Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011 while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995. There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. However, the relationship between FLCA and SLTA has been under-researched. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap by investigating the link between SLTA and FLCA in English of 73 secondary school students in Hong Kong. They filled out an online questionnaire consisting of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 and the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1995. Statistical analyses revealed that FLCA, SLTA and Self-rated English proficiency predict half of the variance in each other; in other words, students who were more tolerant of second language ambiguity were less anxious in their EFL classes and they also felt more proficient.
Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.
This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…
multilingual awareness pedagogy” embedded in Dörnyei's (2009) L2 Motivational Self System theory. Key words: self-reported perceptions, language proficiency, English proficiency, multilingualism, pedagogy, resilience, L2 Motivational Self System ...
Richards, Jack C.
Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...
Gooden-Jones, Epsey M.; Carrasquillo, Angela L.
A study followed ten limited-English-proficient (LEP) community college students who were taught English largely using a cooperative learning approach. For four months, the students worked together using brainstorming techniques and collaborative reading and writing tasks. Task emphasis was on development of thinking skills through collaboration…
Does English proficiency affect participation in online discussion? This study polled 14 students from a postgraduate online course that require online discussion. The students are divided into groups according to their home language spoken and self-assessed English proficiency, and measure against their participation level in the required…
... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program AGENCY... that support the assistance of persons with limited English proficiency in utilizing the services...: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0051. Form Numbers...
Toh Peng Yeow; Mark Kiak Min TAN; Li-Cher LOH; Julia BLITZ
Appreciation of learning styles can be of use tohelp both educators and students to enhance theeffectiveness of an educational experience. It has beennoticed that some students at this College are not verygood at expressing themselves in either written orspoken English. Our study aimed to identify thestudent’s learning styles; assess whether there isany correlation between learning style, baselinedemographic data and self rated proficiency in Englishlanguage; and assess their associations wit...
Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent A.
Introduction: This study examines university students' self-reported inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and their relation to performance on a high-stakes English proficiency test while taking gender into consideration. Method: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity attributes were assessed using the Adult Attention…
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills
Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S
The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Ler, Ee Chop
The purpose of this study is to investigate the rural "cultural" problems and to determine their effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools…
Kaplan, Rochelle G.; Patino, Rodrigo A.
Many mainstreamed students with limited English proficiency continue to face the difficulty of learning English as a second language (ESL) while studying mathematics and other content areas framed in the language of native speakers. The difficulty these students often encounter in mathematics classes and their poor performance on subsequent…
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Wigglesworth, Gillian
The paper investigates whether there is a shared perception of speaking proficiency among raters from different English speaking countries. More specifically, this study examines whether there is a significant difference among English language learning (ELL) teachers, residing in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA when rating speech samples of…
Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ
Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.
The present research explored bilingual/multilingual students' willingness to communicate in Chinese (WTCC) and foreign language anxiety (FLA) when speaking Chinese and their associations with self-rated proficiency in Chinese in a university in Beijing. The study recruited 167 bilingual and multilingual learners of Chinese to fill in a battery of…
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.
Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju
This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
Talebi, Seyed Hassan
General English (L2) proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two…
This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.
... limited English proficiency (LEP), and develop and implement a system to provide those services so LEP... Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal Year 2010/2011 AGENCY: Office of... (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010/2011...
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age
Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret
As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…
Kim, Jennifer Sun; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of curriculum-based measures in reading for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at various levels of English proficiency. Third-grade Spanish-speaking EL students were screened during the fall using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and Daze. Predictive validity was examined in relation to spring…
Seyed Hassan Talebi
Full Text Available General English (L2 proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two variables in L2 and given a reading test in English and an interview for assessing how much of the problems in L2 reading among the four groups were rooted in linguistic competence and/or strategic competence. Findings evinced that the high general proficiency level coupled with high awareness and use of reading strategies would result in best performance and that the pattern of answers to different components of reading question is different in different groups. It is concluded that both of the variables should be emphasized simultaneously for the best performance in reading comprehension.
Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.
The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL) student teachers and ESL learners. Against the ...
Mokhtari, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi
Examines the degree to which the levels of English proficiency (high vs. low) and education (graduate vs. undergraduate) of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students were associated with differences in their reading behaviors. Finds that the subjects' level of education and English proficiency were associated with their reading behavior…
Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary
One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…
Creel, Sarah C.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin–English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method We tested 72 Mandarin–English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of acquisition of English. Participants viewed 2 photographs at a time while hearing a familiar Mandarin word referring to 1 photograph. The names of the 2 photographs diverged in tone, vowels, or both. Word recognition was evaluated using clicking accuracy, reaction times, and an online recognition measure (gaze) and was compared in the 3 conditions. Results Relative proficiency in English was correlated with reduced word recognition success in tone-disambiguated trials, but not in vowel-disambiguated trials, across all 3 dependent measures. This selective attrition for tone content emerged even though all bilinguals had learned Mandarin from birth. Lengthy experience with English thus weakened tone use. Conclusions This finding has implications for the question of the extent to which bilinguals' 2 phonetic systems interact. It suggests that bilinguals may not process pitch information language-specifically and that processing strategies from the dominant language may affect phonetic processing in the nondominant language—even when the latter was learned natively. PMID:28124064
Albers, Craig A.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Boals, Timothy J.
Although numerous English language proficiency (ELP) measures currently exist, many were developed prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). These pre-NCLB measures typically focused on social language proficiency, whereas post-NCLB measures are linked to ELP standards and focus on academic language proficiency (ALP). ELP measures are…
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of the assessment of English language proficiency of aviation personnel. The paper presents an English language test, which is used for professional pilots and air traffic controllers.
SIMION MINODORA OTILIA
Full Text Available The technological development, the growing economic globalization and the majordemographic shifts have brought about the need for a global language. In international business, travel, scienceand technology, education, immigration, academia, diplomacy and entertainment, English is the dominantlanguage, being spoken by over one billion people. English is used inside and outside the professionalenvironment, both for communication in global business and for communication in social networks, butproficiency in English can definitely enhance people’s career opportunities both if they look for a job in thecountry or plan to go abroad to find employment. It may determine a division among those who have access toinformation and prosperity and those who don’t. In the future not just wealth but also the way it is created willhave a great impact on people’s increasing communicative needs of international languages. It is obvious thenthat more and more people will need proficiency in English ,both as a language for international communicationand as the basis for constructing cultural identities .
Jia, Fanli; Gottardo, Alexandra; Chen, Xi; Koh, Pohwee; Pasquarella, Adrian
The main focus of this study was to refine our understanding of the link between English proficiency and mainstream acculturation in adolescent Chinese immigrants. The sample consisted of 112 adolescents in grades 7-12 living in urban areas in southern Ontario, Canada. English proficiency was assessed individually using standardised tests of…
Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley
Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…
The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…
PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…
Murphy, Jessica E; Smock, Laura; Hunter-Adams, Jo; Xuan, Ziming; Cochran, Jennifer; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Geltman, Paul L
Little is known about the impacts of health literacy and English proficiency on the health status of Somali refugees. Data came from interviews in 2009-2011 of 411 adult Somali refugees recently resettled in Massachusetts. English proficiency, health literacy, and physical and mental health were measured using the Basic English Skills Test Plus, the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults, and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Short Form-12. Associations were analyzed using multiple linear regression. In adjusted analyses, higher English proficiency was associated with worse mental health in males. English proficiency was not associated with physical health. Health literacy was associated with neither physical nor mental health. Language proficiency may adversely affect the mental health of male Somali refugees, contrary to findings in other immigrant groups. Research on underlying mechanisms and opportunities to understand this relationship are needed.
Boulet, J R; van Zanten, M; McKinley, D W; Gary, N E
The purpose of this study was to gather additional evidence for the validity and reliability of spoken English proficiency ratings provided by trained standardized patients (SPs) in high-stakes clinical skills examination. Over 2500 candidates who took the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates' (ECFMG) Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) were studied. The CSA consists of 10 or 11 timed clinical encounters. Standardized patients evaluate spoken English proficiency and interpersonal skills in every encounter. Generalizability theory was used to estimate the consistency of spoken English ratings. Validity coefficients were calculated by correlating summary English ratings with CSA scores and other external criterion measures. Mean spoken English ratings were also compared by various candidate background variables. The reliability of the spoken English ratings, based on 10 independent evaluations, was high. The magnitudes of the associated variance components indicated that the evaluation of a candidate's spoken English proficiency is unlikely to be affected by the choice of cases or SPs used in a given assessment. Proficiency in spoken English was related to native language (English versus other) and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The pattern of the relationships, both within assessment components and with external criterion measures, suggests that valid measures of spoken English proficiency are obtained. This result, combined with the high reproducibility of the ratings over encounters and SPs, supports the use of trained SPs to measure spoken English skills in a simulated medical environment.
Full Text Available The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL student teachers and ESL learners. Against the background of major theories in second language (L2 acquisition and learning, this topic is contextualized within the South African education system. An empirical inquiry was carried out in which portfolios (evidence of practical teaching including lesson plans and learners' work submitted by final year student teachers enrolled at a large distance teaching university for the Advanced Certificate in Education: Inclusive Education were scrutinised. A comparison of teacher and learner written errors was made. Based on the findings, a questionnaire was designed to determine the extent of the impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on learners' English proficiency. The findings of the questionnaire responses are presented. Recommendations are made on how student teachers can improve their teaching practice to ensure quality ESL teacher input and ESL learner performance.
Montgomery, Martha P; Allen, Elizabeth D; Thomas, Olivia; Robinson, Byron F; Clark, Donnie; Connelly, Ann; Mott, Joshua A; Conrey, Elizabeth
Limited English proficiency can be a barrier to asthma care and is associated with poor outcomes. This study examines whether pediatric patients in Ohio with limited English proficiency experience lower asthma care quality or higher morbidity. We used electronic health records for asthma patients aged 2-17 years from a regional, urban, children's hospital in Ohio during 2011-2015. Community-level demographics were included from U.S. Census data. By using chi-square and t-tests, patients with limited English proficiency and bilingual English-speaking patients were compared with English-only patients. Five asthma outcomes-two quality and three morbidity measures-were modeled using generalized estimating equations. The study included 15 352 (84%) English-only patients, 1744 (10%) patients with limited English proficiency, and 1147 (6%) bilingual patients. Pulmonary function testing (quality measure) and multiple exacerbation visits (morbidity measure) did not differ by language group. Compared with English-only patients, bilingual patients had higher odds of ever having an exacerbation visit (morbidity measure) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.6) but lower odds of admission to intensive care (morbidity measure) (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7), while patients with limited English proficiency did not differ on either factor. Recommended follow-up after exacerbation (quality measure) was higher for limited English proficiency (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3) and bilingual (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1), compared with English-only patients. In this urban, pediatric population with reliable interpreter services, limited English proficiency was not associated with worse asthma care quality or morbidity.
Boykin, Arsene; Trungamphai, Arunthadee
English proficiency of Thai university students studying English as a Foreign Language (EFL) was studied in relation to attitudinal scores on social, economic, travel, or prestige scales. Secondarily, the subjects' attitudes toward their native group and toward the target language group, and their motives for learning English were studied in…
This article presents a preliminary investigation of the inter-relationships between English learners' tolerance for ambiguity, their classroom work styles, and their level of English proficiency. The study population comprised 46 English as a foreign language (EFL) students attending a technical college in Taiwan. The findings indicated that a…
Language learning motivation is one of vital factors which strongly correlates to the success in second language acquisition. Listening proficiency, as one of the basic language abilities, is paid much attention in English instruction, but presently the college English listening teaching is a weak link in English language teaching in China, which…
Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…
San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran
The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan
This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female w...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap.......This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...
The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa
Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.
Castro Garcés, Angela Yicely; López Olivera, Silvio Fabián
This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies…
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene
This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…
Wonacott, Michael E.
This digest describes cultural considerations and effective approaches for limited English proficient (LEP) individuals' workforce development, including the impact of recent training legislation. LEP persons often come from both a different language background and a very different cultural background; so English-language instruction must provide…
Merlin, Shirley B.
The report describes the development and implementation of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for limited-English-proficient employees of the poultry industry. The program, undertaken at James Madison University (Virginia), was funded initially in 1991 by the federal government and has continued with funding from two poultry companies.…
Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…
Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude
This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…
Arellano, Brenda; Liu, Feng; Stoker, Ginger; Slama, Rachel
To what extent do Spanish-speaking English learner students develop English proficiency and grade-level readiness in English language arts and math from early elementary school to upper elementary school? Is there a relationship between proficiency in a student's primary home language, Spanish, and the amount of time needed to attain fluency in…
Kavarljit Kaur Gill
Full Text Available Learning another language is very much affected by positive or negative connotations attached to the new language by the language learner. Entering Malaysian public universities there are many students with a low proficiency in English, despite spending eleven years studying English in schools. Could it be that the lack of progress among these students could be attributed to a negative view of what it means to be a speaker of English? This study investigated the perceptions of students at a public university, to determine whether there is a correlation between low-proficiency and negative perceptions of what it means to be an English speaker. Analysis of the results showed that Malaysian students have a very positive perception of what it means to be an English speaker.
English is one of International languages in the world and mainly used in International forums. Because of its importance, Indonesian government decides to make English as a formal subject in schools. Students are expected to have basic competences in four skills those are listening, speaking, reading, and writing comprehensively to reach functional literate. Students should have strategies to improve their proficiency and skill in English. The aims of this study are to find out (1) how langu...
Paredes, Anghela Z; Idrees, Jay J; Beal, Eliza W; Chen, Qinyu; Cerier, Emily; Okunrintemi, Victor; Olsen, Griffin; Sun, Steven; Cloyd, Jordan M; Pawlik, Timothy M
The number of patients in the United States (US) who speak a language other than English is increasing. We evaluated the impact of English proficiency on self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. The 2013-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database was utilized to identify respondents who spoke a language other than English. Patient-provider communication (PPC) and shared decision-making (SDM) scores from 4-12 were categorized as "poor" (4-7), "average" (8-11), and "optimal." The relationship between PPC, SDM, and English proficiency was analyzed. Among 13,880 respondents, most were white (n = 10,281, 75%), age 18-39 (n = 6,677, 48%), male (n = 7,275, 52%), middle income (n = 4,125, 30%), and born outside of the US (n = 9,125, 65%). English proficiency was rated as "very well" (n = 7,221, 52%), "well" (n = 2,378, 17%), "not well" (n = 2,820, 20%), or "not at all" (n = 1,463, 10%). On multivariable analysis, patients who rated their English as "well" (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37-2.18) or "not well" (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10-2.14) were more likely to report "poor" PPC (both P English proficiency as "not well" (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.65, P = .02). Decreased English proficiency was associated with worse self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. Attention to patients' language needs is critical to patient satisfaction and improved perception of care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon
Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.
This article presents findings from the School Reform and Student Diversity Study, a 4-year project to locate and analyze schools offering exemplary science and mathematics programs to middle school students with limited proficiency in English. In contrast to the vast majority of schools, the four schools described in this article give these students access to stimulating science and mathematics curricula by instructing them either in the students' primary language or in English using shelter...
Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status
Mitchell, Mary A.
This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang
The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.
Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.
This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…
Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter; Xiao, Yangyu
This study investigates the perceptions of stakeholders on the impact of a high-stakes assessment of English language teachers' proficiency--the minimum language standards Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (English) [LPATE], which was introduced in 2000. Given that the test has now been in place for 17 years, the study investigates the…
This dissertation has examined English proficiency as a mediating social factor within the occupational structure of Puerto Rico. It included an analysis of the educational records of 641 students majoring in industrial engineering, nursing, education and finance of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez from 1998-2000. The investigation…
Hetler, Angela Dawn
This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…
Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William
The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…
This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.
Nguyen, Duy; Reardon, Leigh J
This study applies the Commission on Social Determinants of Health model to identify the effect of ethnicity/race and English proficiency on the health of older immigrants. California Health Interview Survey data of foreign-born respondents aged 65 and over were used to examine the four outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study included 1,196 immigrant Latinos, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites. The results show that ethnicity/race-based differences in HRQOL exist. Furthermore, the results indicate that English proficiency has a significant moderating relationship on racial/ethnic background. The likelihood of reporting more Limited Combined Days increased with lower levels of English proficiency for both Latino and Asian-American old adults as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In addition to focusing on racial disparities, health promotion efforts with older immigrants need to examine language-based stratification. Social work and gerontological advocates need to develop and employ evidence-based interventions that reach limited-English-proficient older immigrants to address the health, psychosocial, and access to health care challenges they face.
Full Text Available Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills. These two distinctive elements are often collated, and it is important to find out which is more important to employers. The study examined the employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for graduates to be employed in the Malaysian private sector. The data were from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 employers in the private sector who were in the position to recruit staff. The 21,433-word interview transcripts were analyzed. The results revealed that employers in the Malaysian private sector view language proficiency and communication skills as separate qualities. The employers are willing to consider employing candidates with average English proficiency if they have good communication skills, except for jobs which require more communication in English such as customer service and marketing. The results also revealed that good communication skills can increase employability and opportunities for career advancement. The findings highlight the communication skills that universities need to emphasize so that their graduates have the necessary skills to perform well in employment interviews and in their work.
Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda
The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…
Bills, Garland D.; Hudson, Alan; Chavez, Eduardo Hernandez
Examines 1990 Census data for a large sample of the Hispanic-origin population in the Southwest, exploring two possible indices of language maintenance--Spanish home language claiming and English proficiency--as these are influenced by nativity, time, and age of immigration, citizenship status of the foreign born, education, and income.…
Boehlke, Lisa; Rummel, Mary Kay
An approach is described for developing the language of limited English proficient (LEP) students using process writing with content drawn from across the curriculum. This is proposed in the context of recent research in second language reading that has focused on developing metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies, and that less…
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin
Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.
Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam
This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.
O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer
When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N…
Huang, Yun-Yin; Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming
English proficiency difference among students is a challenging pedagogical issue in EFL classrooms worldwide. Collaborative digital storytelling has been adopted in language learning settings to increase motivation and engagement, especially for young learners. However, it remains unknown whether students of different proficiency levels can…
Thornton, Julie A.
This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…
Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M
Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.
Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653
This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across
Mahfouz, Safi M.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.
This study aims to investigate Jordanian university students' attitudes towards using video and text chat discourse with anonymous native speakers of English to improve their English proficiency. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was designed. The study sample consisted of 320 university students enrolled in two Jordanian universities. Results…
Lucas, Tamara; Villegas, Ana Maria
In 1999-2000, over one-third of all students in the 30 Abbott districts spoke a native language other than English, and more than one-tenth were considered limited English proficient (LEP). The proportions of LEP students varied considerably across the districts, but they comprised between 5% and 29% of total enrollments in 18 of the districts.…
Tran, Tammie M.
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…
Full Text Available Some Grade 4 educators have expressed feelings of ineptitude regarding the support of ESL (English Second Language learners with limited English proficiency as they do not know how to support these learners effectively. Their litany emphasises ESL educators' need for supportive and preventive intervention. A Story-based Language Enrichment Programme (SLEP was compiled to suit the needs of educators teaching Grade 4 ESL learners with limited English proficiency. The programme was designed to maintain or improve the English proficiency of ESL learners. An intervention research method was followed to test the efficacy of SLEP. Forty teachers implemented SLEP over a six-week period. Thirty-nine teachers provided constructive feedback at the end of this period. Between 92% and 100% of the participants rated SLEP positively. Rural participants suggested some refinements to the programme. The overall conclusion was that SLEP makes a useful contribution to ESL practice.
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan
This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…
Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine
Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.
Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott
bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students.......Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...
Carol A. Puhl
Full Text Available South Africa has eleven official languages, but English is by far the most commonly used medium of instruction in schools. It is therefore essential that the English proficiency of preservice teachers be accurately assessed by means of a valid, reliable and feasible assessment instrument. As there are so many tertiary institutions responsible for teacher certification in the country, standards of oral assessment vary widely. This paper describes a semi-structured oral proficiency test, designed to meet these needs. Possibilities for further development of the test are explored Suid-Afrika erken elf amptelike tale, maar Engels is die medium wat verreweg die meeste in skole gebruik word Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat onderwysstudente se taalvaardigheid in Engels akkuraat gemeet moet kan word dm. v. 'n geldige, betroubare en toepaslike meetinstrument. Die feit dat so baie tersiere inrigtings in Suid-Afrika betrokke is by die sertifisering van onderwysers, lei onvermydelik tot groot skommelinge in standaarde. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n semigestruktureerde mondelinge taalvaardigheidstoets wat ontwikkel is om in die behoeftes te voorsien. Moontlikhede vir die verdere ontwikkeling van die toets word ondersoek.
Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.
This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.
Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail
Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.
Yu, Wei; Cheah, Charissa S L; Sun, Shuyan
The authors' objective was to investigate the association between Chinese immigrant mothers' authoritative parenting and their children's socioemotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 136 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers with 3-5-year-old children residing in the United States. Authoritative parenting was associated with lower socioemotional and behavioral difficulties in children as reported by preschool teachers. Further moderation analyses revealed that immigrant mothers' English proficiency moderated the association between authoritative parenting and children's difficulties. Specifically, authoritative parenting was significantly associated with fewer total difficulties only for children with mothers who reported higher English proficiency.
Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Glenn Ole Hellekjær
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the academic reading proficiency in English of 217 senior level Norwegian upper secondary school students who upon graduation are considered qualified for higher education. Testing with an International English Language Testing System (IELTS Academic Reading Module revealed that two thirds of the 178 respondents with ordinary EFL courses did not achieve the equivalent of the IELTS Band 6 score minimum that is usually required for admission to British and Australian universities. In comparison, two thirds of a sample of 39 respondents with a single, sheltered Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL subject achieved a Band 6 score or better. Closer analysis indicates that the poor test scores can be attributed to weaknesses in current English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction where reading is neglected, where students do not learn to adjust how they read to reading purpose, and where they do not learn how to handle unfamiliar words to avoid disrupting the reading process. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve EFL instruction, in Norway and elsewhere.
杉森, 建太郎; Kentaro, Sugimori; 昭和女子大学総合教育センター
Self-determination theory explains that the fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs-autonomy, competence, and relatedness-will lead to intrinsic motivation or the internalization of extrinsic motivation, which can result in successful learning. In this pilot study, I focused on non-English major Japanese university students with low English proficiency to find out the relationships between their basic psychological needs and motivation. Unlike the initial expectation, the autonomy ...
Joel M. Magogwe
Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.
Jackson, C.N.; Hell, J.G. van
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch–English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line
This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
Chin, A.; Meltem Daysal, N.; Imberman, S.A.
Abstract: Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.
The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…
Saporito, Richard P
The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teaching clinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teaching clinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the accommodations that the individual colleges make
Full Text Available Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement towards the colour patch in the same colour as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.
Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19. The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.
Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T
Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
To characterize patterns of dog and cat ownership and veterinary service use among Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency. DESIGN :Cross-sectional telephone survey. Data from 393 Latino pet owners. Telephone surveys were conducted with Latino dog and cat owners from a random sample of US households to determine the number of dogs and cats owned, factors associated with veterinary service use, and satisfaction with veterinary care. 393 of 1,026 (38.3%) respondents were pet owners. Two hundred fifty-nine of 330 (78.5%) dog owners and 70 of 115 (60.9%) cat owners reported taking their pet to the veterinarian in the past 12 months, most commonly for vaccination or examination or because of illness. Respondents were most satisfied with veterinary care provided, least satisfied with cost, and moderately satisfied with quality of communication. English-language proficiency was not significantly associated with whether owners sought veterinary care. A large proportion of respondents who wanted to receive pet health information in Spanish described themselves as speaking English well or very well. Although having limited proficiency in English was not associated with Latino pet owners seeking veterinary care, opportunities exist for veterinary personnel to improve communications with these clients. Personnel can assess their clients' language needs by asking each about the language in which they would prefer to receive their pet's health information.
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Mei Po Yip
Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP. A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained. Complexity of CPR procedure, advantages of calling 9-1-1, lack of confidence, and possible liability discourage LEP individuals to learn CPR. LEP individuals welcome simplified Hands-Only CPR and are willing to perform CPR with instruction from 9-1-1 operators. Expanding the current training to include Hands-Only CPR and dispatcher-assisted CPR may motivate Chinese LEP individuals to get trained for CPR.
Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Melvin
In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled "Secret Feelings." Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. "Secret Feelings" was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that "Secret Feelings" is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors.
Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine
Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term.
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.
This study examined why some high achievers on the course final exam were unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English. We hypothesized that the learning motives and learning behaviors (learning strategy, learning time) had different effects on the outcomes of the exams. First, the relation between the variables was investigated using structural equation modeling. Second, the learning behaviors of students who got good marks on both exams were compared with students who did well only on the course final exam. The results were as follows. (a) Learning motives influenced test performance via learning behaviors. (b) Content-attached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors. (c) Content-detached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors that were related only to the course final exam. (d) The students who got good marks on both exams performed the learning behaviors that were useful on the proficiency exam more frequently than the students who did well only on the course final exam.
Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.
In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…
Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Mislevy, Robert
This paper is the first in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The goal of this paper, and the series, is to present research-based ideas, principles, and recommendations for consideration by those who are conceptualizing, developing, and…
Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…
Iftikhar Ahmad; Muhammad Sabboor Hussain; Noor Raha Mohd Radzuan
The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better tea...
Full Text Available One of the key issues in bilingual lexical representation is whether L1 processing is facilitated by L2 words. In this study, we conducted two experiments using the masked priming paradigm to examine how L2-L1 translation priming effects emerge when unbalanced, low proficiency, Korean-English bilinguals performed a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, we used a 150 ms SOA (50 ms prime duration followed by a blank interval of 100 ms and found a significant L2-L1 translation priming effect. In contrast, in Experiment 2, we used a 60 ms SOA (50 ms prime duration followed by a blank interval of 10 ms and found a null effect of L2-L1 translation priming. This finding is the first demonstration of a significant L2-L1 translation priming effect with unbalanced Korean-English bilinguals. Implications of this work are discussed with regard to bilingual word recognition models.
Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C
Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP
The Effects of Open Enrollment, Curriculum Alignment, and Data-Driven Instruction on the Test Performance of English Language Learners (ELLs) and Re-Designated Fluent English Proficient Students (RFEPs) at Shangri-La High School
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of open enrollment, curriculum alignment, and data-driven instruction on the test performance of English Language Learners (ELLs) and Re-designated Fluent English Proficient students (RFEPs) at Shangri-la High School. Participants of this study consisted of the student population enrolled in…
In my master's thesis, I focus on the connection between social environment and learning a foreign language, namely English. I write about out-of-school exposure, which is an important part of informal learning of English as a foreign language. In the theoretical part I discuss to what extent English is present in every-day life in Slovenia, the Netherlands and globally. This part contains facts about important out-of-school effects that affect learning English: social environment, family ba...
Cynthia M. Mojica
Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective early detection technologies, more than half (61% of colorectal cancers in the United States and 55% in California are identified at an advanced stage. Data on colorectal cancer patients (N=35,030 diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariate analyses found a relationship among neighborhood concentration of recent immigrants, neighborhood rates of limited English proficiency, and late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. Hispanics living in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of recent immigrants (compared to the lowest percentage had greater odds (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.22, 2.02 of late-stage diagnosis whereas Hispanics living in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of limited English proficiency (compared to the lowest percentage had lower odds (OR .71, 95% CI .51, .99 of late-stage diagnosis. These relationships were not observed for other ethnic groups. Results highlight the complex relationship among race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics, and colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Ip, Tsui Shan
Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011) while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA) are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995). There is prima facie evidence that…
Interpreting Mini-Mental State Examination Performance in Highly Proficient Bilingual Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English Speakers: Demographic Adjustments, Item Analyses, and Supplemental Measures.
Milman, Lisa H; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Corcoran, Chris D; Damele, Deanna M
Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), among the most widely used global screens of adult cognitive status, is affected by demographic variables including age, education, and ethnicity. This study extends prior research by examining the specific effects of bilingualism on MMSE performance. Sixty independent community-dwelling monolingual and bilingual adults were recruited from eastern and western regions of the United States in this cross-sectional group study. Independent sample t tests were used to compare 2 bilingual groups (Spanish-English and Asian Indian-English) with matched monolingual speakers on the MMSE, demographically adjusted MMSE scores, MMSE item scores, and a nonverbal cognitive measure. Regression analyses were also performed to determine whether language proficiency predicted MMSE performance in both groups of bilingual speakers. Group differences were evident on the MMSE, on demographically adjusted MMSE scores, and on a small subset of individual MMSE items. Scores on a standardized screen of language proficiency predicted a significant proportion of the variance in the MMSE scores of both bilingual groups. Bilingual speakers demonstrated distinct performance profiles on the MMSE. Results suggest that supplementing the MMSE with a language screen, administering a nonverbal measure, and/or evaluating item-based patterns of performance may assist with test interpretation for this population.
Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…
Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K
Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.
Full Text Available One of the serious decisions which every administrator may need to make during his/her professional career is to select or reject applicants based on their general language skills or competence. These significant decisions, which may be of serious consequences not only for the individuals but also for the society in general, are occasionally made based on norm-referenced proficiency tests. Out of internationally available proficiency tests such as the TOEFL test, those which fit the specific local cultural and academic contexts seem of greater prominence. One such test, which has been specifically designed for the Iranian EFL context by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, is the MSRT proficiency test. While a few studies have been conducted on the analysis of the reliability and validity of the mentioned test, no study has yet reviewed the test and its component parts. Therefore, the current study aimed at considering the strengths and weaknesses of the test in general and its component items in particular. The results implicated that the MSRT benefits from more efficient general reliability and validity, well planned language items, practicality, ease of administration, objective scoring, ease of accessibility, as well as reasonable fees, while it needs to be more substantiated in terms of the inclusion of the speaking skill assessment, the computerized adaptive assessment procedures, and the correction factor for guessing. In addition, the use of the individual-based listening apparatus for testing listening comprehension as well as the consideration of the integrative communicative tests for its concurrent validity purposes can contribute to more appropriate distinction of proficient and non-proficient applicants.
Falita G. Jaliyya
Full Text Available The English language has been given the status of Foreign Language (FL in Indonesia, unlike the language being a second language in its neighbouring countries. However, the language has becoming quite popular and dominant in certain parts of Indonesian schools, especially private schools and colleges. Thus, this investigation sought to examine the attitudes and perceptions of selected Indonesian English language learners. It also aspired to find out how these attitudes and perceptions towards the English language affect their proficiency. A qualitative research design employing the in-depth semi-structured interview was carried out with 12 students at the As’saadah Islamic Boarding School in Banten, West Java. Thematic analyses were also performed to analyse the data. The findings point to the direction of students’ motivation in learning English as a foreign language. Students were found to have positive attitudes and were motivated to learn the language although learning the language might not stem from their own willingness to learn.
Dr. Ozge Razy
Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate foreign students feeling and behaviour towards learning English and different other languages. The study found out that there is any significant difference in the students aspects attitudes positive and negative towards learning English language inside and outside the school based on their response to 25 items. A total of participants were 18 took a questionnaire as an instrument to qualify their attitudes. The participants showed positive attitudes in the high level towards foreign languages such as English. The study presented recommendation to improve other languages in the future as English.
Beckhusen, J.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; de Graaff, T.; Poot, H.J.; Waldorf, B.S.
We use data on Mexican and Chinese immigrants in the US to calculate the average marginal effects of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English, and similarly the effects of English fluency of family members. Our results confirm that residential segregation is
Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu.
Cardinal, Lucien J; Maldonado, Maria; Fried, Ethan D
This article presents the results of a national survey addressing issues related to patients with limited English proficiency. We disseminated a national confidential survey to 391 program directors of Internal Medicine residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Seventy percent of program directors indicated that their residents cared for a patient population that was composed of more than 10% limited-English-proficiency patients. Nineteen percent of residency programs provided no education on caring for patients with limited English proficiency. Thirty percent of program directors felt that their faculty could not adequately evaluate residents on their ability to practice culturally competent care, and 68% cited lack of faculty expertise as a significant barrier to implementing a curriculum in cultural competency. Yet only 24% indicated that they had faculty development relevant to cultural competency and health care disparities. Internal Medicine residents care for many patients with limited English proficiency. While it seems clear that an effective training curriculum is necessary, such a curriculum was not found to be uniformly present. Additionally, the lack of faculty expertise and faculty development in cultural competency and health care disparities is a significant barrier to the correction of this problem. Copyright © 2016 Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Zhi; Volkov, Alex
Lexical bundles are worthy of attention in both teaching and testing writing as they function as basic building blocks of discourse. This corpus-based study focuses on the rated writing responses to the email tasks in the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program® General test (CELPIP-General) and explores the extent to which lexical…
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180
Eneriz-Wiemer, Monica; Sanders, Lee M; Barr, Donald A; Mendoza, Fernando S
One in 10 US adults of childbearing age has limited English proficiency (LEP). Parental LEP is associated with worse health outcomes among healthy children. The relationship of parental LEP to health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) has not been systematically reviewed. To conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining relationships between parental LEP and health outcomes for CSHCN. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, bibliographies of included studies. Key search term categories: language, child, special health care needs, and health outcomes. US studies published between 1964 and 2012 were included if: 1) subjects were CSHCN; 2) studies included some measure of parental LEP; 3) at least 1 outcome measure of child health status, access, utilization, costs, or quality; and 4) primary or secondary data analysis. Three trained reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Two separate reviewers appraised studies for methodological rigor and quality. From 2765 titles and abstracts, 31 studies met eligibility criteria. Five studies assessed child health status, 12 assessed access, 8 assessed utilization, 2 assessed costs, and 14 assessed quality. Nearly all (29 of 31) studies used only parent- or child-reported outcome measures, rather than objective measures. LEP parents were substantially more likely than English-proficient parents to report that their CSHCN were uninsured and had no usual source of care or medical home. LEP parents were also less likely to report family-centered care and satisfaction with care. Disparities persisted for children with LEP parents after adjustment for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Parental LEP is independently associated with worse health care access and quality for CSHCN. Health care providers should recognize LEP as an independent risk factor for poor health outcomes among CSHCN. Emerging models of chronic disease care should integrate and
Full Text Available The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better teaching-learning environment. The study tries to fill the existing research gap as no previous research has tried to find out the solution to the problem from this angle. The main data collection tools are two five-point Likert-scale questionnaires, administered to 70 non-native EFL teachers and their 80 adult students. Teachers and learners have been selected based on stratified random sampling. Quantitative data have been analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. The major findings of the study are that there is discrepancy in the grammar teaching beliefs of the EFL teachers and the taught and there is a communication gap between them which result into low English proficiency level of the EFL adult learners. Eventually, pedagogical implications of the lack of harmony between the teachers’ teaching creeds and the learners’ learning demands/expectations are provided for effective grammar teaching and better EFL classroom environment. The study recommends a better communicative harmony in both the stakeholders to bring reforms in adult education in EFL context.
Casillas, Alejandra; Moreno, Gerardo; Grotts, Jonathan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Morales, Leo S
Use of an Internet portal to refill medicines positively affects medication adherence among English-speakers. No prior studies, however, have specifically examined the relationship between Internet refills and medication adherence among patients who are limited English proficient (LEP). (1) Examine the relationship between Internet medication refill system use and medication adherence among linguistically diverse patients with chronic conditions and (2) compare this relationship between LEP and English-proficient (EP) patients. We analyzed 2013-2014 cross-sectional data from 509 surveyed adults in the Group Health Cooperative. Surveys were merged with plan enrollment, claims data, and electronic medical records. Medication adherence was calculated by the "Continuous Measure of Medication Gaps" (CMG) method. For Internet refill system use, patients were asked, "Have you used the health systems Internet site to refill any medications in the last 12 months?" LEP status was captured in the electronic medical record by a non-English primary language and a claims record of interpreter use in at least one clinical encounter between 2005 and 2012. We used multivariate linear regression models to examine Internet refill system use and medication adherence and compared the association between LEP and EP patients. Three hundred eighty-four patients (75%) had a calculable CMG: 134 EP and 250 LEP in the adherence analyses. In unadjusted analyses, LEP patients had lower use of the Internet refill system (p < .001) and lower adherence versus the EP group (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, LEP status (β = - 0.022, p = .047) was negatively associated with adherence, while use of the Internet refill system (β = 0.030, p = .002) was positively associated. In stratified models, use of Internet refills was positively associated with adherence, even when examining LEP (β = 0.029, p = .003) and EP patients (β = 0.027, p = .049) separately
Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D
National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.
Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).
Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon
This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults' SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources.
Lee, Jonathan S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Crawford, Michael H; Green, Adrienne; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S
Language barriers disrupt communication and impede informed consent for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) undergoing healthcare procedures. Effective interventions for this disparity remain unclear. Assess the impact of a bedside interpreter phone system intervention on informed consent for patients with LEP and compare outcomes to those of English speakers. Prospective, pre-post intervention implementation study using propensity analysis. Hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures on the cardiovascular, general surgery or orthopedic surgery floors. Installation of dual-handset interpreter phones at every bedside enabling 24-h immediate access to professional interpreters. Primary predictor: pre- vs. post-implementation group; secondary predictor: post-implementation patients with LEP vs. English speakers. Primary outcomes: three central informed consent elements, patient-reported understanding of the (1) reasons for and (2) risks of the procedure and (3) having had all questions answered. We considered consent adequately informed when all three elements were met. We enrolled 152 Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with LEP (84 pre- and 68 post-implementation) and 86 English speakers. Post-implementation (vs. pre-implementation) patients with LEP were more likely to meet criteria for adequately informed consent (54% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and, after propensity score adjustment, had significantly higher odds of adequately informed consent (AOR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.15-5.72) as well as of each consent element individually. However, compared to post-implementation English speakers, post-implementation patients with LEP had significantly lower adjusted odds of adequately informed consent (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91). A bedside interpreter phone system intervention to increase rapid access to professional interpreters was associated with improvements in patient-reported informed consent and should be considered by hospitals seeking to improve
Kamara, Daniella; Weil, Jon; Youngblom, Janey; Guerra, Claudia; Joseph, Galen
In cancer genetic counseling (CGC), communication across language and culture challenges the model of practice based on shared decision-making. To date, little research has examined the decision-making process of low-income, limited English proficiency (LEP) patients in CGC. This study identified communication patterns in CGC sessions with this population and assessed how these patterns facilitate or inhibit the decision-making process during the sessions. We analyzed 24 audio recordings of CGC sessions conducted in Spanish via telephone interpreters at two public hospitals. Patients were referred for risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; all were offered genetic testing. Audio files were coded by two bilingual English-Spanish researchers and analyzed using conventional content analysis through an iterative process. The 24 sessions included 13 patients, 6 counselors, and 18 interpreters. Qualitative data analyses identified three key domains - Challenges Posed by Hypothetical Explanations, Misinterpretation by the Medical Interpreter, and Communication Facilitators - that reflect communication patterns and their impact on the counselor's ability to facilitate shared decision-making. Overall, we found an absence of patient participation in the decision-making process. Our data suggest that when counseling LEP Latina patients via medical interpreter, prioritizing information with direct utility for the patient and organizing information into short- and long-term goals may reduce information overload and improve comprehension for patient and interpreter. Further research is needed to test the proposed counseling strategies with this population and to assess how applicable our findings are to other populations.
Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.
Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…
Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Park, Hyunjoo; Sha, M. Mandy; Willis, Gordon
When recruiting respondents for cognitive interviews testing translated survey questionnaires, researchers often recommend interviewing monolingual non-English speakers because they are the likely users of the translations. However, these individuals are hard to recruit, and there is no standard definition of monolingual. Using cognitive interview…
范小月; 王瑞明; 吴际; 林哲婷
A large number of studies have demonstrated the bilinguals' advantage in cognitive control, and some researchers have explored the components of cognitive control. However, there are four gaps. ( 1 ) Most studies only examined one or two components of cognitive control. Few studies clearly defined cognitive control and systematically compared these components between non-proficient bilinguals and proficient bilinguals. (2) Compared with non-proficient bilinguals, do proficient bilinguals 'also have advantages in some components of cognitive control? ( 3 ) Is the influence of bilingualism on some components of cognitive control in bilingual children consistent with that in bilingual adults? (4) Are existing results suitable for Chinese-English bilinguals? The present study aims at answering these questions. Thirty non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals and thirty proficient Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to administer the "faces task". All the participants were adults. Before the task, they finished the Raven Intelligence Test, culture, ethnic background and social economic status (SES) survey to eliminate the influence of some irrelevant variables. In the face task, the colored eyes could be looking either straight ahead or towards one of the two boxes, creating the straight eyes task and the gaze shift task. The participants should press the key on the same side as the box containing the asterisk if the eyes turned green and the opposite side if the eyes turned red. Inhibitory control was assessed by the difference in RT between trials in which the eyes looked towards the target and those in which the eyes looked away from the target in the gaze shift task. The results showed that the non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals produced a larger cost than the proficient Chinese-English bilinguals, t(57) = 2. 107, p = . 040. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by the difference between mixed and single block presentations. The results showed that the non
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B.; Baron, Melvin
In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled “Secret Feelings.” Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. “Secret Feelings” was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that “Secret Feelings” is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors. PMID:21807951
Stokes, Nicole Osterman
The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…
Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R
Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.
Singh, Manesha Kaur Rajendra; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar; Eng, Lin Siew
Speaking is an important skill that needs to be mastered as it is the best way to communicate with other people in order to deliver opinions and express ideas, but the fact is that secondary school students' ability in speaking English is low in Malaysia. It is caused by several factors such as lack of vocabulary, poor pronunciation, weak grammar…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min
When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…
Standiford, Connie J; Nolan, Elizabeth; Harris, Michelle; Bernstein, Steven J
To evaluate and improve the provision of language services at an academic medicine center caring for a diverse population including many limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients. The authors performed a prospective observational study between November 2006 and December 2008 evaluating the provision of language services at the University of Michigan Health System. The primary performance measures were (1) screening patients for their preferred language for health care, (2) assessing the proportion of LEP patients receiving language services from a qualified language services provider, and (3) assessing whether there were any disparities in diabetes care for LEP patients compared with English-speaking patients. The proportion of patients screened for preferred language increased from 59% to 96% with targeted inventions, such as training staff to capture preferred language for health care and correcting prior inaccurate primary language data entry. The proportion of LEP outpatients with a qualified language services provider increased from 19% to 83% through the use of staff and contract interpreters, over-the-phone interpreting and bilingual providers. There were no systematic differences in diabetes quality performance measures between LEP and English-proficient patients. Academic medical centers should measure their provision of language services and compare quality and safety data (e.g., performance measures and adverse events) between LEP and English-speaking patients to identify disparities in care. Leadership support and ongoing training are needed to ensure language-specific services are embedded into clinical care to meet the needs of our diverse patient populations.
Meaney, K S; Edwards, R
This study investigated the effects of modeling and verbal rehearsal on the motor performance of English-speaking and limited English proficient (LEP) children. Children (N = 64) in 4th-grade classes were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 (Gender x Primary Language x Model Type x Rehearsal) factorial design. Boys and girls whose primary language was English or Spanish were assigned to either a verbal model or no-model condition as well as to a verbal rehearsal or no-rehearsal condition of the motor skills required to be performed. Analysis of variance revealed a significant Model Type x Primary Language interaction as well as a significant Rehearsal x Primary Language interaction. Follow-up analyses revealed that English-speaking children provided with a verbal rehearsal strategy recalled significantly more skills than English-speaking children in the no-rehearsal condition; for LEP children, there were no differences due to rehearsal. Moreover, LEP children presented with a verbal model recalled significantly more skills than LEP children in the no-model condition; for English-speaking children, there were no differences attributed to model type. These results indicate that effective modeling conditions that are provided with verbal cues in English are related to children's primary language.
de Castro, A B; Rue, Tessa; Takeuchi, David T
This study examined the associations between employment frustration and both self-rated physical health (SRPH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among Asian American immigrants. A cross-sectional quantitative analysis was conducted utilizing data from 1,181 Asian immigrants participating in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Employment frustration was measured by self-report of having difficulty finding the work one wants because of being of Asian descent. SRPH and SRMH were each assessed using a global one-item measure, with responses ranging from poor to excellent. Control variables included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, whether immigrated for employment, years in the United States, English proficiency, and a general measure for everyday discrimination. Ordered logistic regression showed that employment frustration was negatively associated with SRPH. This relationship, however, was no longer significant in multivariate models including English proficiency. The negative association between employment frustration and SRMH persisted even when including all control variables. The findings suggest that Asian immigrants in the United States who experience employment frustration report lower levels of both physical and mental health. However, English proficiency may attenuate the relationship of employment frustration with physical health. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty
This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pdesigned research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian; Kroll, Judith F.
We present a set of translation norms for 670 English and 760 Spanish nouns, verbs and class ambiguous items that varied in their lexical properties in both languages, collected from 80 bilingual participants. Half of the words in each language received more than a single translation across participants. Cue word frequency and imageability were both negatively correlated with number of translations. Word class predicted number of translations: Nouns had fewer translations than did verbs, which had fewer translations than class-ambiguous items. The translation probability of specific responses was positively correlated with target word frequency and imageability, and with its form overlap with the cue word. Translation choice was modulated by L2 proficiency: Less proficient bilinguals tended to produce lower probability translations than more proficient bilinguals, but only in forward translation, from L1 to L2. These findings highlight the importance of translation ambiguity as a factor influencing bilingual representation and performance. The norms can also provide an important resource to assist researchers in the selection of experimental materials for studies of bilingual and monolingual language performance. These norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183923
Azize, Pary M; Cattani, Allegra; Endacott, Ruth
To identify the factors that influence decisions made by health professionals when assessing the pain of native English speaking and children whose English is an additional language. Pain assessment in children is often poorly executed following acute injury. Whilst a range of pain assessment tools have been developed, little guidance is provided for assessing pain in children with English as an additional language. Factorial survey design. Twenty minor injuries unit nurses and 20 children's nursing students participated in an electronic survey to make judgements on 12 scenarios describing a child attending a minor injuries unit following an incident, accompanied by a parent. Respondents had to decide the most important form of pain assessment, and whether they would ask a parent or an interpreter to assess the pain of the child. An open-ended question asked about the difficulties found in making a judgement. Observation of the child's behaviour was the most common pain assessment reported. The visual analogue scale was significantly associated with children with proficient English. Respondents were significantly more likely to involve parents in the assessment if they could speak English well compared to parents with poor English skills. Moreover, nursing students were significantly more likely than registered nurses to call for support from an interpreter. Thematic analysis identified three themes related to difficulties with pain assessment: contrasting approaches, differing perceptions of pain and overcoming challenges. The reduced ability to communicate between child, parent and healthcare professional highlights the need to identify forms of assessment based on individual cases. The number of children with English as an additional language has seen a marked rise over the last decade. In situations where communication ability is reduced, assessment of pain should be tailored to meet the needs of the child. This may require timely access to interpreter services
Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram
This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…
Forrest, James; Dandy, Justine
Much is known about immigrants' majority language proficiency in the first (immigrant) generation. Less is understood of differences in linguistic shift compared with heritage language retention in subsequent generations. Focusing on Sydney, Australia's largest "EthniCity," we build on Clyne and Kipp's (1999. "Pluricentric Languages…
Cook, H. Gary; MacDonald, Rita
This document is the second in a series of working papers that elaborate on a framework of four key stages in moving toward a common definition of English learner (EL), as described in the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) publication, "Toward a 'Common Definition of English Learner': Guidance for States and State Assessment…
Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…
Rahmat, Nurhazlini; Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior
In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…
Gil, Stephanie; Hooke, Mary C; Niess, Dawn
Patients and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) face a multitude of barriers both inside and outside the hospital walls. These barriers can contribute to difficulty accessing care and understanding/adhering to treatment recommendations, ultimately placing them at higher risk for poorer outcomes than their English-speaking counterparts. The LEP Patient Family Advocate role was created with the aim of improving access, promoting effective communication, and equalizing care for children with cancer from families with LEP. The goal of this mixed methods study was to describe the level of satisfaction and experiences of parents and health care providers who used the LEP Patient Family Advocate while receiving or providing care. Twelve parents and 15 health care providers completed quantitative surveys and an open-ended question about their experiences. High levels of satisfaction were reported. Themes about the role from qualitative responses included its positive effect on communication, trust, and connectedness between parents and staff. Continuity of care and safety were improved, and parents thought the role helped decrease their stress. The LEP Patient Family Advocate has a positive influence on family-centered cultural care. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.
Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza
The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL) learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two
Moses, Britani Creel
The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…
Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...
Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene
Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults
Stolk, Yvonne; Sevar, Katherine; Tran, Nga; Mancuso, Serafino G; Chopra, Prem; Castle, David
Because national surveys of people living with psychotic disorders tend to exclude people with low English proficiency (LEP), little is known of their economic and social functioning. Culturally influenced explanatory models may result in delayed presentation and poorer functioning. The study aimed to compare the functioning of LEP Vietnamese-Australian and Australian-born patients with psychosis and to investigate the Vietnamese-Australians' pathways to care. In all, 19 LEP Vietnamese-Australians, previously excluded from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), were matched with 15 Australian-born controls, and interviewed by a Vietnamese bilingual mental health professional using the SHIP Interview Schedule. The Vietnamese-Australian patients were significantly more likely to live with family, rate spirituality as important and participate in community rehabilitation programs. Their work, social and independent functioning, was better than the controls. The groups did not differ in mental health services received and satisfaction with services. Although half of Vietnamese-Australians attributed mental illness to supernatural, among other causes, none had consulted traditional healers. Despite LEP, Vietnamese-Australians with psychosis showed comparable or better functioning than Australian-born patients. Further investigation is recommended into LEP patients' clinical and social recovery and the role of language communities' support networks. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: an exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina
Calo, William A.; Cubillos, Laura; Breen, James; Hall, Megan; Rojas, Krycya Flores; Mooneyham, Rachel; Schaal, Jennifer; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Dave, Gaurav; Jolles, M?nica P?rez; Garcia, Nacire; Reuland, Daniel S.
Background Health services research of Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) have largely focused on studying disparities related to patient-provider communication. Less is known about their non-provider interactions such as those with patient registration systems and clinic front office staff; these interactions precede the encounter with providers and may shape how comfortable patients feel about their overall health services experience. This study explored Latino patients with LEP...
Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science
Bruno, Joanna K.
In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.
Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette
This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed.
"If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity
Lichon, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if
Sumiya, Hiromi; Healy, Alice F
English-Japanese bilinguals performed a Stroop color-word interference task with both English and Japanese stimuli and responded in both English and Japanese. The Japanese stimuli were either the traditional color terms (TCTs) written in Hiragana or loanwords (LWs) from English written in Katakana. Both within-language and between-language interference were found for all combinations of stimuli and responses. The between-language interference was larger for Katakana LWs (phonologically similar to English) than for Hiragana TCTs, especially with Japanese responses. The magnitude of this phonological effect increased with self-rated reading fluency in Japanese. Overall responding was slower and the Stroop effect larger with English than with Japanese stimuli. These results suggest that unintentional lexical access elicits automatic phonological processing even with intermediate-level reading proficiency.
The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...
Andersen, Frank Krarup; Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, Henrik
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-rated health in middle-aged and elderly Danes using both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Global and (age) comparative self-rated health are examined and compared. METHODS: This study is interview based and comprises data on...
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Gamble, Jeffrey; Tang, Shiun-Yi S.
The challenge of providing authentic experiences and interactions for fostering oral proficiency and motivation in foreign languages is an opportunity for innovation in educational technology and instructional design. Although several recent innovations have received the attention of scholars, empirical investigation and validation is often…
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...
This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Jimenez, María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Nápoles, Anna Mar
Cancer self-efficacy (CSE) and spiritual well-being (SWB) have been associated with better self-rated health (SRH) among breast cancer survivors (BCS), but have not been well studied among Latina BCS (LBCS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of secondary data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey of 330 LBCS explored relationships of language acculturation, CSE, and SWB subdomains of inner peace and faith with SRH. English proficiency was associated with SRH, independent of other covariates (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.15, 4.45). Cancer self-efficacy attenuated this effect and was positively associated with SRH (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.22, 4.10). Adding inner peace (a SWB subscale) attenuated the association of CSE and SRH (OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88, 3.18). Inner peace remained associated with SRH (OR= 2.44, 95% CI 1.30, 4.56), controlling for covariates. Findings support the importance of a sense of inner peace and control over breast cancer to LBCS’ perceived health.
In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...
文章以英语专业62名一年级和62名三年级学生为调查对象,采用问卷、访谈等工具,探究英语专业学生商务英语词汇学习策略的总体情况,比较高低年级学生在商务英语词汇学习策略的使用上的异同。根据数据分析结果和商务英语词汇的特点,提出词汇学习策略培训和词块法教学在商务英语词汇学习中具有较强的可行性和有效性。%This paper reports an empirical study on various kinds of business English vocabulary acquisition strategies employed by the English majors at different proficiency levels. The subjects are the first-year and third-year English majors from Zhejiang Wanli University,and the instruments adopted included a questionnaire and interviews. Based on the results of data analysis and the features of business English vocabulary,it has been proposed that strategy instruction and word chunk will be effective in business English vocabulary acquisition.
Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.
Ingram, D. E.
The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…
Duque, Diana L.
This report presents findings of the evaluation by the New York City public school system's Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment of three programs (Summer E.S.L. Welcome Plus, Summer Bilingual, and Project Omega) for immigrant students. The Summer E.S.L. (English as a Second Language) Welcome Plus program operated at 19 sites in New York…
Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger
This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…
Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.
Glew, Paul J
To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.
Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong
The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using students’ presentations on improving English language skills of adult learners and assess its potency to reach the expected learning outcomes. The research was conducted in the Continuing Education Center, Ishik University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. The target population consisted of 23 English language learners (university graduates, and currently working in the sphere of Education. This study consisted of three major phases: first, explanation, preparation, presentation of the students’ works on the topic of interest and observation of students’ performance, second, teacher-student and student-student discussion of the video-recorded presentations. The last step was the application of the survey, which was designed to measure the participants’ attitude toward the mini-projects they presented in the class. The data were analyzed by means of frequency and percentage, as well as a summarization of the discussions. The main findings show that students’ attitude toward oral presentations, prepared on the topic of their own interest, have a positive attitude on students’ motivation toward learning English and help the adult learners to improve their language in general, and the productive skills in particular.
Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Olesen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality from a number of major chronic diseases, however, the association with cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between change in SRH and cancer incidence...... proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol, marital status, physical activity, body mass index and estrogen replacement therapy. RESULTS: No significant association was found between SRH and overall cancer incidence in the age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (1.04; 95% CI 0...
frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English ... battery may negatively impact the test-takers' performance. ..... examples. The major finding is that raising learners' awareness constitutes the best way forward ..... Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Green, R.
Braun, Edith; Woodley, Alan; Richardson, John T. E.; Leidner, Bernhard
This paper provides a theoretical review of self-rated competences questionnaires. This topic is influenced by the ongoing world-wide reform of higher education, which has led to a focus on the learner outcomes of higher education. Consequently, questionnaires on self-rated competences have increasingly been employed. However, self-ratings are…
Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Tampubolon, Gindo
Individual social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. This study examines the extent to which individual social capital is associated with self-rated health and the extent to which individual social capital mediates t.he relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and self-rated health in an English sample. Individual social capital was conceptualized and operationalized in both the social cohesion- and network resource tradition, using measures of generalized trust, social participation and social network resources. Network resources were measured with the position generator. Multilevel analyses were applied to wave 2 and 3 of the Taking Part Surveys of England, which consist of face-to-face interviews among the adult population in England (N(i) = 25,366 respondents, N(j) = 12,388 neighbourhoods). The results indicate that generalized trust, participation with friends and relatives and having network members from the salariat class are positively associated with self-rated health. Having network members from the working class is, however, negatively related to self-rated health. Moreover, these social capital elements are partly mediating the negative relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and self-rated health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan
This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kiran, Swathi; Iakupova, Regina
The goal of this study was to address the relationship between language proficiency, language impairment and rehabilitation in bilingual Russian-English individuals with aphasia. As a first step, we examined two Russian-English patients' pre-stroke language proficiency using a detailed and comprehensive language use and history questionnaire and…
Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: an exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina.
Calo, William A; Cubillos, Laura; Breen, James; Hall, Megan; Rojas, Krycya Flores; Mooneyham, Rachel; Schaal, Jennifer; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Dave, Gaurav; Jolles, Mónica Pérez; Garcia, Nacire; Reuland, Daniel S
Health services research of Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) have largely focused on studying disparities related to patient-provider communication. Less is known about their non-provider interactions such as those with patient registration systems and clinic front office staff; these interactions precede the encounter with providers and may shape how comfortable patients feel about their overall health services experience. This study explored Latino patients with LEP experiences with, and expectations for, interactions with patient registration systems and front office staff. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with Latinos with LEP (≥ 18 years of age) who seek health services in the Piedmont Triad region, North Carolina. We analyzed participants' quotes and identified themes by using a constant comparison method. This research was conducted by a community-academic partnership; partners were engaged in study design, instrument development, recruitment, data analysis, and manuscript writing. Qualitative analysis allowed us to identify the following recurring themes: 1) inconsistent registration of multiple surnames may contribute to patient misidentification errors and delays in receiving health care; 2) lack of Spanish language services in front office medical settings negatively affect care coordination and satisfaction with health care; and 3) perceived discrimination generates patients' mistrust in front office staff and discomfort with services. Latino patients in North Carolina experience health services barriers unique to their LEP background. Participants identified ways in which the lack of cultural and linguistic competence of front office staff negatively affect their experiences seeking health services. Healthcare organizations need to support their staff to encourage patient-centered principles.
Lawton, Stephen B.
The Arizona English-Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA) is the backbone of Arizona's new English-language learner (ELL) policy in that it is used to assess students' English-language proficiency in order to place them into groups for English-language instruction and to determine when they have become proficient in English. This paper evaluates a…
Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…
Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.
Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Car, Justyna; Debska, Anna; Gebska-Kuczerowska, Anita
Self-rated health is a one-point measure commonly used for recognising subjectively perceived health and covering a wide range of individual's health aspects. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which self-rated health reflects the differences due to demographic characteristics, physical, psychical and social well-being, health disorders, occurrence of chronic disease and negative life events in Polish social and cultural conditions. Data were collected by non-addressed questionnaire methods from 402 Warsaw inhabitants. The questionnaire contained the questions concerning self-rated health, physical, psychical and social well-being, the use of health care services, occurrence of chronic disease and contact with negative life events. The analysis showed that worse self-rated health increased exponentially with age and less sharply with lower level of education. Pensioners were more likely to assess their own health worse then employed or students. Such difference was not found for unemployed. Compared to married, the self-rated health of divorced or widowed respondents was lower. Gender does not differentiate self-rated health. In regard to well-being, self-rated health linearly decreased for physical well-being, for social and, especially, for psychical well-being the differences were significant, but more complicated. Hospitalisation, especially repeated, strongly determined worse self-rated health. In contrast, relationship between self-rated health and sickness absence or frequency of contact with physician were lower. Chronic diseases substantially increased the risk of poorer self-rated health, and their co-morbidity increased the risk exponentially. The patients with cancer were the group, in which the risk several times exceeded that reported for the patients of other diseases. Regarding negative life events, only experience with violence and financial difficulties were resulted in worse self-rated health. Our findings confirmed the usefulness
Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene
Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...
Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger
This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English
Samal Jalal, Rawand
with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...... participants with intermediate scores, and the four who scored the highest, on a test of English proficiency. These participants were tested in their L1 (Turkish) and their L2 (Danish) in order to examine whether their proficiency in their L1 and L2 was associated with English proficiency. Furthermore, the 12...
Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.
Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data
This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...
Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna
Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive
Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H
Self-rated function is a new global measure. Previous findings suggest that self-rated function predicts future functional decline and is strongly associated with all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that the strength of the relationship of self-rated function to all-cause mortality was in part due to functional decline, such as would occur with brain infarcts. Self-ratings of function and health (on a 5-point scale, ranging from excellent to poor) were assessed annually on 630 participants in the Nun Study. Mortality surveillance extended from October 31, 1991 to March 1, 1998, and, among those who died, neuropathological examination determined postmortem evidence of brain infarcts. Cox regression modeling with self-rated function and health as time-dependent covariates and stratification by assessment period were used in these analyses. Self-rated function and health ratings of good, fair, and poor were significantly associated with doubling of the risk of mortality, compared with ratings of very good and excellent. Self-rated function ratings of fair or poor were associated with a threefold increase in the risk of mortality with brain infarcts, but self-rated function and health ratings of fair and poor were comparable in their association with all-cause mortality and mortality without brain infarcts. Self-rated function was significantly associated with mortality with brain infarcts, suggesting that brain infarcts may be experienced as functional loss but not recognized or labeled as disease. Our results suggest that self-rated function and health should be explored simultaneously in future research.
Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette
By administering a Stroop task to college-student bilinguals varied in self-rated first- (L1) and second-language (L2) proficiency, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiencies on selective attention performance. We conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time…
Full Text Available Motivation raising strategies are frequently used in English as a Foreign Language (EFL classes; nevertheless, learners’ perceptions of such strategies used by language teachers have not sufficiently been explored. Also, there are not enough studies on differences and similarities between more and less proficient EFL learners regarding this issue. To scrutinize this topic, a groups of more (No=50 and less proficient EFL learners (No=50 participated in this study by completing to a validated, researcher-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert type format. Non-parametric Mann-Whiteny U test was run in the SPSS ver. 23 to check the differences between the two groups. The results of the study verified that, regardless of each individual scale in the utilized questionnaire, overall, the more proficient ones manifested significantly less perceptions on teachers’ motivation raising strategies based on the total estimated mean ranks compared with the less proficient learners. However, within the surveyed scales, only in the classroom atmosphere scale, the results showed that the less proficient learners were more mindful of teacher strategies for motivation raising. The findings from this study have implications for motivation raising strategy instructions for a language classroom.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language... Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) may... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic...
This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…
Flávia Silva Arbex Borim
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age.
Foong, Kwah Poh; Goh, Christine C. M.
Examines the learning strategies of English-as-Second-Language students in the People's Republic of China. Surveyed the frequency of strategy use to determine how it is influenced by learners' proficiency level and gender. (Author/VWL)
Building a new life in Australia: an analysis of the first wave of the longitudinal study of humanitarian migrants in Australia to assess the association between social integration and self-rated health.
Chen, Wen; Ling, Li; Renzaho, Andre M N
To assess the relationship between social integration and physical and mental health among humanitarian migrants (HMs) in Australia. We used the recently released first wave of data from the 2013 'Building a New Life in Australia' survey, which is an ongoing nationwide longitudinal study. A total of 2399 HMs participated in the survey. Self-rated physical health was measured using four items selected from the SF-36 which is a generic measure of health status. The 6-item Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) was used to measure mental health. Social integration was measured using four dimensions: economic integration, acculturation, social capital and self-identity. More than half (63%), 47% and 49% of participants self-rated well on the general health, physical function and role-physical dimensions, respectively and 46% reported not having any bodily pain. Seventeen per cent of participants had a serious mental illness. There was a positive relationship between social integration and physical and mental health. That is, factors associated with better health included less financial hardship (economic integration dimension), better English proficiency and self-sufficiency (acculturation dimension), having the capacity to communicate with locals, having friends from different ethnic/religious groups and attending a place of worship weekly or more often (social capital dimension) and feeling welcomed and having a strong sense of belonging in Australia (self-identity dimension). Using a more comprehensive framework of social integration, we found that greater social integration was associated with better physical and mental health outcomes among HMs. Social integration should be embedded in HMs' resettlement programmes in order to reduce migration-related health inequities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley
Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…
Wang, Chih-hsuan; Harrison, Jamie; Cardullo, Victoria; Lin, Xi
One of the major challenges for international students to pursue academic goals in the United States is English language proficiency, which often negatively affects academic success. Even students with confidence in their English language proficiency encounter challenges using English in class. Previous research indicates self-efficacy positively…
Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.
The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…
Ling, Guangming; Powers, Donald E.; Adler, Rachel M.
One fundamental way to determine the validity of standardized English-language test scores is to investigate the extent to which they reflect anticipated learning effects in different English-language programs. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the "TOEFL iBT"® practice test reflects the learning effects of students at…
Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.
This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.
Learning Through Automotive Electronics (Project LETAE) was a federally funded program serving 77 limited-English-proficient (LEP) students and 5 English-proficient students in an automotive computer electronics course in 1992-93, its third year of operation. The program provided instruction in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL), native language…
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai
This paper focuses on English teachers in Asia in the context of globalization, the global spread of English and the emergence of English as an "Asian language." It highlights the dilemmas facing these teachers in meeting the growing social demands of English proficiency in a technology-influenced, managerial and neoliberal education…
Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob
In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…
This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…
Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang
English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…
, this study discusses the consequences resulting from score and feedback interpretations and uses as part of the validation process of TOEPAS (Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff), which is a performance-based test used for oral English certification of lecturers at the University......Internationalization of higher education has resulted in rapid developments of English-medium instruction (EMI) courses in non-Anglophone countries in Europe and Asia. Due to the growing concerns about lecturers' ability to teach in English, several European universities have implemented policies...... for internal assessment of lecturers' English proficiency to ensure the quality of teaching in EMI programs. However, research on the measured construct and the reliability and the validity of these assessments remains scarce. Based on interviews with tested university lecturers and formative feedback analysis...
Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara
Abstract: We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ae3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated wit...
McDonough, Peggy; Berglund, Pat
This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between poverty histories and self-rated health trajectories. We are interested in patterns of change in individuals' health over time and the ways in which such patterns are structured by continuity and change in poverty experiences. Data, collected for adults aged 25 and older in 1984 (N = 7,258), are from the 1968-1996 annual waves of Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Individual growth curves allow us to investigate health trajectories as continuous processes, as well as individual and group heterogeneity in these trajectories. We find that, on average, health deteriorates slowly over time, but there is significant variation in health in 1984 and the rate at which health declines. Histories of poverty partly accounted for the sources of individual differences in self-rated health in 1984, but they were not related to health change over time. Although increasing incomes were better for self-rated health than falling incomes, current economic circumstances did not erase the health effects of earlier poverty experiences.
Jiang, Jiahong; Yu, Yibing
English writing, an indispensable skill in English learning, plays an important role in improving learners' language proficiency. With the wide spread and use of wired or wireless internet, EFL students can easily help and be helped with English writing. Therefore, the application of internet-based peer feedback training on writing to foreign or…
Appel, Randy; Wood, David
The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…
Hummel, Kirsten M.
This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…
Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung
This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…
This article reports the results of an experimental study on the effectiveness of mobile technology (WhatsApp) in improving the critique writing skills of English as a Foreign Language learners and increasing their motivation for learning. The participants (n = 52) are Average-English proficient learners enrolled in two writing courses given at…
La Provision de una Igualdad de Oportunidades Educativas para los Estudiantes con Conocimientos Limitados del Idioma Ingles (The Provision of an Equal Education Opportunity to Limited English Proficient Students).
Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.
This federal policy statement outlines policy on provision of education to limited-English-speaking school children. First, it describes briefly the demographics of this population and the academic difficulties faced by them, and the recent federal initiative for broadened educational opportunity, America 2000: An Education Strategy. Then,…
Full Text Available Background The AD8 plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. However, because of cultural and language difference, it is difficult for Chinese subjects to understand and answer questions in AD8. This paper aims to make a new dementia self-rating questionnaire for Chinese people based on the AD8, and to determine its value for dementia screening. Methods According to early symptoms of dementia and life style of old Chinese people, a dementia self-rating questionnaire was made based on the AD8. The new questionnaire includes 10 questions, and can be finished in 3 min. The reliability and validity was validated by a questionnaire survey in senior citizens older than 50 years in urban Xi'an. All patients were screened by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and dementia was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Forth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ criteria. Results A total of 620 patients finished the new questionnaire, and among them 17 patients (2.74% were diagnosed as dementia. The score of each question in the questionnaire was positively correlated with the total score (rs = 0.300-0.709; P = 0.000, for all. The Cronbach α was 0.795, indicating that the questionnaire got good internal consistency reliability. Two principal components were extracted, and the cumulative variance contribution ratio was 49.771%. Factor loading of each subitem was > 0.500, indicating a good construct validity. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, the critical value was 2, with the sensitivity 94.10% and specificity 82.10%. Youden index was 0.762. Conclusions The new dementia self-rating questionnaire can detect dementia patients sensitively and correctly, and is very useful for early screening of dementia. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.009
Vanderwood, Michael L.; Tung, Catherine Y.; Checca, C. Jason
The predictive validity and accuracy of an oral reading fluency (ORF) measure for a statewide assessment in English language arts was examined for second-grade native English speakers (NESs) and English learners (ELs) with varying levels of English proficiency. In addition to comparing ELs with native English speakers, the impact of English…
Greenberg Motamedi, Jason; Singh, Malkeet; Thompson, Karen D.
How long does it typically take English learner students to develop English language proficiency? And how does this time vary by student characteristics such as English proficiency at entry to kindergarten, gender, and home language? The answers to these questions can provide valuable information to districts and schools. Regional Educational…
Brown, James Dean; And Others
The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth
This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...
McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A
Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.
Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.
... Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... to provide instruction that accelerates ELs' acquisition of language, literacy, and content knowledge.... Rosalinda Barrera, Assistant Deputy Secretary and Director for English Language Acquisition, Language...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...
Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H
We investigated the relationship of self-rated function (i.e., the ability to take care of oneself) and self-rated health to concurrent functional ability, functional decline, and mortality in participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 629 of the 678 study participants self-rated their function and health and completed an initial functional assessment in 1991-93. Survivors completed a second assessment in 1993-94. Overall, self-rated function had a stronger relationship to functional ability at the first assessment and to functional decline between the first and second assessments than did self-rated health. Self-rated function also had a stronger relationship to mortality than did self-rated health. Self-rated function may be a better marker of global function than is self-rated health and may be a useful addition to clinical assessment and scientific investigation of the relationships among function, health, and disease.
Nielsen, Torben Heien
hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufﬁciently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...
Nielsen, Torben Heien
hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series ofindividual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...
Nielsen, Torben Heien
, and future hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition...... of future hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality to the same extent as global self......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) covaries with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Ageing with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995 to 2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current...
Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara
We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.
In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment
The report, a supplement to the RCP Proficiency Report, will further assist governmental officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon mitigation contractors. These reports list 1,123 contractors who have met the requirements of the RCP Program as of December 15, 1990. The Proficiency Report provides information on each contractor's name, RCP identification number, company name, address, phone number, and geographic service area. The report provides two additional tables, indexed by company name and by RCP identification number. The report is intended to help users quickly identify a proficient contractor if only the company name is known, or to verify which contractor is associated with a particular ID number
The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports
To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…
To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.
Bogers, Toine; Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark M.
English content still dominates in many online domains and information systems, despite native English speakers being a minority of its users. However, we know little about how language proficiency influences search behavior in these systems. In this paper, we describe preliminary results from an...... language constraints, a preliminary analysis of native and non-native English speakers indicate little to no meaningful differences in their search behavior.......English content still dominates in many online domains and information systems, despite native English speakers being a minority of its users. However, we know little about how language proficiency influences search behavior in these systems. In this paper, we describe preliminary results from...... an interactive IR experiment with book search behavior and examine how language skills affect this behavior. A total of 97 users from 21 different countries participated in this experiment, resulting in a rich data set including usage data as well as questionnaire feedback. Although participants reported feeling...
Byers, Burton H.
Discusses several hypotheses about the measurement of speech-communication proficiency which are being tested at the University of Hawaii and a testing instrument entitled Dy Comm'' (dyadic communication) which emerged from this research. (DD)
Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.
Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.
Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran
Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The use of English in daily communication in Rwanda is very limited and the proficiency in ... Pearson, 2013; Uwubuntu, 2013). .... as Noam Chomsky suggests, there is a period in the human development (Critical Period) when the brain is.
Nedjat, Saharnaz; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza
Measuring the distribution of health is a part of assessing health system performance. This study aims to estimate health inequality between different socioeconomic groups and its determinants in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Self-rated health (SRH) and demographic characteristics, including gender, age, marital status, educational years, and assets, were measured by structured interviews of 2464 residents of Tehran in 2008. A concentration index was calculated to measure health inequality by economic status. The association of potential determinants and SRH was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The contribution to concentration index of level of education, marital status and other determining factors was assessed by decomposition. The mean age of respondents was 41.4 years (SD 17.7) and 49% of them were men. The mean score of SRH status was 3.72 (range: 1-5; SD 0.93). 282 respondents (11.5%) rated their health status as poor or very poor. The concentration index was -0.29 (SE 0.03; pinequality in SRH were economic status (47.8%), level of education (29.2%) and age (23.0%). Sub-optimal SRH was more in lower than in higher economic status. After controlling for age, the levels of education and household wealth have the greatest contributions to SRH inequality.
Yeung, Marine; Li, Tilo
As one of the essential skills for success in work and studies, English communication is often made a key component in the GE curriculum of tertiary study programmes. In addition to the provision of required English proficiency courses, many tertiary institutions have established English centres of some description to promote English learning on…
Al-Issa, Ali; Al-Bulushi, Ali; Al-Zadjali, Rima
Proficiency in the English language has been described as central for determining Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (N-NESTs) selection for joining the profession. The Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman decided to set the score of Band 6 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for accepting the English Language…
Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli
Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651
The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report
The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report
Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan
The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…
Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. METHOD: Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish...... municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output...... in a maximal cycle exercise test. RESULTS: A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self...
Kim, Bum Jung; Harris, Lesley Maradik
The objective of this article is to investigate determinants of self-rated health and describe their association with social capital and socioeconomic characteristics among older Korean immigrants. A cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants (aged 60 years and older) was conducted in Los Angeles county. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, income of the older Koreans, and social capital included social norms, trust, partnership with the community, information sharing, and political participation. Self-rated health was the dependent variable. Descriptive analyses were done to show group differences in self-rated health and logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of self-rated health. Gender (male), high income, and high levels of information sharing were significant determinants of high self-rated health status among older Korean immigrants. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that gender, income, and information sharing are directly associated with the self-rated health status of older Korean immigrants.
The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company
Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis
The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…
Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W; Tolstrup, Janne S
To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test. A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1). Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health. © 2013.
When Is an English Language Learner Not an English Language Learner? Exploring Individual Differences in Developmental Language and Literacy Acquisition for At-Risk Learners: A Latent Transition Approach
Guzman-Orth, Danielle Alicia
Empirical evidence suggests oral language proficiency is correlated with literacy outcomes; however, the relationship between oral language proficiency and literacy outcomes for English Language Learners is highly variable. As a result, the field lacks critical direction to identify children who are English Language Learners experiencing general…
Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research que...
Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.
Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani
Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants. The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .83, p < .05, 2. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .59, p < .05. And finally, there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .52, p < .05. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.
Bermudez, Andrea B.; Prater, Doris L.
Examines the use of persuasive responses by Hispanic second-language writers and categorizes these responses by level of language proficiency and gender. Findings indicate that students exit English-as-a-Second-Language classes without having achieved a higher level of expertise in the use of persuasive discourse and that females elaborate more…
With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the…
Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui
This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…
Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.
Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K
We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 proficiency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR) task (Experiment1) and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR) task (Experiment 2). In the redirect task, typically a target is presented and the subject is required to make a saccade (no-step trials), unless a new target appears on a different location after some delay from the first target onset (step trials). On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first target and programme a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT), the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target as a measure of response inhibition and post-step slowing as a measure of performance monitoring. The results showed the high proficient bilinguals displayed more post-step slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals for both VGR and MGR versions of the task. Secondly, both the high and low proficient bilinguals exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR task, showing no modulatory effects of language proficiency on the response inhibition. These results suggest that language proficiency may have an effect on performance monitoring, but not the inhibitory control per se. Thus, we infer that higher proficiency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility and an ability to adjust behavior that facilitates the attainment of the cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.
Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten
Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....
Luiz Sérgio Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.
Boland, Máirín C
There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.
Devillé, W.; Westert, G.
Background: Self-rated health is a good predictor of health, morbidity and use of care. Self-rated health is also a responsive measure to changes in health. It can be measured by one simple question. As such it is included in many surveys in many countries, making measuring of general health
Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine
Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....
Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.
In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the
Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Islam, A. B. M. Shafiqul; Shuchi, Israt Jahan
The present study investigates the writing errors of ninety Saudi non-English major undergraduate students of different proficiency levels from three faculties, who studied English as a foundation course at the English Language Center in the College of Languages &Translation at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2016-17.…
In response to growing linguistic diversity, many U.S. universities have implemented language policies that include procedures for English learner (EL) identification. Institutional labels such as "English learner" and "limited English proficiency" are regularly used to identify students who may need English language support;…
Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren
This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…
Molina Naar, José Mario
This article reports on a study developed in order to help a group of six limited-proficient students of English (newcomers) to improve their reading comprehension of English novels by designing storyboards, a type of graphic organizer that condenses both images and scripts. The investigation was carried out in a public school in the state of…
In recent years, a boom in immigration and high birth rates among the foreign-born population has led to significant growth in the number of children in the United States who speak a language other than English at home. This demographic change presents a challenge to the public school system, where English proficiency is central to a child's…
Hayley Purcell admits she felt apprehensive about receiving the results of a test designed to ensure she was proficient in English. After months of preparation, at a cost of several hundred pounds, the Australian had achieved a very good result overall, with 7.5 out of a possible nine in the International English Language Testing System (IELTS).
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…
This study investigated whether second language (L2) proficiency affects pragmatic comprehension, namely the ability to comprehend implied meaning in spoken dialogues, in terms of accuracy and speed of comprehension. Participants included 46 native English speakers at a U.S. university and 160 Japanese students of English in a college in Japan who…
pronouns at the University of Botswana. It also discusses some of the ways by which the learners may be assisted to become more proficient in using English pronouns. An analysis of 542 essays written by second and fourth year students of the Department of English reveal the following categories of pronoun errors: the ...
Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel
The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.
Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. Extensive reading provides contextualized clues for better reading comprehension (Krashen, 1982), and substantial linguistic input (Bell, 1998) needed for language development. Several studies have found a correlation between extensive reading and specific linguistic…
Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed
This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…
Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi
There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…
Murphy, Audrey F.
Educators need to document progress for English language learners, and the best structures to put into place in order to record their growth. Beginning with the stages of language proficiency, student progress can be tracked through the use of a baseline in all four language strands and the creation of rubrics to monitor performance. Language…
Skipalska, O.M.; Скіпальська, О.М.
Proficient level of English will depend not only on talent and hard work of a learner but also on the ways of learning. Internet is a future of education and will enhance learning process. It facilitates learning, it can be used anywhere, it enables research and improved learning, it accelerates learning, it helps them grow.
High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…
Pedersen, Pia V; Grønbæk, Morten; Curtis, Tine
Previous studies of self-rated health among socially marginalized people provide insufficient understandings of what influences their self-rated health. This study aimed to examine how disadvantaged life circumstances (homelessness, substance abuse, poverty) and general well-being were associated with poor self-rated health among the socially marginalized. In a nationwide survey in Denmark, 1348 users of shelters, drop-in centres, treatment centres and social psychiatric centres answered a self-administered questionnaire. We analysed data using logistic regression. Disadvantaged life circumstances and well-being were associated with self-rated health, also when controlling for illness, mental disorder and age. Male respondents exposed to two or more disadvantaged life circumstances had higher odds of poor self-rated health [odds ratio (OR): 2.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80-4.87] than males exposed to fewer disadvantages. A low sense of personal well-being implied higher odds of poor self-rated health among both men and women. Among men, not showering regularly (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.17-2.79), and among women, not eating varied food (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.20-4.20) and exposure to physical violence (borderline significant) implied higher odds of poor self-rated health. Male and female respondents reporting lack of sleep and loneliness (borderline significant among women) had higher odds of poor self-rated health. The poor self-rated health among socially marginalized is strongly associated with massive social problems, poor living conditions and poor well-being. This study elucidates the need for more broadly based and holistic initiatives by both the health sector and the social services, incorporating health promotion initiatives into social work.
Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato
This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…
Since its establishment in the late 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with English as the official language has forced its participating countries to improve the quality of English language teaching, in the hope to prepare their people to be globally competitive, as the lack of English proficiency remains the main challenge across the…
Al Hajri, Fatma
Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…
Yusof, Fahainis Mohd.; Karim, Hamida Bee Bi Abdul
The secondary school English curriculum in Malaysia advocates that English could provide greater opportunities for students to improve their knowledge and skills in cross cultural settings. Additionally, they will be able to interact with students from other countries and improve their proficiency in English. Given the increasing importance of…
The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into how former English learners' educational experiences allowed them to attain English language proficiency and meet grade level standards in English Language Arts. This study was informed by the theoretical frameworks of Albert Bandura's social learning theory, and Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural…
Elizabeth J. Lyimo
Mar 18, 2014 ... Bonding networks were defined as social groupings of students participating in activities ... bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. ...... book for Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, 241–258.
Farley, Frank H.; Soper, Robert E.
Results show that individuals identified by the personality inventory as extravert or introvert differed significantly in the expected direction on the global self ratings. The results were also obtained for neuroticism. (Author/DEP)
Social capital and self-rated health: experiences from Makete district, Tanzania. ... social capital including visiting neighbour, trusting neighbour, interaction with ... promote social capital in their communities as one of the health interventions ...
Jensen, Karina Gregersen; Rosthøj, Susanne; Linneberg, Allan
To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory...... fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kruskal's gamma correlation coefficient. All analyses were stratified according to gender. Data...... from 323 men and 426 women were analysed. There was a slight agreement between self-rated and objectively measured fitness in men (weighted kappa: 0.18, [95%CI: 0.13;0.23]) and a fair agreement in women (weighted kappa: 0.27, [95%CI: 0.22;0.32]). In both genders, self-rated fitness was positively...
Full text: The pace of new NPP construction, startup, and operation is straining the supply of proficient operators, technicians, and engineers. This technical brief explains an approach implemented by a US nuclear utility to capture and transfer knowledge possessed by proficient workers to new workers using the VISION learning content management system. This approach could also be used to accelerate worker proficiency in new NPP organizations. (author
Braga, Ana Paula Gasparini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
This study estimated the prevalence of bad/very bad self-rated mastication and investigated associated factors among Brazilian adults. The sample included 13,431 adults examined and interviewed in the SBBrazil project. Self-rated mastication was combined in three categories: good/ very good (the reference), fair, and bad/very bad. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure the association between fair and bad/very bad self-rated mastication and all independent variables included in the analysis, with significance set at p mastication as good/very good, 24.9% as fair, and 19.5% as bad/very bad. In the final multivariate analysis, factors associated with bad or fair self-rated mastication were: receiving no information on how to avoid oral problems; presenting fewer than 23 remaining teeth; requiring total or partial prosthesis; bad/very bad self-rated oral health; gingival pain and/or toothache in the previous year; and need of dental treatment. In conclusion, various factors were associated with self-rated mastication, especially subjective conditions, thus emphasizing its importance as an oral health indicator.
Kawai, Hisashi; Inomata, Takashi; Otsuka, Rika; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi
The maintenance and improvement of self-rated health is important for prolonging healthy life expectancy in a well-aged society. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of beauty care on self-rated health among community-dwelling older people through a quasi- randomized controlled trial by propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred twelve community-dwelling older people who were recruited from the local community, participated in a beauty care program that consisted of two training sessions per month for 3 months and daily enforcement of facial skin care (intervention group). Seven hundred fifty-nine participants who received a comprehensive geriatric assessment were treated as a control group. Sex, age, BMI, lifestyle habits, hand grip strength, walking speed, skeletal muscle mass, bone density, medical history and life function (Kihon Checklist) were matched by the PSM method. We compared the subjects' self-rated health, depressive mood status (self-rating depression scale: SDS), and the frequency of going outdoors in the intervention and control groups before and after intervention. The improvements of SDS were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-rated health and the frequency of going outdoors were maintained in the intervention group but were significantly decreased in the control group. We conclude that beauty care is effective for maintaining and improving the self-rated health and depression status of community-dwelling older people and that it may help prolong healthy life expectancy.
Ostayan, Jennifer R.
This article examined student literacy assessments in light of students' levels of English language proficiency. The study supported the hypotheses that a student's level of language proficiency positively predicted their DIBELS Composite score at the beginning, middle, and end of kindergarten by utilizing a simple linear regression. An ANOVA…
The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to
LoMaglio, L J
The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.
Mina Boroojerdi Moghadam
Full Text Available The significant effect of employing Readers Theater (RT in reading comprehension, fluency, and motivation of English language students has already been established. However, this study was an attempt to investigate the effect of RT on the oral proficiency of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. From among the learners studying English at a language school in Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 90 female intermediate EFL learners were asked to participate in this study. Having been taken Quick Placement Test to make sure they were all homogeneous regarding their level of proficiency in English, 75 learners were chosen. Afterwards, an interview served as one of the pretests of the study was run as the homogenizing test of oral ability and 60 homogenous preintermediate learners were ultimately selected as the participants of the study. They were then assigned to the two groups of control and experimental. During the treatment, the learners in the experimental group were exposed to RT, but the control group attended their regular classes. To gauge the oral proficiency development of the subjects, an interview was administered. The results of data analysis indicated improvements of fluency and complexity because of the learners’ exposure to the treatment. The results may provide further impetus for teachers to make attempts at extending the students’ active knowledge for real time communication as well as providing language which is both more complex and fluent.
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.
’ English language proficiency is a significant predictor of their perceptions of the lecturers’ general lecturing competence and vice versa. We interpret this as a two-way relationship caused by speech stereotypes similar to those which have been demonstrated in social-psychological experiments...
This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…
Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Writing is an essential skill for academic development within any disciplinary area. Despite the rapidly growing body of research on the various aspects of second language writing, research on writing self-efficacy remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship the between writing self-efficacy and writing proficiency in English as a second language. In this cross-sectional study, 304 Malaysian undergraduate students completed a writing self-efficacy questionnaire. The participants’ writing proficiency was assessed using two different writing tasks. The results showed that there was a significant difference in writing self-efficacy among the three writing proficiency groups. It was also found that science students had significantly higher writing self-efficacy than those in social sciences. Limitations of the study and Implications for second language writing instruction are also discussed.
ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.
Ma, Fengyang; Ai, Haiyang
The present study examines when second language (L2) learners read words in the L2, whether the orthography and/or phonology of the translation words in the first language (L1) is activated and whether the patterns would be modulated by the proficiency in the L2. In two experiments, two groups of Chinese learners of English immersed in the L1 environment, one less proficient and the other more proficient in English, performed a translation recognition task. In this task, participants judged whether pairs of words, with an L2 word preceding an L1 word, were translation words or not. The critical conditions compared the performance of learners to reject distractors that were related to the translation word (e.g., , pronounced as /bei 1/) of an L2 word (e.g., cup) in orthography (e.g., , bad in Chinese, pronounced as /huai 4/) or phonology (e.g., , sad in Chinese, pronounced as /bei 1/). Results of Experiment 1 showed less proficient learners were slower and less accurate to reject translation orthography distractors, as compared to unrelated controls, demonstrating a robust translation orthography interference effect. In contrast, their performance was not significantly different when rejecting translation phonology distractors, relative to unrelated controls, showing no translation phonology interference. The same patterns were observed in more proficient learners in Experiment 2. Together, these results suggest that when Chinese learners of English read English words, the orthographic information, but not the phonological information of the Chinese translation words is activated. In addition, this activation is not modulated by L2 proficiency.
Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J
Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong, J.-C.; Hwang, M.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Tai, K.-H.; Kuo, Y.-C.; Tsai, Y.-H.
To determine the factors of learning effectiveness in English vocabulary learning when using a calibration scheme, this study developed a freshman English mobile device application (for iPhone 4) for students with low levels of English proficiency to practise vocabulary in the beginning of their Freshman English course. Data were collected and…
Full Text Available This article investigates English language proficiency development in a rural primary school in the Kavango region of Namibia. English is the language of instruction in most schools in Namibia from fourth grade onwards. In addition to other challenges, lack of adequate proficiency in English has been identified as one of the major barriers to learning. Current research on translanguaging demonstrates that purposeful use of translanguaging supports learning. The aim of this article is to argue that a contextual analysis and a test of learners’ proficiency in their dominant language and in English are essential when deciding on translanguaging strategies. This may lead to possible ways in which translanguaging can improve the English language proficiency of rural primary learners in an environment where the language is hardly heard or spoken outside the classroom. The paper argues that translation, and preview – view – review strategies are some of the translanguaging teaching strategies that could be used as resources for building English vocabulary.
Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.
Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC  and is
Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.
The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of quinolones in egg. Furthermore the specificity of the applied methods is evaluated by including possibly interfering compounds in the proficiency study. This
Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.
In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was
Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…
Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin
To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…
This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W
The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.
von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Geyer, Siegfried
The analyses focus on three aims: (1) to explore the associations between education and emotional support in 22 European countries, (2) to explore the associations between emotional support and self-rated health in the European countries, and (3) to analyse whether the association between education and self-rated health can be partly explained by emotional support. The study uses data from the European Social Survey 2003. Probability sampling from all private residents aged 15 years and older was applied in all countries. The European Social Survey includes 42,359 cases. Persons under age 25 were excluded to minimise the number of respondents whose education was not complete. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Perceived emotional support was assessed by the availability of a confidant with whom one can discuss intimate and personal matters with. Self-rated health was used as health indicator. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses show that emotional support is positively associated with education among women and men in most European countries. However, the magnitude of the association varies according to country and gender. Emotional support is positively associated with self-rated health. Again, gender and country differences in the association were observed. Emotional support explains little of the educational differences in self-rated health among women and men in most European countries. Results indicate that it is important to consider socio-economic factors like education and country-specific contexts in studies on health effects of emotional support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.
Kavé, Gitit; Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Spalter, Tal; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov
To compare the prediction of cognitive functioning by formal education and self-rated literacy and the differences in prediction across younger and older cohorts. Data on 28,535 respondents were drawn from a cross-sectional representative sample of community-dwelling older individuals (≥50), participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Education level was classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED-1997) self-rated literacy was determined by having respondents rate their reading and writing on 1-5 scales. Cognitive functioning was measured by verbal recall, word fluency, and arithmetic ability. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that self-rated literacy was more strongly associated with cognitive functioning than was education level, with or without additional exogenous variables (age, sex, household income, medical conditions, activities of daily living, reading eyesight, and country). The association between education level and cognitive functioning was weaker in older than in younger age groups, whereas the association between self-rated literacy and cognitive functioning showed the opposite trend. Self-rated literacy was found to be a better predictor of late-life cognitive functioning than was the level of formal education. The results have implications for studies of age-related differences in which education level is taken into account.
Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.
Full Text Available In this study we discuss the role of pronunciation in languagetesting and investigate two features of pronunciation of eightcandidates of the Test of Oral Proficiency in English (TEPOLIalong four bands of the test scale. Deviations in vowel segmentsand in syllable structure are analyzed. The results point to theneed for a global assessment of the candidates’ phonologicalsystems.
Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin
Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…
Yeni Palabiyik, Pinar
The present study examines high school students' burnout levels. The main aims of the study are to investigate whether their burnout levels vary according to gender and grade levels, and to check the correlation between overall burnout levels and their English language proficiency attained with a specific test. The study followed a quantitative…
The current longitudinal study examines the similarities and differences between primary and secondary foreign language curricula and pedagogy along with the development of motivation for language learning and second language proficiency. Data from 26 English learners of French (aged 10-11) were collected across three times points over a 12-month…
This study explored the relation between second-language (L2) readers' memory for causal relations and their learning outcomes from expository text. Japanese students of English as a foreign language (EFL) with high and low L2 reading proficiency read an expository text. They completed a causal question and a problem-solving test as measures of…
Full Text Available The present paper attempted to investigate whether there is any significant relationship between participants' brain laterality and L2 proficiency level. To carry out the experiment, 30 participants administered in the present study. Fifteen of them did not have any English language learning experience and were at the start of language learning, while the rest had attended L2 learning classes for about 2 years in a popular English language center, located in Bandar-e Anzali, Iran. Finally, the researchers concluded that the activity of the right hemisphere went up by the increase in language proficiency among bilinguals. Thereupon, the result of the paper was at variance with Albert and Obler's (1978 early work on hemispheric differentiation, which indicated that bilinguals were less hemispheric dominant than monolinguals.
Duan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Dong; Nie, Jun
To investigate the self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou. Cluster stratified random sampling was applied to survey 219 floating people from a community in Guangzhou, who were assessed with self-rated health status was assessed with Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale. The scores of the floating population were significantly higher than the normal individuals in physical health sub-scales (Pfloating population were significantly lower in psychological and social health sub-scales (Panxiety, depression and obsession, and those in the subscale of social health mainly in participation in social activities and seeking help from others. To improve the health status of the floating population, campaigns of health education need to be launched periodically and psychological counseling should be provided for these individuals. Additionally, interactive activities should be increased in their daily social life.
Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi
Objective To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Method Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Results Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. Discussion The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists’ cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. PMID:26486781
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel
of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P
Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi
To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists' cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology
The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)
Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.
The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive use of self-rated health questions in youth studies, little is known about what such questions capture among adolescents. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescents interpret and reason when answering a question about self-rated health. Methods A qualitative study using think-aloud interviews explored the question, “How do you feel most of the time?”, using five response options (“Very good”, “Rather good”, “Neither good, nor bad”, “Rather bad”, and “Very bad”. The study involved 58 adolescents (29 boys and 29 girls in lower secondary school (7th grade and upper secondary school (12th grade in Sweden. Results Respondents’ interpretations of the question about how they felt included social, mental, and physical aspects. Gender differences were found primarily in that girls emphasized stressors, while age differences were reflected mainly in the older respondents’ inclusion of a wider variety of influences on their assessments. The five response options all demonstrated differences in self-rated health, and the respondents’ understanding of the middle option, “Neither good, nor bad”, varied widely. In the answering of potential sensitive survey questions, rationales for providing honest or biased answers were described. Conclusions The use of a self-rated health question including the word ‘feel’ captured a holistic view of health among adolescents. Differences amongst response options should be acknowledged when analyzing self-rated health questions. If anonymity is not feasible when answering questions on self-rated health, a high level of privacy is recommended to increase the likelihood of reliability.
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...
Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…
Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille
The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men.......The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....
Pikhart, H; Bobak, M; Siegrist, J; Pajak, A; Rywik, S; Kyshegyi, J; Gostautas, A; Skodova, Z; Marmot, M
STUDY OBJECTIVES—To examine whether psychosocial factors at work are related to self rated health in post-communist countries. DESIGN AND SETTINGS—Random samples of men and women in five communities in four countries were sent a postal questionnaire (Poland, Czech Republic and Lithuania) or were invited to an interview (Hungary). Working subjects (n=3941) reported their self rated health in the past 12 months (5 point scale), their socioeconomic circumstances, perceived control over life, and...
Wu, Joyce Ching-Yi
The English language increasingly influences Taiwanese life because Taiwan entered the global village and English language changed into a more important skill in order to communicate with foreigners. Many Taiwanese parents desire their children become proficient English speakers so that they send them to "buxiban" (cram schools) in…
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle
Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…
Formal English language education in Taiwan now starts at Year 3 in primary school, with an emphasis on communicative proficiency. In addition to formal education, attending English cram schools after regular school has become a common phenomenon for Taiwanese students. The main purpose of gaining additional reinforcement in English cram schools…
Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Akbar, Rahima S.
This paper presents a research study designed to investigate the characteristics of effective teachers of English and the uniqueness of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The research is based on four general categories: English language proficiency, educational perception, organization and communication skills, social and emotional…
Low, Ee-Ling; Chong, Sylvia; Ellis, Mary
Possessing strong communication skills is essential in contributing to effective teaching. This paper investigates graduating student teachers' English language proficiency, as measured by IELTS tests scores, of graduating EL student teachers. The paper considers what teachers need to know about the English language given that English has been the…
Ali, Nor Liza
The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of tertiary students towards the learning of English language with regard to their gender, discipline and language proficiency. This descriptive study involved a total of 200 undergraduates from the Faculty of Education in Shah Alam, Selangor. The study employed two methods of data collection: questionnaire and semi- structured interviews. The findings revealed that there was a moderately positive attitude towards the learning of English language. However, the findings showed that the female respondents were more positive towards the learning of English language compared to their male counterparts while the Non Science major students had positive attitude towards learning English language compared to the Science major students. The study also showed that low proficiency students had better attitude towards English language compared to high proficiency students.
Full Text Available The article reports the findings of a survey among 440 teachers of English in Estonia who participate in the oral proficiency interview of the national examination in the English language as interviewers. Examining the results of the questionnaire statement by statement, the study reveals that interviewer behavioural patterns emerge during the interview, some of them threatening its validity.The understanding of interviewer competence is very diverse among the interviewers and the degree to which they adhere to the standards defined for the interviewers of national examination in the English langage in Estonia is sometimes quite low. The interviewers are often unable to separate their role as an interviewer from being a teacher; they transfer their teaching behaviour to the interviewing situation. The teachers have difficulties with identification of appropriate accommodation strategies as well as controlling the extent of interaction between the interviewer and the assessor. The authors suggest a number of interviewer training strategies to combat the problems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.08
Full Text Available This paper describes an ongoing project to create an online version of a reading programme, a custom-designed English language proficiency course at a university in Japan. Following an interactionist view of second language acquisition, it was hypothesised that comprehension of a reading passage could be enhanced by online materials promoting interaction between students as they completed a multiple-choice reading comprehension exercise. Interaction was promoted: (a through pair work at a single computer and (b by providing Elaborative feedback in the form of hints about incorrect answers as a means of stimulating discussion about corrections. Students were randomly selected from upper and lower levels of English proficiency, as determined by the Kanda English Proficiency Test (Bonk & Ockey, 2003, to receive either Elaborative feedback or Knowledge of Correct Response feedback (which supplies the correct answers. Within these groups, some students worked in pairs and some alone. Quantitative results show that the interaction between Type of feedback and Manner of study (individual or pair work was statistically significant; students performed best on a follow-up comprehension exercise when in pairs and having been provided with Elaborative feedback. Furthermore, qualitative analysis of transcribed interactions also shows that Elaborative feedback was conducive to quality interaction.
Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of
O'Loughlin, Tricia Ann
Beginning learners of English progress through the same stages to acquire language. However, the length of time each student spends at a particular stage may vary greatly. Under the current educational policies, ELL students are expected to participate in the general education curriculum while developing their proficiency in the English language.…
Roque, Nelson A; Boot, Walter R
Mobile device proficiency is increasingly required to participate in society. Unfortunately, there still exists a digital divide between younger and older adults, especially with respect to mobile devices (i.e., tablet computers and smartphones). Training is an important goal to ensure that older adults can reap the benefits of these devices. However, efficient/effective training depends on the ability to gauge current proficiency levels. We developed a new scale to accurately assess the mobile device proficiency of older adults: the Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire (MDPQ). We present and validate the MDPQ and a short 16-question version of the MDPQ (MDPQ-16). The MDPQ, its subscales, and the MDPQ-16 were found to be highly reliable and valid measures of mobile device proficiency in a large sample. We conclude that the MDPQ and MDPQ-16 may serve as useful tools for facilitating mobile device training of older adults and measuring mobile device proficiency for research purposes.
Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa
To assess the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in the L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2 proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of prosody. A second goal was to assess whether prosodic structure influences judgment of foreign accent. Twenty Bengali-English bilingual individuals, 10 with low proficiency in English and 10 with high proficiency in English, and 10 monolingual English speakers, participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded while the bilingual participants produced Bengali and English words embedded in sentences. Lower lip movement amplitude and duration were measured in trochaic and iambic words. Six native English listeners judged the nativeness of the bilingual speakers. Evidence of L1-L2 transfer was observed through duration but not amplitude cues. More proficient L2 speakers varied duration to mark iambic stress. Perceptually, the high-proficiency group received relatively higher native-like accent ratings. Trochees were judged as more native than iambs. Even in the face of L1-L2 lexical stress transfer, nonnative speakers demonstrated knowledge of prosodic contrasts. Movement duration appears to be more amenable than amplitude to modifications.
Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille
The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....
The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.
Schmidt, B.; Loerbroks, A.; Herr, R.M.; Wilson, M.G.; Jarczok, M.N.; Litaker, D.; Mauss, D.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.
Background: Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. Purpose: This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. Method: We
Mosing, M.A.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Medland, S.E.; Painter, J.; Gordon, S.D.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Martin, N.G.
Self-rated health questions have been proven to be a highly reliable and valid measure of overall health as measured by other indicators in many population groups. It also has been shown to be a very good predictor of mortality, chronic or severe diseases, and the need for services, and is
Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae
The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.
The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.
Knol, Linda L.; Robb, Cliff A.; McKinley, Erin M.; Wood, Mary
Background: The prevalence of food insecurity among college students ranges from 14% to 59%. Most of the research to date has examined the determinants of food insecurity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between food insecurity and self-rated health and obesity among college students living off campus. Methods:…
Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.
Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…
This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15–24 years in 5 secondary schools in Moshi, Tanzania.
Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.
Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…
Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran
This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
This paper reports on the results of an investigation of the relationships between motivation, motivation intensity, use of Chinese outside of class and self-rated competence in Chinese. Analyses of 162 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured interviews revealed the following findings: (1) the participants reported having high integrative…
Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine
Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…
Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B; Theorell, Töres; Anderberg, Ulla Maria
The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH), i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0-12 months). A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings) at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23-64) from four information technology and two media companies. There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho) between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression), and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression). The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.
Arnetz Bengt B
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH, i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0–12 months. Methods A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23–64 from four information technology and two media companies. Results There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression, and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.
Hørdam, Britta; Hemmingsen, Lars
predicting low self-rated health after surgery. Material and method: A cross-sectional study including 287 patients aged 65+, who had had THR within 12-months were performed. Patients from five Danish counties received a mailed questionnaire assessing health status and demographic data. Short Form-36...
Trouvé, S; Degen, L; Renaud, F; Goudet, J
Self-compatible hermaphroditic organisms that mix self-fertilization and outcrossing are of great interest for investigating the evolution of mating systems. We investigate the evolution of selfing in Lymnaea truncatula, a self-compatible hermaphroditic freshwater snail. We first analyze the consequences of selfing in terms of genetic variability within and among populations and then investigate how these consequences along with the species ecology (harshness of the habitat and parasitism) might govern the evolution of selfing. Snails from 13 localities (classified as temporary or permanent depending on their water availability) were sampled in western Switzerland and genotyped for seven microsatellite loci. F(IS) (estimated on adults) and progeny array analyses (on hatchlings) provided similar selfing rate estimates of 80%. Populations presented a low polymorphism and were highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.58). Although the reproductive assurance hypothesis would predict higher selfing rate in temporary populations, no difference in selfing level was observed between temporary and permanent populations. However, allelic richness and gene diversity declined in temporary habitats, presumably reflecting drift. Infection levels varied but were not simply related to either estimated population selfing rate or to differences in heterozygosity. These findings and the similar selfing rates estimated for hatchlings and adults suggest that within-population inbreeding depression is low in L. truncatula.
Jelicic, M; Kempen, GIJM
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported health on. cognitive function in community dwelling elderly (N = 4,528). Research participants were divided into four groups with regard to self-rated health. Statistically controlling for the effects of depression, age, and
Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B
We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.
Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes
Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…
Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the role of out-of-school English literacy activities in promoting students’ English literacy at an elementary school in Bandung. The study is an attempt to respond to controversy among decision makers about the idea of offering English at elementary schools and the reality that at the school where the research was conducted, English is fully used as a means of instruction for English, Mathematics, and Science. Considering that literacy is shaped in socio-cultural contexts, the researcher assumed that the students acquired and developed their English literacy not only at school but also outside of school. Their out-of-school English literacy activities might contribute to their English literacy development. The research aims were to investigate the students’ English literacy level and to identify their out-of-school literacy activities. The theoretical framework covered the cognitive and socio-cultural theories of literacy. The research results were: 1 the majority of the fourth grade students were in early advanced and advanced levels for the aspects of reading and writing proficiency; and 2 their out-of-school English literacy activities played an important role in building their English literacy.
White, Susan S; Mueller-Hanson, Rose A; Dorsey, David W; Pulakos, Elaine D; Wisecarver, Michelle M; Deagle, Edwin A., III; Mendini, Kip G
Adaptive proficiency is critical for operating in the dynamic Special Forces (SF) mission environment and a recent focus on this requirement has resulted in a greater emphasis on adaptability in current training for SF...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight
Corinne Vong Siu Phern
Full Text Available A majority of Malaysian students only have average English language proficiency, although instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher have by far been expounded by English language experts. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which the responses of student voice representing above average, average and below average English language proficiency from the primary, secondary and tertiary levels - have agreed with expert opinion’s description of instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher. In this respect, student voice was analysed using triangulation not only on the instructional qualities discussed, but also on the literature review. Interesting findings revealed that student voice still had something extra to contribute in determining the instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher, with a touch of irony and constructive criticism on how such qualities of English language teachers/lecturers could still improve, so as to appear more effective in learners’ eyes.
Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael
This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah
Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.
Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.
Jensen, Signe Hannibal
activities are more supportive of language learning than others, i.e. gaming, watching television, music, etc. Finally, a qualitative gaming study will be carried out to explore what goes on linguistically when very young children game in English together: type of interaction between players...... and with the game and if this interaction can be seen to support their English language learning. Preliminary results indicate that although children use / are exposed to English in a range of different contexts and through a variety of modalities (internet, console/PC games, music etc.), the one activity...... that seems to have the most impact on children’s English learning is gaming....
Full Text Available With the development of society and the deepening of economic globalization, the communicative competence of spoken English has become an important indicator of the talent. Therefore, how to improve college students’ oral English proficiency has become the focus of college English teaching. The phenomenon of “heavy input and light output” in college English teaching in China for a long period of time has led to the emergence of “dumb English, low efficiency”. Aiming at these problems, this paper discusses the functions of input and output and their relationship, and puts forward some views on oral English teaching.
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
This research collection presents a critical review of the materials used for learning English around the world. The first section includes a discussion of materials for specific learners and purposes, such as young learners, self-study, academic writing and general proficiency. The second section presents a detailed study of the materials used in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, Africa and Australia, and critically evaluates their effectiveness in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. Taking both the teacher's and the learner's needs into consideration, the book m
Klaassen, R.G.; Bos, M.H.P.C.
Delft University of Technology (DUT) screened her (non-native English) scientific staff on their level of English proficiency in the academic year of 2006/2007. In this paper this large scale operation, involving planning, policy decisions, assessment means, advice and training are discussed. Since
Albus, Deb; Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin
This study was conducted to examine whether using a monolingual, simplified English dictionary as an accommodation on a reading test with limited-English-proficient (LEP) Hmong students improved test performance. Hmong students were chosen because they are often not literate in their first language. For these students, bilingual dictionaries are…
Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen
In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…
Lu, Jinjin; Liu, Yingliang
Enhancing students' learning autonomy has been emphasized in the current round of English curriculum reforms by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in China. The initial aim of the new guidelines was developed to enhance students' English proficiency to better fulfil their basic education (Nine-year compulsory education). However, up until now, very…
Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall D.; Buxton, Cory A.
Background/Context: While different instructional approaches have been proposed to integrate academic content and English proficiency for English language learning (ELL) students, studies examining the magnitude of the relationship are non-existent. This study examined the relationship between the "form" (i.e., conventions, organization, and…
Although English is only an extra-curricular subject at primary level in Indonesia, expectations over the improved quality of the teachers are exceptionally high. This is the case in the past few years in which the low proficiency of primary English teachers and their lack of teaching competencies have repeatedly been pointed out as major…
Hamid, M. Obaidul
Globalized English proficiency tests such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are increasingly playing the role of gatekeepers in a globalizing world. Although the use of the IELTS as a "policy tool" for making decisions in the areas of study, work and migration impacts on test-takers' lives and life chances, not…
The teaching content of Maritime English is dictated by the 1995 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping, as amended, which sets qualification standards for masters, officers, and officers of the watch on merchant ships, including a high proficiency level in maritime English. Feature films have an…
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.
This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…
Thailand's Participation as a member of the ASEAN Community forces her government to accelerate improvement of her citizens' competency of the English language. The continuing wave by Thai governments to develop and modernize the quality of education has influenced Thai society. Within Thailand, English proficiency has been reported as being…
English is widely regarded as an essential skill for the globalized economy by governments around the world which devote considerable resources to its teaching in formal education, though often with limited success in terms of achievement levels. Thailand is a case in point. Set against the putative benefits of acquiring proficiency in English,…
In this theoretical article, the author explores the perceptions that drive the development of family literacy programs aimed at preparing limited-English-proficiency (LEP) families for schools in the United States. Examining English language learning with regard to power dynamics within a society and culture, the article considers the spectrum of…
Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…
Burke, April M.
Indiana English learners (ELs) constitute a rapidly growing portion of the state's school-aged population, and those classified as limited English proficient are low performers on the state test. The purpose of this embedded mixed methods study was to understand how school personnel respond to accountability mandates, interpret test scores, and…
Yavuz, Aysun; Höl, Devrim
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attributions of Turkish EFL learners on success and failure in learning English as a foreign language with different variables such as gender and level of English proficiency. To investigate the attributions of the participants and gather the relevant data, a questionnaire including 38 items and…
Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.
This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…
Lam, Hazel Mei Yung
Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.
This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language ....... This effect should be addressed when universities use student ratings to evaluate teaching in English-medium content courses.......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language...... proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers...
Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik
Objectives To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”. Study design Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and United States residents...... associations. Factors favourably associated with SRH were: sex (males), age (younger-old), education (high), marital status (married/cohabiting), physical activity (active), body mass index (non-obese), alcohol consumption (low to moderate) and previous morbidity (absence). Conclusion SRH provides a quick...... and simple tool for assessing health and identifying groups of elders at risk of early mortality that may be useful also in clinical settings. Modifying determinants of favourably rating health, e.g. by increasing physical activity and/or by eliminating obesity, may be important for older adults to “feel...
Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone
OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...
Erlacher, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods: The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining o...
Halonen, Jaana I; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees. Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study. Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus ≤45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women. Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.
Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH, a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16–18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time, five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia, and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR: 2.13; confidence interval (CI: 1.07–4.24 and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27–7.65 than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.
Osera, Tomoko; Awai, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Misako; Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka
Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16-18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time), five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia), and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR): 2.13; confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.24) and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27-7.65) than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.
Campos-Matos, Inês; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro
Generalized interpersonal trust (as an indicator of social capital) has been linked to health status at both the individual and ecological level. We sought to examine how changes in contextual and individual trust are associated with changes in self-rated health in the European Social Surveys 2002-12. A multilevel analysis using a variance components model was performed on 203 452 individuals nested within 145 country cohorts covering 35 countries. Conditional on sociodemographic covariates, we sought to examine the association between self-rated health and individual trust, country average trust and a cross-level interaction between the two. Although individual trust perceptions were significantly correlated with self-rated health [OR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (0.94-0.96)], country-level trust was not associated [OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.32)]. There was, however, a strong crosslevel interaction between contextual and individual trust (P < 0.001), such that individuals with high interpersonal trust reported better health in contexts in which other individuals expressed high average interpersonal trust. Conversely, low trust individuals reported worse health in high trust contexts. Our findings suggest that contexts with increasing average trust can be harmful for low trust individuals, which might reflect the negative impact that social capital can have in certain groups. These findings suggest that contextual trust has a complex role in explaining health inequalities and individual self-rated health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352
Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena
To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N
Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.
This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...
Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail
The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…
Ramírez Sarmiento, Albeiro Miguel Ángel
This article aims to establish the effects of masked priming by translation equivalents in Spanish-English bilinguals with a high-intermediate level of proficiency in their second language. Its findings serve as evidence to support the hypothesis that semantic representations mediate the mental association among non-cognates from a speaker's first…
Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko
The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…
Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T
Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik
This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.
Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona
This study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type, and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g. drawing, theatre performance), and consuming art or literature (e.g. attending exhibitions, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for sociodemographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI 1.07-3.22) for not watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.06) for not consuming art. As expected, health-risk factors, age, social support, and community of residence were also associated with health status. Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self-perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income, and other relevant risk factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.
Fukui, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Michio; Sugiman, Toshio; Watanabe, Toshie
It is known that in questionnaire surveys in general, behavior that are recognized as socially desirable are more highly rated by the actors themselves than by others. Safety behavior can be viewed as behavior closely related to social desirability. Therefore, in the present study, multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine how the self-rating and rating by others of 'safety confirmation/report', which serves as one of the rating scales of safety climate and criterion for safety behavior rating, are related to other factors of safety climate. The analysis results reveal that the self-rating of 'safety confirmation/report' tends to give better scores than rating by others and is more strongly related to individual factors than organizational environmental factors. Meanwhile, the rating by others of safety confirmation/report' is strongly related to organizational environmental factors and demonstrates little or no link with individual factors. It can be said, therefore, that the rating by others of 'safety confirmation/report' reflects more accurately the influence of the organizational environment concerned than self-rating, and hence is more appropriate as a rating scale for safety climate. (author)
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S. V.
Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime. PMID:20661433
Fukui, Hirokazu [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Michio; Sugiman, Toshio; Watanabe, Toshie [Japan Institute for Group Dynamics, Fukuoka (Japan)
It is known that in questionnaire surveys in general, behavior that are recognized as socially desirable are more highly rated by the actors themselves than by others. Safety behavior can be viewed as behavior closely related to social desirability. Therefore, in the present study, multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine how the self-rating and rating by others of 'safety confirmation/report', which serves as one of the rating scales of safety climate and criterion for safety behavior rating, are related to other factors of safety climate. The analysis results reveal that the self-rating of 'safety confirmation/report' tends to give better scores than rating by others and is more strongly related to individual factors than organizational environmental factors. Meanwhile, the rating by others of safety confirmation/report' is strongly related to organizational environmental factors and demonstrates little or no link with individual factors. It can be said, therefore, that the rating by others of 'safety confirmation/report' reflects more accurately the influence of the organizational environment concerned than self-rating, and hence is more appropriate as a rating scale for safety climate. (author)
Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. Methods: We analyzed employees’ data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). Conclusion: These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health. PMID:29200187
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V
Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime.
Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.
Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari
Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.
Second language acquisition is a field that has fascinated linguists for numerous years and is a topic that is very much connected to how English teachers in Sweden try to teach the English language to the students in their classrooms. In 2009 Sundqvist examined what possible effects extramural English could have on learners' oral proficiency and their vocabulary. In her study she found out that extramural English “is an independent variable and a possible path to progress in English” (Sundqv...
Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin
Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.
Novak, Dario; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Štefan, Lovro; Kawachi, Ichiro
Adolescents' self-rated health is related to a number of sociodemographic and socio-economic factors, health-related behaviors, and their social environment. The impact of the latter is still not well explored. An adolescent's social environment is represented by the social capital, i.e. social resources that they can access. The relationships between various contexts of social capital (family, neighborhood, peers, and school) and self-rated health among adolescents are still unclear. This study aims to examine the relationships between various social capital contexts and self-rated health in Lithuanian adolescents. The current cross-sectional study includes a nationally representative sample of 1863 adolescents (51.4% were girls) aged 14-18 years. The indicators of self-rated health as well as indicators of social capital in family, neighborhood, and school contexts were assessed. The results of the relationships between self-rated health and contexts of social capital were calculated controlling for the following covariates: physical activity, psychological distress, gender, body mass index, and family socioeconomic status. Results indicate that there are significant relationships between good self-rated health and a higher level of family support, neighborhood trust, and vertical school trust. In the final logistic regression model, while controlling for all covariates, a higher level of family support and neighborhood trust remain significant predictors of good self-rated health. Family support and neighborhood trust are important correlates of self-rated health in adolescents.
Saeedian, Radka Ghorbani; Nagyova, Iveta; Klein, Daniel; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitze
Aims and objectives To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Background Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health
Full Text Available There are such myriad ideas upon English teaching-learning process. Everybody can share each fabulous idea through various media. One of fun English learnings that can motivate EFL students’ eagerness to practice English easily is an outdoor class activity. This project could sometimes deals with an outbound activities which provide the numerous contextualized values to shape more students’ character and their language proficiency as well. Moreover, nowadays the development of technology can be also integrated into the EFL classrooms. Therefore, the outdoor class project is potentially implemented through the technology-enhanced teaching. The most crucial materials that is urgently to be prepared are the tutorial models & methods, and the thermalized subject based on the objective itself.
Kieffer, Michael J.
Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…
De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica
Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…
David Dirkwen Wei
Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.
This study explores the relationship between adult English-language learners' assessment of their own language proficiency on the English Ability Questionnaire (EAQ) and their performance on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). It addresses aspects of developing the ""autonomous"" student and makes for the integration of self-directed learners who will be more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and how to address them
Cahyani, Anisa Putri; Drajati, Nur Arifah
Airport and airlines service demand qualified employees to have proficient English communication skill to support smooth flow of airport and flights operation, primarily the workers involved in passenger-handling. English for Specific Purpose (ESP) course which fulfills the target needs could help such situation. This small scale study presents stakeholders' comments about the staffs' English communication ability and needs in the work setting (data collected through semi-structured interview...
potential applications helping to provide solutions to problems encountered in the real world. An area of prime importance was the teaching of pronunciation to language learners, and in particular the acquisition of English pronunciation by non-natives. Apart from works devoted to second...... Melville Bell, Isaac Pitman, Alexander J. Ellis, and Henry Sweet—the emphasis was on what is now known as articulatory phonetics. (See further Phonetics of English in the Nineteenth Century (Routledge, 2006), compiled by the editors of the current collection.) These pioneers regarded their task......-language acquisition, and in particular to the teaching of English as an acquired language, this emphasis also led to the production of important English pronunciation dictionaries, including the Afzelius dictionary reproduced as Volume I of this collection. Other areas covered in the following volumes include key...
Lizl-Louise van Niekerk
eOseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 (BOT-2) for motor proficiency, and the International. Physical Activity ... Pienaar, 2007; Malina, 2012). ..... sults of Hardy, Reinten-Reynolds, Espinel, Zask, and Okely .... Journal of Psychiatric and Mental.
Kim, Sun Hee Ok; Starks, Donna
The father's role in children's L1 maintenance and L2 learning is a relatively unexplored area. This study considers the L1 and L2 proficiency of 30 Korean-English late bilinguals who immigrated to New Zealand during their adolescence and how their L1 and L2 proficiency is influenced by the language use of family members. Data were collected…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.
Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta
To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.
Pikhart, H; Bobak, M; Siegrist, J; Pajak, A; Rywik, S; Kyshegyi, J; Gostautas, A; Skodova, Z; Marmot, M
To examine whether psychosocial factors at work are related to self rated health in post-communist countries. Random samples of men and women in five communities in four countries were sent a postal questionnaire (Poland, Czech Republic and Lithuania) or were invited to an interview (Hungary). Working subjects (n=3941) reported their self rated health in the past 12 months (5 point scale), their socioeconomic circumstances, perceived control over life, and the following aspects of the psychosocial work environment: job control, job demand, job variety, social support, and effort and reward at work (to calculate a ratio of effort/reward imbalance). As the results did not differ by country, pooled analyses were performed. Odds ratios of poor or very poor health ("poor health") were estimated for a 1 SD increase in the scores of work related factors. The overall prevalence of poor health was 6% in men and 7% in women. After controlling for age, sex and community, all work related factors were associated with poor health (pwork related factors remained associated with poor health; the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 1 SD increase in the effort/reward ratio (log transformed) and job variety were 1.51 (1.29, 1.78) and 0.82 (0.73, 1.00), respectively. Further adjustment for all work related factors did not change these estimates. There were no interactions between individual work related factors, but the effects of job control and social support at work differed by marital status, and the odds ratio of job demand increased with increasing education. The continuous measure of effort/reward imbalance at work was a powerful determinant of self rated health in these post-communist populations. Although the cross sectional design does not allow firm conclusions as to causality, this study suggests that the effect of the psychosocial work environment is not confined to Western populations.
Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health
Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn
Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.
Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.
Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette
measure was self-reported medicine use during the past month and the determinant was SRH measured by one item. RESULTS: There was an association between poor/fair SRH and medicine use for headache and stomach-ache. The associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for frequency......PURPOSE: To examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and medicine use for four common complaints: headache, stomach-ache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The study population comprised of all students...
Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working
Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Jensen, Per; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe
Background: iabetic patients’ lifestyle adaptations to improve glycaemic control are not always followed by improvements in self-rated general health (SRH). The perceived impact of diabetes on patients’ daily lives may influence changes in their SRH. This paper examines the association of illness...... diabetes-related symptoms, and cardiovascular disease were related to lower SRH ratings. On average SRH improved by 0.46 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.55) during the first year after diagnosis without inclusion of covariates. Mental and practical illness burden was the only factor associated with change in SRH...
Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens
.3-5.2) in the two-point analyses. Furthermore, a deterioration in SRH predicted poor contact satisfaction OR=2.8 (1.7-4.5). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, mental health, functional ability, cohabitation status, and a measure of social relations at baseline. Results for the three-point analyses were......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...
Song, Jun-Taek; Lee, Goeun; Kwon, Jongho; Park, Jung-Woo; Choi, Hyunrim; Lim, Sinye
This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Rabanaque, M José
To identify the trend in self-rated health in Spain by autonomous communities (AC) in the period 2001-2012, as well as differences by gender and age, and the influence of educational level. A cross sectional study was carried out using data from the National Health Surveys from 2001 to 2011-12 and the 2009 European Survey. A descriptive analysis was conducted that included gender, age, educational level, and the AC of residence. Logistic regression analyses were developed to explore the temporal trend and the association between educational level and self-rated health. The predictive capacity of the model was calculated using the C statistic. The prevalence of low self-rated health was higher in women with low educational level. Self-rated health improved in women with high educational level (2001:18.6% vs. 2012:14.6%). The highest prevalence of low self-rated health was observed in Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Galicia and Murcia, with differences by gender. Low educational level was associated with low self-rated health in most AC, with good predictive capacity. In all AC except Asturias, low self-rated health was more frequent in women than in men. In Spain, the prevalence of self-rated health showed no variations in the period analyzed and improved in the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, and Madrid. The prevalence of self-rated health in Spain differed by AC. Although health was unchanged during the period considered, inequalities were found in its temporal trend by educational level and gender, which could lead to an increase in health inequalities in women according educational level. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.
Lewis, Anne C.
Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)
Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.
In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,
The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.
Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim
Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)
Bennett, Ruth, Ed.
This paper describes the cultural communication proficiency method of indigenous language instruction, developed at Humboldt State University's Center for Indian Community Development (California), and demonstrates the method with five Hupa lesson plans. The method is based on three principles: that Native American students learn by doing, learn…
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Fulcher, Glenn
Many researchers and practitioners maintain that ACTFL's efforts to improve instructional practices and promote proficiency assessments tied to descriptors of what learners can do in real life have contributed significantly to second language teaching and testing. Similar endeavors in the area of research, however, are critically needed. Focusing…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN...) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Emergency operations; and (x) Postflight procedures. (2) For...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... reference maneuvers; (vii) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Basic instrument maneuvers; (x...