices, Matilde; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Carmona, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mental illness. Early detection is important and reliable screening instruments are required. To date, however, there has been no evidence of any specific BPD screening tool validated for the Spanish-speaking population. The McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) is a 10-item self-report questionnaire that can detect the presence of BPD in a reliable and quick manner. The aim of the present study is the validation of the MSI-BPD for its use in the Spanish-speaking population. Psychometric properties of the MSI-BPD Spanish version were examined in a sample of 344 participants (170 outpatients with the possible diagnosis of BPD and 174 healthy controls). Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of a bi-factorial structure. The scale showed a high internal consistency (KR-20=0.873) and an optimal test-retest reliability (ICC=0.87). Using logistic regression analyses and taking the DIB-R as reference, a best cut-off of 7 was determined, obtaining a good sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.68). The area under the curve, was 0.742 (95% CI 0.660-0.824). The discriminant analysis showed a classification ability of 72.8%. The Spanish version of the MSI-BPD has good psychometric properties as a measure for the screening of BPD. Its ease and quickness of use make it valuable to detect the presence of BPD in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn, Bjørg Dale, Kari Sundsli, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research-Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF, background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9% subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.Results: When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3% and 258 (13.5% older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.Conclusion: Health professionals must be aware of older people's vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing undernutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.Keywords: aged, risk factors, undernutrition, screening
Lorenz, Delia; Papengut, Frank; Frederiksen, Henrik
To evaluate a screening instrument for essential tremor (ET) consisting of a seven-item questionnaire and a spiral drawing. A total of 2,448 Danish twins aged 70 years or more and a second sample aged 60 years or more (n = 1,684) from a population-based northern German cross-sectional study (Pop....... Definite or probable ET was diagnosed in 104 patients, possible in 86 and other tremors in 98 patients. The sensitivity of the screening instrument was 70.5%, the positive predictive value was 64.9%, the specificity was 68.2%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5%. Tremor severity correlated...... significantly with higher spiral scores and more positive items. More patients were identified by spiral drawing in all tremor groups. The interrater and intrarater reliability for spirals ranged from 0.7 to 0.8 using intraclass coefficient. A cluster analysis revealed that the questionnaire can be reduced...
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....
Oosterling, I.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Visser, J.C.; Dietz, C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
Several instruments have been developed to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in high-risk populations. However, few studies compare different instruments in one sample. Data were gathered from the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, Social Communication Questionnaire,
Osara, Yetsa; Coakley, Kathryn; Devarajan, Aishwarya; Singh, Rani H
Newborn Screening Connect (NBS Connect) is a web-based self-reported patient registry and resource for individuals and families affected by disorders included in the newborn screening panel. NBS Connect was launched in 2012 by Emory University after years of planning and grassroots work by professionals, consumers, and industry. Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or tyrosinemia (TYR) have been recruited through distribution of outreach materials, presentations at parent organization meetings and direct recruitment at clinic appointments. Participants complete online profiles generating data on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, outcomes, barriers to care, and quality of life. Resources such as education materials, information on the latest research and clinical trials, recipes, interactive health tracking systems, and professional support tools are described. In addition, to examine the ability of NBS Connect to generate data that guides hypothesis-driven research, data pertaining to age at diagnosis, bone health, and skin conditions in individuals with PKU were assessed. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of NBS Connect and highlight its data, resources and research contributions. In September 2016, NBS Connect had 442 registered participants: 314 (71%) individuals with PKU, 68 (15%) with MSUD, 20 (5%) with TYR, and 40 (9%) with other disorders on the NBS panel. Age at diagnosis was less than 4 weeks in 285 (89%) of 319 respondents to this question and between 1 month and 14 years in 29 (9%) individuals. Of 216 respondents with PKU, 33 (15%) had a DXA scan in the past year. Of 217 respondents with PKU, 99 (46%) reported at least one skin condition. NBS Connect was built and refined with feedback from all stakeholders, including individuals with inherited metabolic disorders. Based on patient-reported data, future studies can be initiated to test hypotheses such as the relationship between PKU and skin
Hernández-Garbanzo, Yenory; Brosh, Joanne; Serrano, Elena L; Cason, Katherine L; Bhattarai, Ranju
To identify the psychometric properties of evaluation instruments that measure mediators of dietary behaviors in school-aged children. Systematic search of scientific databases limited to 1999-2010. Psychometric properties related to development and testing of self-report instruments for children 8-12 years old. Systematic search of 189 articles and review of 15 instruments (20 associated articles) meeting the inclusion criteria. Search terms used included children, school, nutrition, diet, nutrition education, and evaluation. Fourteen studies used a theoretical framework to guide the instrument's development. Knowledge and self-efficacy were the most commonly used psychosocial measures. Twelve instruments focused on specific nutrition-related behaviors. Eight instruments included over 40 items and used age-appropriate response formats. Acceptable reliability properties were most commonly reported for attitude and self-efficacy measures. Although most of the instruments were reviewed by experts (n = 8) and/or pilot-tested (n = 9), only 7 were tested using both rigorous types of validity and with low-income youth. Results from this review suggest that additional research is needed to develop more robust psychosocial measures for dietary behaviors, for low-income youth audiences. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Abma, F.I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Terwee, C.B.; Amick, B.C.; Bultmann, U.
Objectives During the past decade, common mental disorders (CMD) have emerged as a major public and occupational health problem in many countries. Several instruments have been developed to measure the influence of health on functioning at work. To select appropriate instruments for use in
Braeken, Anna PBM; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Eekers, Daniëlle; Gils, Francis CJM van; Houben, Ruud MA; Lechner, Lilian
Psychosocial problems in cancer patients are often unrecognized and untreated due to the low awareness of the existence of these problems or pressures of time. The awareness of the need to identify psychosocial problems in cancer patients is growing and has affected the development of screening instruments. This study explored the usefulness and feasibility of using a screening instrument (SIPP: Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems) to identify psychosocial problems in cancer patients receiving curative radiotherapy treatment (RT). The study was conducted in a radiation oncology department in the Netherlands. Several methods were used to document the usefulness and feasibility of the SIPP. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires completed by seven radiotherapists and 268 cancer patients. Regarding the screening procedure 33 patients were offered to consult a psychosocial care provider (e.g. social worker, psychologist) during the first consultation with their radiotherapist. Of these patients, 31 patients suffered from at least sub-clinical symptoms and two patients hardly suffered from any symptoms. Patients' acceptance rate 63.6% (21/33) was high. Patients were positive about the content of the SIPP (mean scores vary from 8.00 to 8.88, out of a range between 0 and 10) and about the importance of discussing items of the SIPP with their radiotherapist (mean score = 7.42). Radiotherapists' perspectives about the contribution of the SIPP to discuss the different psychosocial problems were mixed (mean scores varied from 3.17 to 4.67). Patients were more positive about discussing items of the SIPP if the radiotherapists had positive attitudes towards screening and discussing psychosocial problems. The screening procedure appeared to be feasible in a radiotherapy department. In general, patients' perspectives were at least moderate. Radiotherapists considered the usefulness and feasibility of the SIPP generally to be lower, but their
Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.
Wolf E Mehling
Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Vaartio-Rajalin, Heli; Huumonen, Tuula; Iire, Liisa; Jekunen, Antti; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Minn, Heikki; Paloniemi, Jenni; Zabalegui, Adelaida
The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an inter-professional screening instrument for cancer patients' cognitive resources, knowledge expectations and inter-professional collaboration within patient education. Four empirical datasets during 2012-2014 were analyzed in order to identify main categories, subcategories and items for inter-professional screening instrument. Our inter-professional screening instrument integrates the critical moments of cancer patient education and the knowledge expectation types obtained from patient datasets to assessment of patients' cognitive resources, knowledge expectations and comprehension; and intra; and inter-professional. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per
AIMS: Screening instruments for detection of common mental disorders have not been validity tested in long term sickness absence (LSA), which is the aim of this study for the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: Of all 2,414 incident persons on continuous sick...... in Denmark there is not a legal requirement that sick-listed persons are certified as sick by a physician....
Knuijt, S.; Sondaar, M.; Kleine, M.J. de; Kollee, L.A.A.
AIM: The validation of the Dutch Taal Screenings Test (TST), a language-screening test, which is included in a follow-up instrument developed to enable paediatricians to assess 5-y-old preterm infants for their motor, cognitive and speech and language development. METHODS: The speech and language
Collins, Sarah A; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K; Stone, Patricia W
To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms "health", "literacy", "computer-based," and "psychometrics". All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in seven different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments' content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832
Collins, Sarah A.; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K.; Stone, Patricia W.
Objective To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. Design The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms “health”, “literacy”, “computer-based,” and “psychometrics”. All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Results Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in 7 different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Limitations Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Conclusions Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments’ content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. PMID:22521719
Drielly Soares Freitas
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p530 Anthropometric indicators enable professionals for predicting risk of falls in the elderly; however, there is a gap in literature on reference values. This study analyzes anthropometric indicators such as screening tests for falls in the elderly. Cross-sectional population-based systematic sampling was conducted through a household survey and body composition assessment. Anthropometric measurements were performed using portable electronic scale and stadiometer. Bioimpedance device was used to measure body mass index, body fat and lean body mass. Falls were evaluated in the 12 months preceding the interview as a dependent variable. Discriminatory analysis was performed for falls through the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Overall, 275 older adults participated in this study, whose prevalence of falls was 23.6%. The average body mass index was 27.8kg/cm2 and 52.1% of individuals were overweight. Among older men, height (ROC=0.68; 95%CI 0.54-0.78 and lean body mass (ROC=0.63, 95%CI 0.58- 0.76 were associated to the occurrence of falls. When considering cutoff of 52.2kg and 166cm, sensitivity was obtained in 75% and high negative predictive values (88.1% and 89.1% respectively. For women, lean body mass (ROC=0.61, 95%CI 0.30-0.49 and body mass (ROC=0.60, 95%CI 0.53-0.72 were relevant from the optimal cutoff point of 28.9% and 57.2kg/m2. Lean body mass was more sensitive (63.2% and body mass little more specific (64.3%, both with high negative predictive values (82.0% and 83.0%. The indicators used were able to discriminate older adults who have suffered from falls.
Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Berk, Michael
Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is h...
Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur
To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors. A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life. Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED. As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...
The operability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank utilizing the [INSTPROB] screen will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure
Seferovic, Jelena P; Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The self-administered Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is used to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We examined whether the MNSI might also provide information on risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the Aliskiren...
Screening for major and minor depression in a multiethnic sample of Asian primary care patients: a comparison of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ).
Sung, Sharon Cohan; Low, Charity Cheng Hong; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chan, Yiong Huak
Depression is common, disabling, and the single most important factor leading to suicide, yet it is underdiagnosed in busy primary care settings. A key challenge facing primary care clinicians in Asia is the selection of instruments to facilitate depression screening. Although the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ) are used internationally, they have not been directly compared or widely validated in Asian primary care populations. This study aimed to validate the PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 against a structured interview diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, depression based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview in a multiethnic Asian sample. From April through August 2011, we enrolled 400 English-speaking Singaporean primary care patients. Participants completed a demographic data form, the PHQ-9, and the QIDS-SR16 . They were assessed independently for major and minor depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing major depression were 91.7% and 72.2%, respectively, for the PHQ-9 (optimal cutoff score of 6), and 83.3% and 84.7%, respectively, for the QIDS-SR16 (optimal cutoff score of 9). The QIDS-SR16 also detected minor depression at an optimal cutoff score of 7, with a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 77.9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.87 and 0.79, respectively) and good convergent validity (correlation coefficient: r = 0.73, P depressive disorders was 9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 appear to be valid and reliable for depression screening in Asian primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher
Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study
Anderson, M.S.; Jaselskis, E.J.
An innovative mobile laboratory for real-time field screening of soils for inorganic hazardous waste using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry sampling and analysis technique is being developed at Ames Laboratory. This sampling technique as well as the concept for installing, monitoring, and controlling the instrumentation and utilities in the mobile laboratory, the robotic sampling accessory, and manual sampling method are discussed. Benefits of this mobile configuration and future development plans also are described
Rasmussen, Andrew; Eustache, Eddy; Raviola, Giuseppe; Kaiser, Bonnie; Grelotti, David; Belkin, Gary
Developing mental health care capacity in post-earthquake Haiti is hampered by the lack of assessments that include culturally bound idioms Haitians use when discussing emotional distress. The current study describes a novel emic-etic approach to developing a depression screening for Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante. In Study 1 Haitian key informants were asked to classify symptoms and describe categories within a pool of symptoms of common mental disorders. Study 2 tested the symptom set that best approximated depression in a sample of depressed and not depressed Haitians in order to select items for the screening tool. The resulting 13-item instrument produced scores with high internal reliability that were sensitive to culturally-informed diagnoses, and interpretations with construct and concurrent validity (vis-à-vis functional impairment). Discussion focuses on the appropriate use of this tool and integrating emic perspectives into developing psychological assessments globally. The screening tool is provided as an Appendix. PMID:25080426
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John
Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…
Full Text Available Background Malnutrition in hospitalized children has negative impact on morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and health-care cost. A simple screening tool is needed to detect hospital malnutrition risk in children. Objective To compare the level of agreement of the Screening Tool for Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP and Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (PNRS with anthropometric measurements, as screening tools for hospital malnutrition in children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to July 2014 in the Pediatric and Surgery Wards at H. Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera. Inclusion criteria were children aged 2 to 18 years who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours. Subjects were screened using STAMP and PNRS, and underwent anthropometric measurement on admission. The weight measurements were repeated on the 3rd and 7th days, and just before discharge. The STAMP and PNRS results were compared in terms of level of agreement with anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed by Kappa value and Spearman’s correlation test. Results A total of 127 children were screened with both instruments. The PNRS had slight agreement with hospital malnutrition prevalence (κ=0.175; P=0.028, while STAMP had not (κ=0.080; P=0.193. Both screening tools had weak positive correlations with length of stay, but the correlation was stronger for PNRS than for STAMP (r=0.218; P=0.014 vs. r=0.188; P=0.034, respectively. The prevalence of hospital malnutrition was 40.9%. Conclusions The PNRS screening tool has slight agreement with anthropometric measurement for identifying hospital malnutrition risk in children.
Azadarmaki, Taghi; Kassani, Aziz; Menati, Rostam; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Menati, Walieh
Background Domestic violence against women is regarded as an important health problem among women and a serious concern in issues related to human rights. To date, a few screening tools for domestic violence exist for Iranian married women, but they assess only some of the domestic violence components. Objectives The present study aimed to design and determine the validity and reliability of a screening instrument for domestic violence in a sample of Iranian women. Materials and Methods The present study was a cross-sectional psychometric evaluation conducted on 350 married women in Ilam, Iran, in 2014. The samples were selected through multistage sampling and the main method was cluster sampling. A 20-item, self-administered questionnaire was validated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An Eigen value > 1 and a loading factor > 0.3 for each component were considered as indices for extracting domestic violence components. Reliability was calculated by test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha. Also, the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were used to measure content validity. The data were analyzed using SPSS-13 and LISREL 8.8 software programs. Results The self-administered instrument was completed by 334 women. The CFA and EFA methods confirmed embedding items and the three-factor structure of the instrument including psychological, physical, and sexual violence, which explained 66% of the total variance of the domestic violence. The ICC and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were > 0.7 for the components of the questionnaire. The test-retest also revealed strong correlations for each of the domestic violence components (r > 0.6). Conclusions The used instrument for measuring domestic violence had desirable validity and reliability and can be used as a suitable instrument in health and social researches in the local population. PMID:27331052
Goudsmit, Miriam; Uysal-Bozkir, Özgül; Parlevliet, Juliette L; van Campen, Jos P C M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Schmand, Ben
Currently, approximately 3.9% of the European population are non-EU citizens, and a large part of these people are from "non-Western" societies, such as Turkey and Morocco. For various reasons, the incidence of dementia in this group is expected to increase. However, cognitive testing is challenging due to language barriers and low education and/or illiteracy. The newly developed Cross-Cultural Dementia Screening (CCD) can be administered without an interpreter. It contains three subtests that assess memory, mental speed, and executive function. We hypothesized the CCD to be a culture-fair test that could discriminate between demented patients and cognitively healthy controls. To test this hypothesis, 54 patients who had probable dementia were recruited via memory clinics. Controls (N = 1625) were recruited via their general practitioners. All patients and controls were aged 55 years and older and of six different self-defined ethnicities (Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic, Moroccan-Berber, Surinamese-Creole, and Surinamese-Hindustani). Exclusion criteria included current or previous conditions that affect cognitive functioning. There were performance differences between the ethnic groups, but these disappeared after correcting for age and education differences between the groups, which supports our central hypothesis that the CCD is a culture-fair test. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression analyses showed that the CCD has high predictive validity for dementia (sensitivity: 85%; specificity: 89%). The CCD is a sensitive and culture-fair neuropsychological instrument for dementia screening in low-educated immigrant populations.
Lesieur, H R; Blume, S B
The South Oaks Gambling Screen is a 20-item questionnaire based on DSM-III criteria for pathological gambling. It may be self-administered or administered by nonprofessional or professional interviewers. A total of 1,616 subjects were involved in its development: 867 patients with diagnoses of substance abuse and pathological gambling, 213 members of Gamblers Anonymous, 384 university students, and 152 hospital employees. Independent validation by family members and counselors was obtained for the calibration sample, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability were established. The instrument correlates well with the criteria of the revised version of DSM-III (DSM-III-R). It offers a convenient means to screen clinical populations of alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as general populations, for pathological gambling.
Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton
There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.
Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy–II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities and differences among the constructs embodied in these instruments. PPI Fearless Dominance and SRP-II Factor 1 were negatively related to most personality disorder symptoms and were both predicted by high Dominance and low Neuroticism. In addition, PPI Fearless Dominance correlated positively with antisocial personality features, although SRP-II Factor 1 did not. In contrast, PPI Impulsive Antisociality, SRP-II Factor 2, and both APSD factors correlated with antisocial personality features and symptoms of nearly all personality disorders, and were predicted by low Love. Results suggest ways in which the measurement of the constructs in each instrument may be improved. PMID:16123248
Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are many cognitive screening instruments available to clinicians when assessing patients' cognitive function, but the best way to compare the diagnostic utility of these tests is uncertain. One method is to undertake a weighted comparison which takes into account the difference in sensitivity and specificity of two tests, the relative clinical misclassification costs of true- and false-positive diagnosis, and also disease prevalence. Methods: Data were examined from four pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies from one clinic which compared the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory (TYM test, and the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, respectively. Results: Weighted comparison calculations suggested a net benefit for ACE-R, MoCA, and MMP compared to MMSE, but a net loss for TYM test compared to MMSE. Conclusion: Routine incorporation of weighted comparison or other similar net benefit measures into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration to better inform clinicians of the relative value of cognitive screening instruments.
Luo Zhuming; Lu Rong
Background: Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument C-2.0 (CASI C-2.0) is founded on Chinese culture apply to person with little or no formal education.Objective: In order to assess the reliability and validity of Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument C-2.0 (CASI C-2.0), we surveyed 807 persons aged from 55 to 100 years and with little or no formal education in the town and country of Chengdu city. Methods: Phase I: 807 persona were assessed by different doctors with CASI C-2.0 and Mini mental State Examination (MMSE). Phase Ⅱ: The positive persons of phase I were assessed by trained field physicians who did not know the CASI C-2.0 and MMSE scores. The physicians assessment included a detail history, a systematic physical examination and a selected group of psychometric tests to ascertain the clinical diagnoses of dementia、 Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia utilizing the ICD-10 and NINCDS-ADRAD、 DSM-Ⅳ criteria respectively. Phase Ⅲ: 30 persons were retest with CASI C-2.0 randomly after 3--4 weeks. Results: Among the 807 persons, 55 cases of dementia were identified, including 50 cases of probable Alzheimer′s disease and 5 cases of vascular dementia. Discussion: On reliability, the test-retest reliability coefficient of CASI C-2.0 is 0.97,p＜0.001, the person′s correlation coefficient between nine items scores and total scores are all above 0.66, the Cronback a is 0.9056, the split-half reliability coefficient is 0.8355. On validity, using ICD-10 criteria as ”Gold Criteria" and 50 as a cut-offscore, the sensitivity、 specificity、 accuracy of CASI C-2.0 are 94.5%、 89.5%、 89.8% respectively, kappa is 0.5123. Comparing with MMSE, CAS1 C-2.0 has a better specificity, x2 test, p＜0.01; a same sensitivity; and a lower refusal answer ratio, x2 test, p＜0.005. Conclusion: We consider that CASI C-2.0 has excellent reliability and validity. It is worthy of disseminating and applying for both clinical and epidemiological surveys.
Oubaya, N; Dramé, M; Novella, J-L; Quignard, E; Cunin, C; Jolly, D; Mahmoudi, R
To study the capacity of the SEGAm instrument to predict loss of independence among elderly community-dwelling subjects. The study was performed in four French departments (Ardennes, Marne, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse). Subjects aged 65 years or more, living at home, who could read and understand French, with a degree of autonomy corresponding to groups 5 or 6 in the AGGIR autonomy evaluation scale were included. Assessment included demographic characteristics, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the SEGAm instrument at baseline. Subjects had follow-up visits at home at 6 and 12 months. During follow-up, vital status and level of independence were recorded. Logistic regression was used to study predictive validity of the SEGAm instrument. Among the 116 subjects with complete follow-up, 84 (72.4%) were classed as not very frail at baseline, 23 (19.8%) as frail, and 9 (7.8%) as very frail; 63 (54.3%) suffered loss of at least one ADL or IADL at 12 months. By multivariable analysis, frailty status at baseline was significantly associated with loss of independence during the 12 months of follow-up (OR=4.52, 95% CI=1.40-14.68; p=0.01). We previously validated the SEGAm instrument in terms of feasibility, acceptability, internal structure validity, reliability, and discriminant validity. This instrument appears to be a suitable tool for screening frailty among community-dwelling elderly subjects, and could be used as a basis to plan early targeted interventions for subjects at risk of adverse outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marlowe, D B; Husband, S D; Bonieskie, L M; Kirby, K C; Platt, J J
The study compared structured interview (SCID-II) and self-report test (MCMI-II) vantages for the detection and characterization of personality pathology among 144 urban, poor, cocaine-addicted individuals seeking outpatient treatment. Diagnostic agreement was inadequate for most disorders, and the instruments at best shared only modest common variance. Positive predictive power was poor for all MCMI-II scales, though negative predictive power was good to excellent. This lends support for the use of the MCMI-II as a screening measure to rule out Axis II disorders; however, confirmation of positive diagnoses will require follow-up interview assessment. Future development of self-report personality inventories for substance abusers should focus on controlling for the acute dysphoric effects of drug use and related dysfunction, expanding attention to Cluster B content domains, and incorporating more objective criteria for assessing paranoia and "odd/eccentric" traits.
El-Behadli, Ana F; Neger, Emily N; Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher
Children whose parents do not speak English experience significant disparities in the identification of developmental delays and disorders; however, little is known about the availability and validity of translations of developmental screeners. The goal was to create a map of the scientific evidence regarding translations of the 9 Academy of Pediatrics-recommended screening instruments into languages other than English. The authors conducted a systematic search of Medline and PsycINFO, references of identified articles, publishers' Web sites, and official manuals. Through evidence mapping, a new methodology supported by AHRQ and the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors documented the extent and distribution of published evidence supporting translations of developmental screeners. Data extraction focused on 3 steps of the translation and validation process: (1) translation methods used, (2) collection of normative data in the target language, and (3) evidence for reliability and validity. The authors identified 63 distinct translations among the 9 screeners, of which 44 had supporting evidence published in peer-reviewed sources. Of the 63 translations, 35 had at least some published evidence regarding translation methods used, 28 involving normative data, and 32 regarding reliability and/or construct validity. One-third of the translations found were of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Specific methods used varied greatly across screeners, as did the level of detail with which results were reported. Few developmental screeners have been translated into many languages. Evidence map of the authors demonstrates considerable variation in both the amount and the comprehensiveness of information available about translated instruments. Informal guidelines exist for conducting translation of psychometric instruments but not for documentation of this process. The authors propose that uniform guidelines be established for reporting translation research in peer
Liskola, Joni; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Niemelä, Solja; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Marttunen, Mauri
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is commonly used in adults to screen for harmful alcohol consumption but few studies exist on its use among adolescents. Our aim was to validate the AUDIT and its derivative consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) as screening instruments for the detection of problem use of alcohol in adolescents. 621 adolescents (age-range, 12-19 years) were drawn from clinical and population samples who completed the AUDIT questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using K-SADS-PL. A rating based on the K-SADS-PL was used to assess alcohol use habits, alcohol use disorders, screening and symptom criteria questions. Screening performance of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C sum scores and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. The diagnostic odds ratios (dOR) were calculated to express the overall discrimination between cut-offs. Comparisons of ROC between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C pairs indicated a slightly better test performance by AUDIT for the whole sample and in a proportion of the subsamples. Optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT was ≥5 (sensitivity 0.931, specificity 0.772, dOR 45.22; 95% CI: 24.72-83.57) for detecting alcohol problem use. The corresponding optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT-C was ≥3 in detecting alcohol problem use (sensitivity 0.952, specificity 0.663, dOR 39.31; 95% CI: 19.46-78.97). Agreement between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C using these cut-off scores was high at 91.9%. Our results for the cut-off scores for the early detection of alcohol problem use in adolescents are ≥5 for AUDIT, and ≥3 for AUDIT-C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.
Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…
Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Van Der Leij, Aryan
This study examined teachers' self-reported pedagogical practices toward socially inhibited, hyperactive, and average kindergartners. A self-report instrument was developed and examined in three samples of kindergartners and their teachers. Principal components analyses were conducted in four datasets pertaining to 1 child per teacher. Two…
Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi
Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…
Sunil Kumar Raina
Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment, characteristic of dementia, is measured objectively by standard neuropsychological (cognitive tests. Given the diversity of culture and language in India, it is difficult to use a single modified version of MMSE uniformly to Indian population. In this article, we report methods on the development of a cognitive screening instrument suitable for the tribal (Bharmour elderly (60 years and above population of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: We used a systematic, item-by-item, process for development of a modified version of MMSE suitable for elderly tribal population. Results: The modifications made in the English version of MMSE and the pretesting and pilot testing thereof resulted in the development of Bharmouri version of cognitive scale. Discussion: The study shows that effective modifications can be made to existing tests that require reading and writing; and that culturally sensitive modifications can be made to render the test meaningful and relevant, while still tapping the appropriate cognitive domains.
O Caoimh, Rónán
Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Struening, Elmer L; Hellman, Fred; Guardino, Mary
We tested the factor structure of the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument (n=14860) within five ethnic groups (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native American). Conducted yearly across the US, the screening is meant to detect five common anxiety syndromes. Factor analyses often fail to confirm the validity of assessment tools' structures, and this is especially likely for minority ethnic groups. If symptoms cluster differently across ethnic groups, criteria for conventional DSM-IV disorders are less likely to be met, leaving significant distress unlabeled and under-detected in minority groups. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses established that the items clustered into the six expected factors (one for each disorder plus agoraphobia). This six-factor model fit the data very well for Whites and not significantly worse for each other group. However, small areas of the model did not appear to fit as well for some groups. After taking these areas into account, the data still clearly suggest more prevalent PTSD symptoms in the Black, Hispanic and Native American groups in our sample. Additional studies are warranted to examine the model's external validity, generalizability to more culturally distinct groups, and overlap with other culture-specific syndromes.
Mohammadi, Saeed; Maeki, Masatoshi; Mohamadi, Reza M; Ishida, Akihiko; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu
This paper describes a simple and instrument-free screen-printing method to fabricate hydrophilic channels by patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) onto chromatography paper. Clearly recognizable border lines were formed between hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas. The minimum width of the printed channel to deliver an aqueous sample was 600 μm, as obtained by this method. Fabricated microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were tested for several colorimetric assays of pH, glucose, and protein in both buffer and artificial urine samples and results were obtained in less than 30 min. The limits of detection (LODs) for glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were 5 mM and 8 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the pH values of different solutions were visually recognised with the naked eye by using a sensitive ink. Ultimately, it is expected that this PDMS-screen-printing (PSP) methodology for μPADs can be readily translated to other colorimetric detection and hydrophilic channels surrounded by a hydrophobic polymer can be formed to transport fluids toward target zones.
Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A; Fann, Jesse R; Vander Stoep, Ann; Andrew Zhou, Xiao-Hua
We evaluated the extent to which use of a hypothesized imperfect gold standard, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), biases the estimates of diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also evaluate how statistical correction can be used to address this bias. The study was conducted among 926 adults where structured interviews were conducted to collect information about participants' current major depressive disorder using PHQ-9 and CIDI instruments. First, we evaluated the relative psychometric properties of PHQ-9 using CIDI as a gold standard. Next, we used a Bayesian latent class model to correct for the bias. In comparison with CIDI, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 for detecting major depressive disorder at a cut point of 10 or more were 53.1% (95% confidence interval: 45.4%-60.8%) and 77.5% (95% confidence interval, 74.5%-80.5%), respectively. Using a Bayesian latent class model to correct for the bias arising from the use of an imperfect gold standard increased the sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-9 to 79.8% (95% Bayesian credible interval, 64.9%-90.8%) and 79.1% (95% Bayesian credible interval, 74.7%-83.7%), respectively. Our results provided evidence that assessing diagnostic validity of mental health screening instrument, where application of a gold standard might not be available, can be accomplished by using appropriate statistical methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.
This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs
Investigation of four self-report instruments (FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, HC-PAIRS) to measure healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs toward low back pain: Reliability, convergent validity and survey of New Zealand osteopaths and manipulative physiotherapists.
Moran, Robert W; Rushworth, Wendy M; Mason, Jesse
Healthcare practitioner beliefs influence advice and management provided to patients with back pain. Several instruments measuring practitioner beliefs have been developed but psychometric properties for some have not been investigated. To investigate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Tool (FABT), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Health Care Providers (TSK-HC), the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ), and the Health Care Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS). A secondary aim was to explore beliefs of New Zealand osteopaths and physiotherapists regarding low back pain. FABT, TSK-HC, Back-PAQ, and HC-PAIRS were administered twice, 14 days apart. Data from 91 osteopaths and 35 physiotherapists were analysed. The FABT, TSK-HC and Back-PAQ each demonstrated excellent internal consistency, (Cronbach's α = 0.92, 0.91, and 0.91 respectively), and excellent test-retest reliability (lower limit of 95% CI for intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75). Correlations between instruments (Pearson's r = 0.51 to 0.77, p 0.47) for mean differences in scores, for all instruments, between professions. This study found excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good convergent validity for the FABT, TSK-HC, and Back-PAQ. Previously reported internal consistency, test-retest and convergent validity of the HC-PAIRS were confirmed, and test-retest reliability was excellent. There were significant scoring differences on each instrument between professions, and while both groups demonstrated fear avoidant beliefs, physiotherapist respondent scores indicated that as a group, they held fewer fear-avoidant beliefs than osteopath respondents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor
Holi, Matti M; Marttunen, Mauri; Aalberg, Veikko
The aim of the study was to compare the screening properties of two General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) versions and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), and to evaluate them as psychiatric screening instruments in Finland. We administered the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 to psychiatric outpatients (n=207) and to a community sample (n=315). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the screening performance of the two instruments and of the GHQ-12 extracted from the GHQ-36. The screening properties of the scales were found to be good and similar. Suggested optimal cut-off points were 3/4 for the GHQ-12, 8/9 for the GHQ-36 and 0.90/0.91 for the SCL-90. In conclusion, the scales functioned equally well in screening. This favors the GHQ-12 for pure screening. When information on the symptom level is also needed, the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 become better choices. The cut-off points presented here should be considered in the future Finnish psychiatric screening studies.
Housen, Tambri; Lenglet, Annick; Ariti, Cono; Ara, Shabnum; Shah, Showkat; Dar, Maqbool; Hussain, Arshad; Paul, Altaf; Wagay, Zahoor; Viney, Kerri; Janes, Simon; Pintaldi, Giovanni
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Interviews were conducted with 290 respondents recruited using consecutive sampling from general medical outpatient departments in five districts of the Kashmir Valley. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the cut point with optimal discriminatory power based on sensitivity and specificity. Internal reliability of the HSCL-25 was high, Cronbach's alpha (α) = .92, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.75, with an estimated optimal cut point of 1.50, lower than the conventional cut point of 1.75. Separation of the instruments into subscales demonstrated a difference in the estimated cut point for the anxiety subscale and the depression subscale, 1.75 and 1.57, respectively. Too few respondents were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during structured psychiatric interview, and therefore the HTQ-16 could not be validated despite the fact that high internal reliability was demonstrated (α = .90). This study verified the importance of culturally adapting and validating screening instruments in particular contexts. The use of the conventional cut point of 1.75 would likely have misclassified depression in our survey, leading to an underestimate of this condition.
Taylor, John L.; Novaco, Raymond W.
Personality disorder is prevalent among offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID), and it is associated with their risk for violence and recurrent offending behaviour. A new staff-rated instrument, the Personality Disorder Characteristics Checklist (PDCC), designed to screen for ICD-10 dissocial and emotionally unstable personality…
The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a short, global risk assessment to identify community-dwelling older adults’ one-year risk of institutionalisation, hospitalisation, and death. We investigated the contribution that the three components of the RISC (\
van Velzen, CJM; Luteijn, F; Scholing, A; van Hout, WJPJ; Emmelkamp, PMG
The efficacy of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire - Revised (PDQ-R) as a screening instrument was examined in a sample of 137 anxious outpatients. The SCID-II was used as the criterion. The PDQ-R cut-offs were adjusted until the maximum kappa agreement for each scale was reached. The results
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described
SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.
SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.
Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test, Pearson's χ(2)-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever expressed concern about the childs motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used to identify children who do not have motor function difficulties with a relatively high certainty, and it can fairly well identify children with motor function problems. This study was primarily supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Additional support was obtained from The Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the Lundbeck Foundation, Ludvig & Daara Elsass Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and Aase & Ejnar Danielsens Foundation. The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this Foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont
A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.
Andrew J. Larner
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many cognitive screening instruments (CSI are available to clinicians to assess cognitive function. The optimal method comparing the diagnostic utility of such tests is uncertain. The effect size (Cohen's d, calculated as the difference of the means of two groups divided by the weighted pooled standard deviations of these groups, may permit such comparisons. Methods: Datasets from five pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies, which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory test (TYM, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, were analysed to calculate the effect size (Cohen's d for the diagnosis of dementia versus no dementia and for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia (subjective memory impairment. Results: The effect sizes for dementia versus no dementia diagnosis were large for all six CSI examined (range 1.59-1.87. For the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia, the effect sizes ranged from medium to large (range 0.48-1.45, with MoCA having the largest effect size. Conclusion: The calculation of the effect size (Cohen's d in diagnostic accuracy studies is straightforward. The routine incorporation of effect size calculations into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration in order to facilitate the comparison of the relative value of CSI.
Full Text Available Aim. This study compares the effectiveness of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI, neurothesiometer, and electromyography (EMG in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods. 106 patients with diabetes type 2 treated at the outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology between September 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by glycemic regulation tests, MNSI (questionnaire and physical examination, EMG (for detecting sensorial and motor defects in right median, ulnar, posterior tibial, and bilateral sural nerves, and neurothesiometer (for detecting alterations in cold and warm sensations as well as vibratory sensations. Results. According to the MNSI score, there was diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 34 (32.1% patients (score ≥2.5. However, when the patients were evaluated by EMG and neurothesiometer, neurological impairments were detected in 49 (46.2% and 79 (74.5% patients, respectively. Conclusion. According to our findings, questionnaires and physical examination often present lower diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence. Hence, we recommend that in the evaluation of diabetic patients neurological tests should be used for more accurate results and thus early treatment options to prevent neuropathic complications.
Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M
Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…
Richard R. McNeer
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC. Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878 and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886 were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948. Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level.
Appels, Bregje A.; Scherder, Erik
Early screening for dementia is crucial for identifying reversible causes as well as managing, counseling, and other therapeutic interventions. Many reviews have compared the suitability of very brief screening instruments for use in primary care, but reviews on more extensive instruments in
The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs
Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lønfeldt, Nicole; Guedeney, Antoine
Background: Infant socioemotional development is often held under informal surveillance, but a formal screening program is needed to ensure systematic identification of developmental risk. Even when screening programs exist, they are often ineffective because health care professionals do not adhe...
Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.
This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann
Objective Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60–70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition...... acceptance. This could lead to clinical benefits in fast-paced speciality HIV care settings and better management of depression in HIV-positive patients....
Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A
The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
Lepor, Herbert; Kaci, Ledia; Xue, Xiaonan
We performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence. Between October 2000 and February 2002 all men who underwent RRP were encouraged to complete the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Beginning October 2002 a single question capturing the patient global self-assessment of continence status was added to the postoperative continence assessment. The study design was cross-sectional since only continence surveys submitted between October 2002 through February 2003 were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa coefficient was determined for the relationship between the patient global assessment of continence vs the definition of continence based on pad requirement, problem due to incontinence and frequency of incontinence. Continence progressively improved 3 to 24 months following RRP for all continence outcomes. At 24 months following RRP 97.1% of men considered themselves continent, while 97.1%, 94.1% and 97.1% were considered continent using continence definitions, including the requirement of no or 1 pad in a 24-hour interval, no or slight bother due to incontinence and total control or occasional dribbling, respectively. Our 3 definitions of continence derived from responses to the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index had excellent agreement with patient global self-assessment of continence (kappa coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83). The majority of men achieve continence without invasive intervention following RRP. Final continence status should be ascertained at 24 months. The patient global assessment of continence provides face validity for other definitions of continence based on responses to validated self-administered questionnaires.
Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather
The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teresa Costa Castanho
Full Text Available The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments pose an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.
Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina
Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...
Momsen, A-M H; Stapelfeldt, C M; Nielsen, C V
Background: Multiple somatic symptoms are common and may cause prolonged sickness absence (SA) and unsuccessful return to work (RTW). Aims: To compare three instruments and their predictive and discriminative abilities regarding RTW. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of participants recruited...
This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).
Sepucha, Karen R; Feibelmann, Sandra; Cosenza, Carol; Levin, Carrie A; Pignone, Michael
Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening recommend that patients be informed about options and be able to select preferred method of screening; however, there are no existing measures available to assess whether this happens. Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Quality Instrument (CRC-DQI) includes knowledge items and patients' goals and concerns. Items were generated through literature review and qualitative work with patients and providers. Hypotheses relating to the acceptability, feasibility, discriminant validity and retest reliability of the survey were examined using data from three studies: (1) 2X2 randomized study of participants recruited online, (2) cross-sectional sample of patients recruited in community health clinics, and (3) cross-sectional sample of providers recruited from American Medical Association Master file. 338 participants were recruited online, 94 participants were recruited from community health centers, and 115 physicians were recruited. The CRC-DQI was feasible and acceptable with low missing data and high response rates for both online and paper-based administrations. The knowledge score was able to discriminate between those who had seen a decision aid or not (84% vs. 64%, p quality decisions about colon cancer screening.
Full Text Available UNLABELLED: There have been concerns that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are over-represented but not recognised in prison populations. A screening tool for ASDs in prisons has therefore been developed. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate this tool in Scottish prisoners by comparing scores with standard measures of autistic traits (Autism Quotient (AQ, neurodevelopmental history (Asperger Syndrome (and High-Functioning Autism Diagnostic Interview (ASDI, and social cognition (Ekman 60 Faces test. METHODS: Prison officers across all 12 publicly-run closed prisons in Scotland assessed convicted prisoners using the screening tool. This sample included male and female prisoners and both adult and young offenders. Prisoners with high scores, along with an equal number of age and sex-matched controls, were invited to take part in interviews. Prisoners' relatives were contacted to complete a neurodevelopmental assessment. RESULTS: 2458 prisoners were screened using the tool, and 4% scored above the cut-off. 126 prisoners were further assessed using standardised measures. 7 of those 126 assessed scored 32 or above (cut-off on the AQ. 44 interviews were completed with prisoners' relatives, no prisoner reached the cut-off score on the ASDI. Scores on the screening tool correlated significantly with AQ and ASDI scores, and not with the Ekman 60 Faces Test or IQ. Sensitivity was 28.6% and specificity 75.6%; AUC was 59.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Although this screening tool measures autistic traits in this population, sensitivity for scores of 32 or above on the AQ is poor. We consider that this limits its usefulness and do not recommend that the tool is routinely used to screen for ASDs in prisons.
Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...... a full assessment.The paper discuss the extent of changes due to the screening process, and ask questions like what kind of environmental considerations do the changes reflect? And are they in line with EIA's holistic environmental approach?...
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie
of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...
Deb, Shoumitro; Dhaliwal, Akal-Joat; Roy, Meera
Aims: To explore the validity of Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA) as a screening instrument for autism among children with intellectual disabilities. Method: Data were collected from the case notes of 109 children with intellectual disabilities attending a specialist clinic in the UK. Results: The mean score…
Full Text Available Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study investigates the psychometric properties of the Indonesian Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR.The participants were 904 Indonesians (aged 16-61; 50.2% female, recruited via an online survey using Qualtrics. Confirmatory factor analysis of the one-factor, three-factor, and four-factor model were explored. Convergent and divergent validity of the total score of the Indonesian IDS-SR and each factor were examined, as well as the Cronbach's Alpha reliability. In addition, an optimal cut-off score for the Indonesian IDS-SR was established using ROC curve analysis.The three-factor model of "cognitive/mood", "anxiety/arousal", and "sleep disturbance" was the best fit with the Indonesian IDS-SR data. Convergent and divergent validity were good. Cronbach's Alpha reliability was excellent for the total score, good for the factors "cognitive/mood" and "anxiety/arousal", but insufficient for the factor "sleep disturbance". The optimal cut-off score of the Indonesian IDS-SR was 14, with 87% sensitivity and 86% specificity.As a multifactorial instrument to measure depression that has good validity and reliability, the Indonesian IDS-SR can be used to assess depressive symptoms for the purpose of research and clinical practice. The optimal cut-off score of the Indonesian IDS-SR is in accordance with the internationally used cut-off score.
Barrio, P.; López-Pelayo, H.; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Batalla, A.; Preedy, V.R.
Cocaine is the second most used illicit drug worldwide. Identification of cocaine use disorders (CUD) and related aspects such as craving and CUD severity are relevant for clinical practice, public health programs, and research. There are a wide variety of instruments available for assessing CUD,
Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G
To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais
Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. This systematic review will provide an extensive review of the measurement
Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais
Introduction Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This systematic review will
Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
, Pearson’s χ2-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. Results: The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever......Introduction: No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. Methods: This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test...
Sartor, Cristina D; Oliveira, Mariana D; Campos, Victoria; Ferreira, Jane S S P; Sacco, Isabel C N
The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument is an easy-to-use questionnaire aimed at screening and detecting diabetic polyneuropathy. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the MNSI to Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate its measurement properties. Two bilingual translators translated from English into Brazilian Portuguese and made a synthetic version. The synthetic version was back translated into English. A committee of specialists and the translator checked the cultural adaptations and developed a pre-final questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese (prefinal version). In pretesting, the prefinal version was applied to a sample of 34 subjects in which each subject was interviewed to determine whether they understood each item. For the later assessment of measurement properties, 84 subjects were assessed. A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was produced after obtaining 80% agreement (SEM0.92), reasonable construct validity for the association between the MNSI and Neuropathy Symptom Score (r=0.46, p<0.05) and excellent association between the MNSI and Neuropathy Disability Score (r=0.79, p<0.05). We did not detect floor and ceiling effects (<9.5% of patients with maximum scores). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the MNSI is suitable for application in the Brazilian diabetic population and is a reliable tool for the screening and detection of DPN. The MNSI can be used both in clinical practice and also for research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Punjaporn Waleeprakhon,1 Pichai Ittasakul,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Pattarabhorn Wisajun,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Terence A Ketter2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ has been translated to many languages and has been used in many countries as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder. The main objective of this study was to evaluate validity of the Thai version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric outpatient sample, and to determine its optimum question #1 item threshold value for bipolar disorder.Methods: The English language Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpatients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis were performed.Results: The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69. The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%, specificity (72.7%, positive predictive value (74.3%, and negative predictive value (75.0%. The ROC area under the curve (AUC for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90.Conclusion: The Thai version of the MDQ had some useful psychometric properties for screening for bipolar disorder in a mood disorder clinic setting, with a recommended question #1 item
Dräger, Désirée Louise; Protzel, Chris; Hakenberg, Oliver W
We examined the effects of treatment on the psychological well-being of patients with localized or advanced penile cancer using screening questionnaires to determine the consecutive need for psychosocial care. Penile cancer is a rare, but highly aggressive, malignancy. The psychological stress of patients with penile cancer arises from the cancer diagnosis per se and the corresponding consequences of treatment. In addition, cancer-specific distress results (eg, fear of metastasis, progression, relapse, death). Studies of the psychosocial stress of penile cancer patients are rare. We undertook a prospective analysis of the data from patients with penile cancer who had undergone surgery or chemotherapy from August 2014 to October 2016 at our department. Patients were evaluated using standardized questionnaires for stress screening and the identification for the need for psychosocial care (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and Hornheider screening instrument) and by assessing the actual use of psychosocial support. The average stress level was 4.5. Of all the patients, 42.5% showed increased care needs at the time of the survey. Younger patients, patients undergoing chemotherapy, and patients with recurrence were significantly more integrated with the psychosocial care systems. Finally, 67% of all patients received inpatient psychosocial care. Owing to the potentially mutilating surgery, patients with penile cancer experience increased psychological stress and, consequently, have an increased need for psychosocial care. Therefore, the emotional stress of these patients should be recognized and support based on interdisciplinary collaboration offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Heugten, Caroline M; Walton, L; Hentschel, U
To review systematically studies investigating the convergent, criterion, and predictive validity of multi-domain cognitive screening instruments in the first four weeks after stroke. Electronic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase) were searched until June 2014. Studies concerning screening for cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients using multi-domain instruments, within four weeks postinfarct or haemorrhagic stroke, using tests taking no longer than one hour. Convergent, criterion, and predictive validity were examined. A total of 51 studies investigating 16 cognitive screening instruments were identified. None of the instruments covered all of the most affected cognitive domains. Only one study investigated the convergent validity of a multi-domain test during the (sub)acute phase after stroke. A total of 15 studies examined the criterion validity of cognitive measurements during the acute phase after stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Higher Cortical Function Deficit Test had good criterion validity. A total of 24 studies examined the predictive ability of multi-domain cognitive instruments applied in the acute phase after stroke. The Cognistat, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Functional Independence Measure-cognitive showed good predictive validity. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most widely used cognitive screening instrument, but shows insufficient criterion validity. None of the existing instruments fulfils all criteria. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is the best candidate at present, provided items measuring speed of information processing are added, and further studies investigating the optimal cut-offs are conducted. © The Author(s) 2014.
Boadie W. Dunlop
Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1 is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients. We administered the ASRS-v1.1 to 55 healthy controls and 40 adults with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of MDD who were participating in clinical research studies. ADHD diagnosis was assessed via structured interview with the adult ADHD module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus version 6.0.0 (MINI along with a psychiatrist’s assessment. Overall, full-syndrome ADHD was diagnosed in 12.5% of the MDD patients. MDD patients endorsed all 18 items of the ASRS-v1.1 more frequently than the healthy controls and the number of ASRS-v1.1 items endorsed correlated with levels of anxiety in the MDD patients. The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated fair performance for identifying full syndrome DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis, with sensitivity 60%, specificity: 68.6%, positive predictive value 21.4%, negative predictive value 92.3% and total classification accuracy of 67.5%. Positive predictive value improved substantially when the ADHD criterion requiring symptom onset before age 7 was omitted. In adult MDD patients, a negative ASRS-v1.1 screen strongly suggests the absence of ADHD but positive screen results require careful evaluation to determine whether self-reported ADHD symptoms simply emerge from depression or whether comorbid ADHD is present.
Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L
Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Arjadi, Retha; Nauta, Maaike H; Utoyo, Dharmayati B; Bockting, Claudi L H
BACKGROUND: Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study
Arjadi, Retha; Nauta, Maaike H.; Utoyo, Dharmayati B.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.
Depression screening and examination in Indonesia are highly challenging due to the disproportionately low number of mental health professionals in comparison to the Indonesian population. Self-report questionnaires on depression are cost-effective and time-efficient. The current study investigates
Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…
Gaševic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pardo, Abelardo; Dawson, Shane
The use of analytic methods for extracting learning strategies from trace data has attracted considerable attention in the literature. However, there is a paucity of research examining any association between learning strategies extracted from trace data and responses to well-established self-report instruments and performance scores. This paper…
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…
Harrison, Patricia A; Godecker, Amy; Sidebottom, Abbey C
The purpose of the study was to validate the Prenatal Risk Overview (PRO) Alcohol use domain against a structured diagnostic interview. The PRO was developed to screen for 13 psychosocial risk factors associated with poor birth outcomes. After clinic staff administered the PRO to prenatal patients, they asked for consent to administration of selected modules of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID) by a research assistant. To assess the criterion validity of the PRO, low and moderate/high risk classifications from the alcohol use domain were cross-tabulated with SCID Alcohol Use Disorder variables. The study sample included 744 women. Based on PRO responses, 48.7% reported alcohol use during the 12 months before they learned they were pregnant; 5.4% reported use post pregnancy awareness. The typical quantity consumed pre-pregnancy was four or more drinks per occasion. Based on the SCID, 7.4% met DSM-IV criteria for either Alcohol Abuse or Dependence. Sensitivity and specificity of the PRO for Alcohol Use Disorders were 83.6 and 80.3%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 98.4% and positive predictive value was 25.3%. The results indicate the PRO effectively identified pregnant women with Alcohol Use Disorders. However, prenatal screening must also detect consumption patterns that do not meet diagnostic thresholds but may endanger fetal development. The PRO also identified women who continued to drink after they knew they were pregnant, as well as those whose previous drinking habits put them at risk for resumption of hazardous use.
Halliday, Jennifer A; Hendrieckx, Christel; Busija, Lucy
the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening instrument, comparing two commonly used WHO-5 cut-off values (≤7 and reliability (α=0.90) and convergent validity with the PHQ-9 (r=-0...... was 0.44/0.96 for the ≤7 cut-off, and 0.79/0.79 for the cut-off, with similar findings by diabetes type and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support use of a WHO-5 cut-point of ... symptoms). Analyses were conducted for the full sample, and separately by diabetes type and treatment (type 1, non-insulin-treated type 2, and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes). Construct (convergent and factorial) validity and reliability of the WHO-5 were examined. ROC analyses were used to examine...
Larissa Forni dos Santos
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR, translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413 and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252. The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson's = 0.82. The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard.
Frühe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Körne, Gerd
The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (N(I) = 200; N(II) = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised pool was evaluated in order to select the best items for the brief instrument ChilD-S. Areas under the curve (AUCs) of the revised item pool and the ChilD-S were compared. A diagnostic interview, the Kinder-DIPS, served as gold standard. For the purpose of screening for depressive disorders in children, the eight-item ChilD-S (AUC = 0.97) performed just as well as the revised 22-item pool (AUC = 0.94). For the ChilD-S the optimal cut-off point of ≥11 yielded a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.89. The ChilD-S shows high potential for depression screening of children in pediatric care.
Versluis, R.G.J.A.; Springer, M.P.; Petri, H.; Ven, C.M. van de
Objective: To determine the validity of radiographic absorptiometry (RA) of the phalanges in detecting osteoporosis of the femoral neck, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Material and methods: In a group practice, 494 Causasian women aged 55 to 84 years were recruited. Hand radiography and DXA measurements of the hip were performed in 449 women. 409 (91.1%) hand radiographs had sufficient quality for analysis by RA. Change of bone mass by age was obtained by using linear regression. Correlations between RA and DXA were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of RA were calculated for several RA cut-off levels. Results: The mean bone mineral density at the femoral neck was 0.866 g/cm 2 and 92.57 arbitrary units at the phalanges. A moderate correlation of 0.53 (p<0.01) was found between RA and DXA. Depending on the cut-off level used, the sensitivity and specificity of RA in detecting osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 0.84-0.55 and 0.61-0.88, respectively. Conclusion: RA may be used as a screening technique to detect osteoporosis, but confirmation is necessary in the subgroup with a positive outcome on RA. (orig.)
Larner, A J
Calculation of correlation coefficients is often undertaken as a way of comparing different cognitive screening instruments (CSIs). However, test scores may correlate but not agree, and high correlation may mask lack of agreement between scores. The aim of this study was to use the methodology of Bland and Altman to calculate limits of agreement between the scores of selected CSIs and contrast the findings with Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients between the test scores of the same instruments. Datasets from three pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) vs. the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the MMSE vs. the Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE), and the M-ACE vs. the MoCA were analysed to calculate correlation coefficients and limits of agreement between test scores. Although test scores were highly correlated (all >0.8), calculated limits of agreement were broad (all >10 points), and in one case, MMSE vs. M-ACE, was >15 points. Correlation is not agreement. Highly correlated test scores may conceal broad limits of agreement, consistent with the different emphases of different tests with respect to the cognitive domains examined. Routine incorporation of limits of agreement into diagnostic accuracy studies which compare different tests merits consideration, to enable clinicians to judge whether or not their agreement is close. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F
The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Baracks, Joshua; Casa, Douglas J; Covassin, Tracey; Sacko, Ryan; Scarneo, Samantha E; Schnyer, David; Yeargin, Susan W; Neville, Christopher
SRC evaluation. However, low sensitivity suggests that they may be best used in conjunction with other assessments to form a comprehensive screening that may improve sensitivity.
Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Bancroft, Senetta F.
The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of different instruments, independently developed and traditionally used for measuring science teachers' beliefs in short-term interventions, to longitudinally measure teachers' changing beliefs. We compared the ability of three self-report instruments (Science Teaching Efficacy Belief…
Chi Ming Leung
Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.
Richter Lagha, Regina Anne
Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…
Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H
There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.
Reider, Nadia C; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Gaul, Catherine
Fall-risk screening instruments have been underutilized in clinical settings because of their lengthy administration time, need of cumbersome equipment, and lack of validation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity (sensitivity and specificity) of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT). The secondary objective was to develop guidelines to provide physical therapists with best-practice recommendations that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study design was used in which falling history, major medical conditions, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), and level of independence (Independent Activities of Daily Living) were obtained for 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 83.6 ± 7.3 years), residents of British Columbia, Canada. Participants MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5 cm, starting at 47 cm and lowering after each successful attempt. Sensitivity and specificity of the MCHSAT at each chair height were calculated and plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. A model to identify participants with history of falls was developed using a forward logistic regression (Wald). Mean MCHSAT performance (cm) was significantly better for participants without history of falls (30.3 cm, 95% CI: 28.1-32.5 cm) than for those with history of falls (37.7 cm, 95% CI: 35.5-40.0 cm) and was the single risk factor associated with fall status (β= 1.087, P history of falls was 34 cm (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). At this threshold, sensitivity and specificity values were 75% and 62%, respectively. Using 34 cm as the optimal performance, the MCHSAT correctly identified 75% of participants with history of falls and 62% of participants without history of falls. This provides evidence that the MCHSAT is a valid screening tool for use with an older Canadian population. As a simple and inexpensive testing instrument
Giofre, David; Cornoldi, Cesare; Schoemaker, Marina M.
The present study was devoted to test the validity, of the Italian adaptation of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T, Schoemaker, Flapper, Reinders-Messelink, & De Kloet, 2008) as a fast screening instrument, based on teachers' ratings, for detecting developmental coordination
Hampton, Justin; Strand, Paul S.
The present study utilized meta-analytic procedures to estimate the diagnostic validity of instruments used to screen young children, ages 1.5-5 years, for autism. Five scales met inclusion criteria, and data from 18 studies contributed the meta-analysis. Results revealed that 4 of 5 scales met criteria for "good" validity, including two…
Gulley, Stephen P; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Altman, Barbara M; Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam C; Druss, Benjamin G; Houtrow, Amy J; Reichard, Amanda; Chan, Leighton
Among working age adults in the United States, there is a large, heterogeneous population that requires ongoing and elevated levels of healthcare and related services. At present, there are conflicting approaches to the definition and measurement of this population in health services research. An expert panel was convened by the National Institutes of Health with the objective of developing a population-level definition of Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN). In addition, the panel developed a screening instrument and methods for its use in health surveys to identify and stratify the population consistently. The panel employed multiple methods over the course of the project, including scoping literature reviews, quantitative analyses from national data sources and cognitive testing. The panel defined the ACHCN population as "Adults (age 18-65) with  ongoing physical, cognitive, or mental health conditions or difficulties functioning who  need health or related support services of a type or amount beyond that needed by adults of the same sex and similar age." The screener collects information on chronic health conditions, functional difficulties, and elevated use of or unmet need for healthcare services. Adapted from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau definition that identifies Children with Special Healthcare Needs, aligned with the ACS-6 disability measure, and consistent with the HHS Multiple Chronic Condition Framework, this definition and screener provide the research community with a common denominator for the identification of ACHCN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lipkus, Isaac M; Samsa, Gregory P; Dement, John; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Green, La Sonya G; Pompeii, Lisa; Ransohoff, David F
Inaccuracy in self-reports of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening procedures (e.g., over- or underreporting) may interfere with individuals adhering to appropriate screening intervals, and can blur the true effects of physician recommendations to screen and the effects of interventions designed to promote screening. We assessed accuracy of self-report of having a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within a 1-year window based on receipt of FOBT kits among individuals aged 50 and older in the carpentry trade (N = 658) who were off-schedule for having had a FOBT. Indices of evaluating accuracy of self-reports (concordance, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates) were calculated relative to receipt of a mailed FOBT. Among those who mailed a completed FOBT, we assessed accuracy of reporting the test result. Participants underestimated having performed a FOBT (false-negative rate of 44%). Accuracy was unrelated to perceptions of getting or worrying about CRC or family history. Self-reports of having a negative FOBT result more consistently matched the laboratory result (specificity 98%) than having a positive test result (sensitivity 63%). Contrary to other findings, participants under- rather than over reported FOBT screening. Results suggest greater efforts are needed to enhance accurate recall of FOBT screening.
Alfonsson, Sven; Maathz, Pernilla; Hursti, Timo
Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue
Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.
Müller, Astrid; Trotzke, Patrick; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Brand, Matthias
The study was designed to develop a new screening instrument for pathological buying (PB), and to examine its psychometric properties in a large-scale sample. By using a facet theoretical approach and based on literature as well as on clinical experience, a 20-item Pathological Buying Screener (PBS) was developed and administered to a representative German sample (n = 2,539). Valid data were available from 2,403 participants who were subjects for three subsequent empirical studies. The first study explored the factor structure using exploratory factor analyses in a subsample of 498 participants. Based on factor loadings, a 13-item version with the two factors loss of control / consequences and excessive buying behavior was revealed. This two-factor model was confirmed in study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis performed on another subsample (n = 1,905). Study 3 investigated age and gender effects and convergent validity of the PBS using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) in the full sample (N = 2,403). The total PBS score was adequately correlated with the CBS score. Hierarchical regression analyses with the CBS score as the dependent variable and the two PBS factors as the predictors indicated an own incremental validity of the two factors in participants ≤ 65 years. The reliability of the total score as well as of the two subscales was good to excellent. Overall, the PBS represents a useful measure for PB. Future studies are needed to replicate the two-factor structure in clinical samples and to define a valid cutoff for PB.
Sample, Renee Beach; Kinney, Allison L; Jackson, Kurt; Diestelkamp, Wiebke; Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton
The Timed Up and Go (TUG) has been commonly used for fall risk assessment. The instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) adds wearable sensors to capture sub-movements and may be more sensitive. Posturography assessments have also been used for determining fall risk. This study used stepwise logistic regression models to identify key outcome measures for the iTUG and posturography protocols. The effectiveness of the models containing these measures in differentiating fallers from non-fallers were then compared for each: iTUG total time duration only, iTUG, posturography, and combined iTUG and posturography assessments. One hundred and fifty older adults participated in this study. The iTUG measures were calculated utilizing APDM Inc.'s Mobility Lab software. Traditional and non-linear posturography measures were calculated from center of pressure during quiet-standing. The key outcome measures incorporated in the iTUG assessment model (sit-to-stand lean angle and height) resulted in a model sensitivity of 48.1% and max re-scaled R 2 value of 0.19. This was a higher sensitivity, indicating better differentiation, compared to the model only including total time duration (outcome of the traditional TUG), which had a sensitivity of 18.2%. When the key outcome measures of the iTUG and the posturography assessments were combined into a single model, the sensitivity was approximately the same as the iTUG model alone. Overall the findings of this study support that the iTUG demonstrates greater sensitivity than the total time duration, but that carrying out both iTUG and posturography does not greatly improve sensitivity when used as a fall risk screening tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study was designed to develop a new screening instrument for pathological buying (PB, and to examine its psychometric properties in a large-scale sample. By using a facet theoretical approach and based on literature as well as on clinical experience, a 20-item Pathological Buying Screener (PBS was developed and administered to a representative German sample (n = 2,539. Valid data were available from 2,403 participants who were subjects for three subsequent empirical studies. The first study explored the factor structure using exploratory factor analyses in a subsample of 498 participants. Based on factor loadings, a 13-item version with the two factors loss of control / consequences and excessive buying behavior was revealed. This two-factor model was confirmed in study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis performed on another subsample (n = 1,905. Study 3 investigated age and gender effects and convergent validity of the PBS using the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS in the full sample (N = 2,403. The total PBS score was adequately correlated with the CBS score. Hierarchical regression analyses with the CBS score as the dependent variable and the two PBS factors as the predictors indicated an own incremental validity of the two factors in participants ≤ 65 years. The reliability of the total score as well as of the two subscales was good to excellent. Overall, the PBS represents a useful measure for PB. Future studies are needed to replicate the two-factor structure in clinical samples and to define a valid cutoff for PB.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.
van Loosbroek Erik
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties and the perceived usefulness of the BARO (Dutch: BAsisRaadsOnderzoek; Protection Board Preliminary Examination of Juvenile Suspects. The BARO is a first-line screening instrument for the identification of psychiatric disorders, adverse environmental factors, and levels of (dysfunction in adolescent offenders (age 12 to 18, to be used by social workers of the Child Protection Board (CPB following a police arrest. Method CPB workers administered the BARO to 295 juvenile offenders (91% boys, 9% girls. A subgroup of 66 offenders (89% boys, 11% girls underwent an elaborate diagnostic assessment by forensic psychologists and psychiatrists. Using these assessments the most relevant psychometric properties of the BARO were studied. The perceived usefulness was studied using questionnaires to be filled in by the CPB social workers. Results The internal consistency of the instrument was sufficient to good, the concurrent validity of the CPB social workers applying the BARO and the forensic experts carrying out the comprehensive diagnostic assessment was strong, the discriminatory value of the instrument was moderate to strong, and the perceived usefulness of the instrument was evaluated as good to very good by the majority of the CPB workers. Discussion The BARO has sufficient to good psychometric properties including moderate to strong discriminatory value and is considered a good screening instrument by the CPB social workers. In conclusion, the BARO seems to be a very promising first-line screening instrument to identify psychiatric and psychosocial problems in young offenders.
Hafner, Brian J.; Morgan, Sara J.; Askew, Robert L.; Salem, Rana
Documentation of clinical outcomes is increasingly expected in delivery of prosthetic services and devices. However, many outcome measures suitable for use in clinical care and research have not been psychometrically tested with prosthesis users. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, mode-of-administration (MoA) equivalence, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) of standardized, self-report instruments that assess constructs of impo...
Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Jacobi, David; Charles, Marie-Aline; Tafflet, Muriel; Lommez, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Oppert, Jean-Michel
The objective was to examine the relationships of self-reported physical activity (PA) by domain (leisure, occupational, other) with PA and sedentary time as measured objectively by accelerometry. Subjects were adults with low habitual PA levels from a community in northern France. Among subjects in the lowest tertile of a PA score from a screening questionnaire, 160 (37% males, age: 41.0 +/- 10.8 years, BMI: 25.1 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD) completed a detailed instrument (Modifiable Activity Questionnaire), and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for seven consecutive days. Relationships between questionnaire domains (occupational, leisure, and "non-occupational non-leisure") and accelerometry measures (total activity and sedentary time) were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. In this population, the highest contributor to total reported PA (h/week) was occupational PA. Time spent in non-occupational non-leisure PA ranked second in women and third in men. The most frequent non-occupational non-leisure PA were shopping and household chores. In women, non-occupational non-leisure PA contributed more than occupational or leisure-time PA to total PA energy expenditure (median: 18.0, 9.1, and 4.9 MET-h/week, respectively). Total PA by accelerometry (count/day) was correlated to leisure-time PA in women (r = 0.22, P time (h/day) and non-occupational non-leisure PA (MET-h/week, r = -0.30, P importance of assessing non-occupational non-leisure PA for a better understanding of how individuals partition their time between active or sedentary occupations.
Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H
The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.
Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H
this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.
Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…
Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sri Lanka, behavioural problems have grown to epidemic proportions accounting second highest category of mental health problems among children. Early identification of behavioural problems in children is an important pre-requisite of the implementation of interventions to prevent long term psychiatric outcomes. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate a screening instrument for use in the community setting to identify behavioural problems in children aged 4-6 years. Methods An initial 54 item questionnaire was developed following an extensive review of the literature. A three round Delphi process involving a panel of experts from six relevant fields was then undertaken to refine the nature and number of items and created the 15 item community screening instrument, Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument (CBAI. Validation study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area Kaduwela, Sri Lanka and a community sample of 332 children aged 4-6 years were recruited by two stage randomization process. The behaviour status of the participants was assessed by an interviewer using the CBAI and a clinical psychologist following clinical assessment concurrently. Criterion validity was appraised by assessing the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values at the optimum screen cut off value. Construct validity of the instrument was quantified by testing whether the data of validation study fits to a hypothetical model. Face and content validity of the CBAI were qualitatively assessed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the instrument was assessed by internal consistency analysis and test-retest methods in a 15% subset of the community sample. Results Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis the CBAI score of >16 was identified as the cut off point that optimally differentiated children having behavioural problems, with a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.80-0.96 and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI = 0
Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba
To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny; Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes
Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience problems in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The objective was to examine the self-reported quality of ADL task performance among COPD patients, and to investigate whether age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics correlate with the self-reported ADL ability. Eighty patients admitted to hospital with COPD exacerbations participated. In a cross-sectional study, the patients' self-reported ADL ability was assessed using the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) instrument. Data concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender, or routine COPD characteristics. Decreased quality of ADL task performance seemed to be extremely common among COPD patients. Therefore, addressing the problems in individually tailored pulmonary rehabilitation programmes may be advantageous.
Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer
all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using......BACKGROUND: Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments......: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across...
Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J
Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mamah, Daniel; Owoso, Akinkunle; Sheffield, Julia M; Bayer, Chelsea
Identification of individuals in the prodromal phase of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia facilitates early intervention and promises an improved prognosis. There are no current assessment tools for clinical risk symptoms of bipolar disorder, and psychosis-risk assessment generally involves semi-structured interviews, which are time consuming and rater dependent. We present psychometric data on two novel quantitative questionnaires: the Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP) Screen for assessing bipolar and psychotic disorder risk traits, and the accompanying WERC Stress Screen for assessing individual and total psychosocial stressor severities. Prevalence rates of the WERCAP Screen were evaluated among 171 community youth (aged 13-24 years); internal consistency was assessed and k-means cluster analysis was used to identify symptom groups. In 33 participants, test-retest reliability coefficients were assessed, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the validity of the psychosis section of the WERCAP Screen (pWERCAP) against the Structured Interview of Psychosis-Risk Symptoms (SIPS). Correlations of the pWERCAP, the affectivity section of the WERCAP Screen (aWERCAP) and the WERC Stress Screen were examined to determine the relatedness of scores with cognition and clinical measures. Cluster analysis identified three groups of participants: a normative (47%), a psychosis-affectivity (18%) and an affectivity only (35%) group. Internal consistency of the aWERCAP and pWERCAP resulted in alphas of 0.87 and 0.92, and test-retest reliabilities resulted in intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.76 and 0.86 respectively. ROC curve analysis showed the optimal cut-point on the pWERCAP as a score of >30 (sensitivity: 0.89; specificity: 1.0). There was a significant negative correlation between aWERCAP scores and total cognition (R=-0.42), and between pWERCAP scores and sensorimotor processing speed. Total stress scores correlated
Louwerse, Frances H.
A self-report instrument (questionnaire/reaction scale) was developed and administered to students in grades 9-12 to: (1) determine the number of science courses taken by each grade level; (2) estimate the number of science courses requested for future years and indicate where recruitment efforts would be needed; (3) examine other-directed reasons…
Schinka, John A.
Objective: Issues regarding the readability of self-report assessment instruments, methods for establishing the reading ability level of respondents, and guidelines for development of scales designed for marginal readers have been inconsistently addressed in the literature. A recent study by McHugh and Behar (2009) provided new findings relevant…
Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet
Background: Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures.…
Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hunter, Michael L; Friedland, Peter L; Atlas, Marcus D
The baby boomer population will become high users of the health-care system in coming years. Self-report of hearing loss at a primary health-care visit may offer timely referrals to audiological services, but there has been no population-based study of self-reported hearing loss in the baby boomer generation. To determine the clinical value and audiometric correspondence of self-reported hearing loss as a screening tool for the baby boomer population. A population-based study, Busselton Healthy Ageing Study (BHAS), surveying baby boomers born between 1946 and 1964 from the shire of Busselton, Western Australia. A randomized sample of noninstitutionalized baby-boomers listed on the electoral roll (n = 6690) and resident in the shire are eligible to participate. This study reports on data from the first 1004 attendees (53.5% female) with a mean age of 56.23 (SD = 5.43). Data from a self-report question on hearing loss and diagnostic pure tone audiometry was utilized for this study. Analysis included screening performance measures of self-report compared to audiometric cut-offs, receiver operator curve (ROC) to determine optimal level, analysis of variance to compare hearing status to self-report, and binary logistic regression to determine best audiometric predictors. Of the sample, 16% self-reported hearing loss (72.1% males). Logistic regression indicated 4000 Hz as the most important individual frequency related to self-report while the four-frequency average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) >25 dB in the worse ear was the most significant averaged cutoff with 68% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Of those who self-reported a hearing loss, 80% had either a four-frequency average hearing loss >25 dB in the worse ear or a high-frequency average (4000 and 8000 Hz) hearing loss greater than 35 dB in the worse ear. Baby boomer adults who self-report hearing impairment on direct inquiry are most likely to have a hearing loss. A simple question at a primary health care
Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi
Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P
To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.
Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja
Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017;123:4236-4243. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American
Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Petersen, Rikke S.; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen
quality of both personal ADL (PADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Aside from decreased independence, the participants also reported problems related to increased effort, increased use of time, and some safety issues. Although most of the participants reported to be competent in relation to PADL tasks......, how they perceive the quality of their performance in terms of effort/fatigue, use of time, safety risks, and need for assistance. The aim was to investigate the self-reported quality of ADL task performance in adults with schizophrenia. Subjects Participants were recruited from October 2013...... evaluation tool developed to describe and measure the quality of ADL task performance in terms of effort/fatigue, use of time, safety risks, and need for assistance based on self-report. Occupational therapists employed at the hospitals and trained in conducting the ADL–I were collecting data. The interviews...
Osório, Flávia L; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Forni-Dos-Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre S
This study aims to translate and validate Early Trauma Inventory Self Report -Short Form (ETISR-SF) to Brazilian Portuguese. 253 adult subjects answered the ETISR-SF, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). The instrument showed good internal consistency (0.83). Correlations with the PHQ-9 and BAI were moderate (r=0.26-0.47) and showed the expected associations with psychiatric constructs. No associations were found for FTND and FAST. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that a correlated four-factor model as well as a second order model subsuming four lower order components presented the best model fit. Test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.78-0.90). ETISR-SF is suitable for assessing traumatic experiences in a Brazilian community sample. Given the importance of trauma as a public health problem, tools such as ETISR-SF may help clinicians/ researchers to better evaluate and measure such events and further advance clinical care of trauma victims.
Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark. D.; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul
Objective The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Methods Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. Results The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (psymptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). Conclusion The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments. PMID:26766947
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.
Hernan, Andrea; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Dunbar, James A
Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004-05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = -0.226, p-value recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.
Oubaya, N; Mahmoudi, R; Jolly, D; Zulfiqar, A A; Quignard, E; Cunin, C; Nazeyrollas, P; Novella, J L; Dramé, M
To validate the modified version of the Short Emergency Geriatric Assessment (SEGAm) frailty instrument in elderly people living at home. Longitudinal, prospective, multicentre study. Four departments (Ardennes, Marne, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse) in two French Regions (Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine). Subjects aged 65 years or more, living at home, who could read and understand French, with a degree of autonomy corresponding to groups 5, or 6 in the AGGIR autonomy evaluation scale. Assessment included demographic characteristics, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the SEGAm instrument. Psychometric validation was used to study feasibility and acceptability, internal structure validity, reliability, and discriminant validity of the SEGAm instrument. Between July 1st 2012 and March 31st 2013, 167 patients were included in the study. Averaged age was 77±7 years, the majority were women (70.7%). Feasibility and acceptability of the SEGAm instrument were excellent: we observed no refusal to participate, no drop-out during administration, no missing items, no ceiling or floor effects, and the administration time was short (5.0±3.5 min). By factor analysis, the instrument proved to be unidimensional. It showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.68) and good test-retest (intra-class correlation: 0.88) at 7 days interval. Discriminant validity showed a significant difference, mainly for nutritional status, fall risk, dependency, mood and depression risk, and comorbidities. Based on these psychometric properties, the SEGAm appears to be an easy-to-use instrument that is particularly suitable for use in the community to identify frail elderly people who could benefit from early targeted interventions.
Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996
Heo, K. H.; Squires, J.; Yovanoff, P.
Background: Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. Methods: The ASQ…
Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…
Braverman, Julia; Tom, Matthew A; Shaffer, Howard J
This study is the first to compare the accuracy of self-reported with actual monetary outcomes of online fixed odds sports betting, live action sports betting, and online casino gambling at the individual level of analysis. Subscribers to bwin.party digital entertainment's online gambling service volunteered to respond to the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and questions about their estimated gambling results on specific games for the last 3 or 12 months. We compared the estimated results of each subscriber with his or her actual betting results data. On average, between 34% and 40% of the participants expressed a favorable distortion of their gambling outcomes (i.e., they underestimated losses or overestimated gains) depending on the time period and game. The size of the discrepancy between actual and self-reported results was consistently associated with the self-reported presence of gambling-related problems. However, the specific direction of the reported discrepancy (i.e., favorable vs. unfavorable bias) was not associated with gambling-related problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P<0.001, presented significantly worse family support (P=0.0236, and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers’ SWL was significantly correlated to patients’ quality of sleep (P<0.0001 for all domains. Patient’ and caregivers’ SWL was negatively affected by patients’ poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.
Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos
Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik
. In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...
Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K
The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.
Full Text Available Aims: The present study set out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL in 2 different samples of older adults. Methods: We assessed COGTEL in 116 older adults, with retest after 7 days to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Moreover, we assessed COGTEL in 868 older adults to evaluate convergent validity to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: Test-retest reliability of the COGTEL total score was good at 0.85 (p < 0.001. Latent variable analyses revealed that COGTEL and MMSE correlated by 0.93 (p < 0.001, indicating convergent validity of the COGTEL. Conclusion: The present analyses suggest COGTEL as a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies, with the advantage of covering more cognitive domains than traditional screening tools such as the MMSE, as well as differentiating between individual performance levels, in healthy older adults.
Milly A van der Ploeg
Full Text Available Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population.The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066 were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked.The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4 years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98. Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints.Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.
van der Ploeg, Milly A; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; van Blijswijk, Sophie C E; den Elzen, Wendy P J; van Peet, Petra G; de Ruijter, Wouter; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population. The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE) study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946). All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066) were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked. The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4) years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98). Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints. Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.
In a recent study, Dussault, Frenette, and Fernet (2013) developed a 21-item self-report instrument to measure leadership based on Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership paradigm. The final specification included a third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional leadership and transformational leadership), and a first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership). This note focuses on the need for assessing convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, and on ruling out the potential for common method bias.
Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva
diagnosed with depression (range 19-79, median 45,5) Procedure In order to evaluate the participants’ self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were chosen. Both instruments are developed to evaluate and measure...... the quality of ADL task performance. The ADL-I was conducted first and thereby formed the basis for identifying relevant tasks for the AMPS evaluation. Both evaluations were conducted on the same day by trained and calibrated occupational therapists. Results The results indicated that the participants both...
Bender, Amy M; Lawson, Doug; Werthner, Penny; Samuels, Charles H
Previous research has established that general sleep screening questionnaires are not valid and reliable in an athlete population. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was developed to address this need. While the initial validation of the ASSQ has been established, the clinical validity of the ASSQ has yet to be determined. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the ASSQ. Canadian National Team athletes (N = 199; mean age 24.0 ± 4.2 years, 62% females; from 23 sports) completed the ASSQ. A subset of athletes (N = 46) were randomized to the clinical validation sub-study which required subjects to complete an ASSQ at times 2 and 3 and to have a clinical sleep interview by a sleep medicine physician (SMP) who rated each subjects' category of clinical sleep problem and provided recommendations to improve sleep. To assess clinical validity, the SMP category of clinical sleep problem was compared to the ASSQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.74) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86) of the ASSQ were acceptable. The ASSQ demonstrated good agreement with the SMP (Cohen's kappa = 0.84) which yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 93%, positive predictive value of 87%, and negative predictive value of 90%. There were 25.1% of athletes identified to have clinically relevant sleep disturbances that required further clinical sleep assessment. Sleep improved from time 1 at baseline to after the recommendations at time 3. Sleep screening athletes with the ASSQ provides a method of accurately determining which athletes would benefit from preventative measures and which athletes suffer from clinically significant sleep problems. The process of sleep screening athletes and providing recommendations improves sleep and offers a clinical intervention output that is simple and efficient for teams and athletes to implement.
Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.
Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890
Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank
To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.
Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Beyler, Nicholas K; Bartee, Roderick T; Heelan, Kate A
The utility of self-report measures of physical activity (PA) in youth can be greatly enhanced by calibrating self-report output against objectively measured PA data.This study demonstrates the potential of calibrating self-report output against objectively measured physical activity (PA) in youth by using a commonly used self-report tool called the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). A total of 148 participants (grades 4 through 12) from 9 schools (during the 2009-2010 school year) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the PAQ. Multiple linear regression modeling was used on 70% of the available sample to develop a calibration equation and this was cross validated on an independent sample of participants (30% of sample). A calibration model with age, gender, and PAQ scores explained 40% of the variance in values for the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (%MVPA) measured from the accelerometers (%MVPA = 14.56 - (sex*0.98) - (0.84*age) + (1.01*PAQ)). When tested on an independent, hold-out sample, the model estimated %MVPA values that were highly correlated with the recorded accelerometer values (r = .63) and there was no significant difference between the estimated and recorded activity values (mean diff. = 25.3 ± 18.1 min; p = .17). These results suggest that the calibrated PAQ may be a valid alternative tool to activity monitoring instruments for estimating %MVPA in groups of youth.
Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Galiwango, Edward; Kadobera, Daniel; Bentley, Jacob A; Bishai, David; Wegener, Stephen; Hyder, Adnan A
The measurement of disability in low-income countries is recognised as a major deficiency in health information systems, especially in Africa. The Iganga and Mayuge Demographic Surveillance System (IM-DSS) in Uganda provides a special opportunity to develop population-based data to inform national health policies and evaluate innovations in assessing the burden of disability in Uganda. In this study, we apply a new instrument to screen for physical disabilities at the IM-DSS. The study utilised a modified version of the short set of questions proposed by the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. The instrument was applied at the household level and information was collected on all individuals over the age of 5, who were residents of the IM-DSS. The study was based at the IM-DSS, which covers the parts of Iganga and Mayuge districts in Eastern Uganda. 57,247 individuals were included in the survey, with 51% of the study population being women. Activity limitations The overall prevalence of physical disability at the IM-DSS was 9.4%, with vision being the most common type of difficulty reported in this population, and communication being least prevalent. Disability was less likely to be observed among males than their female counterparts (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81; pdisability and increasing age, as well as disability and decreasing household wealth status. This study shows that the modified short set of questions can be readily applied in a DSS setting to obtain estimates on the prevalence and types of disability at the population level. This instrument could be adapted for use to screen for disability in other LMIC settings, providing estimates that are comparable across different global regions and populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dickinson Heather O
intention was of a similar magnitude to that found in the literature relating to non-health professionals. This was more consistently the case for studies in which intention-behaviour correspondence was good and behaviour was self-reported. Though firm conclusions are limited by a smaller literature, our findings are consistent with that of the non-health professional literature. This review, viewed in the context of the larger populations of studies, provides encouragement for the contention that there is a predictable relationship between the intentions of a health professional and their subsequent behaviour. However, there remain significant methodological challenges.
Sizoo, B.B.; Horwitz, E.H.; Teunisse, J.P; Kan, C.C.; Vissers, C.; Forceville, E.J.M.; Voorst, A.J.P. Van; Geurts, H.M.
While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger
Sizoo, Bram B.; Horwitz, E. H.; Teunisse, J. P.; Kan, C. C.; Vissers, C. T. W. M.; Forceville, E. J. M.; Van Voorst, A. J. P.; Geurts, H. M.
While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the…
Bellelli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Mazzola, Paolo; Turco, Renato; Gentile, Simona; Ryan, Tracy; Cash, Helen; Guerini, Fabio; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Del Santo, Francesco; Trabucchi, Marco; Annoni, Giorgio; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.
Objective: to evaluate the performance of the 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) in screening for delirium in older patients. The 4AT is a new test for rapid screening of delirium in routine clinical practice. Design: prospective study of consecutively admitted elderly patients with independent 4AT and reference standard assessments. Setting: an acute geriatrics ward and a department of rehabilitation. Participants: two hundred and thirty-six patients (aged ≥70 years) consecutively admitted over a period of 4 months. Measurements: in each centre, the 4AT was administered by a geriatrician to eligible patients within 24 h of admission. Reference standard delirium diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR criteria) was obtained within 30 min by a different geriatrician who was blind to the 4AT score. The presence of dementia was assessed using the Alzheimer's Questionnaire and the informant section of the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of the 4AT in diagnosing delirium. Results: patients were 83.9 ± 6.1 years old, and the majority were women (64%). Delirium was detected in 12.3% (n = 29), dementia in 31.2% (n = 74) and a combination of both in 7.2% (n = 17). The 4AT had a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity 84.1% for delirium. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for delirium diagnosis were 0.93 in the whole population, 0.92 in patients without dementia and 0.89 in patients with dementia. Conclusions: the 4AT is a sensitive and specific method of screening for delirium in hospitalised older people. Its brevity and simplicity support its use in routine clinical practice. PMID:24590568
Bridget V Dever
Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community
Santos, Larissa F; Loureiro, Sonia R; Crippa, José A S; Osório, Flávia L
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts.
Dave W. Lu
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods: In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results: We included 77 out of 155 (49.7% responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012 and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036 than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744. Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011 and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02. EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion: A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.
Heo, K H; Squires, J; Yovanoff, P
Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. The ASQ was translated into Korean and necessary cross-cultural adaptations were made. The translated version was then distributed and completed by 3220 parents of young children between the ages of 4 months and 5 years. Reliability was studied including domain correlations, internal consistency, and performance of identification cut-off scores for the Korean population. Rasch analyses including tests of Differential Item Functioning, contrasting Korean and US samples were also performed. In general, internal consistency of the Korean ASQ was high, with overall correlations 0.75 for communication, 0.85 for gross motor, 0.74 for fine motor, 0.72 for problem solving, and 0.65 for personal-social. Validity, including concurrent validity, also had strong evidence. Mean scores of children on the Korean translation of the ASQ and the US normative sample were generally similar. Rasch analyses indicated the majority of items functioned similarly across the Korean sample. In general, the ASQ was translated with cultural appropriateness in mind and functioned as a valid and reliable parent-completed screening test to assist in early identification of young children with developmental delays. Further research is needed to confirm these results with a larger and more diverse Korean sample.
Lennerling, Annette; Forsberg, Anna
Patients' non-adherence to immunosuppressant treatment after organ transplantation may lead to organ failure, graft loss and death. Non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients has not previously been studied. Hence the aim of this study was to explore non-adherence among Swedish kidney transplant recipients by using self-report instruments as well as testing the hypothesis that there is a difference in self-reported symptoms, beliefs about medicine and social support between respondents with or without self reported non-adherence. In the present cross sectional study 250 renal transplant recipients participated by replying to a questionnaire. Two validated instruments were included, one on beliefs about medicine (the BMQ©), the other on nonadherence (the BAASIS©). Only 46 % never failed to follow the medical treatment with respect to taking the drugs, dosage or timing (>2 hrs from prescribed time). Timing was the most frequently reported deviation (48 %). Forty-seven patients (16 %) had failed taking at least one dose of the prescribed immunosuppressants during the past four weeks. Four individuals had reduced the prescribed doses. Only one reported taking a 'drug holiday'. Nine participants reported stronger concerns than necessities for immunosuppressive medication. For the BMQ the necessity scores were extremely high while the scores for concern were low. Risk behaviour identified by the BAASIS had no association in risk attitudes as identified in the BMQ. The only factor relating to non-adherence was lack of social support (p=0.022). In general adherence was high. Identification of the exceptions remains a challenge.
Hafner, Brian J; Morgan, Sara J; Askew, Robert L; Salem, Rana
Documentation of clinical outcomes is increasingly expected in delivery of prosthetic services and devices. However, many outcome measures suitable for use in clinical care and research have not been psychometrically tested with prosthesis users. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, mode-of-administration (MoA) equivalence, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) of standardized, self-report instruments that assess constructs of importance to people with lower limb loss. Prosthesis users (n = 201) were randomly assigned to groups based on MoA (i.e., paper, electronic, or mixed-mode). Participants completed two surveys 2 to 3 d apart. Instruments included the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions-Applied Cognition/General Concerns, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Profile, and Socket Comfort Score. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated all instruments are appropriate for group-level comparisons and select instruments are suitable for individual-level applications. Several instruments showed evidence of possible floor and ceiling effects. All were equivalent across MoAs. SEM and MDC were quantified to facilitate interpretation of outcomes and change scores. These results can enhance clinicians' and researchers' ability to select, apply, and interpret scores from instruments administered to prosthesis users.
Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone
The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....
Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J
(a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.
Nelson, Helen J; Kendall, Garth E; Burns, Sharyn K; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A
Bullying in schools is a major health concern throughout the world, contributing to poor educational and mental health outcomes. School nurses are well placed to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of bullying prevention strategies. To evaluate the effect of such strategies, it is necessary to measure children's behavior over time. This scoping review of instruments that measure the self-report of aggressive behavior and bullying by children will inform the evaluation of bullying interventions. This review aimed to identify validated instruments that measure aggression and bullying among preadolescent children (age 8-12). The review was part of a larger study that sought to differentiate bullying from aggressive behavior by measuring the self-report of power imbalance between the aggressor and the child being bullied. The measurement of power imbalance was therefore a key aspect of the scoping review.
Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...
Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.
Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn
As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...
This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...
Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...
Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…
Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...
Connor, Jane M.; And Others
Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…
Mauger, Paul A.; And Others
The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…
Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.
Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel
Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…
Thomas M. Brinthaupt
Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.
Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.
PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;
Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove
BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...
Croon Marcel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...
between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...
Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV
Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.
Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual
Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liu; Qian, Wenjuan; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin
On-site monitoring the plantation of genetically modified (GM) crops is of critical importance in agriculture industry throughout the world. In this paper, a simple, visual and instrument-free method for instant on-site detection of GTS 40-3-2 soybean has been developed. It is based on body-heat recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and followed with naked-eye detection via fluorescent DNA dye. Combining with extremely simplified sample preparation, the whole detection process can be accomplished within 10 min and the fluorescent results can be photographed by an accompanied smart phone. Results demonstrated a 100% detection rate for screening of practical GTS 40-3-2 soybean samples by 20 volunteers under different ambient temperatures. This method is not only suitable for on-site detection of GM crops but also demonstrates great potential to be applied in other fields.
Elbers, Roy G.; Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Verhoef, John; Kramer, Sharon F.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kwakkel, Gert
Purpose To critically appraise, compare and summarize the measurement properties of self-report fatigue questionnaires validated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus were searched. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. A qualitative data synthesis was performed to rate the mea...
Leenarts, L E W; Dölitzsch, C; Schmeck, K; Fegert, J M; Grisso, T; Schmid, M
There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design. Secondly, as the sample was drawn from the French-, German- and Italian-speaking parts of Switzerland, the three languages were represented in the total sample and consequently differences between the language regions were analyzed as well. The third objective was to examine gender differences in this relationship. Participants were 297 boys and 149 girls (mean age = 16.2, SD = 2.5) recruited from 64 youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions in Switzerland. The MAYSI-2 was used to screen for mental health or behavioral problems that could require further evaluation. Psychiatric classification was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to predict (cluster of) psychiatric disorders from MAYSI-2 scales. The regression analyses revealed that the MAYSI-2 scales generally related well to their corresponding homotypic (cluster of) psychiatric disorders. For example, the alcohol/drug use scale identified the presence of any substance use disorder and the suicide ideation scale identified youths reporting suicide ideation or suicide attempts. Several MAYSI-2
Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope
Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.
Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W
This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sloane, Philip D; Mitchell, C Madeline; Weisman, Gerald; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Foley, Kristie M Long; Lynn, Mary; Calkins, Margaret; Lawton, M Powell; Teresi, Jeanne; Grant, Leslie; Lindeman, David; Montgomery, Rhonda
To develop an observational instrument that describes the ability of physical environments of institutional settings to address therapeutic goals for persons with dementia. A National Institute on Aging workgroup identified and subsequently revised items that evaluated exit control, maintenance, cleanliness, safety, orientation/cueing, privacy, unit autonomy, outdoor access, lighting, noise, visual/tactile stimulation, space/seating, and familiarity/homelikeness. The final instrument contains 84 discrete items and one global rating. A summary scale, the Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), consists of 18 items. Lighting items were validated using portable light meters. Concurrent criterion validation compared SCUEQS scores with the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP). Interrater kappa statistics for 74% of items were above.60. For another 10% of items, kappas could not be calculated due to empty cells, but interrater agreement was above 80%. The SCUEQS demonstrated an interrater reliability of.93, a test--retest reliability of.88, and an internal consistency of.81--.83. Light meter ratings correlated significantly with the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes (TESS-NH) lighting items (r =.29--.38, p =.01--.04), and the SCUEQS correlated significantly with global PEAP ratings (r =.52, p TESS-NH efficiently assesses discrete elements of the physical environment and has strong reliability and validity. The SCUEQS provides a quantitative measure of environmental quality in institutional settings.
Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Welch, Alice E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R
The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over 8-9 years was examined among 16,488 rescue and recovery workers who responded to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) at the World Trade Center (WTC; New York, NY), and were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Latent class growth analysis identified 5 groups of rescue and recovery workers with similar score trajectories at 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL): low-stable (53.3%), moderate- stable (28.7%), moderate-increasing (6.4%), high-decreasing (7.7%), and high-stable (4.0%). Relative to the low-stable group, membership in higher risk groups was associated with 9/11-related exposures including duration of WTC work, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.0, witnessing of horrific events (range = 1.3 to 2.1), being injured (range = 1.4 to 2.3), perceiving threat to life or safety (range = 2.2 to 5.2), bereavement (range = 1.6 to 4.8), and job loss due to 9/11 (range = 2.4 to 15.8). Within groups, higher PCL scores were associated with adverse social circumstances including lower social support, with B coefficients ranging from 0.2 to 0.6, divorce, separation, or widowhood (range = 0.4-0.7), and unemployment (range = 0.4-0.5). Given baseline, exposure-related, and contextual influences that affect divergent PTSD trajectories, screening for both PTSD and adverse circumstances should occur immediately, and at regular intervals postdisaster. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Fulkerson Jayne A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is growing interest in assessing the home food environment, no easy-to-use, low cost tools exist to assess the foods served at home meals, making it difficult to assess the meal component of the food environment. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a user-friendly screener to assess the types of foods served at home meals. Methods Primary food preparing adults (n = 51 participated in a validation study in their own homes. Staff and participants independently completed a screener as participants cooked dinner. The screener assessed the types of foods offered, method(s of preparation, and use of added fats. Two scale scores were created: 1 to assess offerings of foods in five food groups (meat and other protein, milk, vegetables, fruit, grains, 2 to assess the relative healthfulness of foods based on types offered, preparation method, and added fats. Criterion validity was assessed comparing staff and participant reports of individual foods (kappa (k and scale scores (Spearman correlations. Results Criterion validity was high between participants' and staffs' record of whether major food categories (meat and other protein, bread and cereal, salad, vegetables, fruits, dessert were served (k = 0.79-1.0, moderate for reports of other starches (e.g., rice being served (k = 0.52, and high for the Five Food Group and Healthfulness scale scores (r = 0.75-0.85, p Conclusions This new meal screening tool has high validity and can be used to assess the types of foods served at home meals allowing a more comprehensive assessment of the home food environment.
J. Van der Heyden
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Care Module of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS is aimed to obtain comparable information on the use of inpatient and ambulatory care in all EU member states. In this study we assessed the validity of self-reported information on the use of health care, collected through this instrument, in the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS, and explored the impact of selection and reporting bias on the validity of regional differences in health care use observed in the BHIS. Methods To assess reporting bias, self-reported BHIS 2008 data were linked with register-based data from the Belgian compulsory health insurance (BCHI. The latter were compared with similar estimates from a random sample of the BCHI to investigate the selection bias. Outcome indicators included the prevalence of a contact with a GP, specialist, dentist and a physiotherapist, as well as inpatient and day patient hospitalisation. The validity of the estimates and the regional differences were explored through measures of agreement and logistic regression analyses. Results Validity of self-reported health care use varies by type of health service and is more affected by reporting than by selection bias. Compared to health insurance estimates, self-reported results underestimate the percentage of people with a specialist contact in the past year (50.5 % versus 65.0 % and a day patient hospitalisation (7.8 % versus 13.9 %. Inversely, survey results overestimated the percentage of people having visited a dentist in the past year: 58.3 % versus 48.6 %. The best concordance was obtained for an inpatient hospitalisation (kappa 0.75. Survey data overestimate the higher prevalence of a contact with a specialist [OR 1.51 (95 % CI 1.33–1.72 for self-report and 1.08 (95 % CI 1.05–1.15 for register] and underestimate the lower prevalence of a contact with a GP [ORs 0.59 (95 % CI 0.51–0.70 and 0.41 (95 % CI 0.39–0.42 respectively] in
Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet
Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures. This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Twenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards. Eye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models. The results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies. This study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Bramness, Jørgen G; Walby, Fredrik A; Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Tverdal, Aage
Studies of clinical cohorts and retrospective reports have identified psychiatric disorders as paramount risk factors for suicide. Much less is known about how self-reported mental health is related to completed suicide. To study the relation between self-reported mental health and risk of completed suicide, the authors prospectively followed a population-based Norwegian cohort of 61,588 men and 69,774 women aged 39-44 years for an average of 10.4 years between 1994 and 2007. Self-reported mental health was measured using an instrument based on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire. Completed suicides were registered in the official Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Females reported higher levels of mental distress than males. In comparison with persons reporting the fewest mental health symptoms, the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide increased from 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.9) in the moderately depressed group to 8.9 (95% CI: 4.4, 18.2) in the most depressed group. The risk difference was greatest in males. At each level of the mental health index, males had double the risk of suicide of females (hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.3). This study shows a dose-response effect of self-reported mental health problems on completed suicide and replicates the gender paradox observed in the general population with prospective data.
Nair, Kalyani P.; Harkness, Elaine F.; Gadde, Soujanye; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Foden, Philip; Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.
Personalised breast screening requires assessment of individual risk of breast cancer, of which one contributory factor is weight. Self-reported weight has been used for this purpose, but may be unreliable. We explore the use of volume of fat in the breast, measured from digital mammograms. Volumetric breast density measurements were used to determine the volume of fat in the breasts of 40,431 women taking part in the Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening (PROCAS) study. Tyrer-Cuzick risk using self-reported weight was calculated for each woman. Weight was also estimated from the relationship between self-reported weight and breast fat volume in the cohort, and used to re-calculate Tyrer-Cuzick risk. Women were assigned to risk categories according to 10 year risk (below average =8%) and the original and re-calculated Tyrer-Cuzick risks were compared. Of the 716 women diagnosed with breast cancer during the study, 15 (2.1%) moved into a lower risk category, and 37 (5.2%) moved into a higher category when using weight estimated from breast fat volume. Of the 39,715 women without a cancer diagnosis, 1009 (2.5%) moved into a lower risk category, and 1721 (4.3%) into a higher risk category. The majority of changes were between below average and average risk categories (38.5% of those with a cancer diagnosis, and 34.6% of those without). No individual moved more than one risk group. Automated breast fat measures may provide a suitable alternative to self-reported weight for risk assessment in personalized screening.
Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak
The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.
Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu
Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.
Ponsoni, André; Branco, Laura Damiani; Cotrena, Charles; Shansis, Flávio Milman; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples. The sample included 80 control subjects and two groups of patients with BD and MDD, matched by age and education (26 with a history of suicide attempts [MD+], and 26 with no such history [MD-]). Participants completed behavioral and self-report measures of DM and IC, which were compared between groups using ANCOVA, followed by logistic regression for patients with mood disorders only, and the presence or absence of a history of suicide as the outcome. Cognitive performance did not differ between groups. The MD+ group showed significantly higher motor and attentional impulsivity on the BIS-11 than the MD- and control groups. A regression analysis containing these scores showed that motor impulsivity was the only significant predictor of a history of suicide (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.00-1.30). Self-reported motor impulsivity was a significant predictor of suicide. These findings underscore the importance of self-report measures in neuropsychological assessment, and their contributions to the management and prognosis of patients with mood disorders. Lastly, they point to the role of impulsivity as a target for interventions and public policy on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Samantha; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne
Work-related stress (WRS) is the leading cause of occupational ill-health in the education sector in the UK. Headship is believed to be a stressful role although there is little current research into stress in head teachers. Changes in the education sector since the late 1980s have meant that the findings of many existing studies are outdated. To investigate prevalence and causes of self-reported, WRS in head teachers in West Sussex, UK. A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire in a population of 290 head teachers and principals. The measuring instrument was a short stress evaluation tool (ASSET) plus additional questions derived from previous studies. Stress cases were defined as respondents who felt their work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Prevalence of self-reported, WRS was 43%. Using ASSET scoring, work overload and work-life imbalance were the key stressors. Females were significantly more stressed than males for a number of stressors including overload and control. Although there was some evidence that primary head teachers fared worse than their secondary counterparts, once the confounding effects of gender were included, there were few significant differences. The prevalence of self-reported stress in head teachers in West Sussex is significantly increased compared to recent studies of workers in the UK. The recurring theme in existing studies of workload as a main stressor is confirmed in the findings of this study. Gender and type of school does affect outcome and female head teachers have more reported stressors than their male colleagues.
Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O
The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Giulio Sergio Roi
Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.
Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E
Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana
The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…
Haans, Antal; Kaiser, Florian G; Bouwhuis, Don G; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A
Can we assess individual differences in the extent to which a person perceives the rubber-hand illusion on the basis of self-reported experiences? In this research, we develop such an instrument using Rasch-type models. In our conception, incorporating an object (e.g., a rubber hand) into one's body image requires various sensorimotor and cognitive processes. The extent to which people can meet these requirements thus determines how intensely people experience and, simultaneously, describe the illusion. As a consequence, individual differences in people's susceptibility to the rubber-hand illusion can be determined by inspecting reports of their personal experiences. The proposed model turned out to be functional in its capability to predict self-reports of people's experiences and to reliably assess individual differences in susceptibility to the illusion. Regarding validity, we found a small, but significant, correlation between individual susceptibility and proprioceptive drift. Additionally, we found that asynchrony, and tapping rather than stroking the fingers constrain the experience of the illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H
This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals
Giofrè, David; Cornoldi, Cesare; Schoemaker, Marina M
The present study was devoted to test the validity of the Italian adaptation of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T, Schoemaker, Flapper, Reinders-Messelink, & De Kloet, 2008) as a fast screening instrument, based on teachers' ratings, for detecting developmental coordination disorders symptoms and to study its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits. In a first study on a large sample of children, we assessed the reliability and structure of the Italian adaptation of the MOQ-T. Results showed a good reliability of the questionnaire and a hierarchical structure with two first-order factors (reflecting motor and handwriting skills), which are influenced by a second-order factor (general motor function) at the top. In a second study, we looked at the external validity of the MOQ-T and found that children with symptoms of Developmental Coordination Disorder (children with high scores on the MOQ-T) also had difficulty reproducing gestures, either imitating others or in response to verbal prompts. Our results also showed that children with high MOQ-T scores had visuospatial WM impairments. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alisson Fernandes Bolina
Full Text Available Household survey, cross-sectional and observational study that aimed to verify the socio-demographic factors and self-reported morbidities associated with urinary incontinence (UI. The research was carried out between August and December 2008 with 2,142 elderly people. We used a semi-structured instrument, and performed a descriptive analysis and logistic regression (p<0.05. Most were female and with income of up to one minimum wage. UI prevailed among those aged 70├80 years, widowed and uneducated; for the group without UI: 60├70 years, married or living with partner and 4├8 years of study. The factors associated with increased chances of presenting UI were: 70├80 years and 80 years and older, no education and obesity. It is important to pay attention to the factors associated with UI in the development of effective actions on health prevention.
Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther
Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.
Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert
Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression
Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.
Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085
Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika
To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Gasque, Pablo; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David
Stair climbing is an activity of daily living that might contribute to increase levels of physical activity (PA). To date, there is no study examining the validity of climbing stairs assessed by self-report. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine the validity of estimated stair climbing from one question included in a common questionnaire compared to a pattern-recognition activity monitor in older adults. A total of 138 older adults (94 women), aged 65-86 years (70.9 ± 4.7 years), from the IMPACT65 + study participated in this validity study. Estimates of stair climbing were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) PA questionnaire. An objective assessment of stair climbing was obtained with the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) monitor. The correlation between both methods to assess stair climbing was fair (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.008 for PA energy expenditure and ρ = 0.26, p = 0.002 for duration). Mean differences between self-report and the IDEEA were 7.96 ± 10.52 vs. 9.88 ± 3.32 METs-min/day for PA energy expenditure, and 0.99 ± 1.32 vs. 1.79 ± 2.02 min/day for duration (both Wilcoxon test p < 0.001). Results from the Bland-Altman analysis indicate that bias between both instruments were -1.91 ± 10.30 METs-min/day and -0.80 ± 1.99 min/day, and corresponding limits of agreement for the two instruments were from 18.27 to -22.10 METs-min/day and from 3.09 to -4.70 min/day, respectively. Our results indicate that self-reported stair climbing has modest validity to accurately rank old age participants, and underestimates both PAEE and its duration, as compared with an objectively measured method.
Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in “360” evaluation formats. Keywords: emotional intelligence, patient centeredness, sex, specialty, age, leadership assessment
Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M
A brief multidimensional measure of adult picky eating (PE) behavior was developed using a large U.S. adult sample. In addition, the study explored associations between specific aspects of adult PE behavior and psychosocial impairment in effort to support the inclusion of adults in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The study included 3 phases of qualitative and quantitative data collection. Participants were 1,663 U.S. adults who completed online surveys. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop PE subscales. Associations among the PE subscales and measures of psychosocial impairment were examined. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 16-item 4-factor model of adult PE that included subscales of meal presentation, food variety, meal disengagement, and taste aversion. The measure also demonstrated convergence with previous measures of PE. The meal disengagement and meal presentation subscales demonstrated significant associations with social eating anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, eating related quality of life (QOL), and psychological flexibility. Meal disengagement alone was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ) demonstrated sound psychometric properties and may be used to further investigate adult PE behavior. The relationships between adult PE and psychological impairment, particularly social anxiety, support the inclusion of ARFID in the DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Murphy, Kelly R; McManigle, John E; Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin M; Little Jones, Amy; Dekker, Travis J; Little, Barrett A; Doty, Joseph P; Taylor, Dean C
The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL]) to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness ( P =0.016). When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in "360" evaluation formats.
Lowry, Kristin A; Vanswearingen, Jessie M; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A; Brach, Jennifer S
Gait speed has shown to be an indicator of functional status in older adults; however, there may be aspects of physical function not represented by speed but by the quality of movement. The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between walking smoothness, an indicator of the quality of movement based on trunk accelerations, and physical function. Thirty older adults (mean age, 77.7±5.1 years) participated. Usual gait speed was measured using an instrumented walkway. Walking smoothness was quantified by harmonic ratios derived from anteroposterior, vertical, and mediolateral trunk accelerations recorded during overground walking. Self-reported physical function was recorded using the function subscales of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Anteroposterior smoothness was positively associated with all function components of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument, whereas mediolateral smoothness exhibited negative associations. Adjusting for gait speed, anteroposterior smoothness remained associated with the overall and lower extremity function subscales, whereas mediolateral smoothness remained associated with only the advanced lower extremity subscale. These findings indicate that walking smoothness, particularly the smoothness of forward progression, represents aspects of the motor control of walking important for physical function not represented by gait speed alone.
Fristad, Mary A.
Compared clinical rating scales and self-report scales from McMaster and Circumplex models of family functioning with families (N=41). Found McMaster instruments had superior sensitivity; greater correspondence between clinical rating scales and family member self-report inventories on McMaster instruments; and lack of support for the curvilinear…
Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.
Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian
The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...
Glintborg, Bente; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Olsen, Lenette Holm
were compared to the patients' self-reported medication history. Information on prescribed drugs dispensed from any Danish pharmacy was collected from nationwide real-time pharmacy records. The authors performed home visits in a subgroup of 115 patients 4 weeks after their discharge. Stored drugs were......The medication history among hospitalized patients often relies on patients' self-reports due to insufficient communication between health care professionals. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of patients' self-reported medication use. Five hundred patients admitted...... to an acute medical department at a Danish university hospital were interviewed on the day of admission about their recent medication use. Blood samples drawn immediately after admission were screened for contents of 5 drugs (digoxin, bendroflumethiazide, amlodipine, simvastatin, glimepiride), and the results...
Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P
The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of
von Baeyer, Carl L; Jaaniste, Tiina; Vo, Henry L T; Brunsdon, Georgie; Lao, Hsuan-Chih; Champion, G David
Claims are made for the validity of some self-report pain scales for 3- and 4-year-old children, but little is known about their ability to use such tools. This systematic review identified self-report pain intensity measures used with 3- and/or 4- year-old participants (3-4yo) and considered their reliability and validity within this age span. The search protocol identified research articles that included 3-4yo, reported use of any pain scale, and included self-reported pain intensity ratings. A total of 1,590 articles were screened and 617 articles met inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 98% aggregated self-report data for 3-4yo with data for older children, leading to overestimates of the reliability and validity of self-report in the younger age group. In the 14 studies that provided nonaggregated data for 3-4yo, there was no evidence for 3-year-old and weak evidence for 4-year-old children being able to use published self-report pain intensity tools in a valid or reliable way. Preschool-age children have been reported to do better with fewer than the 6 response options offered on published faces scales. Simplified tools are being developed for young children; however, more research is needed before these are adopted. Some self-report pain scales have been promoted for use with 3- and 4-year-old children, but this is on the basis of studies that aggregated data for younger and older children, resulting in overestimates of reliability and validity for the preschool-age children. Scales with fewer response options show promise, at least for 4-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To determine whether behavioral factors differ among metabolic conditions and self-reported health, and to determine whether self-reported health is a valid predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 2997 individuals (≥40 years old were selected from four biennial U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007–2014. A set of weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIsIndividuals with light physical activity are more likely to have MetS and report poor health than those with vigorous physical activity with OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 2.23, 4.66 and 4.52 (95% CI: 2.78, 7.33, respectively. Individuals eating poor diet have greater odds of developing MetS and reporting poor health with OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.66 and 3.13 (95% CI: 2.46, 3.98. The aforementioned relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic status. A potential intervention strategy will be needed to encourage individuals to aggressively improve their lifestyle to reduce MetS and improve quality of life. Despite the significant association between self-reported health with MetS, a low sensitivity indicated that better screening tools for MetS, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are essential.
Malbergier, Andre; do Amaral, Ricardo A; Cardoso, Luciana R D; Castel, Saulo
Illicit drug use in HIV-infected patients can be linked to impairment of physical and mental health, low health related quality of life, and suboptimal adherence to HIV treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of self report illicit drug use, urinalysis for cocaine and cannabis metabolites, and severity of dependence among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a treatment center in Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-eight outpatients of an HIV referral center were interviewed and assessed for drug use (lifetime, last year and last month). Urinalysis was performed to detect the presence of cocaine and cannabis metabolites in urine samples. Overall agreement between self report and urinalysis was almost 68% for cannabis and higher than 85% for cocaine. Positive urinalysis was significantly associated with more than once a week cannabis (pdrugs were correlated. Our findings suggest that positive self-report is a reliable predictor of positive urine sample both for cannabis and cocaine, but since the agreement was not perfect, there is a role for urine drug screening in the care of patients with HIV-related conditions.
Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin
Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate factors that are associated with type 2 diabetes Mellitus in shift workers of a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,194 18- to 50-year-old workers of both sexes. The presence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was self-reported and confirmed by the use of hypoglycemic drugs or insulin. The independent variables were sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, family income, leisure time physical activity, smoking, and self-reported health and nutritional status (body mass index and waist circumference. Multivariate analysis was performed from an a priori conceptual model. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 1.3% (95%CI=0.6-1.9. Type 2 diabetes Mellitus was associated with poor or regular self-reported health (OR=3.72; 95%CI=1.28-10.78 and level II abdominal obesity ³102 for men and ³88 for women (OR=5.76; 95%CI=1.07-29.10. Conclusion: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was low. Moreover, the study evidenced the importance of using waist circumference to surveil and screen for metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes Mellitus, and to monitor the low quality of life in the study individuals given the poor self-perceived health of workers with the said disease.
Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.
Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon
Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support
Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.
Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and
Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno
We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.
Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI in community-dwelling Korean women 60 years or older, and to identify factors associated with self-reported and medically diagnosed UI. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey, which used a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of 8,961 elderly Korean women. Results: Of the 8,961 women in this study, 579 (6.5% had self-reported UI, and 209 (2.3% were medically diagnosed with UI. As patient age and exercise ability of the upper extremities increased, risk for self-reported UI decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the number of limited instrumental activities of daily living (IADL increased, the risk for self-reported UI increased (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24–1.35. Overweight women were 1.94 times more likely to have self-reported UI compared to underweight women. Women with a history of stroke or asthma were more likely to have self-reported UI compared to women with no history. Also, women who reported being in good health were less likely to have UI, compared to women who reported being in poor health (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.70. Medically diagnosed UI was negatively associated with the number of limited IADL and exercise ability scores for the lower extremities (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.99, respectively. In contrast, as the exercise ability score for the upper extremities increased, so did the risk for medically diagnosed UI (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03. Conclusions: An interventional program for home visit health services is needed for incontinent women who are highly dependent on others for IADL.
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329
Schäfer, G; Smoltczyk, H; Dengler, W; Buchkremer, G
The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and nature of self-reported and drug-related emergencies. 47 patients of a ward for opiate detoxification were interviewed about their experiences with drug-related emergencies. Typical categories had to be found like overdoses, seizures, accidents and suicide attempts respectively. 68% had own experience with drug-related emergency. A majority suffered opiate overdose with different extensions as unconsciousness or breath-depression. Alcohol and polydrug use was associated with overdose. Drug-related accidents were only reported by men. Half the number of drug-related emergencies were treated in hospital. Most emergencies occurred alone either in a home environment or outside. Harm reduction interventions like observed user rooms should be established. Furthermore other strategies to reduce the number of emergencies as sharing naloxon or resuscitation programs in wards for detoxification could also be an effective method to prevent near fatal or fatal overdoses in dependent subjects.
Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...
Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J
AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician...... discussion of events in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: People in seven European countries aged >15 years with Type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (basal-only, basal-bolus and other insulin regimens) were recruited via consumer panels......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...
Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D
Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.
Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten
, more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...
Becker, Andreas; Wang, Biyao; Kunze, Barbara; Otto, Christiane; Schlack, Robert; Hölling, Heike; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna; Rogge, Jana; Isensee, Corinna; Rothenberger, Aribert; Bella Study Group, The
This study served to establish German norms for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report (SDQ-S) by using data from a representative epidemiological sample from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study). Although the German version of the SDQ has been widely used and normative data for the parent version (SDQ-P) exist, no German norms for the self-report version have been reported, so that practitioners had to rely on the available British norms. In addition, we investigated whether sex- and age-specific norms are necessary. At the baseline of the KiGGS study, SDQ-S ratings were collected from n = 6,726 children and adolescents between 11 and 17 years (n = 3,440 boys und n = 3,286 girls). We assessed the internal consistency and age/sex effects of the SDQ-S. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the factor structure of the SDQ-S. Banding scores were developed to differentiate children and adolescents with levels of difficulties and categorized them as "normal," "borderline," and "abnormal." General as well as age- and sex-specific bandings were created for both total score and subscales of SDQ-S. In addition, the German norms of the SDQ-S were compared with those of the UK, Norway, and Thailand. The five-factor solution of the SDQ-S (including Emotional symptoms, Conduct problems, Hyperactivity/Inattention, Peer problems, and Prosocial behavior) provided a satisfactory fit to the data. Moderate internal consistencies (Cronbach's α) were observed for the scales Emotional symptoms, Hyperactivity/Inattention, and Total difficulties score, whereas insufficient internal consistency was found for the scales Peer problems and Conduct problems. However, using McDonald's ω as a more appropriate measure of homogeneity, internal consistencies were found to be satisfactory for all subscales and for Total difficulties. Normative banding scores were established conservatively to avoid
Full Text Available Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ, designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and Eating Disorder (ED (n = 108 and normal controls (n = 295. Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C and Uncertainty (RFQ_U about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.
Akano, Obinna F
There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.
Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Dong, Birong
To analyze the contents and formats of general self-reported questionnaires on disability that are designed for and/or are widely applied in the elderly population to depict a complete picture of this field and help researchers to choose proper tools more efficiently. A broad systematic literature search was performed in September 2013 and included the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PROQOLID. The publication language was limited to English and Chinese. Two review authors independently performed the study selection and data extraction. All of the included instruments were extracted and classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Of 5569 articles retrieved from the searches and 156 articles retrieved from the pearling, 22 studies (including 24 questionnaires) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these, 42 different domains and 458 items were extracted. The most frequently used questionnaire was the Barthel Index followed by the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living, respectively. The contents and formats of the questionnaires varied considerably. Activities and participation were the most commonly assessed dimensions. In addition, the Activities of Daily Living, mobility and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were the most common domains assessed among the included questionnaires. Among the 24 included questionnaires, the most frequently used questionnaires were the Barthel Index, Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living. The content and format of the questionnaires varied considerably, but none of the questionnaires covered all essential dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Sulaiman, Che Fatehah Che; Henn, Patrick; Smith, Simon; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P
Intensive workload and limited training opportunities for Irish non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) has a negative effect on their health and well-being, and can result in burnout. Burnout affects physician performance and can lead to medical errors. This study examined the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Irish NCHDs and its association with self-reported medical error and poor quality of patient care. A cross-sectional quantitative survey-based design. All teaching hospitals affiliated with University College Cork. NCHDs of all grades and specialties. The following instruments were completed by all participants: Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS), assessing three categories of burnout syndrome: Emotional exhaustion (EE), Personal Achievement (PA) and Depersonalization (DP); questions related to self-reported medical errors/poor patient care quality and socio-demographic information. Self-reported measures of burnout and poor quality of patient care. Prevalence of burnout among physicians (n = 265) was 26.4%. There was a significant gender difference for EE and DP, but none for PA. A positive weak correlation was observed between EE and DP with medical error or poor patient care. A negative association was reported between PA and medical error and reduced quality of patient care. Burnout is prevalent among NCHDs in Ireland. Burnout syndrome is associated with self-reported medical error and quality of care in this sample population. Measures need to be taken to address this issue, with a view to protecting health of NCHDs and maintaining quality of patient care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Sayers, Stephen P; Brach, Jennifer S; Newman, Anne B; Heeren, Tim C; Guralnik, Jack M; Fielding, Roger A
To determine whether the ability to walk 400 m could be predicted from self-reported walking habits and abilities in older adults and to develop an accurate self-report measure appropriate for observational trials of mobility when functional measures are impractical to collect. Cross-sectional. University-based human physiology laboratory. One hundred fifty community-dwelling older men and women (mean age+/-standard error= 79.8+/-0.3). An 18-item questionnaire assessing walking habits and ability was administered to each participant, followed by a 400-m walk test. Ninety-eight (65%) volunteers were able to complete the 400-m walk; 52 (35%) were unable. Logistic regression was performed using response items from a questionnaire as predictors and 400-m walk as the outcome. Three questions (Do you think you could walk one-quarter of a mile now without sitting down to rest. Because of a health or physical problem, do you have difficulty walking 1 mile? Could you walk up and down every aisle of a grocery store without sitting down to rest or leaning on a cart?) were predictive of 400-m walking ability and were included in the model. If participants answered all three questions compatible with the inability to walk 400 m, there was a 91% probability that they were unable to walk 400 m, with a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 97%. A three-item self-report developed in the study was able to accurately predict mobility disability. The utility of this instrument may be in evaluating self-reported mobility in large observational trials on mobility when functional mobility tasks are impractical to collect.
Hadziahmetović, Nina; Alispahić, Sabina; Tuce, Đenita; Hasanbegović-Anić, Enedina
BACKGROUND/AIM. In (counter)transference relationship therapist's interpersonal style, implying the perceived relation of therapist to a client (patient) in terms of control, autonomy, care and positive feedback, has been shown to be important. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between therapist's interpersonal style and clients' personality self-reports. Within therapist's interpersonal style, preliminary validation of the Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale has been conducted, which included double translation method, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability tests of the derived components. This research was conducted on a group of 206 clients, attending one of the four psychotherapy modalities: psychoanalysis, gestalt therapy, cognitive-behavioral and systemic family therapy. Beside Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale, Big Five Questionnaire and Therapy Benefit Scale were administered, showing good internal consistency. Principal component analysis of therapist's interpersonal style singled out two components Supportive Autonomy and Ignoring Control, explaining 42% of variance. Two-factor model of the therapist's styles was better fitted in confirmatory factor analysis than the original 4-factor model. Structural model showing indirect and direct effects of therapist's interpersonal styles on self-reports in clients indicates good fitness (χ²(12) = 8.932, p = 0.709; goodness-of-fit index = 0.989), with Ignoring Control having direct effect on Stability, Supportive Autonomy on Therapy Benefit, and Therapy Benefit on Plasticity. The results of this study indicate the importance of further research on therapist's interpersonal style, as well as further validation of the instrument that measures this construct. Besides, a client's perception that the therapy is being helpful could instigate more explorative and approach-oriented behavior, what indirectly might contribute to a client's stability.
Yu, Yau-Hua; Lai, Yu-Lin; Cheung, Wai S; Kuo, Hsu-Ko
To assess the strength of association between graded groups of oral health status and self-reported functional dependence in community-dwelling older adults. Population-based cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2004. Three thousand eight hundred fifty-six participants aged 60 and older (mean age 71.2) without missing values in the examined correlates. Oral health status was evaluated according to edentulism, severity of periodontal disease, and recommendation of periodontal care and compared with that of healthy controls. Self-reported functional dependence was assessed according to 19 questions in five domains: activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), leisure and social activities (LSAs), lower extremity mobility (LEM), and general physical activities (GPAs). After controlling for demographic and dental variables, health-related behaviors, C-reactive protein, and comorbidities, edentulism was significantly associated with disability in IADLs (odds ratio (OR)=1.58), LSAs (OR=1.63), LEM (OR=1.31), and GPAs (OR=1.45) compared with healthy controls. Likewise, severe periodontitis was associated with disability in IADLs (OR=1.58), LSAs (OR=1.70), and LEM (OR=1.63). The trends toward disability in IADLs, LSAs, LEM, and GPAs were statistically significant across increasing severity of oral health problems. Poor oral health, specifically edentulism and severe periodontitis, is associated with multiple domains of late-life disability, but a causal relationship cannot be established based on current study design. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Eun Jung; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Soo-Yeon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for studies published in Korean nursing journals. Of 424 Korean nursing articles initially identified, 168 articles met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the measurements used in the studies and interpretability were assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. It consists of items on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity including structural validity, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity, and responsiveness. For each item of the COSMIN checklist, measurement properties are rated on a four-point scale: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Each measurement property is scored with worst score counts. All articles used the classical test theory for measurement properties. Internal consistency (72.6%), construct validity (56.5%), and content validity (38.2%) were most frequently reported properties being rated as 'excellent' by COSMIN checklist, whereas other measurement properties were rarely reported. A systematic review of measurement properties including interpretability of most instruments warrants further research and nursing-focused checklists assessing measurement properties should be developed to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies.
Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920
Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita
The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.
In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Nicole Cohen describes research that examined the usefulness of thermal scanners for detecting fever in large groups of people in public settings, such as hospitals and airports.
Dever, B. V.; Raines, T. C.
Child and adolescent mental health disorders are known to increase the risk for numerous poor school and life outcomes for children and adolescents including suicidal ideation and attempts, academic underachievement and school dropout, substance use and disorders, and physical fighting or victimization by a weapon (Bradley, Doolittle, &…
In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Nicole Cohen describes research that examined the usefulness of thermal scanners for detecting fever in large groups of people in public settings, such as hospitals and airports. Created: 10/20/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/20/2010.
Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique
Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.
The main focus of the Ames Laboratory's Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST
Halliday, Jennifer A.; Hendrieckx, Christel; Busija, Lucy; Browne, Jessica L.; Nefs, G.M.; Pouwer, Francois; Speight, Jane
Aims: Screening for depression is recommended internationally. The World Health Organization's 5-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) is used clinically to screen for depression but its empirical suitability for this purpose is not well documented. We investigated the psychometric properties of the WHO-5
Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C
The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.
Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro
Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...
Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon
Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were es...
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...
Warren, Graham W.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Valentino, Joseph P.; Gal, Thomas J.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Singh, Anurag K.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Marshall, James R.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh R.
Prospective analysis was performed of self-reported and biochemically confirmed tobacco use in 50 head and neck cancer patients during treatment. With 93.5% compliance to complete weekly self-report and biochemical confirmatory tests, 29.4% of smokers required biochemical assessment for identification. Accuracy increased by 14.9% with weekly vs. baseline self-reported assessments. Data confirm that head and neck cancer patients misrepresent true tobacco use during treatment.
Hewson, D J; Hopkins, W G
A survey of 123 distance-running coaches and their best runners was undertaken to describe prescribed seasonal training and its relationship to the performance and self-reported training of the runners. The runners were 43 females and 80 males, aged 24 +/- 8 years (mean +/- S.D.), training for events from 800 m to the marathon, with seasonal best paces of 86 +/- 6% of sex- and age-group world records. The coaches and runners completed a questionnaire on typical weekly volumes of interval and strength training, and typical weekly volumes and paces of moderate and hard continuous running, for build-up, pre-competition, competition and post-competition phases of a season. Prescribed training decreased in volume and increased in intensity from the build-up through to the competition phase, and had similarities with 'long slow distance' training. Coaches of the faster runners prescribed longer build-ups, greater volumes of moderate continuous running and slower relative paces of continuous running (r = 0.19-0.36, P training close to competition pace. The mean training volumes and paces prescribed by the coaches were similar to those reported by the runners, but the correlations between prescribed and reported training were poor (r = 0.2-0.6). Coaches may therefore need to monitor their runners' training more closely.
Prins, J T; van der Heijden, F M M A; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M; Bakker, A B; van de Wiel, H B M; Jacobs, B; Gazendam-Donofrio, S M
Burnout is a work-related syndrome that may negatively affect more than just the resident physician. On the other hand, engagement has been shown to protect employees; it may also positively affect the patient care that the residents provide. Little is known about the relationship between residents' self-reported errors and burnout and engagement. In our national study that included all residents and physicians in The Netherlands, 2115 questionnaires were returned (response rate 41.1%). The residents reported on burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health and Social Services), engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale) and self-assessed patient care practices (six items, two factors: errors in action/judgment, errors due to lack of time). Ninety-four percent of the residents reported making one or more mistake without negative consequences for the patient during their training. Seventy-one percent reported performing procedures for which they did not feel properly trained. More than half (56%) of the residents stated they had made a mistake with a negative consequence. Seventy-six percent felt they had fallen short in the quality of care they provided on at least one occasion. Men reported more errors in action/judgment than women. Significant effects of specialty and clinical setting were found on both types of errors. Residents with burnout reported significantly more errors (p engaged residents reported fewer errors (p burnout and to keep residents engaged in their work.
Anna E. Saw
Full Text Available The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335 had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively.
Roudijk, Bram; Donders, Rogier; Stalmeier, Peep
Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural dimensions using the World Values Survey (WVS), namely the traditional/rational-secular and the survival/self-expression dimension. We investigate whether there is an association between the WVS cultural dimensions and SRH, both within and between countries. Data from 51 countries in the WVS is used and combined with macroeconomic data from the Worldbank database. The association between SRH and the WVS cultural dimensions is tested within each of the 51 countries and multilevel mixed models are used to test differences between these countries. Socio-demographic and macroeconomic variables are used to correct for non-cultural variables related to SRH. Within countries, the survival/self-expression dimension was positively associated with SRH, while in most countries there was a negative association for the traditional/rational-secular dimension. Values range between 4 and 17% within countries. Further analyses show that the associations within countries and between countries are similar. Controlling for macroeconomic and socio-demographic factors did not change our results. The WVS cultural dimensions predict SRH within and between countries. Contrary to our expectations, traditional/rational-secular values were negatively associated with SRH. As SRH is associated with cultural values between countries, cultural values could be considered when interpreting SRH between countries.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude
The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.
King, Alan R; Breen, Cody M; Russell, Tiffany D; Nerpel, Brady P; Pogalz, Colton R
Neuropsychological research can be advanced through a better understanding of relationships between executive functioning (EF) behavioral competencies and the expression of aggressive behavior. While performance-based EF measures have been widely examined, links between self-report indices and practical real-life outcomes have not yet been established. Executive Functioning Index subscale scores in this sample (N = 579) were linked to trait hostility (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), aggression in the natural environment (Lifetime Acts of Violence Assessment), and conduct disorder symptoms prior to age 15. Significant associations were found between all of the EFI subscales (Motivational Drive, Organization, Strategic Planning, Impulse Control, and Empathy), trait aggression, and conduct disturbance. Lifetime acts of aggression were predicted by all but Organization scores. Physical injuries inflicted on other(s) were 2 to 4 times more likely to occur among respondents generating low (z < -1) EFI subscale scores. While these EFI relationships were modest in size, they are pervasive in scope. These findings provide support for the potential role of perceived EF deficits in moderating lifetime aggression.
Drury, Helena; Wilkinson, Verity; Robertson, Mary M; Channon, Shelley
Recent work has reported mild impairments in social and emotional processing in Tourette's syndrome (TS), but deliberate attempts to use specific emotion regulation strategies have not been investigated previously. In the present study, adult participants with TS and no comorbidities (TS-alone) were compared to healthy control participants on several self-report measures assessing habitual use of reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies. There were no group differences on measures of reappraisal, but the TS-alone group reported using suppression more frequently than the control group and this was true across a range of negative emotions. The groups did not differ on symptomatology scores of anxiety or depression, although more frequent use of suppression was associated with higher depressive symptomatology for the TS-alone group only. Further work is needed to examine potential factors that may influence emotion regulation in TS, including increased emotional reactivity or expertise in applying strategies to suppress tic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley
Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.
Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti
Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.
Kennedy, S H; Katz, R; Rockert, W; Mendlowitz, S; Ralevski, E; Clewes, J
Interest in assessing Personality Disorders (PDs) in association with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) has been accompanied by the development of several structured interview and self-report measures. In an attempt to see how the self-report Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) compared with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II) in the assessment of PDs, we gave both instruments to 43 inpatients with a diagnosis of AN or BN. Correlation coefficient values for both categorical and dimensional comparisons were generally less than .4. Although comparable rates of positive PDs occurred for each of the three clusters (A: 30.2% vs. 34.9%, B: 25.6% vs. 18.6%, and C: 62.8% vs. 81.4% for SCID-II vs. MCMI-II), agreement for individual diagnosis and individual subjects was poor. In conclusion, the MCMI-II did not prove to be a reliable instrument for assessing axis II PDs in patients with AN and BN when compared with the SCID-II.
Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F.; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L.; Kipnis, Victor
Background Measurement error (ME) in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. Methods We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess ME in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study, that includes 450 post-menopausal women aged 60–91. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 4-day food records (4DFR) and three 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Results Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF=0.57), followed by FFQ (AF=0.48), and 4DFR (AF=0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5–6% for absolute sugars; 7–18% for sugars density). Adding participants’ characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16–18% for absolute sugars; 29–40% for sugars density). Conclusions None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Impact Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that, measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. PMID:25234237
Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.
Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro
Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.
Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A
Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive
Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline
Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.
Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola
Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.
Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain
Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain
Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273
Chapman, L Kevin; Petrie, Jenny M; Richards, Allyn
Empirical literature pertaining to anxiety in African Americans has been relatively sparse. More recent studies indicate that the construct of social fear is different in African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Although some of these studies have examined factor structure utilizing self-report measures of anxiety in African American samples, none to date have examined the clinical utility of these measures in predicting anxiety diagnoses, particularly social phobia. A total of sixty-five African American adults from the community completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II), Social Anxiety Interaction Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV) was administered to all participants to specify differential diagnoses of anxiety and related disorders. Twenty-three African American adults were diagnosed with social phobia leaving 42 diagnostic controls. Results suggest that the social anxiety factors were highly predictive of a social phobia diagnosis (AUC=.84 to .90; CI .73-.98, p<.01) and sensitivity and specificity rates revealed optimal cutoff scores for each measure. The optimal cutoff scores reveal the clinical utility of the social fear factor from these measures in screening for social phobia in African Americans. Future direction and implications are discussed. Psychinfo, PubMed, Medline. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kroner, Barbara L; Fahimi, Mansour; Gaillard, William D; Kenyon, Anne; Thurman, David J
Self-reported epilepsy may be influenced by culture, knowledge, and beliefs. We screened 6420 residents of the District of Columbia (DC) for epilepsy to investigate whether socio-demographics were associated with whether they reported their diagnosis as epilepsy or as seizure disorder. Lifetime and active prevalence rates were 0.54% and 0.21%, respectively for 'epilepsy' and 1.30% and 0.70%, respectively for 'seizure disorder'. Seizure disorder was reported significantly more often than epilepsy among blacks, females, respondents≥50years, those with lower level education, respondents who lived alone and in low income neighborhoods, and those who resided in DC for at least five years. Clinicians should assure that patients and caregivers understand that epilepsy is synonymous with seizure disorder and other culturally appropriate terms, in order to optimize compliance with treatment, disease management instructions, and utilization of other resources targeted at persons with epilepsy. Furthermore, education and awareness campaigns aimed at improving access-to-care, reducing stigma, and increasing awareness of adverse events, such as SUDEP, should include a more diverse definition of epilepsy in their messages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study examined relationships between self-perceived sleep quality and resilience among 116 dance students (Mean age = 21.6 years; SD = 4.348). who self-reported sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and personal resilience with the Resilience Scale (RS). Most participants (59.5%) reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI, with 62.9% of the women and 42.1% of the men ( p = .092) scoring higher than five points on this instrument. On the RS, a large majority of the participants (75%) obtained scores less than 147, indicating low resilience, with no significant gender differences observed. Those reporting poor sleep quality (PSQI scores > 5) obtained lower resilience scores (RS resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.273) relative to those with good sleep quality ( p = .006). Those with shorter duration sleep (claiming they slept resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.266), relative to those with longer duration sleep (>7 hours/night). These findings can help students and dance professionals improve their performance and face pressures inherent in dance practice. Follow-up research should verify these findings in varied populations with objective sleep measures and observational data from multiple respondents.
Sharma, Gaurav; Oden, Neal; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Bogenschutz, Michael P
Secondary analysis using data from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network randomized trial (NCT # 01207791), in which 1285 adult ED patients endorsing moderate to severe problems related to drug use were recruited from 6 US academic hospitals. To investigate the utility of hair analysis in drug use disorder trials with infrequent visits, and its concordance with Timeline Follow Back (TLFB). This study compared the self-reported drug use on the TLFB instrument with the biological measure of drug use from hair analysis for four major drug classes (Cannabis, Cocaine, Prescribed Opioids and Street Opioids). Both hair analysis and TLFB were conducted at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-up visit and each covered a 90-day recall period prior to the visit. The concordance between the hair sample results and the TLFB was high for cannabis and street opioids, but was low to moderate for cocaine and prescribed opioids. Under-reporting of drug use given the positive hair sample was always significantly lower for the drug the study participant noted as their primary drug of choice compared with other drugs the participant reported taking, irrespective of whether the drug of choice was cannabis, cocaine, street opioids and prescribed opioids. Over-reporting of drug use given the negative hair sample was always significantly higher for the drug of choice, except for cocaine. This study extends the literature on hair analysis supporting its use as a secondary outcome measure in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P measure for use in monitoring outcomes of men with PE.
Kovacs, Christopher R; Buzzacott, Peter
This study examined self-reported physical activity and perceptions of exercise importance among certified divers in two distinct age groups. Questionnaires were distributed by hand at dive sites in three states of the United States, half to students from an academic programme in scuba diving at a regional university. The survey included questions about health status, dive history, certification levels, structured exercise activity levels and perceived importance of regular exercise to their health, diving ability, and safety. Also included was the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, a validated physical activity classification instrument for use among adults. Non-students were older than the students and had greater diving experience. There was no detectable difference between groups in perceived exercise importance to health (p = 0.69), diving ability (p = 0.75), or diving safety (p = 0.25). Fitting age, sex, occupation and number of dives to a generalised linear model to predict Godin-Shephard scores, number of dives was removed first (p = 0.43), followed by student status (p = 0.33). Remaining predictors of Godin-Shephard exercise scores were age (-0.004 per year, p exercise regularity, overall health and perceived importance of regular exercise for health, diving and safety. Despite acknowledging the importance of exercise, Godin-Shephard scores for physical activity decrease with age.
Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…
Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona
provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...
Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…
Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)
Truong, Khiet Phuong; van Leeuwen, David A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
The differences between self-reported and observed emotion have only marginally been investigated in the context of speech-based automatic emotion recognition. We address this issue by comparing self-reported emotion ratings to observed emotion ratings and look at how differences between these two
Nolet, Paul S; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, John David
The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain.......The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain....
Dick, M-L B; Bain, C J; Purdie, D M; Siskind, V; Molloy, D; Green, A C
This study aimed to explore the meaning and potential use of women's self-reported difficulties in conceiving as a measure of infertility in epidemiological studies, and to compare women's stated reasons for infertility with information in their medical records. Data were available from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer involving 1638 women. The sensitivity and specificity of women's self-reported infertility were calculated against their estimated fertility status based on detailed reproductive histories. Self-reported reasons for infertility were compared with diagnoses documented in women's medical records. The sensitivity of women's self-reported difficulty in conceiving was 66 and 69% respectively when compared with calendar-derived and self-reported times taken trying to conceive; its specificity was 95%. Forty-one (23%) of the 179 women for whom medical records were available had their self-reported fertility problem confirmed. Self-reported infertility causes could be compared with diagnoses in medical records for only 22 of these women. Self-reported difficulty conceiving is a useful measure of infertility for quantifying the burden of fertility problems experienced in the community. Validation of reasons for infertility is unlikely to be feasible through examination of medical records. Improved education of the public regarding the availability and success rates of infertility treatments is proposed.
Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K
To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....
Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others
Reliability and validity of self-report data provided by 178 mentally ill homeless persons were generally favorable. Self-reports of service use also generally agreed with treatment staff estimates, providing further validity evidence. Researchers and administrators can be relatively confident in using such data. (SLD)
van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.
Aims To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Design Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Setting Ecological study with assessments at
van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet
To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth
Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…
Okamoto, N; Hosono, A; Shibata, K; Tsujimura, S; Oka, K; Fujita, H; Kamiya, M; Kondo, F; Wakabayashi, R; Yamada, T; Suzuki, S
Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years. They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between 2007 and 2011. Participants' height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height, weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference (men, 0.87; women, 0.73). Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference (mean difference, 0.8 cm), whereas women significantly underestimated theirs (mean difference, 5.1 cm). The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0.83 for men and 0.57 for women. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women.
Winckers, Annemarie N. E.; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Compernolle, Sofie; Nicolaou, Mary; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen
The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to describe
Winckers, A.N.; Mackenbach, J.D.; Compernolle, S.; Nicolaou, M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.
Background: The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to
Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....
Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary
The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…
Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...
Bousardt, A.M.C.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Hummelen, J.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.
Background: Empirical knowledge of 'predictors' of physical inpatient aggression may provide staff with tools to prevent aggression or minimise its consequences. Aim: To test the value of a self-reported measure of impulsivity for predicting inpatient aggression. Methods: Self-report measures of
Waldmann, Annika, E-mail: Annika.Waldmann@krebsregister-sh.de [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology (IKE e.V.), University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 (Haus 50), Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Nolte, Sandra [Association of Dermatological Prevention (ADP e.V.), Cremon 11, Hamburg 20457 (Germany); Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125 (Australia); Pritzkuleit, Ron [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology (IKE e.V.), University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 (Haus 50), Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Breitbart, Eckhard W. [Association of Dermatological Prevention (ADP e.V.), Cremon 11, Hamburg 20457 (Germany); Center of Dermatology, Am Krankenhaus 1, Buxtehude 21614 (Germany); Katalinic, Alexander [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology (IKE e.V.), University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 (Haus 50), Luebeck 23562 (Germany)
The present study was aimed at assessing quality of life (QoL) in a total of 450 melanoma patients who filled out the EORTC QLQ-C30 (Q1; 15 months post diagnosis) as part of the OVIS Study. Follow-up questionnaires (Q2) were administered two years after Q1. The analyses presented herein were based on the following assumptions: QoL of melanoma patients is worse than that of a German reference population. Further, both tumor location and tumor stage have an influence on self-reported QoL, with patients with tumors located on face, head, neck, and advanced tumor stage (T3/T4) reporting the worst QoL levels. Finally, patients' QoL improves over time based on the theory of disease adaptation. In contrast to the above assumptions, with the exception of global health/QoL scores, differences between OVIS and the reference population were below the minimal clinical important difference of ten points. Furthermore, no clinically meaningful differences were found between patients after stratifying our data by tumor location and tumor stage. Finally, no clinically relevant changes were seen between Q1 and Q2 across all scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30. However, when data were stratified by patients with stable disease versus those with progression, clinically relevant differences were found between Q1 and Q2 predominantly in women in the latter group regarding emotional function, insomnia, dyspnoea, and fatigue. The lack of clinically meaningful differences across strata (tumor location; tumor stage), time, and patients compared to a reference population is surprising. However, it is possible that the instrument used, a generic QoL instrument, is generally not sensitive enough to detect differences in melanoma patients. Our findings may further be explained by the fact that all patients included in our sample had been diagnosed well before Q1, i.e., main illness adaptation processes may have occurred before study entry.
Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Breitbart, Eckhard W.; Katalinic, Alexander
The present study was aimed at assessing quality of life (QoL) in a total of 450 melanoma patients who filled out the EORTC QLQ-C30 (Q1; 15 months post diagnosis) as part of the OVIS Study. Follow-up questionnaires (Q2) were administered two years after Q1. The analyses presented herein were based on the following assumptions: QoL of melanoma patients is worse than that of a German reference population. Further, both tumor location and tumor stage have an influence on self-reported QoL, with patients with tumors located on face, head, neck, and advanced tumor stage (T3/T4) reporting the worst QoL levels. Finally, patients' QoL improves over time based on the theory of disease adaptation. In contrast to the above assumptions, with the exception of global health/QoL scores, differences between OVIS and the reference population were below the minimal clinical important difference of ten points. Furthermore, no clinically meaningful differences were found between patients after stratifying our data by tumor location and tumor stage. Finally, no clinically relevant changes were seen between Q1 and Q2 across all scales of the EORTC QLQ-C30. However, when data were stratified by patients with stable disease versus those with progression, clinically relevant differences were found between Q1 and Q2 predominantly in women in the latter group regarding emotional function, insomnia, dyspnoea, and fatigue. The lack of clinically meaningful differences across strata (tumor location; tumor stage), time, and patients compared to a reference population is surprising. However, it is possible that the instrument used, a generic QoL instrument, is generally not sensitive enough to detect differences in melanoma patients. Our findings may further be explained by the fact that all patients included in our sample had been diagnosed well before Q1, i.e., main illness adaptation processes may have occurred before study entry
Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan
Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.
Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, H; Hoffman, H J
effects. Structural-equation analyses revealed a substantial heritability for self-reported reduced hearing of 40% (95% CI = 19-53%). The remaining variation could be attributed to individuals' nonfamilial environments. CONCLUSION: We found that genetic factors play an important role in self......-reported reduced hearing in both men and women age 70 and older. Because self-reports of reduced hearing involve misclassification, this estimate of the genetic influence on hearing disabilities is probably conservative. Hence, genetic and environmental factors play a substantial role in reduced hearing among......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present twin study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in variation in self-reported reduced hearing among the old and the oldest old. DESIGN: Self-reported hearing abilities of older twins assessed at intake interview...
Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E
To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation, and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening. © The Author(s) 2013.
Jordan, Candice D; Korley, Frederick K; Stolbach, Andrew I
High-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assays detect 10 times lower concentrations of cardiac troponin than conventional assays. We examined the effects of self-reported cocaine use to determine whether those with acute cocaine use being evaluated for ACS are more likely to have elevated hsTnI than those nonusers being evaluated for ACS. We conducted a sub-analysis of a prospective cohort of ED patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome. Recent cocaine use was determined by structured patient interviews. High-sensitivity troponin (Abbott) and conventional troponin I (Abbott, cTnI) were measured on samples drawn at presentation. Urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolite was obtained at the discretion of treating clinicians. Of 1862 patients enrolled, 444 reported prior cocaine use and 99 reported cocaine use within the preceding month. Median hsTn in patients with last cocaine use within 24 h, 2-7 days, 1 week-1 month, >1 month, and no prior cocaine use were: 9 (IQR: 3-17) ng/L, 6 (IQR: 3-24.3) ng/L, 6 (IQR: 3-89.5) ng/L, 3 (IQR: 3-18.5) ng/L and 3 (IQR: 3-17) ng/L, respectively. Urine toxicology assays (UTox) for cocaine were performed in 640 (34.4%) patients. The median hsTn for those who were UTox+, UTox - and those without a UTox were: 9 ng/L (IQR: 3-48.5), 9 ng/L (IQR: 3-40) and 3 ng/L (IQR: 3-12), respectively. There were no differences in the prevalence of new troponin elevations (hsTn >99th percentile but cTnI cocaine use compared to those without recent cocaine use. In this first investigation of hsTn in patients with self-reported recent cocaine use, we have determined that hsTn does not lead to an increase in the prevalence of troponin elevation in cocaine users.
Carrà, G; Sciarini, P; Segagni-Lusignani, G; Clerici, M; Montomoli, C; Kessler, R C
Screening scales can be useful in searching for common mental disorders in primary care and in tracking relevant prevalence and correlates in community surveys. However, it is important to document their validity, before using them. We developed Italian versions of the widely-used K10 and K6 screening scales following the WHO forward-translation and back-translation protocol. To evaluate their effectiveness as screens for DSM-IV 12-month mood or anxiety disorders and "serious mental illness" (SMI), the scales were validated in a two-stage clinical reappraisal survey. In the first-phase, the scales were administered to 605 people. In the second-phase, a sub-sample of 147 first-phase respondents over-sampling screened positives was administered the 12-month version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders as a clinical gold standard. Performance of the scales in screening for chosen disorders was assessed by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and stratum-specific likelihood ratios. Both the K10 and K6 performed well in detecting DSM-IV mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and serious mental illness (SMI), with areas under the curve (AUCs) (95% CIs) between 0.82 (0.75-0.89) and 0.91 (0.85-0.96). The Italian versions of the K6 and K10 scales have good psychometric properties, making them attractive inexpensive screens for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and SMI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J
This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.
Matthias K Auer
Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.
Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750
Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.
Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth
The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.
Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Boucekine, Mohamed; Aghababian, Valérie; Parola, Nathalie; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal
Impaired executive functions are among the most widely observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these patients has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcome for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL) instrument, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire (SQoL18). cross-sectional study. age over 18 years, diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. sociodemographic (age, gender, and education level) and clinical data (duration of illness, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia); QoL (SQoL18); and executive performance (Stroop test, lexical and verbal fluency, and trail-making test). Non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for each of the three tests. For the six groups, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were enrolled. The factor analysis performed in the impaired groups showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the SQoL18. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the non-impaired groups and the reference population. Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of self-reported disease-specific QoL questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Larsson, Maria E H; Kreuter, Margareta; Nordholm, Lena
Musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent and a major burden on individuals and society. Information on relationships of patient involvement and responsibility to outcome is limited. This study aimed to explore relationships between self-reported outcome of physiotherapy treatment and attitudes toward responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders. A cross-sectional postal survey design was used. Patients (n=615) from an outpatient physiotherapy clinic, who had finished their physiotherapy treatment within the last 6 months were sent a questionnaire that included the Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders instrument (ARM), self-reported outcome of treatment and sociodemographic data. A total of 279 (45%) completed forms were returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used. The patients' scores on the four dimensions of ARM ("responsibility self active," "responsibility out of my hands," "responsibility employer," and "responsibility medical professionals"), controlled for age, sex, education, and physical activity as well as for number of treatments, main treatment, and physiotherapist, were associated with the patients' self-reported treatment outcome. Patients who attributed responsibility more to themselves were more likely (OR 2.37 and over) to report considerable improvement as the outcome of physiotherapy treatment. Because this study was conducted at only one physiotherapy outpatient clinic and had a cross-sectional design, the results should be replicated in other settings. Because patients' attitudes regarding responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders can possibly affect the outcome of physiotherapy treatment, it might be useful to decide whether to systematically try to influence the person's attitude toward responsibility for the management of the disorder or to match treatment to attitude.
Rautava, Veli-Pekka; Palomäki, Erika; Innamaa, Tapio; Perttu, Mika; Lehto, Päivi; Palomäki, Ari
The aim of this study was to assess nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software.During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses' skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This improvement was especially
Background The aim of this study was to assess nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Methods Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software. During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses’ skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Results Nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This
Dunn, Jocelyn T.
activity behaviors, and responded to surveys for recording perceived health and stress levels. This work has developed a self-report instrument for stress characterization, efficient protocols for metabolite profiling, novel measures of sleep quality and activity levels, and has evaluated performance differences of JawboneRTM and FitbitRTM wearable devices that were worn in tandem. There is considerable debate about the accuracy of data collected from wearable devices. Therefore, the success of next-generation wearable devices is hinging on the ability to reliably process wearables data into meaningful health information. By simultaneously quantifying biological metabolites, sleep and activity behaviors, and psychological perceptions of health, this research is evaluating possible predictors of health and stress, such as evaluating if activity and sleep behaviors recorded by wearables can be predictive of biological metabolites and perceived health. This research has developed data-driven insights for advancing the next-generation of biological, behavioral, and psychological health monitoring capabilities.
Eaton, Charles B; Galliher, James M; McBride, Patrick E; Bonham, Aaron J; Kappus, Jennifer A; Hickner, John
Family physicians have the potential to make a major impact on reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease through the optimal assessment and management of hyperlipidemia. We were interested in assessing the knowledge, beliefs, and self-reported practice patterns of a representative sample of family physicians regarding the assessment and management of hyperlipidemia 2 years after the release of the evidence-based National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. A 33-item survey was mailed to a random sample (N = 1200) of members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in April of 2004, with 2 follow-up mailings to nonresponders. Physicians were queried about sociodemographic characteristics, their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practice patterns regarding the assessment and management of hyperlipidemia. Four case scenarios also were presented. Response rate was 58%. Over 90% of surveyed family physicians screened adults for hyperlipidemia as part of a cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. Most (89%) did this screening by themselves without the support of office staff, and 36% reported routine use of a flow sheet. Most had heard of the ATP III guidelines (85%), but only 13% had read them carefully. Only 17% of respondents used a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculator usually or always. Over 90% of those responding reported using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as the treatment goal but only 76% reported using non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a secondary goal of therapy. We found a large variability in knowledge, beliefs, and practice patterns among practicing family physicians. We found general agreement on universal screening of adults for hyperlipidemia as part of cardiovascular disease prevention strategy and use of LDL cholesterol as a treatment goal. Many other aspects of the NCEP ATP III guidelines, such as use of a systematic, multidisciplinary approach, using non
Paula, Cristiane S.; Cunha, Graccielle Rodrigues; Bordini, Daniela; Brunoni, Decio; Moya, Ana Claudia; Bosa, Cleonice Alves; Mari, Jair J.; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo
Simple and low-cost observational-tools to detect symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are still necessary. The OERA is a new assessment tool to screen children eliciting observable behaviors with no substantial knowledge on ASD required. The sample was 99 children aged 3-10: 76 with ASD and 23 without ASD (11/23 had intellectual…
Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel
Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schoemaker, MM; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Jongmans, MJ
Background. The Checklist of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) was developed to screen children for movement difficulties in the school situation. However, the psychometric properties of the Checklist have not been investigated in detail. Aim. The psychometric properties of the
Bowden, C; Loughnan, T
A Health Questionnaire serves as a screening form as part of our Hospital Preadmission process and is completed by all patients scheduled for elective surgery. We reviewed the completed Health Questionaires of 444 patients. Completion of the Health Questionnaire requires patients to record their height and weight. At the time of admission their actual height and weight was measured and recorded by nursing staff as part of the preoperative assessment. We compared their estimated body mass index (BMI) from self-reported height and weight, with their actual BMI calculated from height and weight measured upon admission. The measured BMI accorded well with that calculated from reported values and showed no systematic over- or under-reporting. Of 70 patients with a BMI greater than 35, only ten estimated their BMI less than 35 and only five of these had more than a two unit difference. Perioperative patients appear to be more accurate at providing height and weight than previously analysed non-patient groups. However there is not complete accuracy and some patients still provide unreliable information. Whether or not individual practitioners utilize BMI from self-reported height and weight will depend on the accuracy that they require for their purposes. Of note there was greater accuracy in prediction of height and weight than in the derived variable of BMI due to the calculations required.
Rieger, Martina; Bart, Victoria K E
We investigated to what extent different sources of information are used in typing on a computer keyboard. Using self-reports 10 finger typists and idiosyncratic typists estimated how much attention they pay to different sources of information during copy typing and free typing and how much they use them for error detection. 10 finger typists reported less attention to the keyboard and the fingers and more attention to the template and the screen than idiosyncratic typists. The groups did not differ in attention to touch/kinaesthesis in copy typing and free typing, but 10 finger typists reported more use of touch/kinaesthesis in error detection. This indicates that processing of tactile/kinaesthetic information may occur largely outside conscious control, as long as no errors occur. 10 finger typists reported more use of internal prediction of movement consequences for error detection than idiosyncratic typists, reflecting more precise internal models. Further in copy typing compared to free typing attention to the template is required, thus leaving less attentional capacity for other sources of information. Correlations showed that higher skilled typists, regardless of typing style, rely more on sources of information which are usually associated with 10 finger typing. One limitation of the study is that only self-reports were used. We conclude that typing task, typing proficiency, and typing style influence how attention is distributed during typing.
Horner, Neilann K; Patterson, Ruth E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lampe, Johanna W; Beresford, Shirley A; Prentice, Ross L
Errors in self-reported dietary intake threaten inferences from studies relying on instruments such as food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), food records, and food recalls. The objective was to quantify the magnitude, direction, and predictors of errors associated with energy intakes estimated from the Women's Health Initiative FFQ. Postmenopausal women (n = 102) provided data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics that relate to errors in self-reported energy intake. Energy intake was objectively estimated as total energy expenditure, physical activity expenditure, and the thermic effect of food (10% addition to other components of total energy expenditure). Participants underreported energy intake on the FFQ by 20.8%; this error trended upward with younger age (P = 0.07) and social desirability (P = 0.09) but was not associated with body mass index (P = 0.95). The correlation coefficient between reported energy intake and total energy expenditure was 0.24; correlations were higher among women with less education, higher body mass index, and greater fat-free mass, social desirability, and dissatisfaction with perceived body size (all P diet and disease association studies.
Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze
Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.
Reyes-Urueña, Juliana; Brugal, M Teresa; Majo, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Caylà, Joan A
The study's aim was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and to describe their associated risk factors in a population of users of illicit drugs recruited in Catalonia- Spain, during 2012. Cross-sectional study. People with illicit drugs use were selected in three different types of healthcare centres. The questionnaire was a piloted, structured ad hoc instrument. An analysis was made to identify factors associated to self-reported HCV, HIV and co-infection. Correlates of reported infections were determined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression (with robust variance). Among 512 participants, 39.65% self-reported positive serostatus for HCV and 14.84% for HIV, co-infection was reported by 13.48%. Among the 224 injecting drug users (IDUs), 187 (83.48%), 68 (30.36%) and 66 (29.46%) reported being positive for HCV, HIV and co-infection, respectively. A higher proportion of HIV-infected cases was observed among women, (18.33% vs. 13.78% in men). Prevalence of HCV, HIV and co-infection were higher among participants with early onset of drug consumption, long periods of drug injection or who were unemployed. A positive serostatus was self-reported by 21(7.34%) participants who did not report any injection; among them 16 and eight, reported being positive for HCV and HIV, respectively; three reported co-infection. Only two people declared exchanging sex for money. For those that reported a negative test, the median time since the last HIV test was 11.41 months (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-12) and for the HCV test was 4.5 months (IQR 2-7). Among drug users in Catalonia, HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence are still a big issue especially among IDUs. Women and drug users who have never injected drugs are groups with a significant risk of infection; this might be related to their high-risk behaviours and to being unaware of their serological status.
Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J
Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.
Pronk, Marieke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Kramer, Sophia E
of both prediction models was small (Nagelkerke R2 = .11 for the unaware model, and .10 for the false complaints model). The findings suggest that a small proportion of the discrepancies between older individuals' results on a speech-in-noise screening test and their self-reports of hearing problems can be explained by the unique context of these individuals. The likelihood of discrepancies partly depends on a person's health (chronic diseases), demographics (gender), personality (self-efficacy to initiate behavior and to persist in adversity, self-esteem), mood (depressive symptoms), and social situation (social network size). Implications are discussed.
Edwards, Chad; Myers, Scott A
Using a convenience sample, 172 college students' (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 2.5) motives for communicating with their instructors and their own verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness were studied using the Argumentativeness Scale, the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale, and the Student Motives to Communicate Scale. Significant negative relationships were obtained between students' self-reports of argumentativeness and the sycophantic motive and between students' self-reports of verbal aggressiveness and the functional motive, but generally, students' motives to communicate with their instructors generally were not associated with their self-reported aggressive communication behaviors.
Cavanaugh, M A; Boswell, W R; Roehling, M V; Boudreau, J W
This study proposes that self-reported work stress among U.S. managers is differentially related (positively and negatively) to work outcomes depending on the stressors that are being evaluated. Specific hypotheses were derived from this general proposition and tested using a sample of 1,886 U.S. managers and longitudinal data. Regression results indicate that challenge-related self-reported stress is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to job search. In contrast, hindrance-related self-reported stress is negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to job search and turnover. Future research directions are discussed.
Johnsen, Helle; Clausen, Jette Aaroe; Hvidtjørn, Dorte
personal health', 'Reducing and generating risk', and 'Bridges and gaps'. Compared to reporting physical health information, more advanced levels of health literacy might be needed to self-assess mental health and personal needs. Self-reporting health can induce feelings of being normal but also increase...... perceptions of pregnancy-related risk and concerns of being judged by the midwife. Although women want to have their self-reported information addressed, they also have a need for the midwife's expert knowledge and advice, and of not being perceived as a demanding client. CONCLUSION: Self-reported health...
van Lammeren Anouk
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study took place to enable the measurement of the effects on mental health of a psychosocial intervention in Rwanda. It aimed to establish the capacities of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 to screen for mental disorder and to assess symptom change over time in a Rwandan community setting. Methods The SRQ-20 was translated into Kinyarwanda in a process of forward and back-translation. SRQ-20 data were collected in a Rwandan setting on 418 respondents; a random subsample of 230 respondents was assessed a second time with a three month time interval. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. The optimal cut-off point was determined by calculating Receiver Operating Curves, using semi-structured clinical interviews as standard in a random subsample of 99 respondents. Subsequently, predictive value, likelihood ratio, and interrater agreement were calculated. The factor structure of the SRQ-20 was determined through exploratory factor analysis. Factorial invariance over time was tested in a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Results The reliability of the SRQ-20 in women (α = 0.85 and men (α = 0.81 could be considered good. The instrument performed moderately well in detecting common mental disorders, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.76 for women and 0.74 for men. Cut-off scores were different for women (10 and men (8. Factor analysis yielded five factors, explaining 38% of the total variance. The factor structure proved to be time invariant. Conclusions The SRQ-20 can be used as a screener to detect mental disorder in a Rwandan community setting, but cut-off scores need to be adjusted for women and men separately. The instrument also shows longitudinal factorial invariance, which is an important prerequisite for assessing changes in symptom severity. This is a significant finding as in non-western post-conflict settings the relevance of diagnostic categories is questionable. The use of the
An assessment of community health workers' ability to screen for cardiovascular disease risk with a simple, non-invasive risk assessment instrument in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa: an observational study.
Gaziano, Thomas A; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Denman, Catalina A; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Khanam, Masuma; Puoane, Thandi; Levitt, Naomi S
Cardiovascular disease contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in low-income and middle-income countries, which also often have substantial health personnel shortages. In this observational study we investigated whether community health workers could do community-based screenings to predict cardiovascular disease risk as effectively as could physicians or nurses, with a simple, non-invasive risk prediction indicator in low-income and middle-income countries. This observation study was done in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. Each site recruited at least ten to 15 community health workers based on usual site-specific norms for required levels of education and language competency. Community health workers had to reside in the community where the screenings were done and had to be fluent in that community's predominant language. These workers were trained to calculate an absolute cardiovascular disease risk score with a previously validated simple, non-invasive screening indicator. Community health workers who successfully finished the training screened community residents aged 35-74 years without a previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or heart disease. Health professionals independently generated a second risk score with the same instrument and the two sets of scores were compared for agreement. The primary endpoint of this study was the level of direct agreement between risk scores assigned by the community health workers and the health professionals. Of 68 community health worker trainees recruited between June 4, 2012, and Feb 8, 2013, 42 were deemed qualified to do fieldwork (15 in Bangladesh, eight in Guatemala, nine in Mexico, and ten in South Africa). Across all sites, 4383 community members were approached for participation and 4049 completed screening. The mean level of agreement between the two sets of risk scores was 96·8% (weighted κ=0·948, 95% CI 0·936-0·961) and community health workers showed
Chongpison, Yuda; Hornbrook, Mark C; Harris, Robin B; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gerald, Joe K; Grant, Marcia; Bulkley, Joanna E; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert S
Types of surgery for rectal cancer (RC), including permanent ostomy (PO) or temporary ostomy followed by anastomosis (TO) or initial anastomosis (AN), can affect psychological and financial well-being during active treatment. However, these relationships have not been well studied among long-term survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). A mailed survey with 576 long-term RC survivors who were members of Kaiser Permanente was conducted in 2010-2011. Prevalence of current depression was ascertained using a score of ≤45.6 on the Short Form-12 version 2 mental component summary. Perceived financial burden was assessed using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (none) to 10 (severe). Regression analyses were used to measure associations after adjustment for covariates. The overall prevalence of depression was 24% among RC survivors with the highest prevalence among those with a history of PO (31%). The adjusted odds of depression among TO and AN survivors were lower than that among PO survivors, 0.42 (CI 95% 0.20-0.89) and 0.59 (CI 95% 0.37-0.93), respectively. Twenty-two percent perceived moderate-to-high current financial burden (≥4 points). PO survivors also reported higher mean financial burden than AN survivors (2.6 vs. 1.6, respectively; p = 0.002), but perceived burden comparably to TO survivors (2.3). Self-reported depression was associated with higher perceived financial burden (p reported frequently among these long-term RC survivors, particularly among PO survivors. Depression was associated with greater perception of financial burden. Screening for depression and assessing financial well-being might improve care among long-term RC survivors.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking cessation 6 - 9 months after acute coronary syndrome: A single-centre perspective. ... questionnaire detailing current medication use, reasons for non-adherence and smoking status.
however, very little research has been done on the prevalence of self- reported neck pain in rugby .... Car accident. Other. Fall. Other sport ... Driving. Work. Personal care. Recreation. Concentration. Sleeping. Reading. Lifting. Headaches.
Vasconcelos, A.G.; Sergeant, J.A.; Correa, H.; Mattos, P.; Malloy-Diniz, L.
Impulsivity has been fractionated into multiple independent, but correlated, components. Personality and neuropsychological studies have consistently shown its multidimensional nature. Each theoretical approach uses different techniques such as self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tests
Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A
The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.
Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Phillips, Beatrice; Hoerr, Sharon L; Greene, Geoffrey
This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18-24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to obese (30 to obese (≥ 35). Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = .97; P students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person’s social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.......This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week, nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior. Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity.
Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J
The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.
D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of
Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Aaseth, Kjersti; Grande, Ragnhild Berling; Lundqvist, Christofer; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Chronic headache is associated with disability and high utilisation of health care including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We investigated self-reported efficacy of CAM in people with chronic headache from the general population. Respondents with possible self-reported chronic headache were interviewed by physicians experienced in headache diagnostics. CAM queried included acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, naprapathy, physiotherapy, psychological treatment, and psychomotor physiotherapy. Sixty-two % and 73% of those with primary and secondary chronic headache had used CAM.Self-reported efficacy of CAM ranged from 0-43% without significant differences between gender, headache diagnoses, co-occurrence of migraine, medication use or physician contact. CAM is widely used, despite self-reported efficacy of different CAM modalities is modest in the management of chronic headache.
Kelly, Valerie E; Morgan, Sara J; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Hafner, Brian J
This study tested the hypothesis that greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility in a cohort of prosthesis users with lower limb loss (LLL). We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional self-report data from a volunteer sample of people with LLL due to dysvascular and non-dysvacular causes. Perceived cognitive difficulties were assessed using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Applied Cognition - General Concerns (Neuro-QoL ACGC). Mobility was measured with the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M). Simple linear regressions examined univariate relationships between cognitive concerns and mobility. Multiple linear regression analyses included demographic and amputation-related variables that could influence this relationship. Analysis of data from 1291 people with LLL demonstrated that greater cognitive concerns, measured by the Neuro-QoL ACGC, were associated with poorer perceived mobility, measured by both ABC and PLUS-M instruments. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic and amputation-related factors. These results suggest that greater cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility among a broad range of people with LLL. An improved understanding of this relationship is critical for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes for this population. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation for people with lower limb loss (LLL) typically focuses on physical impairments and mobility limitations, but cognition is increasingly recognized to have an impact on functional outcomes. Greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with poorer mobility among a broad range of people with LLL, even when adjusting for demographic and amputation-related factors. Cognitive status can impact relevant rehabilitative outcomes, including mobility, and should be considered when planning prosthetic and therapeutic
Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine
In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named "the Disability Health survey" was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%-1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without.
Martinussen, L M; Møller, M; Prato, C G; Haustein, S
Although most motorised countries have experienced massive improvements in road safety over the last decades, human behaviour and differences in accident risk across sub-groups of drivers remains a key issue in the area of road safety. The identification of risk groups requires the identification of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N=3683) were aged 18-84 years and randomly selected from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group "Violating unsafe drivers" was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ and DSI as suitable instruments for predicting traffic offences while also confirming previous results on accumulation of problematic behaviours across life contexts. The finding that driver sub-groups did not differ in registered accidents supports the recent research activities in finding and modelling surrogate safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M
The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.
C. C. Kee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI
Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M
Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height
Jefferson, Tyrone; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.
Sulloway (1996) proposed that personality traits developed in childhood mediate the association of birth order with scientific radicalism. Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in three studies. Self-reports on brief measures of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness in a national sample (N= 9664) were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in an adult sample (N= 612) ...
Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M
) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....
Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi
The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J
Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...
III, Joseph Thomas; Paulet, Mindy; Rajpura, Jigar R.
Objectives. This study evaluated consistency between self-reported values for clinical measures and recorded clinical measures. Methods. Self-reported values were collected for the clinical measures: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose level, height, weight, and cholesterol from health risk assessments completed by enrollees in a privately insured cohort. Body mass index (BMI) was computed from reported height and weight. Practitioner recorded values for the clinical me...
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Mamier, Iris; Ricci-Allegra, Patricia; Foith, Joanne
To describe how frequently RNs provide 17 spiritual care therapeutics (or interventions) during a 72-80h timeframe. Plagued by conceptual muddiness as well as weak methods, research quantifying the frequency of spiritual care is not only methodologically limited, but also sparse. Secondary analysis of data from four studies that used the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale (NSCTS). Data from US American RNs who responded to online surveys about spiritual care were analyzed. The four studies included intensive care unit nurses in Ohio (n=93), hospice and palliative care nurses across the US (n=104), nurses employed in a Christian health care system (n=554), and nurses responding to an invitation to participate found on a journal website (n=279). The NSCTS mean of 38 (with a range from 17 to 79 [of 85 possible]) suggested respondents include spiritual care therapeutics infrequently in their nursing care. Particularly concerning is the finding that 17-33% (depending on NSCTS item) never completed a spiritual screening during the timeframe. "Remaining present just to show caring" was the most frequent therapeutic (3.4 on a 5-point scale); those who practiced presence at least 12 times during the timeframe provided other spiritual care therapeutics more frequently than those who offered presence less frequently. Findings affirm previous research that suggests nurses provide spiritual care infrequently. These findings likely provide the strongest evidence yet for the need to improve spiritual care education and support for nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.
In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported…
Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne
Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…
Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse
The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…
Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Nguyen, Trung Giang; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin
Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors. The unconscious users underestimate their usage time by 40%, in spite of 15% more use in the actual usage. Messengers are most-used application regardless of their self-report, and significant preference to SNS applications was observed in addict group. The actual hourly pattern is consistent with the reported one. College students use more in the afternoon, when they have more free time and cannot use PCs. No significant difference in hourly pattern is observed between the measured and self-report. The result shows there are significant cognitive bias in actual usage patterns exists in self report of smartphone addictions. Clinicians are recommended to utilize measurement tools in diagnosis and treatment of smartphone overusing subjects.
Macassa, Gloria; Winersjö, Rocio; Wijk, Katarina; McGrath, Cormac; Ahmadi, Nader; Soares, Joaquim
Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County. The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47-2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.
Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale
Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Khadr, Zeinab; Yount, Kathryn
This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt. 435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes. Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM. Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.
Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella
Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Somalia, a large number of active and former combatants are affected by psychological problems such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This disorder impairs their ability to re-integrate into civilian life. However, many screening instruments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder used in post-conflict settings have limited validity. Here we report on development and validation of a screening tool for PTSD in Somali language with a sample of ex-combatants. Methods We adapted the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to reflect linguistic and cultural differences within the Somali community so that local interviewers could be trained to administer the scale. For validation purposes, a randomly selected group of 135 Somali ex-combatants was screened by trained local interviewers; 64 of them were then re-assessed by trained clinical psychologists using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Results The screening instrument showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .86, convergent validity with the CIDI (sensitivity = .90; specificity = .90 as well as concurrent validity: positive cases showed higher SRQ-20 scores, higher prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and higher levels of intake of the local stimulant drug khat. Compared to a single cut-off score, the multi-criteria scoring, in keeping with the DSM-IV, produced more diagnostic specificity. Conclusion The results provide evidence that our screening instrument is a reliable and valid method to detect PTSD among Somali ex-combatants. A future Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program in Somalia is recommended to screen for PTSD in order to identify ex-combatants with special psycho-social needs.
Patrick W. Fedick
Full Text Available Portable mass spectrometers (MS are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated.
Leavy Justine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.
Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane
Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.
Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L
Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland. The expedition lasted 28 days, and conditions included severe cold, low stimulation, whiteouts, limited habitability, and threats to life and limb. During the expedition, the participant completed a daily self-report log including assessment of psychological health (perceptions of control and affect) and a video diary (emotion). Video diary entries were subjected to linguistic inquiry and word count analyses before the links between self-report and linguistic data across the expedition period were tested. Similarities in the pattern of self-reported and linguistic assessments emerged across the expedition period. A number of predictable correlations were identified between self-reported and linguistic assessments of affective/emotional experience. Overall, there was better agreement between self-reports and linguistic analytics for indicators of negative affect/emotion. Future research should build on this initial study to further test the links between self-reported affect and emotional states monitored via linguistics. This could help develop methods for monitoring psychological health in extreme environments and support organizational decision making. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J
Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marzouk, Shireen; Naglie, Gary; Tomlinson, George; Duff Canning, Sarah; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Alibhai, Shabbir M H
Although androgen deprivation therapy is widely used to treat prostate cancer, its effects on cognitive function are unclear. To our knowledge no prior report has examined the impact of androgen deprivation therapy on self-reported cognitive function. Three groups of men 50 years old or older who were matched on age and education were enrolled in the study, including 81 with prostate cancer starting on continuous androgen deprivation therapy, 84 controls with prostate cancer not receiving androgen deprivation therapy and 85 healthy controls. Two scales from the FACT-Cog (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive subscale) version 3 were used to assess self-reported cognitive function. Changes in cognitive scores with time were analyzed by 2 approaches, including 1) multivariable regression and 2) calculation of the proportion of subjects per group with a decrease of 1 SD or more. Multivariable regression was applied to assess predictors of a decline in self-reported cognitive function. We also examined relationships between the FACT-Cog and a neuropsychological battery of 15 tests. Mean participant age was 69 years (range 50 to 87). The mean educational level was 15 years (range 8 to 24). FACT-Cog scores were similar at baseline across the cohorts. Neither analytical approach revealed that androgen deprivation therapy was associated with changes in self-reported cognitive function on either FACT-Cog scale. Mood and fatigue correlated with changes in self-reported cognitive function. The relationship between self-reported and objective cognitive measures was weak (maximum Spearman correlation coefficient 0.14) and only 2 of 30 correlations were statistically significant. A total of 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy were not associated with self-reported cognitive function changes in older men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Lin, Feng-Chuan; Chen, Sheng Hwa; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wang, Chi-Te; Kuo, Yu-Ching
Many studies focused on teachers' voice problems and most of them were conducted using questionnaires, whereas little research has investigated the relationship between self-reported voice disorders and objective quantification of voice. This study intends to explore the relationship of acoustic measurements according to self-reported symptoms and its predictive value of future dysphonia. This is a case-control study. Voice samples of 80 female teachers were analyzed, including 40 self-reported voice disorders (VD) and 40 self-reported normal voice (NVD) subjects. The acoustic measurements included jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Levene's t test and logistic regression were used to analyze the differences between VD and NVD and the relationship between self-reported voice conditions and the acoustic measurements. To examine whether acoustic measurements can be used to predict further voice disorders, we applied a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the cutoff values and the associated sensitivity and specificity. The results showed that jitter, shimmer, and the NHR of VD were significantly higher than those of NVD. Among the parameters, the NHR and shimmer demonstrated the highest correlation with self-reported voice disorders. By using the NHR ≥0.138 and shimmer ≥0.470 dB as the cutoff values, the ROC curve displayed 72.5% of sensitivity and 75% of specificity, and the overall positive predictive value for subsequent dysphonia achieved 60%. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between acoustic measurements and self-reported dysphonic symptoms. NHR and ShdB are two acoustic parameters that are more able to reflect vocal abnormalities and, probably, to predict subsequent subjective voice disorder. Future research recruiting more subjects in other occupations and genders shall validate the preliminary results revealed in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Tailce K M Leite
Full Text Available A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654, which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.
St Clair, Patricia; Gaudette, Étienne; Zhao, Henu; Tysinger, Bryan; Seyedin, Roxanna; Goldman, Dana P
Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include: (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; and (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence. Self-reported data from 3 sources are included: the Health and Retirement Study, the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Claims-based disease measurements are provided from Medicare claims linked to Health and Retirement Study and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, comprehensive claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare enrollees, and private health insurance claims from Humana Inc. Prevalence of diagnosed disease in the US elderly are computed and compared across sources. Two medical conditions are considered: diabetes and heart attack. Comparisons of diagnosed diabetes and heart attack prevalence show similar trends by source, but claims differ from self-reports with regard to levels. Selection into insurance plans, disease definitions, and the reference period used by algorithms are identified as sources contributing to differences. Claims and self-reports both have strengths and weaknesses, which researchers need to consider when interpreting estimates of prevalence from these 2 sources.
Leite, Tailce K M; Fonseca, Rômulo M C; de França, Nanci M; Parra, Esteban J; Pereira, Rinaldo W
A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.
Hure, Alexis J; Chojenta, Catherine L; Powers, Jennifer R; Byles, Julie E; Loxton, Deborah
A high rate of stillbirth was previously observed in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Our primary objective was to test the validity and reliability of self-reported stillbirth data linked to state-based administrative datasets. Self-reported data, collected as part of the ALSWH cohort born in 1973-1978, were linked to three administrative datasets for women in New South Wales, Australia (n = 4374): the Midwives Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; and Perinatal Death Review Database. Linkages were obtained from the Centre for Health Record Linkage for the period 1996-2009. True cases of stillbirth were defined by being consistently recorded in two or more independent data sources. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, percent agreement, and kappa statistics were calculated for each dataset. Forty-nine women reported 53 stillbirths. No dataset was 100% accurate. The administrative datasets performed better than self-reported data, with high accuracy and agreement. Self-reported data showed high sensitivity (100%) but low specificity (30%), meaning women who had a stillbirth always reported it, but there was also over-reporting of stillbirths. About half of the misreported cases in the ALSWH were able to be removed by identifying inconsistencies in longitudinal data. Data linkage provides great opportunity to assess the validity and reliability of self-reported study data. Conversely, self-reported study data can help to resolve inconsistencies in administrative datasets. Quantifying the strengths and limitations of both self-reported and administrative data can improve epidemiological research, especially by guiding methods and interpretation of findings.