WorldWideScience

Sample records for self-quenching streamer mode

  1. Self-quenching streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Potter, D.

    1982-01-01

    Self quenching streamers in drift tubes have been observed both optically and electronically. The streamers of 150-200 μm width extend out from the anode wire to 1.5 to 3 mm at atmospheric pressures. Electronic measurements at a two atomsphere pressure show pulses into a 50 Ω load with a rise time of 5 ns, a decay time of 40 ns, and an amplitude of 30 mV. Details of the experiments are discussed. There was no detectable residue on an anode wire after exposing it to 2x10 9 streamers for a 1 mm section. (orig.)

  2. A study of the self-quenched streamer mode using a nitrogen laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Jigang; Anderson, K.J.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.; Pilcher, J.E.; Possoz, A.; Schappert, W.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics and mechanism of the self-quenched streamer mode have been explored using laser induced ionization. Both the size of the streamer signal and the transformation from proportional to streamer mode depend on high voltage and the primary ionization density. Two nearby tracks influence each other mainly by space charge effects. The zone of influence depends on relative drift time of the tracks but is less than 3 mm along the anode. The influence is less with argon-free strong quenching gas mixtures. (orig.)

  3. Two-coordinate mini drift chamber operating in a self-quenching streamer mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, S.P.; Smykov, L.P.; Zanevskij, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Two-coordinate mini drift chambers operating in a self-quenching streamer mode have been developed. The tests have demonstrated these chambers to possess an extended counting plateau, a high operating stability and a high uniformity of efficiency over detecting area. The space resolution along anode wires is not worse than 250μm; the expected space resolution for the second coordinate is about 100 μm

  4. Method of detection of transition radiation by wire chambers operating in self-quenching streamer mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopdzhanov, G.A.; Bityukov, S.I.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Lapin, V.V.; Saraikin, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method for detecting X-ray transition radiation against the background of the signal from relativistic charged particles is suggested that is based on the use of peculiarities of the development of self-queenching streamer mode. The self-qunching streamer discharge in the Xe + isobutane mixture is experimentally registered. The effect of separation of signals from the relativistic particle and from soft X-ray, is obtained

  5. Self-quenching streamer discharge in a wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Kruglov, V.V.; Khazins, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is given of the investigation of a new mode of operation of a wire chamber involving a self-quenching streamer discharge. The history of the question is briefly discussed. The main characteristics of the self-quenching mode and the influence of the composition and pressure of the gas mixture and the geometrical parameters of the chamber on the characteristics are described. The mechanism of a self-quenching streamer discharge is analyzed. Detectors working in this mode are described, and the prospects for its future use are discussed

  6. Properties of self-quenching streamer (SQS) tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koori, N.; Nohtomi, A.; Hashimoto, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Kumabe, I.

    1989-01-01

    The self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of gas counters have been widely used for measuring high energy particles. The authors have very recently found that all the rare gas (He, Ne, Ar and Xe) mixtures with quenching gas of CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , iso-C 4 H 10 or CO 2 can be used as gas mixtures for the SQS mode except Ne- and He-mixtures with CH 4 or CO 2 . Further studies on the properties of this mode are needed for its application to monitoring devices. Properties of a self-quenching tube are discussed here from this point of view. Gas multiplication properties, pulse shape of current signals, and dead zone are measured under several gas pressures equal to or less than one atomospheric pressure. Either the SQS or GM mode can be obtained by changing the gas pressure with a cylindrical gas counter. The operation mode of the counter may be correctly determined from the dead zone measurement. The measurements show that the SQS and GM modes are exclusive, even though SQS's can be simultaneously formed with a GM discharge. The counting rate capability of the SQS mode is higher than that of the GM mode by about one order of magnitude. Thus, SQS tubes are suitable for use in high flux radiation fields. (N.K.)

  7. Rare-gas dependence of the self-quenching streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Koori, N.; Kumabe, I.; Ohgaki, H.; Matoba, M.

    1989-01-01

    The self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode is understood these days as one of the basic modes of gas counter operation. In the present work, the SQS transition is clearly observed for Ar-, Kr- and Xe-mixtures with CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , isoC 4 H 10 and CO 2 , and for He- and Ne-mixtures with C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 and isoC 4 H 10 . For He- and Ne-mixtures with CH 4 or CO 2 , the GM discharge is developed instead of the SQS transition. The avalanche size at the transition voltage decreases, in the order of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr- and Xe-mixtures, except for He-mixtures with CH 4 or CO 2 . The mechanisms of the SQS transition proposed by Atac et al. and Zhang have disadvantages in explaining all these results. If the photo-ionization is assumed as in Atac's mechanism, energetic photons whose yield is sufficiently large are needed for the SQS transition. The interaction between metastable states of rare gases proposed by Zhang may be energetically capable of producing electrons for the transition; effects of quenching gas in mixtures cannot be explained by this mechanism. Further investigation is necessary for microscopic processes occurring in the avalanche development. More detailed information is required on the atomic reaction cross sections of photo-ionization, radiative recombination, etc. (N.K.)

  8. Time characteristics of a self quenching streamer in the coexistence region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jiaxiang; Li Cheng; Xu Zizong; Chen Honfang

    1994-01-01

    Experimental studies on the time correlation between electrical signals in the primary avalanche and optical signals which are emitted in the avalanches of the limited proportional mode and the self quenching streamer (SQS) mode have demonstrated that there exists a weak optical emission which is almost simultaneous with the limited proportional avalanche, that a streamer pulse in the SQS mode has a few nanoseconds delay relative to the primary avalanche, and that the spread of the delay (FWHM) is also a few nanoseconds. ((orig.))

  9. Pulse shape of the self quenching streamer counter in the coexistence region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongfang; Han Jiaxiang; Li Cheng; Xu Zizong

    1996-01-01

    The pulse shape of the electrical signal out of the counter operating in the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode is obtained and the time correlation between the primary avalanche and the SQS avalanche is measured and studied. The results yield more information in the coexistence region about the time jitters in the process of the SQS avalanche than that shown in our last paper. (orig.)

  10. Barium fluoride crystals and self-quenching streamer chambers as a position sensitive gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; DeMooy, S.; Ruggier, L.

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of using selfquenching streamer chambers to detect photoelectrons produced by a photoconverter in conjunction with Barium Fluoride scintillators. With the purpose to obtain a high efficiency detector, we attempted to combine a BaF 2 scintillator with a gas chamber operating at large electric fields and a high fraction of quenching gas like self-quenching streamer (SQS) chamber, as the electric fields at the cathode could be made larger than in the proportional mode. Furthermore, previous results indicated that in this mode, part of the large amplification was obtained through strong absorption of uv photons near the anode

  11. Avalanche and streamer mode operation of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Makeev, V.; Santonico, R.

    1996-01-01

    A resistive plate chamber was operated at voltages increasing in steps of 200 V over a 3 kV interval and the transition between the avalanche and streamer modes was studied. The avalanche amplitude was observed to be exponentially dependent on the operating voltage up to a value, characteristic of the gas, where the avalanche saturation occurs and delayed streamer signals start to appear. Signal waveforms, charge and timing distributions are reported. (orig.)

  12. Photoionization in negative streamers : fast computations and two propagation modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, A.; Ebert, U.M.; Montijn, C.; Hundsdorfer, W.

    2007-01-01

    Streamer discharges play a central role in electric breakdown of matter in pulsed electric fields, both in nature and in technology. Reliable and fast computations of the minimal model for negative streamers in simple gases such as nitrogen have recently been developed. However, photoionization was

  13. Influence of gas mixture and primary ionization on the performance of limit streamer mode tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Jigang; Anderson, K.J.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.; Pilcher, J.E.; Possoz, A.; Schappert, W.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1988-01-01

    We report a study of the dependence of limited streamer mode operation on gas composition. Results are given for the plateau onset voltage, plateau length, charge versus voltage, charge spectra and pulse width for various fractions of (Ar, CO 2 , pentane) and (Ar, isobutane). In addition, a series of argon-free strong quenching gas mixtures has been studied which have very attractive characteristics. Chamber lifetime tests for these are also reported. As part of a study of the nature of the limited streamer mode mechanism, the response to X-rays and minimum ionizing particles are compared and differences noted. The character of the primary ionization is found to have a clear effect on the chamber response even in the streamer region. (orig.)

  14. Gas sampling calorimeter studies in proportional, saturated avalanche, and streamer modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Yoh, J.; Morse, R.; Procario, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, satisfactory new results were obtained at SLAC from gas sampling calorimeters running in the saturated avalanche mode within the energy range of 1.5 to 17.5 GeV. To study the higher energy behavior of this mode, more tests were carried out in the M4 beamline at Fermilab. This paper contains results obtained from the MAC prototype electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters running in the proportional, saturated avalanche, and the streamer regions for energies between 12 and 150 GeV

  15. Analysis and interpretation of the performance degradation of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode

    CERN Document Server

    Calcaterra, A; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Della Mea, G; Restello, S; Ferri, F; Musella, P; Redaelli, N; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tinti, G; Mannocchi, G; Trinchero, G

    2007-01-01

    The long-term stability of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with glass electrodes was studied for one year with a dedicated test station hosting about 10 m2 of detectors. RPCs were operated in streamer mode with a ternary gas mixture containing argon (27%), isobutane (9%) and tetrafluoroethane (64%). Environmental conditions were kept under control and, in particular, the water pollution in the gas, deemed responsible for the degradation of glass RPC performance, was monitored never to exceed 30 ppm in the exhaust line. Evidence for a substantial aging of the detectors was observed, resulting in a loss of efficiency correlated to an increased rate of spurious streamers. This can be ascribed to the chemical attack of the glass surface by hydrofluoric acid formed in the streamer process, as confirmed by detailed morphological and chemical analyses of the electrode surface. Our results strengthen the indication that the instability of glass RPCs in the long term is related to the use of fluorocarbons as quenching...

  16. The multiscale nature of streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, U; Montijn, C; Briels, T M P; Hundsdorfer, W; Meulenbroek, B; Rocco, A; Veldhuizen, E M van

    2006-01-01

    Streamers are a generic mode of electric breakdown of large gas volumes. They play a role in the initial stages of sparks and lightning, in technical corona reactors and in high altitude sprite discharges above thunderclouds. Streamers are characterized by a self-generated field enhancement at the head of the growing discharge channel. We briefly review recent streamer experiments and sprite observations. Then we sketch our recent work on computations of growing and branching streamers, we discuss concepts and solutions of analytical model reductions and we review different branching concepts and outline a hierarchy of model reductions

  17. The multiscale nature of streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, U [Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), PO Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Faculty of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Montijn, C [Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), PO Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Briels, T M P [Faculty of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hundsdorfer, W [Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), PO Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meulenbroek, B [Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), PO Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rocco, A [Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), PO Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Oxford, Department of Statistics, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG (United Kingdom); Veldhuizen, E M van [Faculty of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    Streamers are a generic mode of electric breakdown of large gas volumes. They play a role in the initial stages of sparks and lightning, in technical corona reactors and in high altitude sprite discharges above thunderclouds. Streamers are characterized by a self-generated field enhancement at the head of the growing discharge channel. We briefly review recent streamer experiments and sprite observations. Then we sketch our recent work on computations of growing and branching streamers, we discuss concepts and solutions of analytical model reductions and we review different branching concepts and outline a hierarchy of model reductions.

  18. Streamer Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

  19. Magnetic field influence on the selfquenching streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Korytov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the magnetic field on the selfquenching streamer discharge characteristics is investigated. In the field about 10 kGs streamer charge is decreased several per cent (change of charge is due to amplitude decreasing of signal). In the transition region from limited-proportional to streamer mode magnetic field results in increasing of probability of avalanche developing into a streamer

  20. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell water volume....

  1. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  2. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  3. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  4. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  5. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  6. Streamer discharges can move perpendicularly to the electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.; Takahashi, E.; Teunissen, J.; Ebert, U.

    2014-01-01

    Streamer discharges are a primary mode of electric breakdown in thunderstorms and high voltage technology; they are generally believed to grow along electric field lines. However, we here give experimental and numerical evidence that streamers can propagate nearly perpendicularly to the background

  7. DC-driven plasma gun: self-oscillatory operation mode of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Shashurin, Alexey

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of a series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by pure DC high voltage (self-oscillatory behavior). The repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV cm-1. One type of the helium plasma gun designed using this operational principle is demonstrated. The gun operates on about 3 kV DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at a frequency of about 13 kHz.

  8. Time and positioning characteristics of the SQS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, F.A.F. de; Ferreira Marques, R.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.; Coimbra Univ.; Coimbra Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Previous results on the azimuthal localization of punctual interactions using the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode, as given by the direction of the SQS avalanche, have shown a marked improvement in resolution when the current pulses are integrated for short times. In this work, data concerning the position resolution along the wire in the SQS mode for the argon-48% isobutane mixture, using a 55 Fe source, are presented. Essentially the same effect was detected: The FWHM, larger than 500 μm for the total signal duration, is reduced to about 300 μm for a 10 ns gate. This improvement in position resolution is practically independent of the anode voltage, all along the plateau. (orig.)

  9. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  10. Proceedings of workshop on streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hidihiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Hirose, Tachishige; Masaike, Akira

    1978-08-01

    For high accuracy observation of multiple-body reactions, a vertex detector of high efficiency is essential. A bubble chamber, though excellent for tracks detection, is problematic in statistics accuracy. The vertex detector with a wire chamber, while better in this respect, difficult in multiple-particle detection etc. The workshop has had several meetings on a streamer chamber as a detector combining features of both bubble chamber and counter, with emphasis on tracks observation in avalanche mode and recordings not using films. Contents are on streamer chamber gas, analytical photography, data processing, simulation program, etc. (Mori, K.)

  11. Wire- and cathode pulses in a counter of square cross section with a thin wire as central conductor operating in limited streamer mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Ch.; Erd, Ch.; Leder, G.; Pernicka, M.; Regler, M.; Schnizer, B.

    1989-11-01

    Streamer tubes are becoming increasingly important in high-energy physics experiments. They are used as drift tubes for the localisation of charged-particle tracks, and also as sampling devices in sandwich calorimeters with cathode readout only. The streamer pulses carry charges which are several orders of magnitude larger than pulses from proportional chambers; this provides a good signal-to-noise ratio and makes them appropriate for a wide field of applications in highly compact detectors. The signals induced on the cathodes are also important for measuring — in addition to the anode wire - a second coordinate, and for resolving ambiguities in track recognition. When connecting the signals from two opposite cathodes to the two inputs of a differential amplifier, a left/right bit could be added after suitable buffering via the same signal line as used for time digitalisation. Another essential feature is the association of time information from the anode wire and the cathode. For the streamer tube used in this experiment the pulses induced on the cathode on either side of the particle, and on the anode, are measured by a fast analog-to-digital converter. A simple two-dimensional model ρ( r, θ) at t = 0, without any time-dependent effects other than a constant electron drift velocity of 50 μm/ns, is used to compare the charge distribution in a streamer with the measurements of the pulse lengths at the two opposite cathode strips. First the field generated by a static voltage is calculated. Then the effect of a "space charge" is evaluated. The Green's function of the square domain is a prerequisite for determining the field and the surface charge distribution on the electrodes. It is obtained from that of a concentric circular counter by a conformal mapping. Representations of Green's functions are calculated by series expansions.

  12. Streamers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this invited lecture we give an overview of our 15 years of experience on streamer plasma research. Efforts are directed to integrating the competence areas of plasma physics, pulsed power technology and chemical processing. The current status is the development of a large scale pulsed corona system for gas treatment. Applications on biogas conditioning, VOC removal, odor abatement and control of traffic emissions have been demonstrated. Detailed research on electrical and chemical processes resulted in a boost of efficiencies. Energy transfer efficiency to the plasma was raised to above 90%. Simultaneous improvement of the plasma chemistry resulted in a highly efficient radical generation: O-radical production up to 50% of the theoretical maximum has been achieved. A major challenge in pulsed power driven streamers is to unravel, understand and ultimately control the complex interactions between the transient plasma, electrical circuits, and process. Even more a challenge is to yield electron energies that fit activation energies of the process. We will discuss our ideas on adjusting pulsed power waveforms and plasma reactor settings to obtain more controlled catalytic processing: the ``Chemical Transistor'' concept.

  13. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  14. Quenching gases for limited-streamer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, P

    1986-04-01

    Charge spectra and efficiencies of the limited-streamer mode are presented as a function of quencher fraction and high voltage for several gas mixes. The goal was to find a working gas of low hydrocarbon content in order to relieve safety concerns about the flammability of the large gas volume contained in the hadron calorimeter of the OPAL detector at LEP. No suitable low-hydrocarbon quenching mix is found. The charge spectra from these quenchers develop secondary peaks and long tails as full efficiency is approached, leading to catastrophic breakdown near the onset of full efficiency.

  15. Quenching gases for limited-streamer operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, P

    1986-04-01

    Charge spectra and efficiencies of the limited-streamer mode are presented as a function of quencher fraction and high voltage for several gas mixes. The goal was to find a working gas of low hydrocarbon content in order to relieve safety concerns about the flammability of the large gas volume contained in the hadron calorimeter of the OPAL detector at LEP. No suitable low-hydrocarbon quenching mix is found. The charge spectra from these quenchers develop secondary peaks and long tails as full efficiency is approached, leading to catastrophic breakdown near the onset of full efficiency. (orig.).

  16. Land Streamer Surveying Using Multiple Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Sherif

    2014-12-11

    Various examples are provided for land streamer seismic surveying using multiple sources. In one example, among others, a method includes disposing a land streamer in-line with first and second shot sources. The first shot source is at a first source location adjacent to a proximal end of the land streamer and the second shot source is at a second source location separated by a fixed length corresponding to a length of the land streamer. Shot gathers can be obtained when the shot sources are fired. In another example, a system includes a land streamer including a plurality of receivers, a first shot source located adjacent to the proximal end of the land streamer, and a second shot source located in-line with the land streamer and the first shot source. The second shot source is separated from the first shot source by a fixed overall length corresponding to the land streamer.

  17. Land Streamer Surveying Using Multiple Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    are fired. In another example, a system includes a land streamer including a plurality of receivers, a first shot source located adjacent to the proximal end of the land streamer, and a second shot source located in-line with the land streamer and the first

  18. Multiplex fluorescence melting curve analysis for mutation detection with dual-labeled, self-quenched probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA is a powerful tool for mutation detection based on melting temperature generated by thermal denaturation of the probe-target hybrid. Nevertheless, the color multiplexing, probe design, and cross-platform compatibility remain to be limited by using existing probe chemistries. We hereby explored two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes, TaqMan and shared-stem molecular beacons, in their ability to conduct FMCA. Both probes could be directly used for FMCA and readily integrated with closed-tube amplicon hybridization under asymmetric PCR conditions. Improved flexibility of FMCA by using these probes was illustrated in three representative applications of FMCA: mutation scanning, mutation identification and mutation genotyping, all of which achieved improved color-multiplexing with easy probe design and versatile probe combination and all were validated with a large number of real clinical samples. The universal cross-platform compatibility of these probes-based FMCA was also demonstrated by a 4-color mutation genotyping assay performed on five different real-time PCR instruments. The dual-labeled, self-quenched probes offered unprecedented combined advantage of enhanced multiplexing, improved flexibility in probe design, and expanded cross-platform compatibility, which would substantially improve FMCA in mutation detection of various applications.

  19. Effect of inhomogeneities on streamer propagation: II. Streamer dynamics in high pressure humid air with bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The branching of electric discharge streamers in atmospheric pressure air, dense gases and liquids is a common occurrence whose origins are likely found with many causes, both deterministic and stochastic. One mechanism for streamer branching may be inhomogeneities in the path of a streamer which either divert the streamer (typically a region of lower ionization) or produce a new branch (a region of higher ionization). The propagation and branching of streamers in liquids is likely aided by low density inhomogeneities, bubbles; however, modeling of streamers in liquids is made difficult by the lack of transport coefficients. As a first step towards understanding the propagation and branching of streamers in liquids, we investigated the consequences of random inhomogeneities in the form of low pressure bubbles on the propagation of streamers in high pressure humid air. By virtue of their lower density, bubbles have larger E/N (electric field/gas number density) than the ambient gas with larger rates of ionization. The intersection of a streamer with a bubble will focus the plasma into the bubble by virtue of that higher rate of ionization but the details of the interaction depend on the relative sizes of the bubble and streamer. When a streamer intersects a field of bubbles, the large E/N in the bubble avalanches seed electrons produced by photoionization from the streamer. Each bubble then launches both a negative and positive going streamer that may link with those from adjacent bubbles or the original streamer. The total process then appears as streamer branching.

  20. Kinetics of a plasma streamer ionization front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccogna, Francesco; Pellegrini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    A streamer is a non-linear and non-local gas breakdown mode. Its large-scale coherent structures, such as the ionization front, are the final results of a hierarchical cascade starting from the single particle dynamics. Therefore, this phenomenon covers, by definition, different space and time scales. In this study, we have reproduced the ionization front formation and development by means of a particle-based numerical methodology. The physical system investigated concerns of a high-voltage ns-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge. Different reduced electric field regimes ranging from 50 to 500 Td have been considered for two gases: pure atomic Ar and molecular N2. Results have shown the detailed structure of the negative streamer: the leading edge, the head, the interior and the tail. Its dynamical evolution and the front propagation velocity have been calculated for the different cases. Finally, the deviation of the electron energy distribution function from equilibrium behavior has been pointed out as a result of a fast and very localized phenomenon.

  1. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  2. KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY OF A CORONAL STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, B., E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str.2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-09-10

    Shear-flow-driven instability can play an important role in energy transfer processes in coronal plasma. We present for the first time the observation of a kink-like oscillation of a streamer that is probably caused by the streaming kink-mode Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The wave-like behavior of the streamer was observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment C2 and C3 on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory. The observed wave had a period of about 70-80 minutes, and its wavelength increased from 2 R{sub Sun} to 3 R{sub Sun} in about 1.5 hr. The phase speeds of its crests and troughs decreased from 406 {+-} 20 to 356 {+-} 31 km s{sup -1} during the event. Within the same heliocentric range, the wave amplitude also appeared to increase with time. We attribute the phenomena to the MHD KHI, which occurs at a neutral sheet in a fluid wake. The free energy driving the instability is supplied by the sheared flow and sheared magnetic field across the streamer plane. The plasma properties of the local environment of the streamer were estimated from the phase speed and instability threshold criteria.

  3. Evolution of streamer groups in nonthermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, M., E-mail: mokubo@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Nonthermal plasmas (NTPs) induced by atmospheric nanosecond pulsed corona discharge have been studied for controlling pollution from combustors, such as boilers, incinerators, and diesel engines. In high-speed short-width high-voltage pulsed corona discharge-induced plasmas, primary streamer evolution is followed by secondary streamer evolution. Though this phenomenon is known experimentally, the details of the structures of the streamers and their evolution mechanisms have not been fully clarified. In this letter, we perform quasi two-dimensional numerical analysis of nonequilibrium NTP induced by a nanosecond positive pulsed corona discharge. The continuum fluid equations for two-temperature nonequilibrium NTP are used as governing equations. In this study, 197 gas phase reactions for 25 chemical species and 21 surface reactions on the inner glass wall surface are considered in an air plasma under atmospheric pressure. The simulated behavior of the streamer groups agrees with experimental observations. Soon after the voltage increases on the reactor, primary streamers are formed, which may transit the complete gap, disappearing near the peak voltage. Next, second streamers appear, disappearing at the end of the applied voltage pulse. The streamer wavelength and the distance between the streamers in the axial direction are determined. Moreover, ozone generation is shown to be more significant in the secondary streamer. This simulation will allow better predictions for nanosecond positive pulsed plasma systems.

  4. Evolution of streamer groups in nonthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nonthermal plasmas (NTPs) induced by atmospheric nanosecond pulsed corona discharge have been studied for controlling pollution from combustors, such as boilers, incinerators, and diesel engines. In high-speed short-width high-voltage pulsed corona discharge-induced plasmas, primary streamer evolution is followed by secondary streamer evolution. Though this phenomenon is known experimentally, the details of the structures of the streamers and their evolution mechanisms have not been fully clarified. In this letter, we perform quasi two-dimensional numerical analysis of nonequilibrium NTP induced by a nanosecond positive pulsed corona discharge. The continuum fluid equations for two-temperature nonequilibrium NTP are used as governing equations. In this study, 197 gas phase reactions for 25 chemical species and 21 surface reactions on the inner glass wall surface are considered in an air plasma under atmospheric pressure. The simulated behavior of the streamer groups agrees with experimental observations. Soon after the voltage increases on the reactor, primary streamers are formed, which may transit the complete gap, disappearing near the peak voltage. Next, second streamers appear, disappearing at the end of the applied voltage pulse. The streamer wavelength and the distance between the streamers in the axial direction are determined. Moreover, ozone generation is shown to be more significant in the secondary streamer. This simulation will allow better predictions for nanosecond positive pulsed plasma systems.

  5. Cellular Activation of the Self-Quenched Fluorescent Reporter Probe in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Bogdanov, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intralysosomal proteolysis of near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF self-quenched macromolecular probe (PGC-Cy5.5 has been previously reported and used for tumor imaging. Here we demonstrate that proteolysis can be detected noninvasively in vivo at the cellular level. A codetection of GFP fluorescence (using two-photon excitation and NIRF was performed in tumor-bearing animals injected with PGC-Cy5.5. In vivo microscopy of tumor cells in subdermal tissue layers (up to 160 μm showed a strong Cy5.5 dequenching effect in GFP-negative cells. This observation was corroborated by flow cytometry, sorting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of tumor-isolated cells. Both GFP-positive (81% total and GFP-negative (19% total populations contained Cy5.5-positive cells. The GFP-negative cells were confirmed to be host mouse cells by the absence of rat cathepsin mRNA signal. The subfraction of GFPnegative cells (2.5-3.0% had seven times higher NIRF intensity than the majority of GFP-positive or GFPnegative cells (372 and 55 AU, respectively. Highly NIRF-positive, FP-negative cells were CD45-and MAC3-positive. Our results indicate that: 1 intracellular proteolysis can be imaged in vivo at the cellular level using cathepsin-sensitive probes; 2 tumor-recruited cells of hematopoetic origin participate most actively in uptake and degradation of long-circulating macromolecular probes.

  6. Is the Electron Avalanche Process in a Martian Dust Devil Self-Quenching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.; McLain, Jason L.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Jackson, T. J.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Viking era laboratory experiments show that mixing tribocharged grains in a low pressure CO2 gas can form a discharge that glows, indicating the presence of an excited electron population that persists over many seconds. Based on these early experiments, it has been predicted that martian dust devils and storms may also contain a plasma and new plasma chemical species as a result of dust grain tribo-charging. However, recent results from modeling suggest a contrasting result: that a sustained electron discharge may not be easily established since the increase in gas conductivity would act to short-out the local E-fields and quickly dissipate the charged grains driving the process. In essence, the system was thought to be self-quenching (i.e., turn itself off). In this work, we attempt to reconcile the difference between observation and model via new laboratory measurements. We conclude that in a Mars-like low pressure CO2 atmosphere and expected E-fields, the electron current remains (for the most part) below the expected driving tribo-electric dust currents (approx. 10 microA/m(exp. 2)), thereby making quenching unlikely.

  7. Experimental investigations on the physics of streamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Streamers are rapidly extending ionized fingers that can appear in gasses, liquids and solids. They are generated by high electric fields but can penetrate into areas where the background electric field is below the ionization threshold. Streamers occur in nature as a precursor to sparks and

  8. Fast imaging of streamer propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, A.H.F.M.; Hayashi, D.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Recently measurement methods are becoming available to study the corona discharge in more detail. One of the most promising methods is laser-induced fluorescence to determine radical density. Recent improvements in CCD cameras makes it now possible to improve measurements of the discharge structure to a resolution of 1 ns in time and 10 μm in space. This paper shows the first results of the spontaneous emission of a point-to-plane corona discharge in air using such a camera. It clearly indicates that the 2-D approach for streamer propagation under these conditions is insufficient

  9. Fast imaging of streamer propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, A.H.F.M.; Hayashi, D.; Rutgers, W.R. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2001-07-01

    Recently measurement methods are becoming available to study the corona discharge in more detail. One of the most promising methods is laser-induced fluorescence to determine radical density. Recent improvements in CCD cameras makes it now possible to improve measurements of the discharge structure to a resolution of 1 ns in time and 10 {mu}m in space. This paper shows the first results of the spontaneous emission of a point-to-plane corona discharge in air using such a camera. It clearly indicates that the 2-D approach for streamer propagation under these conditions is insufficient.

  10. Diameter-speed relation of sprite streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmae, T; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H C; McHarg, M G; Haaland, R K

    2012-01-01

    Propagation and splitting of sprite streamers has been observed at high temporal and spatial resolution using two intensified high-speed CMOS cameras recording at 10 000 and 16 000 frames per second. Concurrent video recordings from a remote site provided data for triangulation allowing us to determine accurate altitude scales for the sprites. Diameters and speeds of the sprite streamers were measured from the high-speed images, and the diameters were scaled to the reduced diameters based on the triangulated locations. The sprite streamers with larger reduced diameter move faster than those with smaller diameter; the relation between the reduced diameter and speed is roughly linear. The reduced diameters at ≈65-70 km altitude are larger than streamer diameters measured at ground pressure in laboratory discharges indicating a deviation from the similarity law possibly due to the effects of the photoionization and an expansion of the streamer head along its propagation over a long distance. The reduced diameter and speed of the sprite streamers agree well with the diameter-velocity relation proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401), and the peak electric field of the sprite streamers is estimated to be approximately 3-5 times the breakdown threshold field. (paper)

  11. Single photon detection in the SQS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.A.; Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Neves, F.; Policarpo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented concerning the detection of single UV photons in self quenching streamer detectors by photoionization of one of the gas mixture components, in this case TEA (tri ethyl-amine), whose molecules have low photoionization potential and large absorption cross section. As a UV light source, a gas scintillation counter filled with krypton was used, whose emission light spectrum, centered at approximately 150 nm, overlaps well the photoionization spectrum of TEA. The mixtures studied were argon/ethane/TEA, argon/isobutane/TEA, argon/ethane/methylal/TEA and argon/isobutane/methylal/ TEA. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  12. Streamers in water and other dielectric liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, J F; Joshi, R P; Xiao, S; Schoenbach, K H

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results on the inception and propagation of streamers in water generated under the application of high electric fields are reviewed. Characteristic parameters, such as breakdown voltage, polarity of the applied voltage, propagation velocities and other phenomenological features, are compared with similar phenomena in other dielectric liquids and in gases. Consequently, parameters that are expected to influence the development of streamers in water are discussed with respect to the analogous well-established models and theories for the related mechanisms in gases. Most of the data support the notion that an initial low-density nucleation site or gas-filled bubble assists the initiation of a streamer. Details of this theory are laid out explaining the observed differences in the breakdown originating from the anode versus the cathode locations. The mechanisms can also be applied to streamer propagation, although some observations cannot be satisfactorily explained.

  13. Track photographing in 8-m streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, N.Z.; Davidenko, V.A.; Kantserov, V.A.; Rybakov, V.G.; Somov, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    A system for obtaining data from a streamer chamber intended for measuring muon polarization is described. An optical scheme for photographing of tracks in the chamber is given. The photographing process is complicated at the expense of large dimensions and module structure of the chamber as well as due to insufficient for direct photographing brightness of streamers. The system described was tested during a long time in a physical experiment. More than 100 thousand photos have been taken by its means [ru

  14. Some properties of the streamer tube system of the charm neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, F.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jonker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The fine-grain and low-density neutrino calorimeter of the CHARM Collaboration has been designed to measure the energy and the direction of particle showers. To further improve the spatial resolution the calorimeter has been upgraded by adding 20,000 aluminium tubes, working in the limited streamer mode. Each subunit is now equipped with crossed wire planes. Results of a new energy calibration of the upgraded detector using electron and pion beams from 5 to 140 GeV/c, and on the angular and spatial resolution are presented. The use of the streamer tube system to discriminate between electromagnetic and hadronic showers is discussed

  15. Streamer knotwilg branching: sudden transition in morphology of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmans, L C J; Clevis, T T J; Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2015-01-01

    We describe a peculiar branching phenomenon in positive repetitive streamer discharges in high purity nitrogen. We name it knotwilg branching after the Dutch word for a pollard willow tree. In a knotwilg branching a thick streamer suddenly splits into many thin streamers. Under some conditions this happens for all streamers in a discharge at about the same distance from the high-voltage electrode tip. At this distance, the thick streamers suddenly bend sharply and appear to propagate over a virtual surface surrounding the high-voltage electrode, rather than following the background electric field lines. From these bent thick streamers many, much thinner, streamers emerge that roughly follow the background electric field lines, creating the characteristic knotwilg branching. We have only found this particular morphology in high purity nitrogen at pressures in the range 50 to 200 mbar and for pulse repetition rates above 1 Hz; the experiments were performed for an electrode distance of 16 cm and for fast voltage pulses of 20 or 30 kV. These observations clearly disagree with common knowledge on streamer propagation. We have analyzed the data of several tens of thousands of discharges to clarify the phenomena. We also present some thoughts on how the ionization of the previous discharges could concentrate into some pre-ionization region near the needle electrode and create the knotwilg morphology, but we present no final explanation. (paper)

  16. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  17. A modified energy transfer model for determination of upconversion emission of β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er: Role of self-quenching effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongyuan [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Lin, Min, E-mail: minlin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Jin, Guorui [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Feng [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2017-05-15

    A modified energy transfer model by incorporating self-quenching effect is introduced to determine upconversion emission of β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er. The simulation results agree well with existing experimental results, demonstrating the critical role of self-quenching effect in upconversion emission. Our results confirm that a 4.4-fold increase of green upconversion and 86-fold increase in the intensity of red upconversion emission could be realized by suppressing self-quenching. In addition, the optimal doping concentrations for integral emission intensity are found to be independent of excitation power, while the green to red ratio is found to rely significantly on excitation power. Our model offers mechanistic insight into upconversion emission processes and provides inspirations in improving upconversion emission efficiency through optimization of energy transfer pathways in different types of matrix sub-lattice.

  18. ADS and CDS streamer generation as function of pulsed parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Z.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Yan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Streamer plasmas can be used to remove pollutants from gases. As a result of the complex mechanisms involved during streamer initiation and propagation, the related knowledge is incomplete. During the last few years, extensive research was performed to determine typical streamer properties (such as

  19. Saffman-Taylor streamers: Mutual finger interaction in spark formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, A.; Brau, F.; Ebert, U.

    2008-01-01

    Bunches of streamers form the early stages of sparks and lightning but theory presently concentrates on single streamers or on coarse approximations of whole breakdown trees. Here a periodic array of interacting streamer discharges in a strong homogeneous electric field is studied in density or

  20. Fluid and hybrid models for streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Zdeněk

    2016-09-01

    Streamers are contracted ionizing waves with self-generated field enhancement that propagate into a low-ionized medium exposed to high electric field leaving filamentary trails of plasma behind. The widely used model to study streamer dynamics is based on drift-diffusion equations for electrons and ions, assuming local field approximation, coupled with Poisson's equation. For problems where presence of energetic electrons become important a fluid approach needs to be extended by a particle model, accompanied also with Monte Carlo Collision technique, that takes care of motion of these electrons. A combined fluid-particle approach is used to study an influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It is found that fluid-only model predicts substantially faster reignition dynamics compared to coupled fluid-particle model. Furthermore, a hybrid model can be created in which the population of electrons is divided in the energy space into two distinct groups: (1) low energy `bulk' electrons that are treated with fluid model, and (2) high energy `beam' electrons, followed as particles. The hybrid model is then capable not only to deal with streamer discharges in laboratory conditions, but also allows us to study electron acceleration in streamer zone of lighting leaders. There, the production of fast electrons from streamers is investigated, since these (runaway) electrons act as seeds for the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) mechanism, important for high-energy atmospheric physics phenomena. Results suggest that high energy electrons effect the streamer propagation, namely the velocity, the peak electric field, and thus also the production rate of runaway electrons. This work has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation research project 15-04023S.

  1. Stereo-photography of streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S.; Moerman, J. S.; Briels, T. M. P.; Veldhuizen, E. M. van; Ebert, U.

    2008-01-01

    Standard photographs of streamer discharges show a two-dimensional projection. Here, we present stereophotographic images that resolve their three-dimensional structure. We describe the stereoscopic setup and evaluation, and we present results for positive streamer discharges in air at 0.2-1 bar in a point-plane geometry with a gap distance of 14 cm and a voltage pulse of 47 kV. In this case, an approximately Gaussian distribution of branching angles of 43 deg. ±12 deg. is found; these angles do not significantly depend on the distance from the needle or on the gas pressure

  2. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching

  3. Electron acceleration during streamer collisions in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, Christoph; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    charge fields, with a Monte Carlo scheme accounting for collisions and ionization. We present the electron density, the electric field, and the velocity distribution as functions of space and time. Assuming a background electric field 1.5 times the breakdown field, we find that the electron density......High-voltage laboratory experiments show that discharges in air, generated over a gap of one meter with maximal voltage of 1 MV, may produce X-rays with photon energies up to 1 MeV. It has been suggested that the photons are bremsstrahlung from electrons accelerated by the impulsive, enhanced field...... during collisions of negative and a positive streamers. To explore this process, we have conducted the first self-consistent particle simulations of streamer encounters. Our simulation model is a 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, particle-in-cell code tracing the electron dynamics and solving the space...

  4. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  5. Streamer properties and associated x-rays in perturbed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn, C.; Chanrion, O.; Babich, L. P.; Neubert, T.

    2018-01-01

    Streamers are ionization waves in electric discharges. One of the key ingredients of streamer propagation is an ambient gas that serves as a source of free electrons. Here, we explore the dependence of streamer dynamics on different spatial distributions of ambient air molecules. We vary the spatial profile of air parallel and perpendicular to the ambient electric field. We consider local sinusoidal perturbations of 5%-100%, as induced from discharge shock waves. We use a cylindrically symmetric particle-in-cell code to simulate the evolution of bidirectional streamers and compare the electron density, electric field, streamer velocity and electron energy of streamers in uniform air and in perturbed air. In all considered cases, the motion is driven along in decreasing air density and damped along increasing air density. Perturbations of at most 5%-10% change the velocity differences by up to approximately 40%. Perturbations perpendicular to the electric field additionally squeeze or branch streamers. Air variations can thus partly explain the difference of velocities and morphologies of streamer discharges. In cases with large perturbations, electrons gain energies of up to 30 keV compared to 100 eV in uniformly distributed air. For such perturbations parallel to the ambient electric field, we see the spontaneous initiation of a negative streamer; for perpendicular perturbations, x-rays with energies of up to 20 keV are emitted within 0.17 ns.

  6. Extremely far from equilibrium: the multiscale dynamics of streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ute

    2012-10-01

    Streamers can emerge when high voltages are applied to gases. At their tips, the electric field is strongly enhanced, and electron energies locally reach distributions very far from equilibrium, with long tails at high energies. These exotic electron energies create radiation and chemical excitations at very low energy input, as the gas stays cold while the ionization front passes. Applications are multiple: highly efficient O* radical production in air for disinfection, combustion gas cleaning, plasma assisted combustion, plasma bullets in medicine etc. In that sense, streamers can be considered as very efficient converters of pulsed electric into chemical energy, in particular, if the electric circuits are optimized for the application. Streamers are also ubiquitous in nature, e.g., in the streamer corona of lightning leaders, in sprite discharges high above the clouds; and streamers also seem to contribute to generating gamma-ray flashes and even to electron-positron beams in active thunderstorms. Unravelling the intrinsic mechanisms of streamers is challenging: they can move with up to one tenth of the speed of light, and they have an intricate nonlinear structure with a hierarchy of scales. I will review how theory and experiment deal with these structures, and I will discuss the basic differences between positive and negative streamers, electron acceleration at streamer tips and the consecutive radiation and chemical reactions, the propagation mechanism of positive streamers in different gases, streamer velocities and diameters varying over at least two orders of magnitude, streamer branching and interaction, and their three-dimensional tree structure. Both theory and experiment work with a patchwork of methods, and geophysics can provide movies that cannot be taken in the lab. I will sketch the state and outline open questions.

  7. Optical Emissions of Sprite Streamers in Weak Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Pasko, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprites commonly consist of large numbers of needle-shaped filaments of ionization [e.g., Gerken and Inan, JASTP, 65, 567, 2003] and typically initiate at altitudes 70-75 km in a form of upward and downward propagating streamers [Stanley et al., GRL, 26, 3201, 1999; Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 27, 3829, 2000; McHarg et al., JGR, 107, 1364, 2002; Moudry et al., JASTP, 65, 509, 2003]. The strong electric fields E exceeding the conventional breakdown threshold field Ek are needed for initiation of sprite streamers from single electron avalanches and recent modeling studies indicate that streamers propagating in fields E>Ek experience strong acceleration and expansion in good agreement with the above cited observations [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004]. The initiated streamers are capable of propagating in fields substantially lower than Ek [Allen and Ghaffar, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 28, 331, 1995] and it is expected that a significant part of sprite optical output comes from regions with EEk). Additionally, the values of electric fields inside of the streamer channel are always well below Ek and since the excitation coefficients for optical emissions are very sensitive to the driving electric field magnitude most of the optical luminosity of streamers in this case arises from streamer tips, indicating that observed streamer filaments in many cases may be produced by time averaging of optical luminosity coming from localized regions around streamer tips as streamers move through an instrument's field of view. We will discuss pressure dependent differences of optical emissions at different sprite altitudes, and important similarities between observed sprite streamers and recent time resolved (van Veldhuizen et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30, 162, 2002; Yi and Williams, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 35, 205, 2002].

  8. A study on the equivalent electric circuit simulation model of DBD streamer and glow alternate discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J; Zhang, Z T; Xu, S J; Yu, Q X; Yu, Z; Zhao, J S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulating model of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), structured as an equivalent electric circuit of the streamer and glow discharge generated alternately in DBD. The main parameters of DBD have been established by means of analysing the structural characteristics of a single discharge cell. An electrical comprehensive Simulink /MATLAB model was developed in order to reveal the interaction of the adjacent two discharge cell. A series of simulations was carried out in order to estimate the key structural parameters that affect the alternate streamer and glow discharge mode. The comparison results of experimental and simulate indicate that there exists a close similarity of the current waveforms graphic. Therefore, we can grasp a deep understanding mechanism of the dielectric barrier discharge and optimize the plasma reactor.

  9. An Extreme-ultraviolet Wave Generating Upward Secondary Waves in a Streamer-like Solar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Song, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves, spectacular horizontally propagating disturbances in the low solar corona, always trigger horizontal secondary waves (SWs) when they encounter the ambient coronal structure. We present the first example of upward SWs in a streamer-like structure after the passing of an EUV wave. This event occurred on 2017 June 1. The EUV wave happened during a typical solar eruption including a filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a C6.6 flare. The EUV wave was associated with quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains and a type II radio burst that represented the existence of a coronal shock. The EUV wave had a fast initial velocity of ∼1000 km s‑1, comparable to high speeds of the shock and the QFP wave trains. Intriguingly, upward SWs rose slowly (∼80 km s‑1) in the streamer-like structure after the sweeping of the EUV wave. The upward SWs seemed to originate from limb brightenings that were caused by the EUV wave. All of the results show that the EUV wave is a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave, likely triggered by the flare impulses. We suggest that part of the EUV wave was probably trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the streamer-like structure, and upward SWs possibly resulted from the release of slow-mode trapped waves. It is believed that the interplay of the strong compression of the coronal shock and the configuration of the streamer-like structure is crucial for the formation of upward SWs.

  10. Parallel sparse direct solvers for Poisson's equation in streamer discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nool (Margreet); M. Genseberger (Menno); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to examine whether a hybrid approach of parallel computing, a combination of the message passing model (MPI) with the threads model (OpenMP) can deliver good performance in streamer discharge simulations. Since one of the bottlenecks of almost all streamer

  11. Streamer head structure: role of ionization and photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nudnova, M M; Starikovskii, A Yu

    2008-01-01

    Results from experiments and numerical modelling of streamer propagation are presented. The 2D hydrodynamic numerical description of the pulsed discharge based on the local ionization and photoionization models adequately describes the streamer shape and dynamics over a wide range of pressures and voltages. This work presents a method for imaging the instantaneous emission distribution in the streamer head. A method for restoring the electrodynamic radius of the streamer head was developed on the basis of the streamer head images that were obtained with subnanosecond exposure time. The electrodynamic radius has been determined as the distance between the maxima of the electric field at the position where the streamer head transforms into the streamer channel. The dependence of the electrodynamic radius on voltage and pressure has been determined. We show that a 2D numerical model using hydrodynamic approximation predicts the streamer characteristics with an accuracy of about 15% in the 0.5-1 atmosphere pressure range and up to 40% in the 0.2-0.3 atmosphere pressure range for a voltage of U from 20 kV up to 40 kV in the 30 and 40 mm discharge gap.

  12. Influences of the pulsed power supply on corona streamer appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Briels, T.M.P.; Grabowski, L.R.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed positive corona streamers in air are studied by images obtained with an intensified CCD camera. Using a switched capacitor power supply, thin streamers are observed that branch. A power supply consisting of a 4-stage transmission line transformer gives pulses of much higher current to the

  13. Structure of positive streamers inside gaseous bubbles immersed in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Electric discharges and streamers in liquids typically proceed through vapour phase channels produced by the streamer or in gaseous bubbles. The bubbles can originate by enthalpy changes produced by the discharge or can be artificially injected into the liquid. Experiments on streamers in bubbles immersed in liquids have shown that the discharge propagates either along the surface of the bubble or through the volume of the bubble as in conventional streamer propagation in air. In this paper we report on results of a computational investigation of streamer propagation through bubbles immersed in liquids. We found that the dielectric constant of the liquid in large part determines the path the streamer takes. Streamers in bubbles immersed in a liquid with a high permittivity preferentially propagate along the surface of the bubble. Liquids with low permittivity can result in the streamer propagating along the axis of the bubble. The permittivity at which this transition occurs is a function of the applied voltage, size of the bubble and the conductivity of the liquid. (fast track communication)

  14. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Runaway electrons from a ‘beam-bulk’ model of streamer: application to TGFs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Bonaventura, Z.; Cinar, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    -energy electrons and ions. For a negative streamer discharge, we show how electrons are accelerated in the large electric field in the tip of the streamer and travel ahead of the streamer where they ionize the gas. In comparison to the results obtained with a classical fluid model for a negative streamer, the beam...

  16. Nonlinear features of the electron temperature gradient mode and electron thermal transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.; Singh, R.; Weiland, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical investigations of several linear and nonlinear features of ETG turbulence are reported. The linear theory includes effects such as finite beta induced electromagnetic shielding, coupling to electron magnetohydrodynamic modes like whistlers etc. It is argued that nonlinearly, turbulence and transport are dominated by radially extended modes called 'streamers'. A nonlinear mechanism generating streamers based on a modulational instability theory of the ETG turbulence is also presented. The saturation levels of the streamers using a Kelvin Helmholtz secondary instability mechanism are calculated and levels of the electron thermal transport due to streamers are estimated. (author)

  17. Modeling of a new electron-streamer acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning stepped leaders and laboratory spark discharges in air are known to produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., Geophys. Res. lett., 32, L20809, 2005; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not very well understood. During discharges, encounters between streamers of different polarities are very common. For example, during the formation of a new leader step, the negative streamer zone around the tip of a negative leader and the positive streamers initiated from the posiive part of a bidirectional space leader strongly interact. In laboratory experiments, when streamers are approaching a sharp electrode, streamers with the opposite polarity are initiated from the electrode and collide with the former streamers. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been proposed as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et la., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but modeling results have shown later that the increase of the electric field involved in this process, which is above the conventional breakdown threshold field, is accompanied by a strong increase of the electron density. The resulting increase in the conductivity, in turn, causes this electric field to collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the electrons reaching high energies and producing significant X-ray emissions [e.g., Ihaddadene and Celestin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 5644, 2015]. In this work, we will present simulation results of a new electron acceleration mechanism for producing runaway electron energies above hundred keV. The mechanism couples multiple single streamers and streamer head-on collisions, similar to a laboratory discharge, and is suitable for explaining the high-energy X-rays produced by discharges in air and by lightning stepped leaders.

  18. Streamer properties and associated x-rays in perturbed air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, C; Chanrion, O; Babich, L P

    2018-01-01

    Streamers are ionization waves in electric discharges. One of the key ingredients of streamerpropagation is an ambient gas that serves as a source of free electrons. Here, we explore thedependence of streamer dynamics on different spatial distributions of ambient air molecules. We varythe spatial...... profile of air parallel and perpendicular to the ambient electric field. We consider localsinusoidal perturbations of 5%–100%, as induced from discharge shock waves. We use acylindrically symmetric particle-in-cell code to simulate the evolution of bidirectional streamers andcompare the electron density...

  19. Limited streamer chamber testing and quality evaluation in ASTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.

    1991-01-01

    Limited streamer chambers are extensively used for high-energy and nuclear physics experiments in accelerator and underground laboratories. The tracking system of LVD, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use roughly 15000 limited streamer chambers and 100000 external pickup strips with digital readout electronics. In the article the different aspects of chamber operation that serve to establish a testing procedure and to define acceptance criteria for selecting reliable and long-life devices, are discussed. The procedures and the results obtained from a long-term test to evaluate streamer chamber quality, based upon a sample of 2900 items, are described. The selection tests and the long-term observations have been performed in the ASTRA laboratory, established at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati to carry out quality control procedures for streamer chambers on a large scale and in a controlled environment

  20. The dynamics of streamer formation and its growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikhanov, B.Zh.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of experimental studies of physical processes responsible for the transformation of the electron avalanche to the streamer and its growth towards the cathode. The new experimental data on the mechanism of formation and the structure of the streamer allow a more concrete understanding of the pattern of evolution of long spark discharges, including the lightning, and the interrelation of basic processes in such discharges. (author)

  1. Mechanisms important to later stages of streamer system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, N. G.; Carlson, B.; Kochkin, P.; Østgaard, N.

    2017-12-01

    Typical streamer modeling focuses on the propagation of the streamer head and thus neglects processes such as electron detachment, electron energy relaxation, and thermalization of the electron energy distribution. These mechanisms, however, may become important at later stages of streamer system development, in particular following streamer collisions. We present a model of a later-stage streamer system development which includes these processes. A linear analysis suggests that these processes under some conditions can lead to new effects, such as excitation of waves similar to striations in the positive column of a glow discharge. Such instabilities do not occur if these mechanisms are neglected under the same conditions, although previous modeling suggested existence of wave-like phenomena during the streamer propagation [Luque et al, 2016, doi:10.1002/2015JA022234]. In the sea-level pressure air, the obtained striation-like waves may manifest as very high frequency range (>10 MHz) oscillations in plasma parameters and may have been detected in the electrode current and electromagnetic radiation measurements during laboratory spark experiments. We discuss whether the longitudinal electric field in such waves can efficiently transfer energy to charged particles, because such a process may play a role in production of x-rays.

  2. Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U, E-mail: s.nijdam@tue.n [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-02-21

    Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p{center_dot}d = 50 {mu}m bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.

  3. Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Geurts, C G C; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2009-01-01

    Pictures show that streamer or sprite discharge channels emerging from the same electrode sometimes seem to reconnect or merge though their heads carry electric charge of the same polarity; one might therefore suspect that reconnections are an artefact of the two-dimensional projection in the pictures. Here we use stereo photography to investigate the full three-dimensional structure of such events. We analyse reconnection, possibly an electrostatic effect in which a late thin streamer reconnects to an earlier thick streamer channel, and merging, a suggested photoionization effect in which two simultaneously propagating streamer heads merge into one new streamer. We use four different anode geometries (one tip, two tips, two asymmetric protrusions in a plate and a wire), placed 40 mm above a flat cathode plate in ambient air. A positive high voltage pulse is applied to the anode, creating a positive corona discharge. This discharge is studied with a fast ICCD camera, in many cases combined with optics to enable stereoscopic imaging. We find that reconnections as defined above occur frequently. Merging on the other hand was only observed at a pressure of 25 mbar and a tip separation of 2 mm, i.e. for a reduced tip distance of p·d = 50 μm bar. In this case the full width at half maximum of the streamer channel is more than 10 times as large as the tip separation. At higher pressures or with a wire anode, merging was not observed.

  4. Propagation of a plasma streamer in catalyst pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-03-01

    Although plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various environmental applications, the underlying mechanisms are still far from understood. For instance, it is not yet clear whether and how plasma streamers can propagate in catalyst pores, and what is the minimum pore size to make this happen. As this is crucial information to ensure good plasma-catalyst interaction, we study here the mechanism of plasma streamer propagation in a catalyst pore, by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model, for various pore diameters in the nm-range to μm-range. The so-called Debye length is an important criterion for plasma penetration into catalyst pores, i.e. a plasma streamer can penetrate into pores when their diameter is larger than the Debye length. The Debye length is typically in the order of a few 100 nm up to 1 μm at the conditions under study, depending on electron density and temperature in the plasma streamer. For pores in the range of ∼50 nm, plasma can thus only penetrate to some extent and at very short times, i.e. at the beginning of a micro-discharge, before the actual plasma streamer reaches the catalyst surface and a sheath is formed in front of the surface. We can make plasma streamers penetrate into smaller pores (down to ca. 500 nm at the conditions under study) by increasing the applied voltage, which yields a higher plasma density, and thus reduces the Debye length. Our simulations also reveal that the plasma streamers induce surface charging of the catalyst pore sidewalls, causing discharge enhancement inside the pore, depending on pore diameter and depth.

  5. Modeling the plasma chemistry of stratospheric Blue Jet streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Holger; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric Blue Jets (SBJs) are upward propagating discharges in the altitude range 15-40 km above thunderstorms. The currently most accepted theory associates SBJs to the development of the streamer zone of a leader. The streamers emitted from the leader can travel for a few tens of kilometers predominantly in the vertical direction (Raizer et al., 2007). The strong electric fields at the streamer tips cause ionisation, dissociation, and excitation, and give rise to chemical perturbations. While in recent years the effects of electric discharges occurring in the mesosphere (sprites) have been investigated in a number of model studies, there are only a few studies on the impact of SBJs. However, chemical perturbations due to SBJs are of interest as they might influence the stratospheric ozone layer. We present results of detailed plasma chemistry simulations of SBJ streamers for both day-time and night-time conditions. Any effects of the subsequent leader are not considered. The model accounts for more than 500 reactions and calculates the evolution of the 88 species under the influence of the breakdown electric fields at the streamer tip. As the SBJ dynamics is outside the scope of this study, the streamer parameters are prescribed. For this purpose, electric field parameters based on Raizer et al. (2007) are used. The model is applied to the typical SBJ altitude range 15-40 km. The simulations indicate that SBJ streamers cause significant chemical perturbations. In particular, the liberation of atomic oxygen during the discharge leads to a formation of ozone. At the same time, reactive nitrogen and hydrogen radicals are produced which will cause catalytic ozone destruction. Reference: Raizer et al. (2007), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69 (8), 925-938.

  6. Modeling of plasma chemistry in a corona streamer pulse series in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowska, H.; Stanco, J.; Dors, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the chemistry in air treated by a series of corona discharge streamers. Attention is focused on the conversion of ozone and nitrogen oxides. In the model it is assumed that the streamer head of relatively small geometrical dimensions propagates from the anode to the cathode, leaving the streamer channel behind. Any elemental gas volume in the streamer path is subjected first to the conditions of the streamer head, and next to those of the streamer channel. The kinetics of plasma-chemical processes occurring in the gas is modeled numerically for a single streamer and a series of streamers. The temporal evolution of 25 chemical compounds initially present or produced in air is calculated. (author)

  7. Particle-in-cell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-07-07

    The mechanism of streamer branching remains one of the unsolved problems of low-temperature plasma physics. The understanding of this phenomenon requires very high-fidelity models that include, for instance, the kinetic description of electrons. In this paper, we use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional model to study the branching of anode-directed streamers propagating through short cathode-anode gap filled with atmospheric-pressure CO2 gas. We observe three key phenomena leading to the streamer branching at the considered conditions: flattening of the streamer head, the decrease of the streamer head thickness, and the generation at the streamer head of electrons having the energy larger than 50 eV. For the conditions of our studies, the non-homogeneous distribution of such energetic electrons at the streamer head is probably the primary mechanism responsible for the streamer branching.

  8. On increasing the efficiency of a streamer semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, K I; Parashchuk, V V

    2007-01-01

    The influence of intense electric and optical fields produced by a streamer discharge in wide-gap semiconductors on their spectroscopic properties is studied. The effect is manifested in the reversible change of the luminescence parameters of the active medium. Methods are proposed for increasing the service life and efficiency of a streamer laser in limiting regimes, which are based on the use of semiconductor protective layers of a certain crystallographic orientation and a crystal microrelief with the size of elements of the order of the wavelength of light. Streamer emission was observed and studied in new promising Eu:CaGa 2 S 4 and Eu:Ca 4 Ga 2 S 7 materials. (lasers)

  9. Reversal film development for streamer chamber track photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of this work to create a method of photographic development specially adapted to streamer image recording, i.e., with high sensitivity, only two signal levels, low dependence of the track signal on image intensity having a great jitter and noise suppression. The method has to be suitable for machine development of high speed films. A reversal photographic development was used to realize these demands, whereby strong fogging in the first step negative development and a solving process for silver bromide after blackening are specially introduced process stages. This results in a step-function shaped characteristic curve with small transition region having only two signal levels, i. e., independence of streamer image density, good resolution, fine grain, suppression of flares and low noise in the signal of the clear streamer images

  10. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers.

  11. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers

  12. Pulsed and streamer discharges in air above breakdown electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Sun (Anbang); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA 3D particle model is developed to investigate the streamer formation in electric fields above the breakdown threshold, in atmospheric air (1bar, 300 Kelvin). Adaptive particle management, adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing techniques are used in the code. Photoionization

  13. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  14. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply multisource full-waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we construct the L1- and L2-norm objective functions using the normalized wavefield. The new residual seismograms obtained from the L1- and L2-norms using the normalized wavefield mitigate the problem of unmatched acquisition geometries, which enables multisource full-waveform inversion to work with marine streamer data. In the new approaches using the normalized wavefield, we used the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique to efficiently calculate the gradients of the objective functions. Numerical examples showed that multisource full-waveform inversion using the normalized wavefield yields much better convergence for marine streamer data than conventional approaches. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.

  16. Pseudo-spectral 3D simulations of streamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Luque (Alejandro); U. M. Ebert (Ute); C. Montijn (Carolynne-Sireeh); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); J. Schmidt; M. Simek; S. Pekarek; V. Prukner

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA three-dimensional code for the simulation of streamers is introduced. The code is based on a fluid model for oxygen-nitrogen mixtures that includes drift, diffusion and attachement of electrons and creation of new charge carriers through impact ionization and photo-ionization. The

  17. Positive streamer initiation from raindrops in thundercloud fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    required for the streamer formation is larger than the measured thunderstorm fields. Therefore, the results of simulations suggest that second mechanisms must operate to amplify the local field. Such mechanisms could be electric field space variations via collective effects of many hydrometeors or runaway...

  18. Nongeometrically converted shear waves in marine streamer data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.G.; El Allouche, N.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Bada, G.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, marine streamer data contain nongeometrical shear body wave arrivals that can be used for imaging. These shear waves are generated via an evanescent compressional wave in the water and convert to propagating shear waves at the water bottom. They are called

  19. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply

  20. Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Teunissen (Jannis)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is

  1. Effects of pulse frequency of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed streamer discharge plasmas in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma; Lukes, P.; Aoki, N.; Spetlikova, E.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.

    2013-03-01

    A repetitive pulsed-power modulator, which employs a magnetic pulse compression circuit with a high-speed thyristor switch, was used to study the effects of the pulse repetition rate of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed discharges in water. Positive high-voltage pulses of 20 kV with repetition rates of up to 1 kHz were used to generate a discharge in water using the point-to-plane electrode geometry. By varying the pulse repetition rate, two distinct modes of the discharge plasma were formed in water. The first mode was characterized by the formation of a corona-like discharge propagating through water in the form of streamer channels. The second mode was formed typically above 500 Hz, when the formation of streamer channels in water was suppressed and all plasmas occurred inside a spheroidal aggregate of very fine gas bubbles surrounding the tip of the high-voltage electrode. The production of hydrogen peroxide, degradation of organic dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and inactivation of bacteria Escherichia coli by the discharge in water were studied under different discharge plasma modes in dependence on the pulse repetition rate of input power. The efficiency of both chemical and biocidal processes induced by the plasma in water decreased significantly with pulse repetition rates above 500 Hz.

  2. Effects of pulse frequency of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed streamer discharge plasmas in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma; Aoki, N; Hosseini, S H R; Sakugawa, T; Akiyama, H; Lukes, P; Spetlikova, E

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed-power modulator, which employs a magnetic pulse compression circuit with a high-speed thyristor switch, was used to study the effects of the pulse repetition rate of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed discharges in water. Positive high-voltage pulses of 20 kV with repetition rates of up to 1 kHz were used to generate a discharge in water using the point-to-plane electrode geometry. By varying the pulse repetition rate, two distinct modes of the discharge plasma were formed in water. The first mode was characterized by the formation of a corona-like discharge propagating through water in the form of streamer channels. The second mode was formed typically above 500 Hz, when the formation of streamer channels in water was suppressed and all plasmas occurred inside a spheroidal aggregate of very fine gas bubbles surrounding the tip of the high-voltage electrode. The production of hydrogen peroxide, degradation of organic dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and inactivation of bacteria Escherichia coli by the discharge in water were studied under different discharge plasma modes in dependence on the pulse repetition rate of input power. The efficiency of both chemical and biocidal processes induced by the plasma in water decreased significantly with pulse repetition rates above 500 Hz. (paper)

  3. Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive organic light-emitting devices based on self-quenching-resistant orange–red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Orange–red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) with high efficiency and concentration insensitivity based on a novel iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C{sup 2}′]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], were fabricated. With the heavily doped emissive layer (EML) of 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazolylbiphenyl (CBP): (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) in a wide and easily controlled dopant concentration range from 12 wt% to 24 wt%, a maximum power efficiency of 29 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of >16% of the PHOLEDs were obtained, implying the insensitivity of electroluminescence (EL) properties to doping concentration. Meanwhile, a maximum power efficiency of 5.0 lm/W was achieved from a non-doped device with neat (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the EML, indicating a superior property of self-quenching resistance. The mechanism of direct exciton formation, in which exciton-formation regions are distributed throughout the EML, is responsible for the significant alleviation of triplet–triplet annihilation and superior EL performance. - Highlights: • Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive PHOLEDs were obtained. • The high efficiency of non-doped PHOLEDs indicated a quenching-resistant property. • The independence of EL spectra on doping concentration was observed. • The heavily doped devices were dominated by mechanism of direct exciton formation.

  4. A novel monodisperse SiO2@C-dot for the rapid and facile identification of latent fingermarks using self-quenching resistant solid-state fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Mengjun; Wang, Dan; Liu, Renlong

    2018-04-24

    Solid powder fluorescence shows great potential for application in medicine, biology, and engineering, especially in the identification of latent fingermarks in forensic science. However, conventional developing methods suffer from some drawbacks, such as low contrast, low sensitivity, low selectivity, and high toxicity. To conquer these challenges, novel SiO2@C-dot microspheres were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using citric acid as a carbon source and aminosilane as a nitrogen source. Interestingly, the results showed that the resultant powders possess good monodispersity, high fluorescence emission, and resistance to self-quenching. Additionally, the mechanism for the solid-state fluorescence of SiO2@C-dot compounds was also investigated. More importantly, the fingermarks on various surfaces, including transparent glasses, ceramic tiles, transparent plastics, aluminum alloys, plastic cards, painted woods, artificial leathers, and Chinese paper money, developed by the powders have indicated well-defined papillary ridges under a 365 nm UV lamp. The novel strategy of using monodisperse SiO2@C-dot microspheres as a fluorescent label for developing latent fingermarks showed greater advantages compared to conventional methods, which was also demonstrated using the automatic fingerprint identification system. It is simple, rapid, low-cost, nontoxic, and effective, and is expected to be a promising alternative for the development of latent fingerprints in forensic science.

  5. Performance of the MACRO limited streamer tubes for estimates of muon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgini, M

    2002-01-01

    The MACRO limited streamer tubes can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTP system. In this way a considerable improvement in the space resolution is obtained, allowing the analysis of muon tracks in terms of multiple scattering effects and the energy estimates of muons crossing the detector. We present the results of two dedicated tests, performed with the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beams, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of the analysis. Using a neural network, we are able to estimate the muon energies up to E/sub mu / approximately = 40 GeV. The test beam data provide then an absolute energy calibration, which allows to apply the method to the MACRO data. (5 refs).

  6. Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: measuring diameter, velocity and dissipated energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briels, T M P; Kos, J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Winands, G J J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl, E-mail: ebert@cwi.nl

    2008-12-07

    Positive and negative streamers are studied in ambient air at 1 bar; they emerge from a needle electrode placed 40 mm above a planar electrode. The amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses range from 5 to 96 kV; most pulses have rise times of 30 ns or shorter. Diameters, velocities and energies of the streamers are measured. Two regimes are identified; a low voltage regime where only positive streamers appear and a high voltage regime where both positive and negative streamers exist. Below 5 kV, no streamers emerge. In the range from 5 to 40 kV, positive streamers form, while the negative discharges only form a glowing cloud at the electrode tip, but no streamers. For 5-20 kV, diameters and velocities of the positive streamers have the minimal values of d = 0.2 mm and v {approx} 10{sup 5} m s{sup -1}. For 20-40 kV, their diameters increase by a factor of 6 while the voltage increases only by a factor of 2. Above the transition value of 40 kV, streamers of both polarities form; they strongly resemble each other, though the positive ones propagate further; their diameters continue to increase with applied voltage. For 96 kV, positive streamers attain diameters of 3 mm and velocities of 4 x 10{sup 6} m s{sup -1}; negative streamers are about 20% slower and thinner. An empirical fit formula for the relation between velocity v and diameter d is v = 0.5d{sup 2} mm{sup -1} ns{sup -1} for both polarities. Streamers of both polarities dissipate energies of the order of several millijoules per streamer while crossing the gap.

  7. Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: measuring diameter, velocity and dissipated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briels, T M P; Kos, J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Winands, G J J

    2008-01-01

    Positive and negative streamers are studied in ambient air at 1 bar; they emerge from a needle electrode placed 40 mm above a planar electrode. The amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses range from 5 to 96 kV; most pulses have rise times of 30 ns or shorter. Diameters, velocities and energies of the streamers are measured. Two regimes are identified; a low voltage regime where only positive streamers appear and a high voltage regime where both positive and negative streamers exist. Below 5 kV, no streamers emerge. In the range from 5 to 40 kV, positive streamers form, while the negative discharges only form a glowing cloud at the electrode tip, but no streamers. For 5-20 kV, diameters and velocities of the positive streamers have the minimal values of d = 0.2 mm and v ∼ 10 5 m s -1 . For 20-40 kV, their diameters increase by a factor of 6 while the voltage increases only by a factor of 2. Above the transition value of 40 kV, streamers of both polarities form; they strongly resemble each other, though the positive ones propagate further; their diameters continue to increase with applied voltage. For 96 kV, positive streamers attain diameters of 3 mm and velocities of 4 x 10 6 m s -1 ; negative streamers are about 20% slower and thinner. An empirical fit formula for the relation between velocity v and diameter d is v = 0.5d 2 mm -1 ns -1 for both polarities. Streamers of both polarities dissipate energies of the order of several millijoules per streamer while crossing the gap.

  8. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  9. Controlling branching in streamer discharge by laser background ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation with a KrF laser controlled the positive streamer branching in atmospheric argon gas. This laser irradiation changed the amount of background ionization before the streamer discharge. Measuring the ionization current allowed us to evaluate the initial electron density formed by the KrF laser. We observed characteristic feather-like branching structure and found that it was only suppressed in the irradiated region. The threshold of ionization density which can influence the branching was evaluated to be 5 x 10 5 cm -3 . The relationship between the size of avalanche head and mean distance between initial electrons explained this suppression behaviour. These experimental results support that the feather-like structure originates from the branching model of Loeb-Meek, a probabilistic merging of individual avalanches.

  10. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  11. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of positive and negative streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, N.Yu.; Naidis, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with 2D numerical simulation of positive and negative streamers in air at atmospheric pressure. The dynamics of an axially symmetric streamer based on a charged sphere is described by a coupled system of equations for the electric field and the density of charged particles. The results of simulation show that the production rate of radicals in short sphere-plane gaps depends only weakly on the discharge conditions, that the streamer velocity in uniform field depends linearly on the streamer length, and the field corresponding to the negative streamer propagation with a constant velocity is 2-3 times greater than that obtained with a positive streamer. (J.U.)

  13. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  14. A nautical study of towed marine seismic streamer cable configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Egil

    1996-12-31

    This study concerns marine seismic surveying and especially the towed in-sea hardware which is dominated by recording cables (streamers) that are extremely long compared to their diameter, neutrally buoyant and depth controlled. The present work aims to examine the operations from a nautical viewpoint, and the final objective is to propose improvements to the overall efficiency of marine seismic operations. Full-scale data were gathered from seismic vessels in order to identify which physical parameters affect the dynamic motion of the towing vessel and its in-sea hardware. Experimental test programmes have been carried out, and data bases with the hydrodynamic characteristics of the test equipment have been established at speeds comparable to those used in seismic operations. A basic analysis tool to provide dynamic simulations of a seismic streamer cable has been developed by tailoring the computer program system Riflex, and the validation and accuracy of this modified Riflex system are evaluated by performing uncertainty analyses of measurements and computations. Unexpected, low-frequency depth motions in towed seismic streamer cables occasionally take place when seismic data are being acquired. The phenomenon is analysed and discussed. 99 refs., 116 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A nautical study of towed marine seismic streamer cable configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Egil

    1997-12-31

    This study concerns marine seismic surveying and especially the towed in-sea hardware which is dominated by recording cables (streamers) that are extremely long compared to their diameter, neutrally buoyant and depth controlled. The present work aims to examine the operations from a nautical viewpoint, and the final objective is to propose improvements to the overall efficiency of marine seismic operations. Full-scale data were gathered from seismic vessels in order to identify which physical parameters affect the dynamic motion of the towing vessel and its in-sea hardware. Experimental test programmes have been carried out, and data bases with the hydrodynamic characteristics of the test equipment have been established at speeds comparable to those used in seismic operations. A basic analysis tool to provide dynamic simulations of a seismic streamer cable has been developed by tailoring the computer program system Riflex, and the validation and accuracy of this modified Riflex system are evaluated by performing uncertainty analyses of measurements and computations. Unexpected, low-frequency depth motions in towed seismic streamer cables occasionally take place when seismic data are being acquired. The phenomenon is analysed and discussed. 99 refs., 116 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Probing photo-ionization: simulations of positive streamers in varying N2:O2 mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wormeester, G; Pancheshnyi, S; Luque, A A; Nijdam, S Sander; Ebert, UM Ute

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractPhoto-ionization is the accepted mechanism for the propagation of positive streamers in air though the parameters are not very well known; the efficiency of this mechanism largely depends on the presence of both nitrogen and oxygen. But experiments show that streamer propagation is amazingly robust against changes of the gas composition; even for pure nitrogen with impurity levels below 1 ppm streamers propagate essentially with the same velocity as in air, but their minimal diame...

  17. Numerical modeling of positive streamer in air in nonuniform fields: Efficiency of radicals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikovsky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated

  18. The influence of bremsstrahlung on electric discharge streamers in N2, O2 gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, Christoph; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Streamers are ionization filaments of electric gas discharges. Negative polarity streamers propagate primarily through electron impact ionization, whereas positive streamers in air develop through ionization of oxygen by UV photons emitted by excited nitrogen; however, experiments show that posit...

  19. 2d axisymmetric "beam-bulk" modelling of the generation of runaway electrons by streamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Bourdon, Anne; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    We present results from a 2d axisymmetric numerical model of streamers based on a "beam-bulk" approach which describes cold electrons with a fluid model and high energy electrons with a particle model. The interest is motivated by the generation of runaway electrons by streamers which may participate in the recently observed TGFs and which challenge the modelling. Runaway electrons are known to be generated from streamers when the electric field in its negative tip is of sufficient magnitude. After overtaking the streamer tip, runaways can affect the streamer propagation ahead and may produce high energy photons through the bremsstrahlung process. In conventional model of streamers, the evolution of the streamer discharge is mostly governed by cold electrons. By including runaway electrons, we model their production, their impact on the discharge propagation and can address their role in TGFs. Results of streamer propagation in leader electric field show that the runaway electrons accelerate the streamers, reduce the electric field in its tip and enlarge its radius by pre-ionizing the gas ahead. We observed that if we increase the electric field, the discharge is getting more diffuse, with a pattern driven by the increase in runaway induced ionisation.

  20. A novel pulsed corona discharge reactor based on surface streamers for diesel exhaust remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M.A.; Schoenbach, K.H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

    2010-07-01

    Modelling of surface streamers along insulating surfaces to determine the dielectric strength of insulators in high voltage systems has shown that surface streamers consist of a positive streamer head followed by quasi-neutral plasma in the channel behind and surrounded by a layer of positive charges. This paper described a novel pulsed corona discharge reactor which utilized such surface streamers along insulating surfaces. The electrodes were comprised of a stainless steel wire anode of 150 mm in diameter stretched along the surface of a glass sheet and two parallel aluminum strips as cathodes. An eight-stage Marx bank, was used to produce the surface streamers in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. The paper described the experimental study with particular reference to the schematics of a surface streamer plasma reactor and the dimensions of discharge spaces of three reactors. The purpose of the study was to find the optimum conditions for energy yield and effective destruction of nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhaust. It was concluded that surface streamers generate a more diffuse plasma. Energy costs for production of ozone or nitrogen dioxide that require reactions with bulk gas molecules were nearly the same in surface streamer discharges as in volume streamer discharges. 12 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  1. Evaluation of pulsed streamer corona experiments to determine the O* radical yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heesch, E J M; Winands, G J J; Pemen, A J M

    2008-01-01

    The production of O* radicals in air by a pulsed streamer plasma is studied by integration of a large set of precise experimental data and the chemical kinetics of ozone production. The measured data comprise ozone production, plasma energy, streamer volume, streamer length, streamer velocity, humidity and gas-flow rate. Instead of entering input parameters into a kinetic model to calculate the end products the opposite strategy is followed. Since the amount of end-products (ozone) is known from the measurements the model had to be applied in the reverse direction to determine the input parameters, i.e. the O* radical concentration.

  2. Evaluation of pulsed streamer corona experiments to determine the O* radical yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, E. J. M.; Winands, G. J. J.; Pemen, A. J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The production of O* radicals in air by a pulsed streamer plasma is studied by integration of a large set of precise experimental data and the chemical kinetics of ozone production. The measured data comprise ozone production, plasma energy, streamer volume, streamer length, streamer velocity, humidity and gas-flow rate. Instead of entering input parameters into a kinetic model to calculate the end products the opposite strategy is followed. Since the amount of end-products (ozone) is known from the measurements the model had to be applied in the reverse direction to determine the input parameters, i.e. the O* radical concentration.

  3. Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van de Wetering, F M J H; Blanc, R; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2010-01-01

    Positive streamers are thought to propagate by photo-ionization; the parameters of photo-ionization depend on the nitrogen : oxygen ratio. Therefore we study streamers in nitrogen with 20%, 0.2% and 0.01% oxygen and in pure nitrogen as well as in pure oxygen and argon. Our new experimental set-up guarantees contamination of the pure gases to be well below 1 ppm. Streamers in oxygen are difficult to measure as they emit considerably less light in the sensitivity range of our fast ICCD camera than the other gases. Streamers in pure nitrogen and in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures look generally similar, but become somewhat thinner and branch more with decreasing oxygen content. In pure nitrogen the streamers can branch so much that they resemble feathers. This feature is even more pronounced in pure argon, with approximately 10 2 hair tips cm -3 in the feathers at 200 mbar; this density can be interpreted as the free electron density creating avalanches towards the streamer stem. It is remarkable that the streamer velocity is essentially the same for similar voltage and pressure in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures as well as in pure nitrogen, while the oxygen concentration and therefore the photo-ionization lengths vary by more than five orders of magnitude. Streamers in argon have essentially the same velocity as well. The physical similarity of streamers at different pressures is confirmed in all gases; the minimal diameters are smaller than in earlier measurements.

  4. Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijdam, S; Van de Wetering, F M J H; Blanc, R; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U, E-mail: s.nijdam@tue.n [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Applied Physics, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-04-14

    Positive streamers are thought to propagate by photo-ionization; the parameters of photo-ionization depend on the nitrogen : oxygen ratio. Therefore we study streamers in nitrogen with 20%, 0.2% and 0.01% oxygen and in pure nitrogen as well as in pure oxygen and argon. Our new experimental set-up guarantees contamination of the pure gases to be well below 1 ppm. Streamers in oxygen are difficult to measure as they emit considerably less light in the sensitivity range of our fast ICCD camera than the other gases. Streamers in pure nitrogen and in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures look generally similar, but become somewhat thinner and branch more with decreasing oxygen content. In pure nitrogen the streamers can branch so much that they resemble feathers. This feature is even more pronounced in pure argon, with approximately 10{sup 2} hair tips cm{sup -3} in the feathers at 200 mbar; this density can be interpreted as the free electron density creating avalanches towards the streamer stem. It is remarkable that the streamer velocity is essentially the same for similar voltage and pressure in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures as well as in pure nitrogen, while the oxygen concentration and therefore the photo-ionization lengths vary by more than five orders of magnitude. Streamers in argon have essentially the same velocity as well. The physical similarity of streamers at different pressures is confirmed in all gases; the minimal diameters are smaller than in earlier measurements.

  5. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  6. Temperature and pressure effects on the properties of positive streamers in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental results on how the properties of positive, pulsed streamers in air depend on E/n (E is the applied electric field and n is the gas density). Streamers are generated in a wire-cylinder reactor at constant voltage (so constant E). The density is changed either by

  7. Study on the streamer inception characteristics under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The streamer is the main process in an air gap discharge, and the inception characteristics of streamers have been widely applied in engineering. Streamer inception characteristics under DC voltage have been studied by many researchers, but the inception characteristics under impulse voltage, and particularly under lightning impulse voltage with a high voltage rise rate have rarely been studied. A measurement system based on integrated optoelectronic technology has been proposed in this paper, and the streamer inception characteristics in a 1-m-long rod-plane air gap that was energized by a positive lightning impulse voltage have been researched. We have also measured the streamer inception electric field using electrodes with different radii of curvature and different voltage rise rates. As a result, a modified empirical criterion for the streamer inception electric field that considers the voltage rise rate has been proposed, and the wide applicability of this criterion has been proved. Based on the streamer inception time-lag obtained, we determined that the field distribution obeys a Rayleigh distribution, which explains the change law of the streamer inception time-lag. The characteristic parameter of the Rayleigh distribution lies in the range from 0.6 to 2.5 when the radius of curvature of the electrode head is in the range from 0.5 cm to 2.5 cm and the voltage rise rate ranges from 80 kV/μs to 240kV/μs under positive lightning impulse voltage.

  8. Experiments on how photo- and background ionization affect positive streamers: oxygen concentration, repetition and radioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers in air and other oxygen-nitrogen mixtures are generally believed to propagate against the electron drift direction due to photo-ionization. Photo-ionization is the non-local ionization of O2-molecules by UV radiation from excited N2-molecules. This facilitates the streamer

  9. Evaluation of a charged coupled device camera for streamer chamber applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, D.; Wallick, W.; Kenyon, R.; Lubatti, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The response of a charged coupled device to a Ne light source is studied and compared to the Kodak SO-143 film commonly used for streamer chamber applications. It is found that the CCD-202 cooled to -10 0 C is considerably more sensitive than the film. A test of a CCD-based measurement system observing a streamer chamber is described. 3 refs

  10. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-01

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  11. Circuit dependence of the diameter of pulsed positive streamers in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briels, T M P [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kos, J [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ebert, U [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-12-21

    The diameter and branching structure of positive streamers in ambient air are investigated with a fast iCCD camera. We use different pulsed power circuits and find that they generate different spatial streamer structures. The electrodes have a point-plane geometry and a distance of 40 or 80 mm, and the peak voltages over the discharge gap are up to 60 kV. Depending on circuit and peak voltage, we observe streamers with diameters varying gradually between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The streamer velocity increases with the diameter, ranging from 0.07 to 1.5 mm ns{sup -1}, while the current density within the streamers stays almost constant. The thicker streamers extend much further before they branch than the thinner ones. The pulsed power supplies are a switched capacitor supply with an internal resistance of 1 k{omega} and a transmission line transformer supply with an impedance of 200 {omega}; additional resistors change the impedance as well as the voltage rise time in the case of the capacitor supply. We observe that short rise times and low impedance create thick streamers close to the pointed electrode, while a longer rise time as well as a higher impedance create thinner streamers at the same peak voltage over the discharge.

  12. Circuit dependence of the diameter of pulsed positive streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briels, T M P; Kos, J; Veldhuizen, E M van; Ebert, U

    2006-01-01

    The diameter and branching structure of positive streamers in ambient air are investigated with a fast iCCD camera. We use different pulsed power circuits and find that they generate different spatial streamer structures. The electrodes have a point-plane geometry and a distance of 40 or 80 mm, and the peak voltages over the discharge gap are up to 60 kV. Depending on circuit and peak voltage, we observe streamers with diameters varying gradually between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The streamer velocity increases with the diameter, ranging from 0.07 to 1.5 mm ns -1 , while the current density within the streamers stays almost constant. The thicker streamers extend much further before they branch than the thinner ones. The pulsed power supplies are a switched capacitor supply with an internal resistance of 1 kΩ and a transmission line transformer supply with an impedance of 200 Ω; additional resistors change the impedance as well as the voltage rise time in the case of the capacitor supply. We observe that short rise times and low impedance create thick streamers close to the pointed electrode, while a longer rise time as well as a higher impedance create thinner streamers at the same peak voltage over the discharge

  13. Positive streamers in air and nitrogen of varying density: experiments on similarity laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briels, T M P; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2008-01-01

    Positive streamers in ambient air at pressures from 0.013 to 1 bar are investigated experimentally. The voltage applied to the anode needle ranges from 5 to 45 kV, the discharge gap from 1 to 16 cm. Using a 'slow' voltage rise time of 100-180 ns, the streamers are intentionally kept thin. For each pressure p, we find a minimal diameter d min . To test whether streamers at different pressures are similar, the minimal streamer diameter d min is multiplied by its pressure p; we find this product to be well approximated by p · d min = 0.20 ± 0.02 mm bar over two decades of air pressure at room temperature. The value also fits diameters of sprite discharges above thunderclouds at an altitude of 80 km when extrapolated to room temperature (as air density rather than pressure determines the physical behaviour). The minimal velocity of streamers in our measurements is approximately 0.1 mm ns -1 = 10 5 m s -1 . The same minimal velocity has been reported for tendrils in sprites. We also investigate the size of the initial ionization cloud at the electrode tip from which the streamers emerge, and the streamer length between branching events. The same quantities are also measured in nitrogen with a purity of approximately 99.9%. We characterize the essential differences with streamers in air and find a minimal diameter of p · d min = 0.12 ± 0.02 mm bar in our nitrogen.

  14. Study on the streamer inception characteristics under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2017-11-01

    The streamer is the main process in an air gap discharge, and the inception characteristics of streamers have been widely applied in engineering. Streamer inception characteristics under DC voltage have been studied by many researchers, but the inception characteristics under impulse voltage, and particularly under lightning impulse voltage with a high voltage rise rate have rarely been studied. A measurement system based on integrated optoelectronic technology has been proposed in this paper, and the streamer inception characteristics in a 1-m-long rod-plane air gap that was energized by a positive lightning impulse voltage have been researched. We have also measured the streamer inception electric field using electrodes with different radii of curvature and different voltage rise rates. As a result, a modified empirical criterion for the streamer inception electric field that considers the voltage rise rate has been proposed, and the wide applicability of this criterion has been proved. Based on the streamer inception time-lag obtained, we determined that the field distribution obeys a Rayleigh distribution, which explains the change law of the streamer inception time-lag. The characteristic parameter of the Rayleigh distribution lies in the range from 0.6 to 2.5 when the radius of curvature of the electrode head is in the range from 0.5 cm to 2.5 cm and the voltage rise rate ranges from 80 kV/μs to 240kV/μs under positive lightning impulse voltage.

  15. Optical diagnostics of streamer discharges in atmospheric gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 46 (2014), s. 463001-463001 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/1709 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * optical diagnostics * laser-induced fluorescence * LIF * TALIF * red-sprite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/46/463001/pdf/0022-3727_47_46_463001.pdf

  16. CCD camera system for use with a streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angius, S.A.; Au, R.; Crawley, G.C.; Djalali, C.; Fox, R.; Maier, M.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Molen, A. van der; Westfall, G.D.; Tickle, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A system based on three charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras is described here. It has been used to acquire images from a streamer chamber and consists of three identical subsystems, one for each camera. Each subsystem contains an optical lens, CCD camera head, camera controller, an interface between the CCD and a microprocessor, and a link to a minicomputer for data recording and on-line analysis. Image analysis techniques have been developed to enhance the quality of the particle tracks. Some steps have been made to automatically identify tracks and reconstruct the event. (orig.)

  17. Pulsed Streamer Discharge Characteristics of Ozone Production in Dry Air

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, W.J.M.; Miyahara, Y.; Namihira, T.; Katsuki, S.; Sakugawa, T.; Hackam, R.; Akiyama, H.; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 波平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2000-01-01

    Experimental investigation of HV short pulsed streamer discharges in dry air-fed ozonizers under various operating conditions are reported. Ozone concentration, energy input and ozone production yield (efficiency) were measured at various voltages (14 to 37 kV), pulse repetition rates (25 to 400 pulses per second, pps), flow rates (1.5 to 3.0 1/min) and different gap spacings (10 to 20 mm) at a pressure of 1.01×105 Pa in dry air. A spiral copper wire (1 mm in diameter) made to a cylindrical c...

  18. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  19. Effect of electric field configuration on streamer and partial discharge phenomena in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid under AC stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z; Liu, Q; Wang, Z D

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns pre-breakdown phenomena, including streamer characteristics from a fundamental perspective and partial discharge (PD) measurements from an industrial perspective, in a hydrocarbon insulating liquid. The aim was to investigate the possible changes of the liquid’s streamer and PD characteristics and their correlations when the uniformity of the AC electric field varies. In the experiments, a plane-to-plane electrode system incorporating a needle protrusion was used in addition to a needle-to-plane electrode system. When the applied electric field became more uniform, fewer radial branches occurred and streamer propagation towards the ground electrode was enhanced. The transition from streamer propagation dominated breakdown in divergent fields to streamer initiation dominated breakdown in uniform fields was evidenced. Relationships between streamer and PD characteristics were established, which were found to be electric field dependent. PD of the same apparent charge would indicate longer streamers if the electric field is more uniform. (paper)

  20. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montijn, C.; Hundsdorfer, W.; Ebert, U.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers

  1. Surface streamer propagations on an alumina bead: experimental observation and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Kim, Hyun-Ha; Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae-Woong; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    A surface streamer in a simplified packed-bed reactor has been studied both experimentally (through time-resolved ICCD imaging) and theoretically (through two-dimensional numerical modeling). The propagation of streamers on an alumina spherical bead without catalytic coating shows three distinct phases—the generation and propagation of a primary streamer (PS) with a moderate velocity and electric field, fast PS acceleration with an enhanced electric field, and slow secondary streamer (SS) propagation. The velocity of the streamer is less than that of propagation in a gaseous media. The electric field and velocity at the streamer front are maximized when a PS propagates during the interval from the midpoint of the bead to the bottom electrode. The SS exhibits a much lower velocity and electric field compared with the PS. The PS velocity is affected by an external applied voltage, especially when it approaches the ground electrode. However, that of the SS remains constant regardless of the voltage change. The simulation shows that the PS exhibits a high electric field mainly created by the space charge induced by electrons, whereas the SS relies on ion movement with electron decay in a charge-filled thin streamer body.

  2. Two-Dimensional Electron Density Measurement of Positive Streamer Discharge in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.

  3. Dependence of streamer density on electric field strength on positive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koki, Nakamura; Takahumi, Okuyama; Wang, Douyan; Takao, N.; Hidenori, Akiyama; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Pulsed streamer discharge plasma, a type of non-thermal plasma, is known as generation method of reactive radicals and ozone and treatment of exhausted gas. From our previous research, the distance between electrodes has been considered a very important parameter for applications using pulsed streamer discharge. However, how the distance between electrodes affects the pulsed discharge hasn't been clarified. In this research, the propagation process of pulsed streamer discharge in a wire-plate electrode was observed using an ICCD camera for 4 electrodes having different distance between electrodes. The distance between electrodes was changeable at 45 mm, 40 mm, 35 mm, and 30 mm. The results show that, when the distance between electrodes was shortened, applied voltage with a pulse duration of 100 ns decreased from 80 to 60.3 kV. Conversely, discharge current increased from 149 to 190 A. Streamer head velocity became faster. On the other hand, Streamer head density at onset time of streamer head propagation didn't change. This is considered due to the electric field strength of streamer head at that time, in result, it was about 14 kV/mm under each distance between electrodes.

  4. Probing background ionization: positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Wormeester, G

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. A streamer can supply these electrons by itself through photo-ionization, or the electrons can be present due to external background ionization. Here we investigate the effects of background ionization on streamer propagation and morphology by changing the gas composition and the repetition rate of the voltage pulses, and by adding a small amount of radioactive 85 Kr. We find that the general morphology of a positive streamer discharge in high-purity nitrogen depends on background ionization: at lower background ionization levels the streamers branch more and have a more feather-like appearance. This is observed both when varying the repetition rate and when adding 85 Kr, though side branches are longer with the radioactive admixture. But velocities and minimal diameters of streamers are virtually independent of the background ionization level. In air, the inception cloud breaks up into streamers at a smaller radius when the repetition rate and therefore the background ionization level is higher. When measuring the effects of the pulse repetition rate and of the radioactive admixture on the discharge morphology, we found that our estimates of background ionization levels are consistent with these observations; this gives confidence in the estimates. Streamer channels generally do not follow the paths of previous discharge channels for repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. We estimate the effect of recombination and diffusion of ions and free electrons from the previous discharge and conclude that the old trail has largely disappeared at the moment of the next voltage pulse; therefore the next streamers indeed cannot follow the old trail.

  5. A large streamer chamber muon tracking detector in a high-flux fixed-target application

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gómez-Tato, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, K; Layda, T; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Pereira, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Reyhancan, I; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Segel, R E; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Tzamouranis, Yu; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zamiatin, N I; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    Arrays of limited streamer tubes of the Iarocci type were deployed in our experiment at CERN as part of a forward muon detector system with provisions for the beam to pass through the center of each panel in the array. A total of sixteen 4 m x 4 m panels were assembled with inductive readout strips on both sides of each panel. An active feedback system was deployed to regulate the high voltage to the streamer tubes to insure a constant efficiency for minimum ionizing particles. The arrays were operated in this environment for over five years of data taking. Streamer tube track-reconstruction efficiencies and tube replacement rates are reported.

  6. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  7. Diagnostics and modeling of high pressure streamer induced discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marode, E.; Dessante, P.; Deschamps, N.; Deniset, C.

    2001-01-01

    A great variety of diagnostic has been applied to gain information on basic parameter governing high pressure nonthermal filamentary plasmas (and namely streamer induced filamentary discharges). Apart from electrical diagnostics, gas discharge, in contrast with solid state physics, can greatly benefit from all optical techniques owing to its ''transparent'' state. Emission and absorption spectroscopy, as well as LIF or CARS (talk are given during this meeting on these two techniques) are among such specific possibilities. The figures gained from these diagnostic measurements has generally no meaning by itself. They must be worked out, by means of calibrated former results, and/or by using them as input in high pressure plasma modeling. Mixing experimental and modeling approach is necessary for reaching relevant physical knowledge of the high pressure filamentary discharges processes. It is shown that diffusion, and thermal space and time distribution, must fully be taken into account

  8. Local electron mean energy profile of positive primary streamer discharge with pin-plate electrodes in oxygen—nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima Wen-Xia; Peng Qing-Jun; Yang Qing; Yuan Tao; Shi Jian

    2013-01-01

    Local electron mean energy (LEME) has a direct effect on the rates of collisional ionization of molecules and atoms by electrons. Electron-impact ionization plays an important role and is the main process for the production of charged particles in a primary streamer discharge. Detailed research on the LEME profile in a primary streamer discharge is extremely important for a comprehensive understanding of the local physical mechanism of a streamer. In this study, the LEME profile of the primary streamer discharge in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures with a pin-plate gap of 0.5 cm under an impulse voltage is investigated using a fluid model. The fluid model includes the electron mean energy density equation, as well as continuity equations for electrons and ions and Poisson's electric field equation. The study finds that, except in the initial stage of the primary streamer, the LEME in the primary streamer tip tends to increase as the oxygen-nitrogen mole ratio increases and the pressure decreases. When the primary streamer bridges the gap, the LEME in the primary streamer channel is smaller than the first ionization energies of oxygen and nitrogen. The LEME in the primary streamer channel then decreases as the oxygen-nitrogen mole ratio increases and the pressure increases. The LEME in the primary streamer tip is primarily dependent on the reduced electric field with mole ratios of oxygen-nitrogen given in the oxygen-nitrogen mixtures. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  9. Fractal multiplication of electron avalanches and streamers: new mechanism of electrical breakdown?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficker, T

    2007-01-01

    Long-lasting problems concerning peculiar statistical behaviour of high populated electron avalanches have been analysed. These avalanches are precursors of streamer breakdown in gases. The present streamer theory fails in explaining severe systematic deviations from the Furry statistics that is believed to be a governing statistical law. Such a deviated behaviour of high populated avalanches seems to be a consequence of a special pre-breakdown mechanism that is rather different from that known so far in discharge physics. This analysis tends towards formulating a modified theoretical concept supplementing the streamer theory by a new statistical view of pre-streamer states. The correctness of the concept is corroborated by a series of experiments

  10. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description

  11. Application of multi-source waveform inversion to marine streamer data using the global correlation norm

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conventional multi-source waveform inversion using an objective function based on the least-square misfit cannot be applied to marine streamer acquisition data because of inconsistent acquisition geometries between observed and modelled data

  12. Multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data using the normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Even though the encoded multi-source approach dramatically reduces the computational cost of waveform inversion, it is generally not applicable to marine streamer data. This is because the simultaneous-sources modeled data cannot be muted to comply

  13. Particle-in-cell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry; Pachuilo, Michael; Raja, Laxminarayan L

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of streamer branching remains one of the unsolved problems of low-temperature plasma physics. The understanding of this phenomenon requires very high-fidelity models that include, for instance, the kinetic description of electrons

  14. Auroral streamers: characteristics of associated precipitation,convection and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the long-duration steady convection activity on 11 December 1998, the development of a few dozen auroral streamers was monitored by Polar UVI instrument in the dark northern nightside ionosphere. On many occasions the DMSP spacecraft crossed the streamer-conjugate regions over the sunlit southern auroral oval, permitting the investigation of the characteristics of ion and electron precipitation, ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents associated with the streamers. We confirm the conjugacy of streamer-associated precipitation, as well as their association with ionospheric plasma streams having a substantial equatorward convection component. The observations display two basic types of streamer-associated precipitation. In its polewardmost half, the streamer-associated (field-aligned accelerated electron precipitation coincides with the strong (≥2–7μA/m2 upward field-aligned currents on the westward flank of the convection stream, sometimes accompanied by enhanced proton precipitation in the adjacent region. In the equatorward portion of the streamer, the enhanced precipitation includes both electrons and protons, often without indication of field-aligned acceleration. Most of these characteristics are consistent with the model describing the generation of the streamer by the narrow plasma bubbles (bursty bulk flows which are contained on dipolarized field lines in the plasma sheet, although the mapping is strongly distorted which makes it difficult to quantitatively interprete the ionospheric image. The convective streams in the ionosphere, when well-resolved, had the maximal convection speeds ∼0.5–1km/s, total field-aligned currents of a few tenths of MA, thicknesses of a few hundreds km and a potential drop of a few kV across the stream. However, this might represent only a small part of the associated flux transport in the equatorial plasma sheet.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fiels and

  15. Application of CA and NN for event recognition in experiments DISTO and STREAMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussa, M.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kisel, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm for charged particle recognition and event identification applying a cellular automaton (CA) model and a multi-layer neural network (NN) has been developed for the DISTO experiment under way at Saturne (Saclay, France). A further development of the model will be applied for particle recognition in the Dubna Streamer Chamber Spectrometer (DSCS) for studying pion-nucleus absorption (experiments DISTO and STREAMER). (orig.)

  16. Influence of Auroral Streamers on Rapid Evolution of Ionospheric SAPS Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Mishin, E. V.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nishitani, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) often show large, rapid enhancements above their slowly varying component. We present simultaneous observations from ground-based all-sky imagers and flows from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars to investigate the relationship between auroral phenomena and flow enhancement. We first identified auroral streamers approaching the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval to examine how often the subauroral flow increased. We also performed the reverse query starting with subauroral flow enhancements and then evaluated the auroral conditions. In the forward study, 98% of the streamers approaching the equatorward boundary were associated with SAPS flow enhancements reaching 700 m/s and typically hundreds of m/s above background speeds. The reverse study reveals that flow enhancements associated with streamers (60%) and enhanced larger-scale convection (37%) contribute to SAPS flow enhancements. The strong correlation of auroral streamers with rapid evolution (approximately minutes) of SAPS flows suggests that transient fast earthward plasma sheet flows can often lead to westward SAPS flow enhancements in the subauroral region and that such enhancements are far more common than only during substorms because of the much more frequent occurrences of streamers under various geomagnetic conditions. We also found a strong correlation between flow duration and streamer duration and a weak correlation between SAPS flow velocity and streamer intensity. This result suggests that intense flow bursts in the plasma sheet (which correlate with intense streamers) are associated with intense SAPS ionospheric flows perhaps by enhancing the ring current pressure and localized pressure gradients when they are able to penetrate close enough to Earth.

  17. A streamer tube detector for operation at high rates in the CPLEAR experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet, J.M.; Carroll, M.; Cawley, E.L.; Dodgson, M.; Fry, J.R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Harrison, P.; Harrison, P.F.; Haselden, A.R.; Hayman, P.J.; King, D.; Maley, P.D.; Sacks, L.E.; Sanders, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The design and instrumentation of a streamer tube detector for operation in the high rate environment of the CPLEAR experiment at CERN is described. A study of gas mixtures for use in the streamer tube is discussed. The final mixture of 46% argon, 50% isobutane, 4% methylal and 0.01% freon produces an axial resolution of 1.5 cm with an efficiency of 98% per layer. (orig.)

  18. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-01-01

    Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs), are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age). More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Im...

  19. Positive streamers in air and nitrogen of varying density: experiments on similarity laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briels, T M P; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P O Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: ebert@cwi.nl, E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl

    2008-12-07

    Positive streamers in ambient air at pressures from 0.013 to 1 bar are investigated experimentally. The voltage applied to the anode needle ranges from 5 to 45 kV, the discharge gap from 1 to 16 cm. Using a 'slow' voltage rise time of 100-180 ns, the streamers are intentionally kept thin. For each pressure p, we find a minimal diameter d{sub min}. To test whether streamers at different pressures are similar, the minimal streamer diameter d{sub min} is multiplied by its pressure p; we find this product to be well approximated by p {center_dot} d{sub min} = 0.20 {+-} 0.02 mm bar over two decades of air pressure at room temperature. The value also fits diameters of sprite discharges above thunderclouds at an altitude of 80 km when extrapolated to room temperature (as air density rather than pressure determines the physical behaviour). The minimal velocity of streamers in our measurements is approximately 0.1 mm ns{sup -1} = 10{sup 5} m s{sup -1}. The same minimal velocity has been reported for tendrils in sprites. We also investigate the size of the initial ionization cloud at the electrode tip from which the streamers emerge, and the streamer length between branching events. The same quantities are also measured in nitrogen with a purity of approximately 99.9%. We characterize the essential differences with streamers in air and find a minimal diameter of p {center_dot} d{sub min} = 0.12 {+-} 0.02 mm bar in our nitrogen.

  20. Preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes using a pulsed streamer discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaka, Kiminobu; Suehiro, Junya; Kanatake, Yusuke; Kato, Yuki; Hara, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique for the preparation of water-soluble carbon nanotubes was demonstrated using a pulsed streamer discharge generated in water. The technique involved chemical reactions between radicals generated by the pulsed streamer discharge and carbon nanotubes. The pulsed streamer-treated carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed and well solubilized in water for a month or longer. The mechanism of solubilization of carbon nanotubes by the pulsed streamer discharge is discussed based on FTIR spectroscopy and optical emission spectra measurements. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that -OH groups, which are known to impart a hydrophilic nature to carbon material, were introduced on the carbon nanotube surface. Optical emission spectra from the pulsed streamer plasma showed that highly oxidative O * and H * radicals were generated in water. These results suggest that the functionalization of the carbon nanotube surface by -OH group can be attributed to the O * and H * radicals. An advantage of the proposed method is that there is no need for any chemical agents or additives for solubilization. Chemical agents for solubilization are generated from the water itself by the electrochemical reactions induced by the pulsed streamer discharge

  1. Spectral analysis of the light emitted from streamers in chlorinated alkane and alkene liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingebrigtsen, S; Bonifaci, N; Denat, A; Lesaint, O

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the time-averaged optical emission from fast positive and negative non-breakdown streamers under pulsed divergent field conditions in five chlorocarbon liquids, namely, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. We have accumulated light emitted from the first 10-15 μm trail of a few thousand streamers. We have also briefly studied single breakdown arcs in tetrachloromethane. Atomic lines of hydrogen, chlorine and carbon as well as excited states of C 2 radicals (Swan bands) have been observed, with sufficient resolution for evaluating line and band-shapes. The characteristic broadening, shift and asymmetry of atomic lines varied significantly between the liquids. Differences between the two streamer polarities were comparatively small. Densities of electrons and neutrals in the illuminated phase have been deduced from broadening of atomic lines, atomic excitation temperatures from absolute line intensities and rotational and vibrational temperatures from the Swan bands. The gas densities of the propagating streamers were generally very high (∼10% of critical) and with a high degree of ionization (∼1 per mille ). Dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane produced re-illuminating streamers with densities close to atmospheric conditions, in agreement with a rapid pressure relaxation. Rotational temperatures were high and in the range 2 x 10 3 -6 x 10 3 K for the different liquids. Results can be interpreted to suggest a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium in the streamer plasmas.

  2. Analyses of electron runaway in front of the negative streamer channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.; Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.

    2017-08-01

    X-ray and γ-ray emissions, observed in correlation with negative leaders of lightning and long sparks of high-voltage laboratory experiments, are conventionally connected with the bremsstrahlung of high-energy runaway electrons (REs). Here we extend a focusing mechanism, analyzed in our previous paper, which allows the electric field to reach magnitudes, required for a generation of significant RE fluxes and associated bremsstrahlung, when the ionization wave propagates in a narrow, ionized channel created by a previous streamer. Under such conditions we compute the production rate of REs per unit streamer length as a function of the streamer velocity and predict that, once a streamer is formed with the electric field capable of producing REs ahead of the streamer front, the ionization induced by the REs is capable of creating an ionized channel that allows for self-sustained propagation of the RE-emitting ionization wave independent of the initial electron concentration. Thus, the streamer coronas of the leaders are probable sources of REs producing the observed high-energy radiation. To prove these predictions, new simulations are planned, which would show explicitly that the preionization in front of the channel via REs will lead to the ionization wave propagation self-consistent with RE generation.

  3. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2017-01-05

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the chemical kinetics of the discharge. We apply positive and negative trigger voltages much higher than the breakdown voltage and study the dynamic characteristics of the resulting discharge. We observe that, for high positive trigger voltages, the streamer moves along the surface of the gas bubble during the initial stages of the discharge. We also find a considerable difference in the evolution of the streamer discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with more uniform volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel for negative trigger voltages due to formation of multiple streamers. We also observe that the presence of water vapor does not influence the breakdown voltage of the discharge but greatly affects the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer channel.

  4. Flow Analysis of a Rising Crude Oil Micro-Droplet Affected by Attached Microbial Streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Matthew; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic experiments show bacteria flowing past a pinned crude oil droplet produce microbial aggregates and streamers on the oil-water interface. High speed DIC microscopy at 1000 fps for 1 sec with a sampling interval of 10 min captures the evolving flow and bacterial motility as well as adhesion, aggregation and streamer events. With bacteria as tracers, velocity measurements are acquired with in-house PIV-assisted PTV software. Flow fields with spatial resolution 2.5 μm are measured around an O(100) μm drop in a 700 ×700 μm window. Full budgets of the 2D Navier-Stokes equation are faithfully resolved to determine pressure gradients by performing the balance over a control volume enclosing the droplet. Pressure gradients are integrated over the border of the control region to obtain pressure profiles at the leading and trailing edges. A momentum balance can be used to determine the drag induced by the drop and any attached streamers. Cases with and without streamers and their differing flow features are presented. Additionally streamers produce nonzero curl in the pressure gradient field providing a tool for identifying the position of otherwise invisible streamers. Ongoing experiments and future applications of the tools presented here will be discussed. Funded by GoMRI, NSF, ARO.

  5. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  6. Multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data using the normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    Even though the encoded multi-source approach dramatically reduces the computational cost of waveform inversion, it is generally not applicable to marine streamer data. This is because the simultaneous-sources modeled data cannot be muted to comply with the configuration of the marine streamer data, which causes differences in the number of stacked-traces, or energy levels, between the modeled and observed data. Since the conventional L2 norm does not account for the difference in energy levels, multi-source inversion based on the conventional L2 norm does not work for marine streamer data. In this study, we propose the L2, approximated L2, and L1 norm using the normalized wavefields for the multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data. Since the normalized wavefields mitigate the different energy levels between the observed and modeled wavefields, the multi-source waveform inversion using the normalized wavefields can be applied to marine streamer data. We obtain the gradient of the objective functions using the back-propagation algorithm. To conclude, the gradient of the L2 norm using the normalized wavefields is exactly the same as that of the global correlation norm. In the numerical examples, the new objective functions using the normalized wavefields generate successful results whereas conventional L2 norm does not.

  7. Electron densities and energies of a guided argon streamer in argon and air environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübner, S; Hofmann, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the temporally and spatially resolved electron densities and mean energies of a guided argon streamer in ambient argon and air obtained by Thomson laser scattering. The plasma is driven by a positive monopolar 3.5 kV pulse, with a pulse width of 500 ns and a frequency of 5 kHz which is synchronized with the high repetition rate laser system. This configuration enables us to use the spatial and temporal stability of the guided streamer to accumulate a multitude of laser/plasma shots by a triple grating spectrometer equipped with an ICCD camera and to determine the electron parameters. We found a strong initial n e -overshoot with a maximum of 7 × 10 19  m −3 and a mean electron energy of 4.5 eV. This maximum is followed by a fast decay toward the streamer channel. Moreover, a 2D distribution of the electron density is obtained which exhibits a peculiar mushroom-like shape of the streamer head with a diameter significantly larger than that of the emission profile. A correlation of the width of the streamer head with the expected pre-ionization channel is found. (paper)

  8. Numerical simulation for production of O and N radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    A streamer discharge model is developed to analyse the characteristics of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in point-to-plane electrodes filled with oxygen-nitrogen mixed gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this paper we study the mechanisms of O and N radical production in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge. To confirm the validity of the simulation model, the discharge emission of light and the discharge current are compared with experimental data at several voltages in gas mixtures with 2-20% oxygen concentrations. The calculated streak picture and the axial distribution of streamer luminous intensity are in good agreement with our previous experimental results. After demonstrating the reliability of the model, we performed a numerical study on radical production by the streamer discharge. The experimentally obtained axial distributions of oxygen radical production in O 2 (20%)/N 2 and nitrogen radical production in O 2 (2%)/N 2 are successfully reproduced in our simulation. For the production of nitrogen radicals, two-step dissociation through the vibrationally excited states is predominant. (paper)

  9. Initiation of Positive Streamers near Uncharged Ice Hydrometeors in the Thundercloud Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.

    2018-05-01

    Since the threshold electric field required for breakdown of air is much higher than the maximum field strength measured in thunderstorm clouds, the problem of lightning initiation still remains unsolved. According to the popular hypothesis, lightning can be initiated by a streamer discharge in the field enhanced near a hydrometeor. To verify the adequacy of this hypothesis, the development of a positive streamer propagating along the thunderstorm electric field in the vicinity of an ice needle at an air pressure corresponding to an altitude of 5 km (which is typical of the lightning initiation conditions) was simulated numerically. The hydrometeor dimensions are determined at which streamers can be initiated at different strengths of the thunderstorm electric field.

  10. Possibilities to improve sensitivity and rendering of detail of streamer chamber track photographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, J

    1975-01-01

    Streamer chambers are increasingly used as effective particle detectors in the field of experimental elementary particle physics. The photographic recording of high energy events in streamer chambers is limited by performance of current photographic silver-halide layers. Similar limiting problems occur in other fields as well, e.g., in astronomy, x-ray medicine and photogrammetry; therefore methods have been developed to increase sensitivity and improve the information transfer of the emulsion. In this paper these methods have been classified and summarized under the aspect of their application to streamer image recording. Proposals for further investigations are given. Especially the applicability of these methods, their possibility of combination to large film lengths should be investigated The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is proposed as criterion to estimate and compare the different methods.

  11. A PIC-MCC code for simulation of streamer propagation in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Neubert, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A particle code has been developed to study the distribution and acceleration of electrons in electric discharges in air. The code can follow the evolution of a discharge from the initial stage of a single free electron in a background electric field to the formation of an electron avalanche...... and its transition into a streamer. The code is in 2D axi-symmetric coordinates, allowing quasi 3D simulations during the initial stages of streamer formation. This is important for realistic simulations of problems where space charge fields are essential such as in streamer formation. The charged...... particles are followed in a Cartesian mesh and the electric field is updated with Poisson's equation from the charged particle densities. Collisional processes between electrons and air molecules are simulated with a Monte Carlo technique, according to cross section probabilities. The code also includes...

  12. Simulation of subnanosecond streamers in atmospheric-pressure air: Effects of polarity of applied voltage pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Results of simulation of subnanosecond streamer propagation in corona gap configuration, obtained in the framework of 2D fluid model, are presented. Effects related with the polarity of a voltage pulse applied to the stressed electrode are discussed. It is argued that these effects (dependence of the discharge current and propagation velocity on the polarity of applied voltage) observed in experiments can be attributed to the difference in initial (preceding the streamer formation) distributions of charged species inside the gap. This difference can be caused by preionization (at negative polarity) of the gas inside the discharge gap by runaway electrons. Calculated streamers have large widths (up to 1 cm) and move with velocities in the range of 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10 }cm s{sup −1}, similar to experimental data.

  13. Studies of the stability and sistematics of operation of the DELPHI plastic streamer tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Bilenky, M.S.; Bonyushkin, Yu.Ye.; Korrytov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The influeNce of gas pressure and temperature, slight changes in a gas mixture, self-sustaining discharge, aging, different deviations in the detector geometry on the operation of the DELPHI plastic streamer tubes is studied. The contribution of these factors to the DELPHI hadron calorimeter energy resolution is estimated. The major influence is found to be due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (∼ ±1% streamer charge change per ±1 Torr). The question of the choice of a gas mixture is studied as well. Maximal streamer charge is shown to be independent of component concentrations in the Ar:CO 2 :i-C 4 H 10 ) or C 5 H 12 ) gas mixtures. 23 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  14. MHD Simulations of the Eruption of Coronal Flux Ropes under Coronal Streamers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yuhong, E-mail: yfan@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, we investigate the eruption of coronal flux ropes underlying coronal streamers and the development of a prominence eruption. We initialize a quasi-steady solution of a coronal helmet streamer, into which we impose at the lower boundary the slow emergence of a part of a twisted magnetic torus. As a result, a quasi-equilibrium flux rope is built up under the streamer. With varying streamer sizes and different lengths and total twists of the flux rope that emerges, we found different scenarios for the evolution from quasi-equilibrium to eruption. In the cases with a broad streamer, the flux rope remains well confined until there is sufficient twist such that it first develops the kink instability and evolves through a sequence of kinked, confined states with increasing height until it eventually develops a “hernia-like” ejective eruption. For significantly twisted flux ropes, prominence condensations form in the dips of the twisted field lines due to runaway radiative cooling. Once formed, the prominence-carrying field becomes significantly non-force-free due to the weight of the prominence, despite having low plasma β . As the flux rope erupts, the prominence erupts, showing substantial draining along the legs of the erupting flux rope. The prominence may not show a kinked morphology even though the flux rope becomes kinked. On the other hand, in the case with a narrow streamer, the flux rope with less than one wind of twist can erupt via the onset of the torus instability.

  15. Experimental Study on Branch and Diffuse Type of Streamers in Leader Restrike of Long Air Gap Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen She; Zeng Rong; Zhuang Chijie; Zhou Xuan; Ding Yujian

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems in the Ultra High Voltage (UHV) transmission project is to choose the external insulation distance, which requires a deep understanding of the long air gap discharge mechanism. The leader-streamer propagation is one of most important stages in long air gap discharge. In the conductor-tower lattice configuration, we have measured the voltage, the current on the high voltage side and the electric field in the gap. While the streamer in the leader-streamer system presented a conical or hyperboloid diffuse shape, the clear branch structure streamer in front of the leader was firstly observed by a high speed camera in the experiment. Besides, it is found that the leader velocity, width and injected charge for the branch type streamer are greater than those of a diffuse type. We propose that the phenomenon results from the high humidity, which was 15.5-16.5 g/m 3 in our experiment. (paper)

  16. The differences between storms driven by helmet streamer CIRs and storms driven by pseudostreamer CIRs

    OpenAIRE

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Denton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A corotating interaction region (CIR) is formed when fast coronal hole origin solar wind overtakes slow solar wind and forms a region of compressed plasma and magnetic field. The slow wind upstream of the coronal hole fast wind can be either of helmet streamer origin or pseudostreamer origin. For a collection of 125 CIR-driven geomagnetic storms, the slow wind ahead of each CIR is examined; for those storm not containing ejecta, each CIR is categorized as a helmet streamer CIR (74 of the 125 ...

  17. High-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes for the DELPHI hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Cellar, S.; Khomenko, B.A.; Korytov, A.V.; Kulinich, P.A.; Micelmacher, G.V.; Sedykh, Yu.V.; Toledo, R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of high-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes of the DELPHI hadron calorimeter are presented. The testing technique is considered in detail. The equipment for high-voltage training consists of a mini-computer, CAMAC-electronics, a controllable high-voltage supply and a digital ampermeter. The experimental results shows that high-voltage training of streamer tubes improves their characteristics. The value of dark current decreased up to 1 μA. The operational voltage range increased by a value more than 300 V

  18. Electrons in the solar corona. Pt. 3. Coronal streamers analysis from balloon-borne coronagraph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollfus, A; Mouradian, Z [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France)

    1981-03-01

    During a balloon flight in France on September 13, 1971, at altitude 32 000 m, the solar corona was cinematographed from 2 to 5 Rsub(sun) during 5 hr, with an externally occulted coronagraph. Motions in coronal features, when they occur, exhibit deformations of structures with velocities not exceeding a few 10 km s/sup -1/; several streamers were often involved simultaneously; these variations are compatible with magnetic changes or sudden reorganizations of lines of forces. Intensity and polarization measurements give the electron density with height in the quiet corona above the equator. Electron density gradient for one of the streamers gives a temperature of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ K and comparisons with the on-board Apollo 16 coronal observation of 31 July, 1971 are compatible with the extension of this temperature up to 25 Rsub(sun). Three-dimensional structures and localizations of the streamers are deduced from combined photometry, polarimetry and ground-based K coronametry. Three of the four coronal streamers analysed have their axis bent with height towards the direction of the solar rotation, as if the upper corona has a rotation slightly faster than the chromosphere.

  19. Numerical simulations and conformal analysis of growing and branching negative discharge streamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, C.; Meulenbroek, B.; Ebert, U.; Hundsdorfer, W.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of an anode-directed streamer can be described by advection-diffusion equations for the charged particles, including a local field-dependent impact ionization term, and coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric field. We present the results of new simulations that use a local

  20. Spatially hybrid computations for streamer discharges with generic features of pulled fronts: I. Planar fronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Li (Chao); U. M. Ebert (Ute); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreamers are the first stage of sparks and lightning; they grow due to a strongly enhanced electric field at their tips: this field is created by a thin curved space charge layer. These multiple scales are already challenging when the electrons are approximated by densities. However,

  1. Experimental Investigation of Pulsed Nanosecond Streamer Discharges for CO2 Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Levko, Dima; Raja, Laxminarayan; Varghese, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Rapid global industrialization has led to an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide levels. Plasmas present a great potential for efficient reforming of greenhouse gases. There are several plasma discharges which have been reported for reforming process: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), microwave discharges, and glide-arcs. Microwave discharges have CO2 conversion energy efficiency of up to 40% at atmospheric conditions, while glide-arcs have 43% and DBD 2-10%. In our study, we analyze a single nanosecond pulsed cathode directed streamer discharge in CO2 at atmospheric pressure and temperature. We have conducted time resolved imaging with spectral bandpass filters of a streamer discharge with an applied negative polarity pulse. The image sequences have been correlated to the applied voltage and current pulses. From the spectral filters we can determine where spatially and temporally excited species are formed. In this talk we report on spectroscopic studies of the discharge and estimate plasma properties such as temperature and density of excited species and electrons. Furthermore, we report on the effects of pulse polarity as well as anodic streamer discharges on the CO2 conversion efficiency. Finally, we will focus on the effects of vibrational excitation on carbon dioxide reforming efficiency for streamer discharges. Our experimental results will be compared with an accompanying plasma computational model studies.

  2. Numerical simulation of positive streamer development in thundercloud field enhanced near raindrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    As the threshold field strength for the breakdown in air significantly exceeds the maximum measured thundercloud strength 3 kV/cm/atm, the problem of lightning initiation remains unclear. According to the popular idea, lightning can be initiated from streamer discharges developed in the enhanced...

  3. Pseudo-spectral 3D simulations of streamers with adaptively refined grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, A.; Ebert, U.; Montijn, C.; Hundsdorfer, W.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional code for the simulation of streamers is introduced. The code is based on a fluid model for oxygen-nitrogen mixtures that includes drift, diffusion and attachement of electrons and creation of new charge carriers through impact ionization and photo-ionization. The electric field

  4. Simulating streamer discharges in 3D with the parallel adaptive Afivo framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2017-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present an open-source plasma fluid code for 2D, cylindrical and 3D simulations of streamer discharges, based on the Afivo framework that features adaptive mesh refinement, geometric multigrid methods for Poisson's equation, and OpenMP parallelism. We describe the numerical

  5. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  6. Application of dimensional analysis to ozone production by pulsed streamer discharge in oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntat, Z; Harry, J E; Smith, I R [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-07

    This paper describes the use of dimensional analysis in investigating the effects of the electrical and the discharge configuration parameters on ozone production in oxygen, by means of a pulsed streamer discharge. Ozone destruction factors are taken into account in the model, and predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental findings.

  7. Loeb's and streamer-based mechanism for negative corona current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnerova, L.; Skalny, J.D.; Cermak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The negative point-to-plane corona discharge in electronegative gaseous mixtures is studied experimentally and the basic mechanisms controlling the corona phenomena are discussed. The typical shapes of the current pulse waveforms observed in experiments with the nitrogen-freon mixtures are explained in terms of the theory by Loeb and of the positive-streamer-based model. (J.U.)

  8. Two-dimensional potential and charge distributions of positive surface streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daiki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Information on the potential and the field profile along a surface discharge is required for quantitatively discussing and clarifying the propagation mechanism. The sensing technique with a Pockels crystal has been developed for directly measuring the potential and electric field distribution on a dielectric material. In this paper, the Pockels sensing system consists of a pulse laser and a CCD camera for measuring the instantaneous two-dimensional potential distribution on a 25.4 mm square area with a 50 μm sampling pitch. The temporal resolution is 3.2 ns which is determined by the pulse width of the laser emission. The transient change in the potential distribution of a positive surface streamer propagating in atmospheric air is measured with this system. The electric field and the charge distributions are also calculated from the measured potential profile. The propagating direction component of the electric field near the tip of the propagating streamer reaches 3 kV mm -1 . When the streamer stops, the potential distribution along a streamer forms an almost linear profile with the distance from the electrode, and its gradient is about 0.5 kV mm -1 .

  9. Application of multi-source waveform inversion to marine streamer data using the global correlation norm

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-05-02

    Conventional multi-source waveform inversion using an objective function based on the least-square misfit cannot be applied to marine streamer acquisition data because of inconsistent acquisition geometries between observed and modelled data. To apply the multi-source waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we use the global correlation between observed and modelled data as an alternative objective function. The new residual seismogram derived from the global correlation norm attenuates modelled data not supported by the configuration of observed data and thus, can be applied to multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data. We also show that the global correlation norm is theoretically the same as the least-square norm of the normalized wavefield. To efficiently calculate the gradient, our method employs a back-propagation algorithm similar to reverse-time migration based on the adjoint-state of the wave equation. In numerical examples, the multi-source waveform inversion using the global correlation norm results in better inversion results for marine streamer acquisition data than the conventional approach. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  10. Application of dimensional analysis to ozone production by pulsed streamer discharge in oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Buntat, Z; Smith, I R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the use of dimensional analysis in investigating the effects of the electrical and the discharge configuration parameters on ozone production in oxygen, by means of a pulsed streamer discharge. Ozone destruction factors are taken into account in the model, and predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental findings.

  11. Application of dimensional analysis to ozone production by pulsed streamer discharge in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buntat, Z; Harry, J E; Smith, I R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the use of dimensional analysis in investigating the effects of the electrical and the discharge configuration parameters on ozone production in oxygen, by means of a pulsed streamer discharge. Ozone destruction factors are taken into account in the model, and predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental findings

  12. Application of dimensional analysis to ozone production by pulsed streamer discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntat, Z.; Harry, J. E.; Smith, I. R.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the use of dimensional analysis in investigating the effects of the electrical and the discharge configuration parameters on ozone production in oxygen, by means of a pulsed streamer discharge. Ozone destruction factors are taken into account in the model, and predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental findings.

  13. Positive streamers in air of varying density : experiments on the scaling of the excitation density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubrovin, D.; Nijdam, S.; Clevis, T.T.J.; Heijmans, L.C.J.; Ebert, U.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.

    2015-01-01

    Streamers are rapidly extending ionized finger-like structures that dominate the initial breakdown of large gas volumes in the presence of a sufficiently strong electric field. Their macroscopic parameters are described by simple scaling relations, where the densities of electrons and of excited

  14. Observations of electric discharge streamer propagation and capillary oscillations on the surface of air bubbles in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, B S; Foster, J E [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Babaeva, N Yu; Kushner, Mark J [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    The propagation of electric discharge streamers inside bubbles in liquids is of interest for the remediation of toxins in water and plasma-based surgical instruments. The manner of streamer propagation has an important influence on the production of reactive species that are critical to these applications. Streamer propagation along the surface of electrode-attached bubbles of air in water, previously predicted by numerical simulations, has been experimentally imaged using a fast frame-rate camera. The successive pulsing of the streamer discharge inside the bubbles produced oscillations along the air-water interface. Subsequent streamers were observed to closely follow surface distortions induced by such oscillations. The oscillations likely arise from the non-uniform perturbation of the bubble driven by the electric field of the streamer and were found to be consistent with Kelvin's equation for capillary oscillations. For a narrow range of applied voltage pulse frequencies, the oscillation amplitude increased over several pulse periods indicating, potentially, resonant behaviour. We also observed coupling between bubbles wherein oscillations in a second bubble without an internal discharge were induced by the presence of a streamer in a fixed bubble. (fast track communication)

  15. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  16. Radio-Frequency Emissions from Streamer Collisions: Implications for High-Energy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, A.

    2017-12-01

    The production of energetic particles in a discharge corona is possibly linked to the collision of streamers of opposite polarities [Cooray et al. (2009), Kochkin et al. (2012), Østgaard et al. (2016)]. There is also experimental evidence linking it to radio-frequency emissions in the UHF frequency range (300 MHz-3 GHz) [Montanyà et al. (2015), Petersen and Beasley (2014)]. Here we investigate these two links by modeling the radio-frequency emissions emanating from an encounter between two counter-propagating streamers. Our numerical model combines self-consistently a conservative, high-order Finite-Volume scheme for electron transport with a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method for electromagnetic propagation. We also include the most relevant reactions for streamer propagation: impact ionization, dissociative attachment and photo-ionization. Our implementation benefits from massive parallelization by running on a General-Purpose Graphical Processing Unit (GPGPU). With this code we found that streamer encounters emit electromagnetic waves predominantly in the UHF range, supporting the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges. References Cooray, V., et al., J. Atm. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 71, 1890, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.010 (2009). Kochkin, P. O., et al., J. Phys. D, 45, 425202, doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/45/42/425202 (2012). Montanyà, J., et al., J. Atm. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 136, 94, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.06.009, (2015). Østgaard, N., et al., J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 121, 2939, doi:10.1002/2015JD024394 (2016). Petersen, D., and W. Beasley, Atmospheric Research, 135, 314, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.02.006 (2014).

  17. Temperature and EUV Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S.E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 Aug. 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model prediction of the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the line intensities by a factor of 4-10, while overestimating pB data by no more than a factor of 1.4. One possible explanation for this is that there may be a significant amount of material at temperatures outside of the range log T(K) approximately equals 5.8 - 6.7 in both the cavity and the streamer.

  18. 3D streamers simulation in a pin to plane configuration using massively parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, J.-M.; Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Dessante, P.; Jacobs, C.; Renon, N.; Yousfi, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns the 3D simulation of corona discharge using high performance computing (HPC) managed with the message passing interface (MPI) library. In the field of finite volume methods applied on non-adaptive mesh grids and in the case of a specific 3D dynamic benchmark test devoted to streamer studies, the great efficiency of the iterative R&B SOR and BiCGSTAB methods versus the direct MUMPS method was clearly demonstrated in solving the Poisson equation using HPC resources. The optimization of the parallelization and the resulting scalability was undertaken as a function of the HPC architecture for a number of mesh cells ranging from 8 to 512 million and a number of cores ranging from 20 to 1600. The R&B SOR method remains at least about four times faster than the BiCGSTAB method and requires significantly less memory for all tested situations. The R&B SOR method was then implemented in a 3D MPI parallelized code that solves the classical first order model of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge in air. The 3D code capabilities were tested by following the development of one, two and four coplanar streamers generated by initial plasma spots for 6 ns. The preliminary results obtained allowed us to follow in detail the formation of the tree structure of a corona discharge and the effects of the mutual interactions between the streamers in terms of streamer velocity, trajectory and diameter. The computing time for 64 million of mesh cells distributed over 1000 cores using the MPI procedures is about 30 min ns-1, regardless of the number of streamers.

  19. Laboratory experiments cannot be utilized to justify the action of early streamer emission terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Marley; Cooray, Vernon

    2008-01-01

    The early emission of streamers in laboratory long air gaps under switching impulses has been observed to reduce the time of initiation of leader positive discharges. This fact has been arbitrarily extrapolated by the manufacturers of early streamer emission devices to the case of upward connecting leaders initiated under natural lightning conditions, in support of those non-conventional terminals that claim to perform better than Franklin lightning rods. In order to discuss the physical basis and validity of these claims, a self-consistent model based on the physics of leader discharges is used to simulate the performance of lightning rods in the laboratory and under natural lightning conditions. It is theoretically shown that the initiation of early streamers can indeed lead to the early initiation of self-propagating positive leaders in laboratory long air gaps under switching voltages. However, this is not the case for positive connecting leaders initiated from the same lightning rod under the influence of the electric field produced by a downward moving stepped leader. The time evolution of the development of positive leaders under natural conditions is different from the case in the laboratory, where the leader inception condition is closely dependent upon the initiation of the first streamer burst. Our study shows that the claimed similarity between the performance of lightning rods under switching electric fields applied in the laboratory and under the electric field produced by a descending stepped leader is not justified. Thus, the use of existing laboratory results to validate the performance of the early streamer lightning rods under natural conditions is not justified

  20. The physics of pulsed streamer discharge in high pressure air and applications to engine techonologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hsu

    The goal of this dissertation is to study high pressure streamers in air and apply it to diesel engine technologies. Nanosecond scale pulsed high voltage discharges in air/fuel mixtures can generate radicals which in turn have been shown to improve combustion efficiency in gasoline fueled internal combustion engines. We are exploring the possibility to extend such transient plasma generation and expected radical species generation to the range of pressures encountered in compression-ignition (diesel) engines having compression ratios of ˜20:1, thereby improving lean burning efficiency and extending the range of lean combustion. At the beginning of this dissertation, research into streamer discharges is reviewed. Then, we conducted experiments of streamer propagation at high pressures, calculated the streamer velocity based on both optical and electrical measurements, and the similarity law was checked by analyzing the streamer velocity as a function of the reduced electric field, E/P. Our results showed that the similarity law is invalid, and an empirical scaling factor, E/√P, is obtained and verified by dimensional analysis. The equation derived from the dimensional analysis will be beneficial to proper electrode and pulse generator design for transient plasma assisted internal engine experiments. Along with the high pressure study, we applied such technique on diesel engine to improve the fuel efficiency and exhaust treatment. We observed a small effect of transient plasma on peak pressure, which implied that transient plasma has the capability to improve the fuel consumption. In addition, the NO can be reduced effectively by the same technique and the energy cost is 30 eV per NO molecule.

  1. Stepwise expansion of a surface dielectric barrier discharge as a result of alternation in formation of streamers and leaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishev, Yu; Aponin, G; Balakirev, A; Grushin, M; Petryakov, A; Karal'nik, V; Trushkin, N

    2013-01-01

    Spatial–temporal development of the plasma sheet structure in a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) powered with a single long pulse of negative polarity is traced. Ambient air and Ar at atmospheric pressure are used as plasma-forming gases. It is found that current regimes and spatial structures occurring at the development of a long-pulsed discharge differ cardinally as compared with those of a short-pulsed SDBD. In the case of long-pulsed SDBDs, the expansion of the barrier area covered by the plasma sheet and seeded with a surface negative charge occurs in a stepwise manner due to cyclic alternation (one after another) in generation of surface streamers and formation of hot surface leaders from the streamers due to streamer–leader transitions. Leaders, in their turn, initiate new streamers, which serve again as precursors for next-step leader formation, and so on. However, the crucial role in surface charge deposition is played not by streamers and leaders but by a diffusive plasma sheet (DPS), which slowly extends from the sides of streamers and leaders. The expansion of the DPS occurs due to the ionization wave propagating from the sides of the streamers and leaders. The difference in spatial structures of a single long-pulsed and a steady-state sin SDBD is studied. In high-frequency sin SDBDs at negative half-cycle there are only leaders and DPS, but there are no streamers. The reason is that there is no necessity for the formation of leaders due to streamer–leader transitions—leaders are formed at the previous cycle and do not decay strongly till the beginning of the next cycle, and they recover themselves without streamers. (paper)

  2. High voltage pulse system for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksinenko, V.D.; Glagoleva, N.S.; Dement'ev, E.A.; Kaminskij, N.I.; Matyushin, A.T.; Matyushin, V.T.; Rozhnyatovskaya, S.A.; Ryakhovskij, V.N.; Nurgozhin, N.N.; Khusainov, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of development and testing of high voltage pulse system HVPS for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer are presented. HVPS consists of the following basic blocks: nanosecond pulse high voltage generator, high voltage charging supply, trigger generator, chamber parameter control devices, gas-oil vacuuming supply systems, auxiliary and fire-prevention devices. The system blocks are described. Experimental results of HVPC testing are presented. HVPC provides a reliable (10 5 operations) of streamer chamber supply with high voltage pulse parameters: amplitude - 500 kV, amplitude instability (0.5-1.5)%, pulse duration - 12 ns, delay time - 500 ns, delay instability (2.5-5)%, mean frequency of output a signals - 0.1 Hz

  3. Multisource full waveform inversion of marine streamer data with frequency selection

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    Multisource migration with frequency selection is now extended to multisource full waveform inversion (FWI) of supergathers for marine streamer data. There are three advantages of this approach compared to conventional FWI for marine streamer data. 1. The multisource FWI method with frequency selection is computationally more efficient than conventional FWI. 2. A supergather requires more than an order of magnitude less storage than the the original data. 3. Frequency selection overcomes the acquisition mismatch between the observed data and the simulated multisource supergathers for marine data. This mismatch problem has prevented the efficient application of FWI to marine geometries in the space-time domain. Preliminary result of applying multisource FWI with frequency selection to a synthetic marine data set suggests it is at least four times more efficient than standard FWI.

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF A HYBRID DOUBLE-STREAMER/PSEUDOSTREAMER IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Seaton, D. B. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels (Belgium); Platten, S. J. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bethge, C. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Yeates, A. R., E-mail: rachmeler@oma.be [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-20

    We report on the first observation of a single hybrid magnetic structure that contains both a pseudostreamer and a double streamer. This structure was originally observed by the SWAP instrument on board the PROBA2 satellite between 2013 May 5 and 10. It consists of a pair of filament channels near the south pole of the Sun. On the western edge of the structure, the magnetic morphology above the filaments is that of a side-by-side double streamer, with open field between the two channels. On the eastern edge, the magnetic morphology is that of a coronal pseudostreamer without the central open field. We investigated this structure with multiple observations and modeling techniques. We describe the topology and dynamic consequences of such a unified structure.

  5. Characteristics of rectangular drift tube for muon identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study of an aluminum drift tube with a cross section of 50 x 100 mm are presented. Argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures were used as fillers. For a 16% methane concentration, the nonlinearity of the time-coordinate dependence does not exceed 2 mm. The tube can operate in the self-quenched streamer mode when filled with a mixture of argon with isobutane

  6. Streamer propagation velocity to anode and to cathode in He, Xe, N2 and SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlenko, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    One studied mechanism of ionization propagation in a solid gas associated with propagation of background electrons in heterogenous electric field. The mentioned mechanism does not depend on the sign of field projection on ionization propagation direction. One derived analytical expression for ionization front rate. The mentioned expression conforms well with numerical calculations. Dependence of wave ionization front rate as a function of a field intensity on boundary of streamer for He, Xe, N 2 and SF 6 is tabulated [ru

  7. Study of Streamers in Gradient Density Air: Table Top Modeling of Red Sprites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Howard, P. J.; Miles, R. B.; Milikh, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Sprites and blue jets develop in the upper atmosphere where ambient density changes drastically over their lengths. Theoretical analysis of Red Sprites [1] and Blue Jets [2,3] are based on the streamer tip parameters’ functional dependence on a local gas density N(h). At the moment there is a lack of experimental data for streamer propagation in a non-uniform ambient gas density. Small scale experiments in controllable conditions are important for validation of analytical models as well as numerical simulations, which can be used for the investigation of real scale plasma phenomena that develop above thunderclouds. Controllable, non-uniform gas density can be achieved in laboratory conditions in super sonic nozzles, fast centrifuges or gas filled tubes with a non-uniform temperature distribution along the axis. The latter approach was used in the present work. A quartz tube, approximately one foot in length, was filled with air at different pressures. A density gradient was created by heating up the top of the tube while keeping the bottom at room temperature. The discharge was initiated by applying a high voltage pulse to a pin electrode at the top of the tube while a flat electrode was grounded at the bottom. Similar to Red Sprites, the streamer propagates downwards into a region of higher density and stops before reaching the lower electrode while the top electrode remains under high potential. This work will present results of streamer propagation at different pressures and voltages. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics as well as integral images will be presented. 1. Y. P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, M. N. Shneider, and S. V. Novakovski (1998), J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31, 3255-3264. 2. Y. P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, and M. N. Shneider (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23801 3. Y .P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, and M. N. Shneider (2007), J. Atmos. & Solat-Terr. Phys, 69, 925-938

  8. Streamer-induced emission and spectrometric determination of basic plasma parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C778-C783 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : optical diagnostics * discharge * streamer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  9. A Series of Jets that Drove Streamer-Puff CMEs from Giant Active Region of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate characteristics of solar coronal jets that originated from active region NOAA 12192 and produced coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This active region produced many non­-jet major flare eruptions (X and M class) that made no CME. A multitude of jets occurred from the southeast edge of the active region, and in contrast to the major-­flare eruptions in the core, six of these jets resulted in CMEs. Our jet observations are from SDO/AIA EUV channels and from Hinode/XRT, and CME observations are from the SOHO/LASCO C2 coronograph. Each jet-­driven CME was relatively slow-­moving (approx. 200 - 300 km/s) compared to most CMEs; had angular width (20deg - 50deg) comparable to that of the streamer base; and was of the "streamer­-puff" variety, whereby a pre-existing streamer was transiently inflated but not removed (blown out) by the passage of the CME. Much of the chromospheric-­temperature plasma of the jets producing the CMEs escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the chromospheric plasma in the non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. We also found that the CME-producing jets tended to be faster in speed and longer in duration than the non-CME-­producing jets. We expect that the jets result from eruptions of mini-filaments. We further propose that the CMEs are driven by magnetic twist injected into streamer-­base coronal loops when erupting twisted mini-filament field reconnects with the ambient field at the foot of those loops.

  10. Filaments in curved streamlines: rapid formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Kim, Minyoung; Drescher, Knut; Shun Pak, On; Stone, Howard A; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated conglomerates of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. These bacterial communities can cause chronic infections in humans by colonizing, for example, medical implants, heart valves, or lungs. Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, causes some of the most common biofilm-related infections. Despite the clinical importance of S. aureus biofilms, it remains mostly unknown how physical effects, in particular flow, and surface structure influence biofilm dynamics. Here we use model microfluidic systems to investigate how environmental factors, such as surface geometry, surface chemistry, and fluid flow affect biofilm development of S. aureus. We discovered that S. aureus rapidly forms flow-induced, filamentous biofilm streamers, and furthermore if surfaces are coated with human blood plasma, streamers appear within minutes and clog the channels more rapidly than if the channels are uncoated. To understand how biofilm streamer filaments reorient in flows with curved streamlines to bridge the distances between corners, we developed a mathematical model based on resistive force theory of slender filaments. Understanding physical aspects of biofilm formation of S. aureus may lead to new approaches for interrupting biofilm formation of this pathogen. (paper)

  11. Laboratory coupling tests for optimum land streamer design over sand dunes surface

    KAUST Repository

    Almalki, Hashim

    2012-02-26

    The cost of data acquisition in land is becoming a major issue as we strive to cover larger areas with seismic surveys at high resolution. Over sand dunes the problem is compounded by the week coupling obtain using geophones, which often forces us to bury the phone. A major challenge is designing such a land streamer system that combines durability, mobility and the required coupling. We share a couple of such designs and discuss the merits behind such designs and test their capability. The testing includes, the level of coupling, mobility and drag over sand surfaces. For specific designs loose sand can accumulate inside the steamer reducing its mobility. On the other hand, poor coupling will attenuate the high frequencies and cause an effective delay in the signal. The weight of the streamer is also an important factor in both mobility and coupling as it adds to the coupling it reduces the mobility of the streamer. We study the impact of weight and base plate surface area on the seismic signal quality, as well as the friction factor of different designs.

  12. Electric field determination in streamer discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, Z; Bourdon, A; Celestin, S; Pasko, V P

    2011-01-01

    The electric field in streamer discharges in air can be easily determined by the ratio of luminous intensities emitted by N 2 (C 3 Π u ) and N 2 + (B 2 Σ u + ) if the steady-state assumption of the emitting states is fully justified. At ground pressure, the steady-state condition is not fulfilled and it is demonstrated that its direct use to determine the local and instantaneous peak electric field in the streamer head may overestimate this field by a factor of 2. However, when spatial and time-integrated optical emissions (OEs) are considered, the reported results show that it is possible to formulate a correction factor in the framework of the steady-state approximation and to accurately determine the peak electric field in an air discharge at atmospheric pressure. A correction factor is defined as Γ = E s /E e , where E e is the estimated electric field and E s is the true peak electric field in the streamer head. It is shown that this correction stems from (i) the shift between the location of the peak electric field and the maximum excitation rate for N 2 (C 3 Π u ) and N 2 + (B 2 Σ u + ) as proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401) and (ii) from the cylindrical geometry of the streamers as stated by Celestin and Pasko (2010 Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 L07804). For instantaneous OEs integrated over the whole radiating plasma volume, a correction factor of Γ ∼ 1.4 has to be used. For time-integrated OEs, the reported results show that the ratio of intensities can be used to derive the electric field in discharges if the time of integration is sufficiently long (i.e. at least longer than the longest characteristic lifetime of excited species) to have the time to collect all the light from the emitting zones of the streamer. For OEs recorded using slits (i.e. a window with a small width but a sufficiently large radial extension to contain the total radial extension of the discharge) the calculated correction factor is Γ ∼ 1.4. As for OEs observed

  13. Towards a fluid model for the streamer-to-leader transition in lightning channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Alejandro; Luque, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Electric discharges are a very common phenomenon on Earth's atmosphere. However some of their features are still poorly understood. A sufficiently long electric discharge, such as a lightning channel, propagates along two phases. The first phase is known as "streamer phase" and consists in thin filaments of ionized air that advance due to a high electric field at their tip. The dominant process of ionization is impact ionization, involving electrons and the two major components in the air mass, which are nitrogen and oxygen. In the second phase called "leader phase", the electric current of the streamers has increased the air temperature highly enough so the thermal energy of the molecules present in the air is comparable to the ionization potential of nitrogen and oxygen. The underlying mechanism whereby the streamer-to-leader transition occurs is not precisely known. High-speed observations show that in negative discharges, comprising 90% of cloud-to-ground lightning, this transition is not smooth but mediated by the formation of a "space leader", that is, an isolated hot segment within the streamer region. This space leader is connected to the main leader in a sudden jump and therefore one speaks of a "stepped leader". However, the origin of the space leader is so far unknown. Here we present recent steps in the modeling of the streamer-to-leader transition, which requires coupling fluid mechanics, electromagnetism and air plasma chemistry. We discuss our work towards a model that solves Euler's equations (3 dimensions reduced to 2 by virtue of symmetry) coupled to electron drift using high-resolution finite volume methods for hyperbolic systems [1] implemented in the software package CLAWPACK. The drift of electrons is determined by a self-consistent electric field, which we obtain by solving Poisson's equation by means of off-the-shelf solvers. Our model also includes a selection of chemical reactions that have a relevant effect on the electron density in air

  14. Radial dependence of surface streamer-channel luminosity: experimental evidence of Gaussian radiative profiles in Ar and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimek, M; Ambrico, P F

    2012-01-01

    Radial distributions of electronically excited species produced during surface streamer propagation were obtained by applying the Abel inverse transform to projected luminosities of single streamers. The streamers were generated in an argon and nitrogen surface coplanar dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure and their magnified microscopic images were registered with high time resolution. Selected regions of the projected luminosities were processed by the Abel inverse transform procedure based on the Hankel–Fourier method assuming cylindrical symmetry of the streamer channel. Projected as well as Abel-inverted profiles were fitted by Gaussian functions. It is shown that the projected profiles, in addition to the Abel-inverted ones, can be well approximated by the sum of two coaxial Gaussians with two different half-widths and weights. The sharper Gaussian component with higher weight characterizes the radial dependence of the primary cathode-directed streamer-channel luminosity. The second (broader) Gaussian component probably originates either from the pre-breakdown Townsend phase or from the second wave propagating towards the anode. (paper)

  15. Effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on positive streamer propagation in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuzhen, E-mail: yzlv@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Wang, Qi; Ge, Yang [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Zhou, You [Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Smart Grids Operation and Control, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, 410076 (China); Li, Chengrong, E-mail: lcr@ncepu.edu.cn; Qi, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm were prepared and used to modify streamer characteristic of transformer oil. It was found that positive streamer propagation velocity in transformer oil-based Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofluid is greatly reduced by 51% in comparison with that in pure oil. The evolution of streamer shape is also dramatically affected by the presence of nanoparticles, changing from a tree-like shape with sharp branches in pure oil to a bush-like structure with thicker and denser branches in nanofluid. The TSC results reveal that the modification of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle can greatly increase the density of shallow trap and change space charge distribution in nanofluid by converting fast electrons into slow electrons via trapping and de-trapping process in shallow traps. These negative space charges induced by nanoparticles greatly alleviate the electric field distortion in front of the positive streamer tip and significantly hinder the propagation of positive streamer.

  16. Numerical simulation of evolution of electron-hole avalanches and streamers in silicon in a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation of origination and evolution of streamers in Si is performed for the first time. It is assumed that an external electric field E 0 is constant and uniform, the avalanche and streamer are axially symmetric, and background electrons and holes are absent. The calculations have been performed in the context of the diffusion-drift approximation with impact and tunneling ionization, Auger recombination, and electron-hole scattering taken into account. The most realistic values of the ionization and recombination rates, diffusion coefficients, and drift mobilities of electrons and holes have been used. It is shown that the features of evolution of avalanches and streamers are generally consistent with the result obtained previously for a hypothetic semiconductor with equal kinetic coefficients for electrons and holes. Asymmetry of these coefficients (mostly, the impact-ionization coefficients) manifests itself only at the initial stage of evolution. However, with time, two exponentially self-similar streamers are formed, differing only in the sign of charge of fronts and directions of their propagation. Empirical dependences of the main parameters of streamers on E 0 in the range of 0.34-0.75 MV/cm have been derived for this most important stage of evolution.

  17. Formation of ball streamers at a subnanosecond breakdown of gases at a high pressure in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloplotov, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Sorokin, D. A.; Lomaev, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The formation of a diffuse discharge plasma at a subnanosecond breakdown of a "cone-plane" gap filled with air, nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, argon, neon, and helium at various pressures has been studied. Nanosecond negative and positive voltage pulses have been applied to the conical electrode. The experimental data on the dynamics of plasma glow at the stage of formation and propagation of a streamer have been obtained with intensified charge-coupled device and streak cameras. It has been found that the formation of ball streamers is observed in all gases and at both polarities. A supershort avalanche electron beam has been detected behind the flat foil electrode in a wide range of pressures in the case of a negatively charged conical electrode. A mechanism of the formation of streamers at breakdown of various gases at high overvoltages has been discussed.

  18. SIMUL - a program for the simulation of interactions in the streamer chamber RISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebel, W.; Gajewski, J.; Halm, I.

    1976-08-01

    A program for the simulation of interactions in the streamer chamber RISK is described. This program allows first investigations and tests for planning and preparing experiments. In the program the trajectories of all particles taking part in the interaction are computed. Selected points are projected onto film planes serving as measurement points for the use in the geometrical reconstruction. The program is used for testing a geometry program. But it also seems to be very helpful in investigating counter and trigger constellations and in the calculation of counting rates and trigger effectivities. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  20. Storm-time Convection Dynamics Viewed from Optical Auroras: from Streamer to Patchy Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Donovan, E.; Liang, J.; Grono, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a series of statistical and event studies we have demonstrated that the motion of patches in regions of Patchy Pulsating Aurora (PPA) is very close to if not exactly convection. Thus, 2D maps of PPA motion provides us the opportunity to remote sense magnetospheric convection with relatively high space and time resolution, subject to uncertainties associated with mapping between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In this study, we use THEMIS ASI aurora observations (streamers and patchy pulsating aurora) combined with SuperDARN convection measurements, Swarm ion drift velocity measurements, and RBSP electric field measurements to explore the convection dynamics in storm time. From 0500 UT to 0600 UT on March 19 2015, convection observations across 5 magnetic local time (MLT) inferred from the motion of PPA patches and SuperDARN measurements show that a westward SAPS (Subauroral Polarized Streams) enhancement occurs after an auroral streamer. This suggests that plasma sheet fast flows can affect the inner magnetospheric convection, and possibly trigger very fast flows in the inner magnetosphere.

  1. Streamer Motives and User-Generated Content on Social Live-Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlander, Mathilde B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three most popular information services, Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow, vicarious for all Social Live-Streaming Services (SLSSs, are investigated to analyze their streamers' motivations and the user-generated content. Additionally, we collected demographic data (gender and age. More than 7,500 streams by users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan were observed. Main streamer motivations on SLSSs are boredom, socializing, the need to reach a specific group, the need to communicate, and fun. Important content categories on all three SLSSs are chatting, sharing information, 24/7, and 'slice of life.' We were able to identify differences between users from the U.S., Germany, and Japan as well as between the users of Periscope, Ustream, and YouNow. The main motive to stream in the U.S. is to reach a specific group, while in Japan it is socializing, and in Germany boredom. The top content category for both, YouNow as well as Periscope, is to chat; on Ustream it is 24/7 (i.e., webcams.

  2. Spatially hybrid computations for streamer discharges with generic features of pulled fronts: I. Planar fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Ebert, Ute; Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Streamers are the first stage of sparks and lightning; they grow due to a strongly enhanced electric field at their tips; this field is created by a thin curved space charge layer. These multiple scales are already challenging when the electrons are approximated by densities. However, electron density fluctuations in the leading edge of the front and non-thermal stretched tails of the electron energy distribution (as a cause of X-ray emissions) require a particle model to follow the electron motion. But present computers cannot deal with all electrons in a fully developed streamer. Therefore, super-particle have to be introduced, which leads to wrong statistics and numerical artifacts. The method of choice is a hybrid computation in space where individual electrons are followed in the region of high electric field and low density while the bulk of the electrons is approximated by densities (or fluids). We here develop the hybrid coupling for planar fronts. First, to obtain a consistent flux at the interface between particle and fluid model in the hybrid computation, the widely used classical fluid model is replaced by an extended fluid model. Then the coupling algorithm and the numerical implementation of the spatially hybrid model are presented in detail, in particular, the position of the model interface and the construction of the buffer region. The method carries generic features of pulled fronts that can be applied to similar problems like large deviations in the leading edge of population fronts, etc.

  3. Stress response of Escherichia coli induced by surface streamer discharge in humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doležalová, Eva; Prukner, Václav; Lukeš, Petr; Šimek, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli by means of surface streamer discharge has been investigated to obtain new insights into the key mechanisms involved, with a particular emphasis placed on the microbial response to plasma-induced stress. The surface streamer discharge was produced in coplanar dielectric barrier discharge electrode geometry, and was driven by an amplitude-modulated ac high voltage in humid synthetic air at atmospheric pressure. The response to plasma-induced stress was evaluated by using conventional cultivation, sublethal injury and resazurin assay and the LIVE/DEAD ® BacLight ™ Bacterial Viability kit. Compared to conventional cultivation, the LIVE/DEAD ® test labels bacteria with damaged membranes, while resazurin assay tracks their metabolic activity. Our results clearly demonstrate that the treated bacteria partly lost their ability to grow properly, i.e. they became injured and culturable, or even viable but nonculturable (VBNC). The ability to develop colonies could have been lost due to damage of the bacterial membrane. Damage of the membranes was mainly caused by the lipid peroxidation, evidencing the key role of oxygen reactive species, in particular ozone. We conclude that the conventional cultivation method overestimates the decontamination efficiency of various plasma sources, and must therefore be complemented by alternative techniques capable of resolving viable but nonculturable bacteria. (paper)

  4. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Oxygen Pathways in Streamer Discharge for Transient Plasma Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, S. J.; Bowman, S.; Singleton, D.; Watrous, J.; Carter, C.; Lempert, W.; Gundersen, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The use of streamers for the ignition of fuels, also known as transient plasma ignition (TPI), has been shown in a variety of engines to improve combustion through decreased ignition delay, increased lean burn capability and increased energy release relative to conventional spark ignition. The mechanisms behind these improvements, however, remain poorly understood. Temperature measurements by optical emission spectroscopy demonstrate that ignition by TPI is a nonthermal process, and thus is almost entirely dependent on the production and presence of electron impact-created active species in the discharge afterglow. Of particular interest are active oxygen species due to their relatively long lifetimes at high pressures and the pivotal role they play in combustion reactions. In order to elucidate the oxygen pathways, here we report the investigation of the temporal evolution of the populations of atomic oxygen and ozone by use of two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) and UV absorption, respectively. Experimental results are presented and compared to kinetic modeling of the streamers. Future experiments are proposed to better understand the physics behind TPI. Supported by NSF, AFOSR, NumerEx-ONR, AFRL-WPAFB.

  5. The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air over the range 292 K–1438 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yuta

    2018-05-01

    The effect of temperature on pulsed positive streamer discharges in air is measured by comparing atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature discharges with low-pressure, room-temperature discharges at the same air densities n and discharge voltages. Both discharges have the same reduced electric field E/n, so the differences between the two discharges only depend on the temperature, which is varied from 292 K to 1438 K. Temperature affects the discharge pulse energy most significantly; at 1438 K, the energy of an atmospheric-pressure discharge pulse is approximately 30 times larger than that of the corresponding 20.5 kPa, room-temperature discharge. Temperature also affects the shapes of the streamers when K, but no significant effect is observed for K. There is also no significant temperature effect on the spatially integrated intensity of N2(C–B) emission. However, temperature strongly affects the ratio of the integrated emission intensity to the discharge energy. No effect of the temperature is observed on the propagation velocity of the primary streamer or on the length of the secondary streamer.

  6. Streamer discharge inception in a sub-breakdown electric field from a dielectric body with a frequency dependent dielectric permittivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. A. Dubinova (Anna); C. Rutjes (Casper); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study positive streamer inception from the tip of an elongated ice particle. The dielectric permittivity of ice drops from 93 to 3 for electric fields changing on the millisecond timescale [1]. We demonstrate that this effect can be important on the nanosecond time scale of

  7. Tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, S.A.; Belikov, Yu.A.; Golokhvastov, A.I.; Kirillov, A.D.; Khorozov, S.A.; Komolov, L.N.; Lukstin'sh, Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 6 and 9 GeV/c secondary tritons, produced in the 4 He+A→ 3 H+X reaction, were used to study the charge-exchange reactions using a streamer chamber in magnetic field. The triton formation schemes, the beam parameters achieved as well as a way to reduce the beam momentum spread are given in the paper

  8. Comparison of Positive Streamers in Liquid Dielectrics with and without Nanoparticles Simulated with Finite-Element Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Velasco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison of positive streamer diffusion propagation is carried out in three configurations of oil transformers: mineral transformer oil, mineral oil with solid dielectric barriers, and a nanofluid. The results have been solved using a finite-element method with a two-dimensional (2D axi-symmetric space dimension selected. Additionally, previous results from other research has been reviewed to compare the results obtained. As expected, it is confirmed that the nanoparticles improve the dielectric properties of the mineral oil. In addition, it is observed that the dielectric solid blocks the propagation of the streamer when it is submerged with a horizontal orientation, thus perpendicular to the applied electric field. The computer used, with four cores (each 3.4 GHz and 16 GB of RAM, was not sufficient for performing the simulations of the models with great precision. However, with these first models, the tendency of the dielectric behavior of the oil was obtained for the three cases in which the streamer was acting through the transformer oil. The simulation of these models, in the future, in a supercomputer with a high performance in terms of RAM memory may allow us to predict, as an example, the best concentration of nanoparticles to retard the streamer inception. Finally, other dielectric issues will be predicted using these models, such as to analyze the advantages and drawbacks of the presence of dielectrics inside the oil transformer.

  9. Modelling of lightning streamer formation and propagation in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    of the air termination in enhancing the electric field and attracting the lightning discharge, thus shielding the blade surface and preventing electrical breakdown of the blade material. However, the number and location of the discrete receptors may be difficult to establish, since their performance....... The present paper presents a method to investigate the origin and propagation of streamers from different conductive elements of the blade when exposed to a high electric field. The calculations are performed using dynamic simulations with the finite element method, and the results have been correlated...... with high voltage tests in the laboratory. The algorithms developed are intended to be a new and improved tool for the design of the blade lightning protection system, in particular to assess the effectiveness of the air termination system and the effects of internal conductive materials. The simulation...

  10. Multipoint Ignition of a Gas Mixture by a Microwave Subcritical Discharge with an Extended Streamer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, K. V.; Busleev, N. I.; Grachev, L. P.; Esakov, I. I.; Ravaev, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The results of experimental studies on using an electrical discharge with an extended streamer structure in a quasioptical microwave beam in the multipoint ignition of a propane-air mixture have been reported. The pulsed microwave discharge was initiated at the interior surface of a quartz tube that was filled with the mentioned flammable mixture and introduced into a microwave beam with a subbreakdown initial field. Gas breakdown was initiated by an electromagnetic vibrator. The dependence of the type of discharge on the microwave field strength was examined, the lower concentration threshold of ignition of the propane-air mixture by the studied discharge was determined, and the dynamics of combustion of the flammable mixture with local and multipoint ignition were compared.

  11. A Barrel IFR Instrumented With Limited Streamer Tubes for BABAR Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreotti, M.; Ferrara U.; INFN, Ferrara

    2006-01-01

    The new barrel Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of BABAR detector will be reported here. Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs) have been chosen to replace the existing RPCs as active elements of the barrel IFR. The layout of the new detector will be discussed: in particular, a cell bigger than the standard one has been used to improve efficiency and reliability. The extruded profile is coated with a resistive layer of graphite having a typical surface resistivity between 0.2 and 0.4 MOhm/square. The tubes are assembled in modules and installed in 12 active layers of each sextant of the IFR detector. R and D studies to choose the final design and Quality Control procedure adopted during the tube production will be briefly discussed. Finally the performances of installed LSTs into 2/3 of IFR after 8 months of operations will be reported

  12. Speed of streamers in argon over a flat surface of a dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kramer, N J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Stoffels, W W; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lebouvier, A [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite d' Orleans, 12 rue de Blois, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Manders, F [Advanced Development Lighting, Philips Lighting, Mathildelaan 1, 5611 BD, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl

    2009-01-07

    A pin-pin electrode geometry was used to study the velocities of streamers propagating over a flat dielectric surface and in gas close to the dielectric. The experiments were done in an argon atmosphere, at pressures from 0.1 to 1 bar, with repetitive voltage pulses. The dielectric surface played a noticeable role in discharge ignition and propagation. The average speed of the discharge decreased with higher pressure and lower voltage pulse rise rate. It was higher when the conductive channel between the electrodes was formed over the dielectric, rather than through the gas. Space resolved measurements revealed an increase in velocity of the discharge as it travelled towards the grounded electrode.

  13. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.

  14. Display of a proton-proton interaction as seen in the streamer chamber of NA5

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    This experiment was performed by the Bari-Cracow-Liverpool-Munich (MPI)-Nijmegen Collaboration using the unseparated H2 beam in the EHN1 hall. The setup consisted of a three-gap streamer chamber (2x1.4x0.72 m3) inside a superconducting vertex magnet, large magnetostrictive spark chambers, proportional chambers and beam defining counters. A large acceptance electron and hadron calorimeter completed the setup. Particles from beam interactions on a target, 36.5 cm long, 2 cm in diameter (for liquid hydrogen) located inside the chamber at its entrance were photographed. Multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and correlations were studied for interactions with a large value for the sum of the transverse momenta.

  15. Speed of streamers in argon over a flat surface of a dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kramer, N J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Stoffels, W W; Haverlag, M; Lebouvier, A; Manders, F

    2009-01-01

    A pin-pin electrode geometry was used to study the velocities of streamers propagating over a flat dielectric surface and in gas close to the dielectric. The experiments were done in an argon atmosphere, at pressures from 0.1 to 1 bar, with repetitive voltage pulses. The dielectric surface played a noticeable role in discharge ignition and propagation. The average speed of the discharge decreased with higher pressure and lower voltage pulse rise rate. It was higher when the conductive channel between the electrodes was formed over the dielectric, rather than through the gas. Space resolved measurements revealed an increase in velocity of the discharge as it travelled towards the grounded electrode.

  16. The limited streamer tubes system for the SLD warm iron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.C.; Camanzi, B.; Piemontese, L.; Zucchelli, P.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Simone, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.; Galvagni, S.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Wyss, J.; Battiston, R.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B; Mancinelli, G.; Mantovani, G.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Dell'Orso, R.; Pieroni, E.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Zdarko, R.W.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The SLD detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a general purpose device for studying e + ε - interaction at the Z 0 . The SLD calorimeter system consists of two parts: a lead Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) with both electromagnetic (22 radiation lengths) and hadronic sections (2.8 absorption lengths) housed inside the coil, and the Warm Ion limited streamer tubes Calorimeter (WIC) outside the coil which uses as radiator the iron of the flux return for the magnetic field. The WIC completes the measurement of the hadronic shower energy (∼85% on average is contained in the LAC) and it provides identification and tracking for muons over 99% of the solid angle. In this note we report on the construction, test and commissioning of such a large system

  17. Limited Streamer Tubes for the BaBar Instrumented Flux Return Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the very beginning of their operation the efficiency of the RPC chambers in the BaBar Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) has suffered serious degradation. After intensive investigation, various remediation efforts had been carried out, but without success. As a result the BaBar collaboration decided to replace the dying barrel RPC chambers about two years ago. To study the feasibility of using the Limited Streamer Tube (LST) as the replacement of RPC we carried out an R and D program that has resulted in BaBar's deciding to replace the barrel RPC's with LST's. In this report we summarize the major detector R and D results, and leave other issues of the IFR system upgrade to the future publications

  18. Effect of streamer plasma air purifier on sbs symptoms and performance of office work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.J.; Fang, Lei; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Subjective experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a streamer plasma air purifier on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance of office work during 5-hour exposure of 32 recruited subjects in field laboratory in which real materials were used to establishing a realistic...... level of air pollution. Intensity of SBS symptoms were indicated using visual-analogue scales. Subjects’ performance was evaluated with several computer tasks. The results show that operation of the air purifiers improved perceived air quality and reduced the odor intensity of indoor air. Eye dryness...... symptom was found significantly improved when the air purifiers were used but no other SBS symptoms or performance of office work were improved when the air purifiers were in operation compared to the condition when they were off....

  19. In situ ecophysiology of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Tringe, S. G.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Rusch, D.; Schmid, M.; Wagner, M.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    The candidate phylum Aigarchaeota contains thermophilic archaea from terrestrial, subsurface, and marine geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, an accurate description of their metabolism, potential ecological interactions, and role in biogeochemical cycling is lacking. Here we report possible ecological interactions and the in situ metabolism of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, terrestrial hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community (Octopus Spring, pH = 8; T = 78 - 84 °C, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was combined with detailed genomic and transcriptomic reconstruction to elucidate the ecophysiological role of Aigarchaeota in these streamer communities. This novel population of Aigarchaeota are filamentous (~500 nm diameter by ~10-30 μm length), which is consistent with the morphology predicted by the presence and transcription of a single actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganotroph. A single heme copper oxidase complex was identified in de novo genome assemblies, and was highly transcribed in environmental samples. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, sugars, peptides, and aromatic compounds. Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this population of Aigarchaeota likely utilizes a broad range of reduced carbon substrates. Potential electron donors for this population may include extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms in close proximity. Flagellum genes were also highly transcribed, which suggests a potential mechanism for motility and/or cell-cell attachment

  20. Globally Deghosting for Marine Streamer with Alternating Minimization Approach in Frequency-slowness Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Gu, H.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z.; Jiao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The ghost effects of the sea surface can generate notch in marine towed-streamer data, which results in narrow bandwidth of seismic data. Currently, deghosting is widely utilized to increase the bandwidth of the seismic data or the images. However, most of the conventional deghosting algorithms havenot considered the error of streamer depth causing a biased ghost-delay time (τ) with respect to primary reflection and amplitude difference coefficient (r) between ghost and primary reflection varies with offset due to rugged seabed and target depth variation. We proposed a ghost filtering operator considering the protentional biases within the ghost-delay time (τ) and the amplitude difference coefficient (r). The up-going wavefield (u), ghost-delay time (τ) and amplitude difference coefficient (r) can be obtained by utilizing alternating minimization approach for minimizing the difference between actual wavefield and theoretical wavefield in frequency-slowness domain. The main idea is to alternatively updating u, τ and r in each iteration: we update u by least-squares when we keep τ and r constant; and we then keep u constant and optimize over τ and r with a closed-form solution which is closely related to matched filtering. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is guaranteed since we have closed-form solutions for each stage. The experiments on synthetic record confirmed the reliability of the proposed algorithm. We also demonstrate our proposed method in marine VDS shot acquisition. After migration stack processing, our ghosting method significantly increases the bandwidth of the average amplitude, amplitude energy of the medium and high frequency spectrum, improving resolution of medium and deep reflection and providing higher signal-to-noise ratio with clear break point. This research is funded by China Important National Science & Technology Specific Projects (2016ZX05026001-001).

  1. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernandez, J. A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; López-Callejas, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results.

  2. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Fernandez, J A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Muñoz-Castro, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results. (paper)

  3. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble

  4. Sub-nanosecond delays of light emitted by streamer in atmospheric pressure air: Analysis of N2( C3Πu) and N2+(B2Σ u +) emissions and fundamental streamer structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Bonaventura, Z.; Bourdon, A.; Šimek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 7 (2015), 073302-073302 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/1709 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * optical diagnostics * nitrogen * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/117/7/10.1063/1.4913215

  5. A southeastern Mediterranean PV streamer and its role in December 2001 case with torrential rains in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Krichak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A precipitation event of unprecedented intensity took place over northern part of Israel during 4 December 2001–5 December 2001. The case was associated with formation of a Cyprus Low cyclone over the Asia Minor. In the current study the synoptic developments over the eastern part of the Mediterranean region are simulated with the MM5 nonhydrostatic model and analyzed based on dynamic tropopause patterns calculated from the simulation results. According to the results, a powerful potential vorticity (PV streamer system played a major role in the process over the southeastern Mediterranean region. The PV streamer created conditions for seclusion of moist air masses from the equatorial East Africa and Atlantics during the cyclone development. Condensation of the moisture, associated with the latent heat release processes have contributed to the intense thunderstorm activity and heavy precipitation of the event.

  6. Towards User-Friendly Spelling with an Auditory Brain-Computer Interface: The CharStreamer Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Johannes; Tangermann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the decoding of brain signals into control commands, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) aim to establish an alternative communication pathway for locked-in patients. In contrast to most visual BCI approaches which use event-related potentials (ERP) of the electroencephalogram, auditory BCI systems are challenged with ERP responses, which are less class-discriminant between attended and unattended stimuli. Furthermore, these auditory approaches have more complex interfaces which imposes a substantial workload on their users. Aiming for a maximally user-friendly spelling interface, this study introduces a novel auditory paradigm: “CharStreamer”. The speller can be used with an instruction as simple as “please attend to what you want to spell”. The stimuli of CharStreamer comprise 30 spoken sounds of letters and actions. As each of them is represented by the sound of itself and not by an artificial substitute, it can be selected in a one-step procedure. The mental mapping effort (sound stimuli to actions) is thus minimized. Usability is further accounted for by an alphabetical stimulus presentation: contrary to random presentation orders, the user can foresee the presentation time of the target letter sound. Healthy, normal hearing users (n = 10) of the CharStreamer paradigm displayed ERP responses that systematically differed between target and non-target sounds. Class-discriminant features, however, varied individually from the typical N1-P2 complex and P3 ERP components found in control conditions with random sequences. To fully exploit the sequential presentation structure of CharStreamer, novel data analysis approaches and classification methods were introduced. The results of online spelling tests showed that a competitive spelling speed can be achieved with CharStreamer. With respect to user rating, it clearly outperforms a control setup with random presentation sequences. PMID:24886978

  7. LIF study of N2(A3+u, v=0-10) vibrational kinetics under nitrogen streamer conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 26 (2015), s. 265202-265202 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/1709 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : nitrogen metastable * streamer * optical diagnostics * laser-induced fluorescence * LIF Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/48/26/265202

  8. Mapping the base of sand dunes using a new design of land-streamer for static correction applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almalki, H.

    2012-05-16

    The complex near-surface structure is a major problem in land seismic data. This is more critical when data acquisition takes place over sand dune surfaces, where the base of the sand acts as a trap for energy and, depending on its shape, can considerably distort conventionally acquired seismic data. Estimating the base of the sand dune surface can help model the sand dune and reduce its harmful influence on conventional seismic data. Among the current methods to do so are drilling upholes and using conventional seismic data to apply static correction. Both methods have costs and limitations. For upholes, the cost factor and their inability to provide a continuous model is well realized. Meanwhile, conventional seismic data lack the resolution necessary to obtain accurate modeling of the sand basement. We developed a method to estimate the sand base from land-streamer seismic acquisition that is developed and geared to sand surfaces. Seismic data acquisition took place over a sand surface in the Al-Thumamah area, where an uphole is located, using the developed land-streamer and conventional spiked geophone systems. Land-streamer acquisition not only provides a more efficient data acquisition system than the conventional spiked geophone approach, but also in our case, the land-streamer provided better quality data with a broader frequency bandwidth. Such data enabled us to do accurate near-surface velocity estimation that resulted in velocities that are very close to those measured using uphole methods. This fact is demonstrated on multiple lines acquired near upholes, and agreement between the seismic velocities and the upholes is high. The stacked depth seismic section shows three layers. The interface between the first and second layers is located at 7 m depth, while the interface between second and third layers is located at 68 m depth, which agrees with the uphole result. 2012 The Author(s).

  9. Behaviour of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge studied by two-dimensional numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    The production process of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge is studied. A streamer discharge model is developed to analyse the characteristics of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in point-to-plane electrodes filled with humid air at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that the behaviour of OH radicals in and after the discharge pulse is characterized by three reaction processes: ‘OH-production’, ‘OH-cycle’ and ‘OH-recombination’. The first process of OH-production includes dissociation reactions of H 2 O with O( 1 D) and N 2 (a' 1 Σ u - ), which are the main production processes of OH in the discharge. Immediately after the OH-production process, the OH radicals are destroyed by a reaction with O( 3 P) to form O 2 and H. Then the subsequent reactions produce OH again through the reaction of H + HO 2 , which is the OH-cycle process. Finally, the OH radicals are consumed by the OH-recombination process. (paper)

  10. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  11. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  12. Bent paths of a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05–0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08–0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%–50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.

  13. Bent paths of a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05–0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08–0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%–50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front

  14. Study of an avalanche-mode resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, J.; Ban, Y.; Liu, H.T.; Zhu, Z.M.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Chen, T.; Ma, J.G.; Ye, Y.L.

    2000-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are widely used to detect high-energy charged particles, especially muons, due to the high gain, moderate time and spatial resolution, simple design and low cost of these detectors. While the simple streamer mode is adequate for cosmic-ray and low-rate accelerator experiments, the avalanche mode is required for high-rate experiments such as CMS at LHC. In this paper construction of a medium-sized double-gap RPC made of Chinese materials is reported. The experimental set-up of cosmic-ray and muon beam tests are introduced. The avalanche mode was clearly observed. Good efficiency and time resolution were obtained from the beam test at CERN under normal irradiation conditions. At very high radiation background the chamber efficiency decreases, indicating the necessity to change the resistivity value of the Chinese bakelites. (author)

  15. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.

  16. Composite film fabricated on biomedical material with corona streamer plasma processing to mitigate bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

    2011-10-01

    Composite films might control bacterial adhesion and concomitant biofouling that afflicts biomedical materials. Different size molecules of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with nominal molecular weights 600, 2000, and 20000 g/mol were used to synthesize composite films with plasma processing and dip-coating procedures on surgical-grade 316L stainless steel. Before dip-coating, the substrate was pre-coated with plasma-polymerized di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (pp-EO2V) in an atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma reactor. The PEG dip-coating step followed immediately in the same chamber due to the finite lifetime of radicals associated with freshly deposited pp-EO2V. Morphology of the composite film was investigated with an ESEM. FTIR confirmed incorporation of pp-EO2V and PEG species into the composite film. More investigations on the composite film were conducted by XPS measurements. Adhesion of the composite film was evaluated with a standard peel-off test. Stability of the composite film in buffer solution was evaluated by AFM. AFM was also used to measure the film roughness and thickness. Polar and non-polar contact angle measurements were included.

  17. NO-γ emissions from streamer discharges: direct electron impact excitation versus resonant energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ningyu; Pasko, Victor P

    2010-01-01

    It has been established that production of NO-γ emission in pulsed corona discharges is dominated by the energy transfer from N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) to the NO ground state NO(X 2 Π r ) while direct excitation by electron impact is negligible. However, recent studies suggest that the electron impact excitation plays a more important role. In this work, we report modelling results of NO-γ emission associated with streamer discharges using two cross section data sets available in the literature. The first set was originally reported by Mojarrabi et al (1996 Phys. Rev. A 54 2977-82) and later updated by Brunger et al (2000 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33 809-19); the second set was published by Hayashi (1990 Nonequilibrium Processes in Partially Ionized Gases (NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, Series B, Physics vol 220) ed M Capitelli and J N Bardsley (New York: Plenum) pp 333-40). According to the results, the role played by the electron impact excitation in the production of NO-γ is drastically different when different cross sections are used. The results indicate that the first data set leads to better agreement with experimental measurements. (fast track communication)

  18. On the data compression at filmless readout of the streamer chamber information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajla, I.; Ososkov, G.A.; Prikhod'ko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is supposed that the system of filmless detecting and processing the visual information from ''RISK'' streamer chamber will comprise the effective on-line data compression algorithm. The role of the basic methodological principles of chamber image film processing in Righ Energy Physics for building up such system is analysed. On the basis of this analysis the main requirements are formulated that have to be fulfilled by the compression algorithm. The most important requirement consists in securing the possibility of the input data reprocessing, if problems in the off-line recognition occur. Using a vector system representation of primary data, the on-line data compression philosophy is proposed that embodies the following three principles: universality, parallelism and input data reconstructibility. Excluding of the recognition procedure from the on-line compression algorithm causes the compression factor reduction. The hierarchic structure of the compression algorithm consisting of (1) sorting, (2) filtering, (3) compression for an additional increasing of the compression ratio is proposed

  19. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of in situ shock formation in the coronal streamer belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaliznyak, Yu.; Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study of an idealized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration consisting of a planar wake flow embedded into a three-dimensional (3D) sheared magnetic field is presented. The simulations investigate the possibility for in situ development of large-scale compressive disturbances at cospatial current sheet-velocity shear regions in the heliosphere. Using a linear MHD solver, the systematical investigation of the destabilized wavenumbers, corresponding growth rates, and physical parameter ranges for dominant 3D sinuous-type instabilities in an equilibrium wake-current sheet system was done. Wakes bounded by sufficiently supersonic (Mach number M s >2.6) flow streams are found to support dominant fully 3D sinuous instabilities when the plasma beta is of order unity. Fully nonlinear, compressible 2.5D and 3D MHD simulations show the self-consistent formation of shock fronts of fast magnetosonic type. They carry density perturbations far away from the wake's center. Shock formation conditions are identified in sonic and Alfvenic Mach number parameter space. Depending on the wake velocity contrast and magnetic field magnitude, as well as on the initial perturbation, the emerging shock patterns can be plane-parallel as well as fully three-dimensionally structured. Similar large-scale transients could therefore originate at distances far above coronal helmet streamers or at the location of the ecliptic current sheet

  20. Radiation thickness gauge using beta particle sensitivity controlled open air corona streamer counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, L.; El-Hazek, S.; El-Araby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Beta particles have been used extensively in radio gauging applications when measurements of foil thicknesses are desired. Using beta particle open air corona streamer counter (point-grid-plane) as a thickness gauge is presented. This gauge consists of two similar counters with two similar Sr-90 beta sources. One counter-source combination is called standard unit, and the other counter-source combination is called measuring unit in which the required foil thickness can be measured by inserting it between the source and the counter. The signals from the counters are amplified with the same gain factor and the net difference between their responses is measured using specially designed electronic circuit. By this way any change that takes place in the operating medium (variation of parameters of open air i.e. temperature, humidity...etc) can similarly affect the two units, the errors in the measurements caused by them are cancelled, and the only response is due to the measured foil thickness. A theoretical model is suggested to explain and analyze the overall response of the gauge system and calculate the calibration thickness gauge constant. All theoretical findings are confirmed by experiments

  1. Multisource least-squares migration of marine streamer and land data with frequency-division encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    Multisource migration of phase-encoded supergathers has shown great promise in reducing the computational cost of conventional migration. The accompanying crosstalk noise, in addition to the migration footprint, can be reduced by least-squares inversion. But the application of this approach to marine streamer data is hampered by the mismatch between the limited number of live traces/shot recorded in the field and the pervasive number of traces generated by the finite-difference modelling method. This leads to a strong mismatch in the misfit function and results in strong artefacts (crosstalk) in the multisource least-squares migration image. To eliminate this noise, we present a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) strategy with iterative least-squares migration (ILSM) of supergathers. The key idea is, at each ILSM iteration, to assign a unique frequency band to each shot gather. In this case there is no overlap in the crosstalk spectrum of each migrated shot gather m(x, ω i), so the spectral crosstalk product m(x, ω i)m(x, ω j) =δ i, j is zero, unless i=j. Our results in applying this method to 2D marine data for a SEG/EAGE salt model show better resolved images than standard migration computed at about 1/10 th of the cost. Similar results are achieved after applying this method to synthetic data for a 3D SEG/EAGE salt model, except the acquisition geometry is similar to that of a marine OBS survey. Here, the speedup of this method over conventional migration is more than 10. We conclude that multisource migration for a marine geometry can be successfully achieved by a frequency-division encoding strategy, as long as crosstalk-prone sources are segregated in their spectral content. This is both the strength and the potential limitation of this method. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  3. Multisource least-squares migration of marine streamer and land data with frequency-division encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2012-05-22

    Multisource migration of phase-encoded supergathers has shown great promise in reducing the computational cost of conventional migration. The accompanying crosstalk noise, in addition to the migration footprint, can be reduced by least-squares inversion. But the application of this approach to marine streamer data is hampered by the mismatch between the limited number of live traces/shot recorded in the field and the pervasive number of traces generated by the finite-difference modelling method. This leads to a strong mismatch in the misfit function and results in strong artefacts (crosstalk) in the multisource least-squares migration image. To eliminate this noise, we present a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) strategy with iterative least-squares migration (ILSM) of supergathers. The key idea is, at each ILSM iteration, to assign a unique frequency band to each shot gather. In this case there is no overlap in the crosstalk spectrum of each migrated shot gather m(x, ω i), so the spectral crosstalk product m(x, ω i)m(x, ω j) =δ i, j is zero, unless i=j. Our results in applying this method to 2D marine data for a SEG/EAGE salt model show better resolved images than standard migration computed at about 1/10 th of the cost. Similar results are achieved after applying this method to synthetic data for a 3D SEG/EAGE salt model, except the acquisition geometry is similar to that of a marine OBS survey. Here, the speedup of this method over conventional migration is more than 10. We conclude that multisource migration for a marine geometry can be successfully achieved by a frequency-division encoding strategy, as long as crosstalk-prone sources are segregated in their spectral content. This is both the strength and the potential limitation of this method. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  4. Track reconstruction method in a small volume self-shunted streamer chamber - analysis of the errors for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, M.J.; Augerat, J.; Avan, M.; Ballet, M.; Vialle, M.

    1977-01-01

    A programme has been worked out to reconstruct electron tracks of low energy (from 100 keV to 2 MeV) curved by a magnetic field in a small streamer chamber (size 10x11x51 cm 3 ). Before a study of the problems involved in the experimental set-up, the geometrical programme is described and the different errors are evaluated. Finally the accuracies on kinetic energies and angles which can be obtained for low energy elctron tracks are given. (Auth.)

  5. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, Milan; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, Václav; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 045021. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * electric field * Blue Jet * air plasma chemistry * transient luminous event Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0963-0252/25/4/045021/meta

  6. Numerical modelling of radiation in 2+ and- systems of nitrogen accounting non-stationary excited states population in a streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakov, A.F.; Bobrov, J.K.; Jourguelenas, J.V.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of spectral bands intensity allows to obtain a valuable information on plasma temperature and electron density - the parameters having critical influence on chemical reactions and efficiency of plasma chemistry applications. At present the interest in streamer discharges is becoming more important because of their applications to flue gas treatment and ozone generation. For a streamer discharge in air the molecular spectral bands of the second positive and first negative systems of nitrogen are the most intensive ones. However, both the registration of radiation and interpretation of the received data are very complicated problems. (Authors)

  7. Rapid temperature increase near the anode and cathode in the afterglow of a pulsed positive streamer discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo

    2018-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature in the afterglow of point-to-plane, pulsed positive streamer discharge was measured near the anode tip and cathode surface using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence of OH radicals. The temperature exhibited a rapid increase and displayed a steep spatial gradient after a discharge pulse. The rate of temperature rise reached 84 K μs‑1 at mm, where z represents the distance from the anode tip. The temperature rise was much faster than in the middle of the gap; it was only 2.8 K μs‑1 at mm. The temperature reached 1700 K near the anode tip at s and 1500 K near the cathode surface at s, where t represents the postdischarge time. The spatial gradient reached 1280 K mm‑1 near the anode tip at s. The mechanism responsible for the rapid temperature increase was discussed, including rapid heating of the gas in the early postdischarge phase (s), and vibration-to-translation energy transfer in the later postdischarge phase (s). The high temperatures near the anode tip and cathode surface are particularly important for the ignition of combustible mixtures and for surface treatments, including solid-surface treatments, water treatments, and plasma medicine using pulsed streamer discharges.

  8. The effect of reduced air density on streamer-to-leader transition and on properties of long positive leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazelyan, E M; Raizer, Yu P; Aleksandrov, N L

    2007-01-01

    New results of observations of the leader process in a pressure chamber are presented for reduced air pressures. The analysis of these data and observations of the leader discharge in peak regions shows that the length of the leader tip and some other characteristics vary by several times as pressure decreases from 1 to 0.3 atm, whereas, under the conditions considered, the leader velocity remains almost independent of air density, the leader current being the same. These data are used to extract relationships between discharge parameters. It is shown that, at reduced air densities, electric field in a 'young' section of the leader channel exceeds electric field in the streamer zone. Therefore, transition of the leader process to the final-jump phase is not inevitably followed by a breakdown of the gap for reduced pressures, as opposed to the discharge in atmospheric pressure air. The model suggested previously by the authors for the streamer-to- leader transition at atmospheric pressure is amended to take into account hydrodynamic expansion of the channel and used to simulate the process at a relative air density of 0.3. The calculated results are used to interpret the observations of the leader process at reduced air pressures

  9. The BESIII muon identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiawen; Qian Sen; Chen Jin; Du Zhizhen; Han Jifeng; Li Rubo; Liu Jichen; Liang Hao; Mao, Yajun; Ma Liehua; Wang Yifang; Xie Yigang; Xie Yuguang; Zhang Qingmin; Zhao Jianbing; Zhao, T.; Zhou, Yongzhao

    2010-01-01

    The muon identification system of BESIII experiment at the IHEP is described. The muon counter (MUC) is composed of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) working in self-quenching streamer mode with the gas mixture Ar/C 2 F 4 H 2 /C 4 H 10 =50/42/8. The design, the construction, the mass production and the quality control result of the detectors are described in detail. The paper also presents the performance of the bare RPCs and the superlayer modules with cosmic rays. Finally, the subsystems of MUC, including the RPC superlayer modules, the gas systems, the HV and LV system and the readout electronic system, are also presented.

  10. A study of gas mixtures for the ATLAS MDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; He, L.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a gas study for the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) are reported. The electron drift velocity, Lorentz angle and tube radius to drift time relations are calculated for selected gas mixtures by using the CERN drift chamber simulation code GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ. The drift tube efficiency, gas gain, avalanche size and self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode fraction as functions of anode voltage are measured by using radioactive sources. Discussions of the results, including effects of nitrogen and water vapor, are presented

  11. Emission spectra of gaseous avalanches and their time structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.; Alves, M.A.F.; Salete, M.; Leite, S.C.P.

    1993-01-01

    Following previous measurements in argon/methane mixtures, the authors now report on the emission spectra of argon/ethane and methane/ethane mixtures, in the region from 120 to 450 nm, for a single wire chamber working in the proportional and/or self-quenching streamer modes. Identification of radicals and fragments is attempted. The time evolution of VUV light, relevant to photon feedback processes, is presented for the CI lines at 156.1 and 165.7nm in argon/methane, argon/ethane and methane/ethane mixtures

  12. Gas-discharge particle detector with ball-tipped anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travkin, V.I.; Khazins, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new gas-discharge particle detector, whose anode is a set of balls 2mm in diameter is investigated. The chamber is blowing down by the argon-methane-methylal gas mixture with the ratio 3:1:1. The detector operates in the self-quenching streamer mode, has high efficiency and a wide counting characteristic plateau. The maximum counting rate of particles at one ball is ∼ 2.5x10 4 s -1 . The ball-tipped anodes allow making reliable complex-shaped detectors. Two-coordinate detection of multiparticle events can be naturally organized in detectors like that

  13. Negative surface streamers propagating on TiO2 and γ-Al2O3-supported Ag catalysts: ICCD imaging and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ha; Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2018-06-01

    Surface streamers propagating on the surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and alumina (γ-Al2O3) were studied in negative polarity using intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) imaging and numerical simulation. Detailed time-resolved ICCD images of cathode-directed streamers (CDSs) emanating from a ground electrode are first presented in this report. Instead of primary streamers in positive polarity, only a glow-like discharge appeared in the early stage at the cathode under negative polarity. After this discharge disappeared, a counter-propagating CDS initiated from the ground electrode (anode). Numerical simulation indicated that strong electric fields at the pellet-anode and the formation of positive ion rich local spots were the main reason for the CDS formation near the ground electrode. The maximum velocity was 750 km s‑1 for Ag-supported γ-Al2O3 and 550 km s‑1 for Ag-supported TiO2, respectively. In contrast to the CDS in the gas-phase with a positive polarity, the CDS in a catalyst packed-bed under negative polarity showed more branching and a larger number of streamers in the presence of oxygen than in pure N2.

  14. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-01-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF 6 .

  15. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-09-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF6.

  16. Diffusion of πsup(+-) mesons on D, 3He, 4He with a streamer self-shunted camera in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, A.; Angelescu, T.; Balea, O.; Balestra, F.; Busso, L.; Garfagnini, R.

    1975-01-01

    A streamer self-shunted camera has been developed with the study of interactions of πsup(+-) mesons on D, 3 He, 4 He. The camera can operate at high beam currents (10 sup(5)/10sup(6)ssup(-1)), so processes with small cross sections can be studied

  17. An Estimate of Solar Wind Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and a Coronal Streamer Area (6-40 R(radius symbol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Total electron content data obtained from the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) in 1991 were used to select two data sets, one associated with a coronal hole and the other with coronal streamer crossings. (This is largely equatorial data shortly after solar maximum.) The solar wind velocity profile is estimated for these areas.

  18. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF{sub 6}.

  19. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  20. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  1. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winands, G. J. J.; Liu, Z.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh)-1. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh)-1, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  2. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winands, G J J [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liu, Z [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pemen, A J M [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heesch, E J M van [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yan, K [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [EPG Group, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-21

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh){sup -1}. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh){sup -1}, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  3. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winands, G J J; Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Heesch, E J M van; Yan, K; Veldhuizen, E M van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh) -1 . For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh) -1 , still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second

  4. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  5. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  6. Enhanced shock wave generation via pre-breakdown acceleration using water electrolysis in negative streamer pulsed spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kern; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method for enhancement of shock waves generated from underwater pulsed spark discharges with negative (anode-directed) subsonic streamers, for which the pre-breakdown process is accelerated by preconditioning a gap with water electrolysis. Hydrogen microbubbles are produced at the cathode by the electrolysis and move towards the anode during the preconditioning phase. The numbers and spatial distributions of the microbubbles vary with the amplitude and duration of each preconditioning pulse. Under our experimental conditions, the optimum pulse duration is determined to be ˜250 ms at a pulse voltage of 400 V, where the buoyancy force overwhelms the electric force and causes the microbubbles to be swept out from the water gap. When a high-voltage pulse is applied to the gap just after the preconditioning pulse, the pre-breakdown process is significantly accelerated in the presence of the microbubbles. At the optimum preconditioning pulse duration, the average breakdown delay is reduced by 87% and, more importantly, the energy consumed during the pre-breakdown period decreases by 83%. This reduced energy consumption during the pre-breakdown period, when combined with the morphological advantages of negative streamers, such as thicker and longer stalks, leads to a significant improvement in the measured peak pressure (˜40%) generated by the underwater pulsed spark discharge. This acceleration of pre-breakdown using electrolysis overcomes the biggest drawback of negative subsonic discharges, which is slow vapor bubble formation due to screening effects, and thus enhances the efficiency of the shock wave generation process using pulsed spark discharges in water.

  7. Hydrophilic property of 316L stainless steel after treatment by atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma using surface-sensitive analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim, E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Pedrow, Patrick [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilic property of surgical-grade 316L stainless steel was enhanced by Ar-O{sub 2} corona streamer plasma treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophilicity, surface morphology, roughness, and chemical composition before and after plasma treatment were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements and surface-sensitive analyses techniques, including XPS and AFM, were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum plasma treatment conditions of the SS 316L surface were determined. - Abstract: Surgical-grade 316L stainless steel (SS 316L) had its surface hydrophilic property enhanced by processing in a corona streamer plasma reactor using O{sub 2} gas mixed with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Reactor excitation was 60 Hz ac high-voltage (0-10 kV{sub RMS}) applied to a multi-needle-to-grounded screen electrode configuration. The treated surface was characterized with a contact angle tester. Surface free energy (SFE) for the treated stainless steel increased measurably compared to the untreated surface. The Ar-O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in enhancing the SFE than Ar-only plasma. Optimum conditions for the plasma treatment system used in this study were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the chemical composition of the treated surfaces confirms the existence of new oxygen-containing functional groups contributing to the change in the hydrophilic nature of the surface. These new functional groups were generated by surface reactions caused by reactive oxidation of substrate species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were generated to investigate morphological and roughness changes on the plasma treated surfaces. The aging effect in air after treatment was also studied.

  8. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  9. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shijun; He Junjia; Chen Weijiang

    2013-01-01

    Stem–leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  10. The Effect of Pulsed Streamer-like Discharge in Liquid on Transcriptional Activation of Retrotransposon Genes of a Red Alga, Porphyra Yezoensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, T.; Li, Z.; Lin, X.F.; Zhang, W.B.; Takano, H.; Takio, S.; Namihira, T.; Akiyama, H.; オオノ, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 大野, 剛史; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements thataccomplished transposition via an RNA intermediate.These elements can be transcriptionally activated by stressfactors, such as UV light, ozone, pathogens, woundingand drought. A red alga, porphyra yezoensis has recentlybeen recognized as a model plant for fundamental andapplied study in marine biological science. In this paper,pulsed streamer-like discharge in liquid was used as a newstress condition, and the transcription level of a copia-like...

  11. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  12. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  13. Circumbinary, not transitional: on the spiral arms, cavity, shadows, fast radial flows, streamers, and horseshoe in the HD 142527 disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Cuello, Nicolás; Pinte, Christophe; Mentiplay, Daniel; Casassus, Simon; Christiaens, Valentin; Kennedy, Grant M.; Cuadra, Jorge; Sebastian Perez, M.; Marino, Sebastian; Armitage, Philip J.; Zurlo, Alice; Juhasz, Attila; Ragusa, Enrico; Laibe, Guillaume; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical models of the HD 142527 protoplanetary disc, a bright and well-studied disc that shows spirals and shadows in scattered light around a 100 au gas cavity, a large horseshoe dust structure in mm continuum emission, together with mysterious fast radial flows and streamers seen in gas kinematics. By considering several possible orbits consistent with the observed arc, we show that all of the main observational features can be explained by one mechanism - the interaction between the disc and the observed binary companion. We find that the spirals, shadows, and horseshoe are only produced in the correct position angles by a companion on an inclined and eccentric orbit approaching periastron - the `red' family from Lacour et al. Dust-gas simulations show radial and azimuthal concentration of dust around the cavity, consistent with the observed horseshoe. The success of this model in the HD 142527 disc suggests other mm-bright transition discs showing cavities, spirals, and dust asymmetries may also be explained by the interaction with central companions.

  14. Electron density in surface barrier discharge emerging at argon/water interface: quantification for streamers and leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Galmiz, Oleksandr; Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Brablec, Antonín; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy, fast intensified CCD imaging and electrical measurements were applied to investigate the basic plasma parameters of surface barrier discharge emerging from a conductive water electrode. The discharge was generated at the triple-line interface of atmospheric pressure argon gas and conductive water solution at the fused silica dielectrics using a sinusoidal high-voltage waveform. The spectroscopic methods of atomic line broadening and molecular spectroscopy were used to determine the electron densities and the gas temperature in the active plasma. These parameters were obtained for both applied voltage polarities and resolved spatially. Two different spectral signatures were identified in the spatially resolved spectra resulting in electron densities differing by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that two discharge mechanisms take a place: the streamer and the leader one, with electron densities of 1014 and 1016 cm-3, respectively. This spectroscopic evidence is supported by the combined diagnostics of electrical current measurements and phase-resolved intensified CCD camera imaging.

  15. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  16. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sizhe; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6mm gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using synthetic air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the DBD mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBDs. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave, due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and DBD develops in streamer instead, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initiatory electron density by pre-ionization methods may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also find that the dependence of uniformity upon PRF is non-monotonic.

  17. ICCD microscopic imaging of a single micro-discharge in surface coplanar DBD geometry: determination of the luminous diameter of N-2 and Ar streamers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2011), 025010-025010 ISSN 0963-0252. [European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIGXX)/20th./. Novi Sad , SERBIA, 13.07.2010-17.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : surface barier discharge * streamer * imaging Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/20/2/025010/pdf/0963-0252_20_2_025010.pdf

  18. Evolution of N2(A3Σ+u) in streamer discharges: influence of oxygen admixtures on formation of low vibrational levels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 50 (2017), č. článku 504002. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : nitrogen * air * streamer * laser-induced fluorescence * LIF Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/aa96f3

  19. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble–bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble–bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N 2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced. (paper)

  20. Study of Interaction of Low-Energy Antiprotons with H$^{2}$,He$^{3}$,He$^{4}$,Ne-Nuclei Using a Streamer Chamber in Magnetic Field

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the systematic study of the interaction between low-energy antiprotons and the H|2,~He|3,~He|4,~Ne-nuclei using a self shunted streamer chamber in a magnetic field exposed to the antiproton beam of the LEAR facility. The properties of the self shunted streamer chamber, which allows the use of the filling gas (hydrogen, helium, neon at a pressure of l~atm) as a target, permit to carry out experiments also in the very low-energy region. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental apparatus is suitable for a large programme of measurements. We plan to measure the @*H|2 cross section and the spectator momentum distributions at @* momenta lower than 250~MeV/c, where data are lacking. It is interesting to study for the first time the @*He|3 and @*He|4 interactions measuring the cross sections and the emitted particle distributions. Among other things the knowledge of the branching ratio of the @*He|4 annihilation channels clarifies some open cosmological questions. The study of the process of nuclear absor...

  1. Performance and simulation of a double-gap resistive plate chamber in the avalanche mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong Byung Sik; Hong Seong Jong; Ito, M; Kang, T I; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee Hyup Woo; Lee, K B; Lee Kyong Sei; Lee Seok Jae; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee June Tak; Ryu, M S; Sim Kwang Souk

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the time and the charge signals of a prototype double-gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chamber was built with relatively low-resistivity bakelite. The time and the charge results demonstrate that the high- voltage plateau, which satisfies various CMS requirements for the efficiency, the noise cluster rate, the fraction of the large signal, and the streamer probability, can be extended at least up to 400 V with the present design. In addition, a simple avalanche multiplication model is studied in detail. The model can reproduce the experimental charge spectra reasonably well. The charge information enables us to estimate the effective Townsend coefficient in avalanche-mode operation.

  2. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  3. Streamer free operation of a 2 mm gap resistive plate chamber with $C_{2}F_{5}H$

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Lamas-Valverde, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to operate the resistive plate chamber (RPC) in avalanche mode to obtain high efficiency at elevated particle fluxes. We examine this mode of operation with a 2 mm gap RPC using gas mixtures containing C/sub 2/F/sub 4/H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/F/sub 5/H. In order to explain the data we propose that the avalanche growth is strongly limited by space charge effects. (10 refs).

  4. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  5. Use of gas mixture electroluminescence for optical data readout from wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.A.; Rykalin, V.I.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation spectra, the values of electroluminescence yield and coefficients of gas amplification of Ar and Ne mixture with inorganic and organic additions in a wire chamber operating under proportional and self-quenching streamer conditions are measured. Maximum light yield: 2x10 7 photons for Ar+acetone+white spirit gas mixture in a proportional regime and 1.1x10 7 photons for Ar+CO 2 + ethyl alcohol+ white spirit in self-quenching streamer regime is obtained. Three methods of optical data readout from the wire chambers are tested. The best results are obtained when spectrum shifting bands and fibers are placed behind the chamber cathode planes

  6. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  7. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  8. Multiwire proportional chambers in the triggering system of the streamer chamber for high-Pt charged particle production detection in 40 GeV/c hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyrkowski, H.; Dabrowski, R.; Derlicki, A.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a triggering system based on the multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) for the high-P t charged particles selection in Π - A interactions at 40 GeV/c (RISC experiment). The coincidence matrices processing only combinations of hits in MWPCs allow one to reach sufficient purity of experimental material. The large area MWPCs work close to the streamer chamber high voltage electrode without any problems. Details of the fabrication procedure and peformances are also given. 12 refs. (author)

  9. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  10. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  11. Development of small-diameter lead-glass-tube matrices for gamma-ray conversion in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.M.

    1985-05-01

    A gamma-ray converter for a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) positron emission tomograph is described. The converter is made of small-diameter (0.48 mm inner diameter, 0.06 mm wall thickness) lead-oxide-glass tubes fused to form a honeycomb matrix. The surfaces of the tubes are reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to provide the drift electric field for detection of the conversion electrons. The detection efficiency for a 10 mm thick converter is 6.65%, with a time resolution of 160 ns (FWHM). A scheme which will improve the spatial resolution of the tomograph by use of the self quenching streamer mode of chamber operation is described. Details of construction of the converters and the MWPC are presented, as well as the design performance of a high spatial resolution positron emission tomograph (HISPET). 40 refs., 22 figs

  12. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  13. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  14. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  15. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Excursions through KK modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India)

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  17. Excursions through KK modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  18. Design and development of a low cost, high current density power supply for streamer free atmospheric pressure DBD plasma generation in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Visani, Anand; Srinivasan, R; Agarwal, Vivek

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new power supply architecture for generating a uniform dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air medium at atmospheric pressure. It is quite a challenge to generate atmospheric pressure uniform glow discharge plasma, especially in air. This is because air plasma needs very high voltage for initiation of discharge. If the high voltage is used along with high current density, it leads to the formation of streamers, which is undesirable for most applications like textile treatment, etc. Researchers have tried to generate high-density plasma using a RF source, nanosecond pulsed DC source, and medium frequency AC source. However, these solutions suffer from low current discharge and low efficiency due to the addition of an external resistor to control the discharge current. Moreover, they are relatively costly and bulky. This paper presents a new power supply configuration which is very compact and generates high average density (∼0.28 W/cm 2 ) uniform glow DBD plasma in air at atmospheric pressure. The efficiency is also higher as no external resistor is required to control the discharge current. An inherent feature of this topology is that it can drive higher current oscillations (∼50 A peak and 2-3 MHz frequency) into the plasma that damp out due to the plasma dissipation only. A newly proposed model has been used with experimental validation in this paper. Simulations and experimental validation of the proposed topology are included. Also, the application of the generated plasma for polymer film treatment is demonstrated.

  19. Investigation of $pp\\bar$ Events at 540 GeV c.m. Energy with a Streamer Chamber Detection System

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The SPS Collider offers an opportunity to study hadronically-produced events in an entirely new energy domain. The UA5 Collaboration is investigating many features of the physics of 540 GeV proton-antiproton collisions, including 1) charged particle production; pseudorapidity and multiplicity distributions 2) photon production; pseudorapidity distributions 3) charged-charged and charged-neutral particle correlations 4) neutral and charged strange particle production and their p^t-distributions 5)~~a special study of high multiplicity events; search for Centauro events,~etc. .in;.sk; The basic detector consists of two large (6m) streamer chambers, triggered by hodoscopes at either end and at 90|0, and viewed by cameras via image intensifiers. Charged tracks can be observed down to 3/4|0, and hence over most of the pseudorapidity range (!@h!$<$5.0) in which they are produced; photons are observed over the same pseudorapidity range. Neutral and charged particle decays are identified over !@h!$<$3. New comp...

  20. Effect of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Longxi; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability are studied. When considering the modes interaction effects, the linear growth rate of the most unstable (3, 1) mode decreases. After linear evolution, the RWM saturates at the nonlinear phase. The saturation can be attributed to flux piling up on the resistive wall. When some modes exist, the (3, 1) mode saturates at lower level compared with single mode evolution. Meanwhile, the magnetic energy of the (5, 2) mode increases correspondingly, but the magnetic energy saturation level of the (2, 1) mode changes weakly. (authors)

  1. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  2. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  3. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  4. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  5. Propagating annular modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  6. Pressure Drop Versus Flow Rate Analysis of the Limited Streamer Tube Gas System of the BaBar Muon Detector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed that Limited Streamer Tubes (LST) be used in the current upgrade of the muon detector in the BaBar detector. An LST consists of a thin silver plated wire centered in a graphite-coated cell. One standard LST tube consists of eight such cells, and two or three such tubes form an LST module. Under operation, the cells are filled with a gas mixture of CO 2 , argon and isobutane. During normal operation of the detector, the gas will be flushed out of the system at a constant low rate of one volume change per day. During times such as installation, however, it is often desired to flush and change the LST gas volumes very rapidly, leading to higher than normal pressure which may damage the modules. This project studied this pressure as a function of flow rate and the number of modules that are put in series in search of the maximal safe flow rate at which to flush the modules. Measurements of pressure drop versus flow rate were taken using a flow meter and a pressure transducer on configurations of one to five modules put in series. Minimal Poly-Flo tubing was used for all connections between test equipment and modules. They contributed less than 25% to all measurements. A ratio of 0.00022 ± 0.00001 mmHg per Standard Cubic Centimeter per Minute (SCCM) per module was found, which was a slight overestimate since it included the contributions from the tubing connections. However, for the purpose of finding a flow rate at which the modules can be safely flushed, this overestimate acts as a safety cushion. For a standard module with a volume of 16 liters and a known safe overpressure of 2 inches of water, the ratio translates into a flow rate of 17000 ± 1000SCCM and a time requirement of 56 ± 5 seconds to flush an entire module

  7. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  8. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  9. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33......) for current confinement into the active layer (34). An air-gap layer (102) may be provided between the upper reflector (15) and the SOI wafer (50) acting as a substrate. The lower reflector may be designed as a high-contrast grating (51) by etching....

  10. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  12. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2002-01-01

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  13. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  14. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  15. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  16. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  17. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  18. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  19. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  20. Raman amplification of OAM modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The set of fibre modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a possible basis for mode division multiplexing. In this regard, fibres supporting OAM modes have been fabricated [1], and optical communication using these fibres, has been demonstrated [2]. A vital part of any long range...

  1. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  2. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  3. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  4. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  5. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  6. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  7. Seismic imaging of esker structures from a combination of high-resolution broadband multicomponent streamer and wireless sensors, Turku-Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Georgiana; Ahokangas, Elina; Mäkinen, Joni; Pasanen, Antti; Malehmir, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    Eskers and glaciofluvial interlobate formations, mainly composed of sands and gravels and deposited in winding ridges, define the locations of glacial melt-water streams. These sediments, porous and permeable, form the most important aquifers in Finland and are often used as aggregates or for artificial aquifer recharge. The Virttaankangas interlobate suite and artificial aquifer recharge plant provides the entire water supply for the city of Turku and therefore an accurate delineation of the aquifer is critical for long term planning and sustainable use of these natural resources. The study area is part of the Säkylänharju-Virttaankangas Glaciofluvial esker-chain complex and lies on an igneous, crystalline basement rocks. To provide complementary information to existing boreholes and GPR studies at the site, such as identification of potential esker cores, planning for a water extraction, fractured bedrock and possible kettle holes, a new seismic investigation was designed and carried out during summer 2014. Two seismic profiles each about 1 km long were acquired using a newly developed 200 m long prototype, comprising of 80-3C MEMs-based, landstreamer system. To provide velocity information at larger depths (and longer offsets), fifty-two 10-Hz 1C wireless sensors spaced at about every 20 m were used. A Bobcat mounted drop-hammer source, generating three hits per source location, was used as the seismic source. This proved to be a good choice given the attenuative nature of the dry sediments down to about 20 m depth. One of the seismic lines overlaps an existing streamer survey and thus allows a comparison between the system used in this study and the one employed before. Except at a few places where the loose sands mixed with leaves affected the coupling, the data quality is excellent with several reflections identifiable in the raw shot gathers. First arrivals were easily identifiable in almost all the traces and shots and this allowed obtaining velocity

  8. A study of Ks0, Λ and anti Λ production in 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon OAu and pAu collisions with a streamer chamber detector at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, A.; Runge, K.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Guerra, C.; Humanic, T.; Sandoval, A.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Rauch, W.; Schroeder, L.S.; Tincknell, M.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; De Marzo, C.; De Palma, M.; Favuzzi, C.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Ranieri, A.; Spinelli, P.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Fessler, H.; Freund, P.; Gebauer, H.J.; Pretzl, K.P.; Schmitz, N.; Schouten, T.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Ferenc, D.; Vranic, D.; Gazdzicki, M.; Heck, W.; Lahanas, M.; Margetis, S.; Pfennig, J.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Thomas, A.; Wenig, S.; Karabarbounis, A.; Petridis, A.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Skrzypczak, E.

    1989-01-01

    The production of neutral strange particles K s 0 , Λ and anti Λ has been studied in 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon OAu and pAu collisions with the streamer chamber vertex spectrometer of the NA35 experiment at the CERN-SPS accelerator. Ratios of neutral strange particle production to negatively charged particle production in selected regions of phase space were measured to be the same in OAu and pAu reactions. The rates of strange particle production in central OAu collisions are about a factor of 16 higher than in pAu collisions when compared in the same regions of phase space. If an enhancement of strange particle production in OAu collisions relative to pAu collisions is considered to be a signature for quark-gluon plasma formation, no evidence supporting it is observed. The experimental results are compared to the Lund FRITIOF model. (orig.)

  9. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  10. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  11. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Cao; Wanfu Li; Limin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  12. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  13. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  14. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  15. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  16. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  17. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  18. Spatial-mode switchable ring fiber laser based on low mode-crosstalk all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Yu, Jinyi; Wang, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    We report an all-fiber ring laser that emits linearly polarized (LP) modes based on the intracavity all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). Multiple LP modes in ring fiber laser are generated by taking advantage of mode MUX/DEMUX. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs). The output lasing mode of the ring fiber laser can be switched among the three lowest-order LP modes by employing combination of a mode MUX and a simple N × 1 optical switch. The slope efficiencies, optical spectra and mode profiles are measured.

  19. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  20. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  1. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  2. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  3. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface

  4. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  5. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  6. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  7. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  8. Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device

  9. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Peng, H.; Cui, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z. X.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately

  10. Common mode and coupled failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    Based on examples and data from Abnormal Occurence Reports for nuclear reactors, a classification of common mode or coupled failures is given, and some simple statistical models are investigated. (author)

  11. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  12. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  13. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  14. Evidence of the wobbling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegaard, S.W.; Tjoem, P.O.; Hagemann, G.B.; Jensen, D.R.; Bergstroem, M.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Toermaenen, S.; Wilson, J.N.; Hamamoto, I.; Spohr, K.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Petrache, C.M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.

    2002-01-01

    The wobbling mode is a direct consequence of rotational motion of a triaxial body. The wobbling degree of freedom introduces sequences of bands with increasing number of wobbling quanta and a characteristic ΔI=1 decay pattern between the bands in competition with the in-band decay. A favorable candidate for establishing this exotic excitation mode is found for the first time in one of the Lu-isotopes for which stable triaxial superdeformed shapes are expected

  15. The evolution of transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  16. EXPLAINING INVERTED-TEMPERATURE LOOPS IN THE QUIET SOLAR CORONA WITH MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVE-MODE CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, Avery J.; Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Coronal loops trace out bipolar, arch-like magnetic fields above the Sun’s surface. Recent measurements that combine rotational tomography, extreme-ultraviolet imaging, and potential-field extrapolation have shown the existence of large loops with inverted-temperature profiles, i.e., loops for which the apex temperature is a local minimum, not a maximum. These “down loops” appear to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. We simulate both these and the more prevalent large-scale “up loops” by modeling coronal heating as a time-steady superposition of (1) dissipation of incompressible Alfvén wave turbulence and (2) dissipation of compressive waves formed by mode conversion from the initial population of Alfvén waves. We found that when a large percentage (>99%) of the Alfvén waves undergo this conversion, heating is greatly concentrated at the footpoints and stable “down loops” are created. In some cases we found loops with three maxima that are also gravitationally stable. Models that agree with the tomographic temperature data exhibit higher gas pressures for “down loops” than for “up loops,” which is consistent with observations. These models also show a narrow range of Alfvén wave amplitudes: 3 to 6 km s{sup -1} at the coronal base. This is low in comparison to typical observed amplitudes of 20–30 km s{sup -1} in bright X-ray loops. However, the large-scale loops we model are believed to compose a weaker diffuse background that fills much of the volume of the corona. By constraining the physics of loops that underlie quiescent streamers, we hope to better understand the formation of the slow solar wind.

  17. Packaged mode multiplexer based on silicon photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Snyder, B.; Raz, O.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Chen, X.

    2012-01-01

    A silicon photonics based mode multiplexer is proposed. Four chirped grating couplers structure can support all 6 channels in a two-mode fiber and realize LP01 and LP11 mode selective exciting. The packaged device is tested.

  18. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  19. Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Saitoh, Kuimasa; Sakamoto, Taiji; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Koshiba, Masanori; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2013-11-04

    We proposed a PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) with an asymmetric parallel waveguide for mode division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The mode MUX/DEMUX including a mode conversion function with an asymmetric parallel waveguide can be realized by matching the effective indices of the LP(01) and LP(11) modes of two waveguides. We report the design of a mode MUX/DEMUX that can support C-band WDM-MDM transmission. The fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX realized a low insertion loss of less than 1.3 dB and high a mode extinction ratio that exceeded 15 dB. We used the fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX to achieve a successful 2 mode x 4 wavelength x 10 Gbps transmission over a 9 km two-mode fiber with a penalty of less than 1 dB.

  20. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  1. Boundary methods for mode estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E., Jr.; Ulug, Batuhan; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Boundary Methods (BMs), a collection of tools used for distribution analysis, as a method for estimating the number of modes associated with a given data set. Model order information of this type is required by several pattern recognition applications. The BM technique provides a novel approach to this parameter estimation problem and is comparable in terms of both accuracy and computations to other popular mode estimation techniques currently found in the literature and automatic target recognition applications. This paper explains the methodology used in the BM approach to mode estimation. Also, this paper quickly reviews other common mode estimation techniques and describes the empirical investigation used to explore the relationship of the BM technique to other mode estimation techniques. Specifically, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the BM technique are compared quantitatively to the a mixture of Gaussian (MOG) approach and a k-means approach to model order estimation. The stopping criteria of the MOG and k-means techniques is the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC).

  2. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  3. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  5. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  6. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  7. Physics of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igochine, V.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced tokamak regime is a promising candidate for steady-state tokamak operation which is desirable for a fusion reactor. This regime is characterized by a high bootstrap current fraction and a flat or reversed safety factor profile, which leads to operation close to the pressure limit. At this limit, an external kink mode becomes unstable. This external kink is converted into the slowly growing resistive wall mode (RWM) by the presence of a conducting wall. Reduction of the growth rate allows one to act on the mode and to stabilize it. There are two main factors which determine the stability of the RWM. The first factor comes from external magnetic perturbations (error fields, resistive wall, feedback coils, etc). This part of RWM physics is the same for tokamaks and reversed field pinch configurations. The physics of this interaction is relatively well understood and based on classical electrodynamics. The second ingredient of RWM physics is the interaction of the mode with plasma flow and fast particles. These interactions are particularly important for tokamaks, which have higher plasma flow and stronger trapped particle effects. The influence of the fast particles will also be increasingly more important in ITER and DEMO which will have a large fraction of fusion born alpha particles. These interactions have kinetic origins which make the computations challenging since not only particles influence the mode, but also the mode acts on the particles. Correct prediction of the ‘plasma–RWM’ interaction is an important ingredient which has to be combined with external field's influence (resistive wall, error fields and feedback) to make reliable predictions for RWM behaviour in tokamaks. All these issues are reviewed in this paper. (special topic)

  8. Renormalized modes in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anushri; Kumari, Anita; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Indu, B. D.

    2018-04-01

    The renormalized mode frequencies are obtained with the help of quantum dynamical approach of many body phonon Green's function technique via a general Hamiltonian (excluding BCS Hamiltonian) including the effects of phonons and electrons, anharmonicities and electron-phonon interactions. The numerical estimates have been carried out to study the renormalized mode frequency of high temperature cuprate superconductor (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7-δ using modified Born-Mayer-Huggins interaction potential (MBMHP) best applicable to study the dynamical properties of all HTS.

  9. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...

  10. Soft mode of lead zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, G.F.; Prisedskij, V.V.; Klimov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusional scattering of electrons on PbZrO 3 crystal in the temperature range of phase transition has been recorded. As a result of its analysis it has been established that in lead zirconate the rotational vibrational mode G 25 plays the role of soft mode. The experiment is carried out using PbZrO 3 monocrystals in translucent electron microscope EhM-200, operating in the regime of microdiffraction at accelerating voltage of 150 kV and beam current 50 μA; sample preparation is realized using the method of shearing and fragmentation

  11. Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes.......A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes....

  12. Theory of Modes and Impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  13. News on the Scissors Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietralla, N.; Beller, J.; Beck, T.; Derya, V.; Löher, B.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on our recent nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments on l52,l54,l56Gd. Decay branches of the scissors mode to intrinsic excitations are observed. They are interpreted as a new signature for a spherical-to-deformed nuclear shape phase transition.

  14. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  15. Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Z., Liu

    1995-01-01

    The RMBFM-Project (Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes) is sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under the Contract MAS-CT92- 0042, with the objective of contributing to the development of rational methods for the design of rubble mound breakwate...

  16. Mode structure of active resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of the mode structure of lasers when the interaction with the active medium is taken into account. We consider the combined effect of gain and refractive-index variations for arbitrary mirror configurations. Using a dimensionless round-trip matrix for a medium with a quadratic

  17. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  18. Quantum Accelerator Modes from the Farey Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchleitner, A.; D'Arcy, M.B.; Fishman, S.; Gardiner, S.A.; Guarneri, I.; Ma, Z.-Y.; Rebuzzini, L.; Summy, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    We show that mode locking finds a purely quantum nondissipative counterpart in atom-optical quantum accelerator modes. These modes are formed by exposing cold atoms to periodic kicks in the direction of the gravitational field. They are anchored to generalized Arnol'd tongues, parameter regions where driven nonlinear classical systems exhibit mode locking. A hierarchy for the rational numbers known as the Farey tree provides an ordering of the Arnol'd tongues and hence of experimentally observed accelerator modes

  19. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhu, Qi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2015-03-16

    A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.

  20. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers.

  1. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  2. Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)

  3. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2008-09-05

    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  4. Nuclear scissors mode with pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Malov, L. A.; Schuck, P.; Urban, M.; Vinas, X.

    2008-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of the scissors mode and the isovector giant quadrupole resonance are studied using a generalized Wigner function moments method, taking into account pair correlations. Equations of motion for angular momentum, quadrupole moment, and other relevant collective variables are derived on the basis of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov equations. Analytical expressions for energy centroids and transition probabilities are found for the harmonic-oscillator model with the quadrupole-quadrupole residual interaction and monopole pairing force. Deformation dependences of energies and B(M1) values are correctly reproduced. The inclusion of pair correlations leads to a drastic improvement in the description of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the scissors mode.

  5. Wobbling mode in 167Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D. J.; Ludington, A.; Pifer, R.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Aguilar, A.; Wang, X.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Tandel, S. K.; Tandel, U.

    2009-01-01

    The collective wobbling mode, the strongest signature for the rotation of a triaxial nucleus, has previously been seen only in a few Lu isotopes in spite of extensive searches in nearby isotopes. A sequence of transitions in the N=94 167 Ta nucleus exhibiting features similar to those attributed to the wobbling bands in the Lu nuclei has now been found. This band feeds into the πi 13/2 band at a relative energy similar to that seen in the established wobbling bands and its dynamic moment of inertia and alignment properties are nearly identical to the i 13/2 structure over a significant frequency range. Given these characteristics, it is likely that the wobbling mode has been observed for the first time in a nucleus other than Lu, making this collective motion a more general phenomenon.

  6. Fracture modes in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Chai, H; Lucas, P W; Thompson, V P; Lawn, B R

    2009-03-01

    The structural integrity of teeth under stress is vital to functional longevity. We tested the hypothesis that this integrity is limited by fracture of the enamel. Experiments were conducted on molar teeth, with a metal rod loaded onto individual cusps. Fracture during testing was tracked with a video camera. Two longitudinal modes of cracking were observed: median cracking from the contact zone, and margin cracking along side walls. Median cracks initiated from plastic damage at the contact site, at first growing slowly and then accelerating to the tooth margin. Margin cracks appeared to originate from the cemento-enamel junction, and traversed the tooth wall adjacent to the loaded cusp from the gingival to the occlusal surface. All cracks remained confined within the enamel shell up to about 550 N. At higher loads, additional crack modes--such as enamel chipping and delamination--began to manifest themselves, leading to more comprehensive failure of the tooth structure.

  7. Tilting mode in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Shestakov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) experimentally have exhibited remarkable stability on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) timescale, despite numerous MHD calculations showing FRCs to be unstable. It is easy to believe that local modes are stabilized by finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but more puzzling is the apparent stability of FRCs against global modes, where one would expect FLR effects to be less important. In this paper we study the tilting mode, which MHD has shown to be a rapidly growing global mode. The tilting mode in FRCs is driven by the pressure gradient, and magnetic compression and field line bending are the stabilizing forces. A schematic of the evolution of the tilting mode is shown. The tilting mode is considered dangerous, because it would lead to rapid tearing across the separatrix. Unlike spheromaks, the tilting mode in FRCs has a separatrix that is fixed in space, so that the mode is strictly internal

  8. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  9. A History of Emerging Modes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Michael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I first introduce Tomasello’s notion of thought and his account of its emergence and development through differentiation, arguing that it calls into question the theory bias of the philosophical tradition on thought as well as its frequent atomism. I then raise some worries that he may be overextending the concept of thought, arguing that we should recognize an area of intentionality intermediate between action and perception on the one hand and thought on the other. After that I argue that the co-operative nature of humans is reflected in the very structure of their intentionality and thought: in co-operative modes such as the mode of joint attention and action and the we-mode, they experience and represent others as co-subjects of joint relations to situations in the world rather than as mere objects. In conclusion, I briefly comment on what Tomasello refers to as one of two big open questions in the theory of collective intentionality, namely that of the irreducibility of jointness.

  10. Mode pumping experiments on biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.H.; Erramilli, S.; Xie, A.; Schramm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We will explore several aspects of protein dynamics and energy transfer that can be explored by using the intense, picosecond, tunable mid-IR output of the FEL. In order of appearance they are: (1) Saturation recovery and inter-level coupling of the low temperature amide-I band in acetanilide. This is a continuation of earlier experiments to test soliton models in crystalline hydrogen bonded solids. In this experiment we utilize the sub-picosecond time resolution and low repetition rate of the Stanford SCLA FEL to do both T 1 and T 2 relaxation measurements at 1650 cm -1 . (2) Probing the influence of collective dynamics in sensory rhodopsin. In this experiment we use the FIR output of the Stanford FIREFLY FEL to determine the lifetime of collective modes in the photo-active protein sensory rhodopsin, and begin experiments on the influence of collective modes on retinal reaction dynamics. (3) Probing the transition states of enzymes. This experiment, in the initial stages, attempts to use the intense IR output of the FEL to probe and influence the reaction path of a transition state analog for the protein nucleoside hydrolase. The transition state of the inosine substrate is believed to have critical modes softened by the protein so that bond-breaking paths show absorption at approximately 800 cm -1 . A form of action spectrum using FEL excitation will be used to probe this state

  11. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  12. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  13. Effect of helium irradiation on fracture modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamura, T.; Jesser, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the crack opening mode during in-situ HVEM tensile testing and how it is influenced by test temperature and helium irradiation. Most cracks were mixed mode I and II. However, between 250 0 C and room temperature the effect of helium irradiation is to increase the amount of mode I crack propagation. Mode II crack opening was observed as grain boundary sliding initiated by a predominantly mode I crack steeply intersecting the grain boundary. Mode II crack opening was absent in irradiated specimens tested between 250 0 C and room temperature, but could be restored by a post irradiation anneal

  14. Mixed-Mode Crack Growth in Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian POP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In timber elements the mixed mode dependsessentially of wood anatomy and load configuration.In these conditions, in order to evaluate the materialbehavior and the fracture process, it’s necessary toseparate the part of each mode. The mixed modeseparation allows evaluating the amplitude offracture mode. In the present paper, using a mixedmodecrack growth specimen made in Douglas fir,the mixed mode crack growth process is studythanks to marks tracking method. Using the markstracking method the characteristic displacementsassociated to opening and shear mode aremeasured. From the experimental measurements,the energy release rate associated to opening andshear modes is calculated into to account the crackadvancement during the test.

  15. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  16. PLC-based LP₁₁ mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Uematsu, Takui; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Ishizaka, Yuhei; Masumoto, Kohei; Sakamoto, Taiji; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2014-08-11

    A PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is proposed. The proposed mode rotator is composed of a waveguide with a trench that provides asymmetry of the waveguide. Numerical simulations show that converting LP11a (LP11b) mode to LP11b (LP11a) mode can be achieved with high conversion efficiency (more than 90%) and little polarization dependence over a wide wavelength range from 1450 nm to 1650 nm. In addition, we fabricate the proposed LP11 mode rotator using silica-based PLC. It is confirmed that the fabricated mode rotator can convert LP11a mode to LP11b mode over a wide wavelength range.

  17. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  18. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  19. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  20. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  1. Psaltic Modes - Meanings and Symbolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domin Adam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Universe of Byzantine music is a profound one, that is why every side should be analysed for getting to the essence of psaltical soul of the singing. Every sign has a certain meaning, every mode has a certain composition and every singing genre is interpreted in a certain way. It is important to search and analyse the historical evolution of every of the mentioned categories for being able to form a holistic image about what Byzantine music meant and means.

  2. Applications of sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Ghommam, Jawhar; Zhu, Quanmin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential studies and applications in the context of sliding mode control, highlighting the latest findings from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, ranging from computational algorithm development to representative applications. Readers will learn how to easily tailor the techniques to accommodate their ad hoc applications. To make the content as accessible as possible, the book employs a clear route in each paper, moving from background to motivation, to quantitative development (equations), and lastly to case studies/illustrations/tutorials (simulations, experiences, curves, tables, etc.). Though primarily intended for graduate students, professors and researchers from related fields, the book will also benefit engineers and scientists from industry. .

  3. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  4. A Study of the Dielectric Breakdown of SiO2 Films on Si by the Self- Quenching Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Cambell . Much of the early work on the breakdown of oxide films in 2 1 Q MOS structures was done by N. Klein and his coworkers...Electron Physics, 26, Academic Press. New York (1969). P. J. Harrop and D. S. Cambell , "Dielectric Properties of Thin Films," Handbook of Thin Film

  5. Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Dongxue; Wang Zhengxiong; Wang Xiaogang

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry. The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated

  6. Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1997-01-01

    with an elastic-continuum theory of the response of modes of either parallel or perpendicular polarization for a spherical adsorbate on a hexagonal substrate. The results are applied to the discussion of computer simulations and inelastic atomic-scattering experiments for adsorbates on graphite. The extreme...... of substrate modes with strong anomalous dispersion, and enables a semiquantitative account of observed avoided crossings of the adlayer perpendicular vibration mode and the substrate Rayleigh mode....

  7. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  8. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic ... In the vicinity of the direct beam for a sample aligned in the Bragg mode and. 297 ... experimental investigations on these modes. Duke and Du ..... scattering volume is not true in practice. In an actual ...

  9. Spiral modes in cold cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The linearized hydrodynamical equations governing the non-axisymmetric free modes of oscillation of cold cylindrical stellar systems are separated in cylindrical coordinates and solved numerically for two models. Short-wavelength unstable modes corresponding to tight spirals do not exist; but there exists an unstable growing mode which has the form of trailing spirals which are quite open. (orig.) [de

  10. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully...

  11. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control...

  12. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    Recently developed PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission are reviewed. We firstly show the operation principle and basic characteristics of PLC-based MUX/DEMUXs with an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC). We then demonstrate the 3-mode (2LP-mode) multiplexing of the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes by using fabricated PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX on one chip. In order to excite LP11b mode in the same plane, a PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is introduced. Finally, we show the PLC-based 6-mode (4LP-mode) MUX/DEMUX with a uniform height by using ADCs, LP11 mode rotators, and tapered waveguides. It is shown that the LP21a mode can be excited from the LP11b mode by using ADC, and the two nearly degenerated LP21b and LP02 modes can be (de)multiplexed separately by using tapered mode converter from E13 (E31) mode to LP21b (LP02) mode.

  13. Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab

    2016-09-23

    Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.

  14. Topological Coherent Modes in Trapped Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.; Marzlin, K.-P.; Yukalova, E.P.; Bagnato, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The report reviews the problem of topological coherent modes, which are nonlinear collective states of Bose-condensed atoms. Such modes can be generated by means of alternating external fields, whose frequencies are in resonance with the transition frequencies between the related modes. The Bose gas with generated topological coherent modes is a collective nonlinear analog of a resonant atom. Such systems exhibit a variety of nontrivial effects, e.g. interference fringes, interference current, mode locking, dynamic transitions, critical phenomena, chaotic motion, harmonic generation, parametric conversion, atomic squeezing, and entanglement production

  15. 'Snowflake' H Mode in a Tokamak Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piras, F.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Marki, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Pitzschke, A.; Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    An edge-localized mode (ELM) H-mode regime, supported by electron cyclotron heating, has been successfully established in a 'snowflake' (second-order null) divertor configuration for the first time in the TCV tokamak. This regime exhibits 2 to 3 times lower ELM frequency and 20%-30% increased normalized ELM energy (ΔW ELM /W p ) compared to an identically shaped, conventional single-null diverted H mode. Enhanced stability of mid- to high-toroidal-mode-number ideal modes is consistent with the different snowflake ELM phenomenology. The capability of the snowflake to redistribute the edge power on the additional strike points has been confirmed experimentally.

  16. Nonlinear coupling of kink modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.

    1975-07-01

    The m = 2, n = 1 kink mode is shown to be capable of destabilizing the m = 1, n = 1 internal kink. A nonlinear Lagrangian theory is developed for the coupling of modes of different pitch, and it is applied to the interaction of these modes. The coupling to the m = 2 mode provides sufficient additional destabilization to the internal mode to permit it to account even quantitatively (where it had failed when considered by itself) for many of the features of the disruptive instability. (U.S.)

  17. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  18. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  19. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode inst...

  20. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMR...

  1. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  2. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  3. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  4. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  5. Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.

    1990-07-01

    This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions

  6. Investigation of exotic fission modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, W.; Nagame, Y.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    Fission approach to the cluster radioactivities and α-decay has been systematically developed during the last two decades. A more complex process, the ternary fission, was observed since 1946 both in neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. We obtained interesting results concerning the binary fission saddle-point reflection asymmetric nuclear shapes, and we can explain how a possible nuclear quasimolecular state is formed during the 10 Be accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf. The equilibrium nuclear shapes in fission theory are usually determined by minimizing the deformation energy for a given surface equation. We developed a method allowing to obtain a very general saddle-point shape as a solution of a differential equation without an a priori introduction of a shape parametrization. In the approach based on a liquid drop model (LDM), saddle-point shapes are always reflection symmetric: the deformation energy increases with the mass-asymmetry parameter η = (A 1 - A 2 )/(A 1 + A 2 ). By adding the shell corrections to the LDM deformation energy, we obtained minima at a finite mass asymmetry for parent nuclei 238 U, 232,228 Th in agreement with experiments. This correction was calculated phenomenologically. A technique based on the fragment identification by using triple γ coincidences in the large arrays of Ge-detectors, like GAMMASPHERE, was employed at Vanderbilt University to discover new characteristics of the fission process, and new decay modes. The possibility of a whole family of new decay modes, the multicluster accompanied fission, was envisaged. Besides the fission into two or three fragments, a heavy or superheavy nucleus spontaneously breaks into four, five or six nuclei of which two are asymmetric or symmetric heavy fragments and the others are light clusters, e.g. α-particles, 10 Be, 14 C, or combinations of them. Examples were presented for the two-, three- and four cluster accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf and 262 Rf, in which the emitted

  7. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  8. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  9. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  11. Tearing mode analysis in tokamaks, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1997-12-01

    A new Δ' shooting code has been developed to investigate tokamak plasma tearing mode stability in a cylinder and large aspect ratio (ε ≤ 0.25) toroidal geometries, neglecting toroidal mode coupling. A different computational algorithm is used (shooting out from the singular surface instead of into it) to resolve the strong singularities at the mode rational surface, particularly in the presence of finite pressure term. Numerical results compare favorably with Furth et al. results. The effects of finite pressure, which are shown to decrease Δ', are discussed. It is shown that the distortion of the flux surfaces by the Shafranov shift, which modifies the geometry metric element stabilizes the tearing mode significantly, even in a low β regime before the toroidal magnetic curvature effects come into play. Double tearing modes in toroidal geometries are examined as well. Furthermore, m ≥ 2 tearing mode stability criteria are compared with three dimensional initial value MHD simulation by the FAR code

  12. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fürst, Josef U; Förtsch, Michael; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Vogl, Ulrich; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2014-12-15

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs. The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = ℓ-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers ℓ are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination of the geometry and the refractive index at different temperatures of the WGMR. For future applications in classical and quantum optics, this mode analysis enables one to control the narrow-band phase-matching conditions in nonlinear processes such as second-harmonic generation or parametric down-conversion.

  13. Adaptive variational mode decomposition method for signal processing based on mode characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Haijun; Dong, Xiaofeng

    2018-07-01

    Variational mode decomposition is a completely non-recursive decomposition model, where all the modes are extracted concurrently. However, the model requires a preset mode number, which limits the adaptability of the method since a large deviation in the number of mode set will cause the discard or mixing of the mode. Hence, a method called Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) was proposed to automatically determine the mode number based on the characteristic of intrinsic mode function. The method was used to analyze the simulation signals and the measured signals in the hydropower plant. Comparisons have also been conducted to evaluate the performance by using VMD, EMD and EWT. It is indicated that the proposed method has strong adaptability and is robust to noise. It can determine the mode number appropriately without modulation even when the signal frequencies are relatively close.

  14. Effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longxi; Lei, Wenqing; Ma, Zhiwei; Wu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) are studied in a slab geometry with and without plasma flow. The modes interaction can have a large effect on both the linear growth rate and the nonlinear saturation level of the RWM. We found that modes interaction can suppress the linear growth rate for the most unstable mode. The plasma flow can also help to control the growth of the RWM. The RWM can be stabilized completely by a plasma flow when considering the modes interaction. The effect of modes interaction on the RWM is stronger for the mode rational surface in the vacuum than that in the plasma. The modes interaction results in a substantially lowered saturation level for the most unstable RWM. (paper)

  15. A Minimal Model to Explore the Influence of Distant Modes on Mode-Coupling Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The phenomenon of mode-coupling instability is one of the most frequently explored mechanisms to explain self-excited oscillation in sliding systems with friction. A mode coupling instability is usually due to the coupling of two modes. However, further modes can have an important influence on the coupling of two modes. This work extends a well-known minimal model to describe mode-coupling instabilities in order to explore the influence of a distant mode on the classical mode-coupling pattern. This work suggests a new minimal model. The model is explored and it is shown that a third mode can have significant influence on the classical mode-coupling instabilities where two modes are coupling. Different phenomena are analysed and it is pointed out that distant modes can only be ignored in very special cases and that the onset friction-induced oscillations can even be very sensitive to minimal variation of a distant mode. Due to the chosen academic minimal-model and the abandonment of a complex Finite-Element model the insight stays rather phenomenological but a better understanding of the mode-coupling mechnanism can be gained.

  16. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes

  17. A simple theory of linear mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Woods, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the basic theory of linear mode conversion involving the construction of differential equations for the mode amplitudes based on the properties of the dispersion relation in the neighbourhood of the mode conversion point. As an example the transmission coefficient for tunneling from the upper hybrid resonance through the evanescent region to the adjacent cut-off is treated. 7 refs, 3 figs

  18. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  19. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  20. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. San-Jose

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene’s zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  1. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K D [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Theory of tokamak resistive fishbone modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bingren; Sui Guofang

    1995-12-01

    A special kind of internal kink mode, the fishbone, can be excited by the energetic particles in tokamak plasmas. Theoretical analyses of fishbone modes based on the ideal MHD framework have predicted that two branches of modes exists. One is the Chen-White branch with ω∼ω-bar dm , corresponding to a higher threshold in β h ; the other is the Coppis branch with ω∼ω *i , and a much lower threshold in β h . The latter mode would put a rather unfavourable restriction on heating efficiency and on plasma confinement. However. It is found that the resistivity effect is essential for this mode. In this paper, a new resistive fishbone mode analysis is carried out. In the (γ mhd ,β H ) space, the stability diagram shows complicate structure, the Coppis branch is replaced by a weakly unstable mode and there is no longer closed stable region. The growth rate of this mode varies with β h , its peak value is still very low compared to other internal modes. The implications of these results to future tokamak experiments are discussed. (8 figs.)

  3. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  4. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  5. H-mode study in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Morisaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.

    1995-02-01

    In CHS rapid H-mode transition is observed in NBI heated deuterium and hydrogen plasmas without obvious isotope effect, when a net plasma current is ramped up to increase the external rotational transform. The H-mode of CHS has many similarities with those in tokamaks. Recent measurement with fast response Langmuir probes has revealed that the rapid change in floating potential occurs at the transition, but the change follows the formation of edge transport barrier. The presence of ι/2π = 1 surface near the edge and sawtooth crash triggered by internal modes may play an important role for determining the H-mode transition in CHS. (author)

  6. Acoustic propagation mode in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Idehara, Toshitaka; Inada, Hideyo

    1975-01-01

    The sound velocity in a cylindrical plasma produced by a high frequency discharge is measured by an interferometer system. The result shows that the acoustic wave guide effect does exist in a neutral gas and in a plasma. It is found that the wave propagates in the mode m=2 in a rigid boundary above the cut-off frequency fsub(c) and in the mode m=0 below fsub(c). Because the mode m=0 is identical to a plane wave, the sound velocity in free space can be evaluated exactly. In the mode m=2, the sound velocity approaches the free space value, when the frequency increases sufficiently. (auth.)

  7. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  8. Turbulence and Solar p-Mode Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, S. L.; Xu, H. Y.

    The discrepancy between observed and theoretical mode frequencies can be used to examine the reliability of the standard solar model as a faithful representation of solar real situation. With the help of an improved time-dependent convective model that takes into account contribution of the full spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectrum, we study the influence of turbulent pressure on structure and solar p-mode frequencies. For the radial modes we find that the Reynolds stress produces signification modifications in structure and p-mode spectrum. Compared with an adiabatic approximation, the discrepancy is largely removed by the turbulent correction.

  9. Failure Modes of thin supported Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Høgsberg, J.R.; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette

    2007-01-01

    Four different failure modes relevant to tubular supported membranes (thin dense films on a thick porous support) were analyzed. The failure modes were: 1) Structural collapse due to external pressure 2) burst of locally unsupported areas, 3) formation of surface cracks in the membrane due to TEC......-mismatches, and finally 4) delamination between membrane and support due to expansion of the membrane on use. Design criteria to minimize risk of failure by the four different modes are discussed. The theoretical analysis of the two last failure modes is compared to failures observed on actual components....

  10. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  11. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  12. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  13. Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S; Ruth, R D [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)

  14. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.

  15. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  16. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.

    2002-01-01

    We develop the formalism required to study the nonlinear interaction of modes in rotating Newtonian stars, assuming that the mode amplitudes are only mildly nonlinear. The formalism is simpler than previous treatments of mode-mode interactions for spherical stars, and simplifies and corrects previous treatments for rotating stars. At linear order, we elucidate and extend slightly a formalism due to Schutz, show how to decompose a general motion of a rotating star into a sum over modes, and obtain uncoupled equations of motion for the mode amplitudes under the influence of an external force. Nonlinear effects are added perturbatively via three-mode couplings, which suffices for moderate amplitude modal excitations; the formalism is easy to extend to higher order couplings. We describe a new, efficient way to compute the modal coupling coefficients, to zeroth order in the stellar rotation rate, using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The formalism is general enough to allow computation of the initial trends in the evolution of the spin frequency and differential rotation of the background star. We apply this formalism to derive some properties of the coupling coefficients relevant to the nonlinear interactions of unstable r modes in neutron stars, postponing numerical integrations of the coupled equations of motion to a later paper. First, we clarify some aspects of the expansion in stellar rotation frequency Ω that is often used to compute approximate mode functions. We show that, in zero-buoyancy stars, the rotational modes (those modes whose frequencies vanish as Ω→0) are orthogonal to zeroth order in Ω. From an astrophysical viewpoint, the most interesting result of this paper is that many couplings of r modes to other rotational modes are small: either they vanish altogether because of various selection rules, or they vanish to lowest order in Ω or in compressibility. In particular, in zero-buoyancy stars, the coupling of three r modes is forbidden

  17. Tracking Streamer Blobs Into the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...NASA/GSFC (US), RAL (UK), UB- HAM (UK), MPS (Germany), CSL (Belgium), IOTA (France), and IAS (France). In the US, funding was provided by NASA, in the

  18. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  19. Pressure Field Around Underwater Negative Streamers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Koláček, Karel; Lukeš, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2015), s. 1787-1792 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Interferometry * plasma generation * pressure measurement * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.958, year: 2015

  20. Statistics of Electron Avalanches and Streamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ficker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the severe systematic deviations of populations of electron avalanches from the Furry distribution, which has been held to be the statistical law corresponding to them, and a possible explanation has been sought. A  new theoretical concept based on fractal avalanche multiplication has been proposed and is shown to be a convenient candidate for explaining these deviations from Furry statistics. 

  1. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  2. Pulsed Streamer Corona Reactor Characterization - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    34,STATUS="UNKN0WN") OPEN (LINKCK, FORM=’UNFORMATTED’, STATUS=’UNKNOWN’, 1 FILE=’chem.bin’) CALL CKLEN (LINKCK, LOUT, LENI, LENR , LENC) CALL CKINIT...NEQ + 2*NEQ**2 MVDDE = LENR + 1 NWT = NVODE + LRW NH = NWT + KK NWDOT = NH + KK NTOT = NWDOT+ KK - 1 LIW = 30 + NEQ IVODE = LENI + 1

  3. Modeling of SQS propagation induced by alpha ray in gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, A.; Narita, K.; Sakae, T.; Uozumi, Y.; Matoba, M.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to optical images of the self-quenching streamer (SQS), the authors have already proposed a possible mechanism of SQSs induced by α-rays. To check the validity of the mechanism, they have been designing a model for the computer simulation of the SQS propagation based on the newly proposed mechanism. In the present modeling, in order to calculate the growth of the discharge, a set of continuity equations for electrons and ions is numerically solved in a two-dimensional space. An electron supply process from the α-ray ionization track is assumed to be the dominant process for the streamer development instead of the conventional electron-supply process which is based on the photoionization in the gas media. The streamer propagation is simulated under the concept of two-region model. A first comparison between computed and experimental results shows a good agreement

  4. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  5. Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere

  6. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  7. Line-mode browser development days

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Twelve talented web developers have travelled to CERN from all over the world to recreate a piece of web history: the line-mode browser. See the line-mode browser simulator that they created here. Read more about the birth of the web here.

  8. Simultaneous Emotions: Entwining Modes in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Critics and teachers tend to pay attention to genre and ignore mode as an area of consideration. This study examines three novels for young readers that are comparable in terms of their entwining opposing modes (irony and romance, comedy and tragedy) as a successful crossover strategy for appeal to readers young and old. I share implications for…

  9. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  10. Innovation of University Teaching Faculty Management Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzheng; Wang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of university reform in China, the traditional teaching faculty management mode has been exposed more and more defects. To make innovation of the university teaching faculty management mode becomes the voice of the times. Universities should conduct careful research on this issue in the development. Starting from the…

  11. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  12. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann

    2008-01-01

    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  13. Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-03-01

    The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs

  14. On-chip mode division multiplexing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Frellsen, Louise Floor; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM) is currently widely investigated in order to provide enhanced capacity thanks to the utilization of space as a new degree of multiplexing freedom in both optical fiber communication and on-chip interconnects. Basic components allowing the processing of spatial...... photonic integrated circuit mode (de) multiplexer for few-mode fibers (FMFs)....

  15. Connection between adiabaticity and the mirror mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The size of magnetic moment jumps of a particle in a long, thin equilibrium magnetic mirror field is shown to be related to the complex zeroes of the mirror mode parameter B + 4πdP/sub perpendicular//dB. A consequence is that adiabaticity places a lower limit on β than does the mirror mode

  16. Confinement mechanisms in the radiatively improved mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokar, M. Z.; R. Jaspers,; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Rogister, A. A.; Unterberg, B.; Weynants, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of the toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability, considered as the main source of anomalous transport in the low (L) confinement mode of tokamaks, are analysed for the conditions of the radiatively improved (RI) mode triggered by seeding of impurities. Based on

  17. Viscoresistive g-modes and ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The resistive G-mode and its particular form, the resistive ballooning mode, are treated as limits of a single simple model. MHD theory including parallel and perpendicular viscosity, finite shear, and finite beta is employed to study their linear stability

  18. Modes and Mode Volumes for Leaky Optical Cavities and Plasmonic Nanoresonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Stephen; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic cavity modes in photonic and plasmonic resonators offer rich and attractive regimes for tailoring the properties of light–matter interactions, yet there is a disturbing lack of a precise definition for what constitutes a cavity mode, and as a result their mathematical properties r...... methods for quasinormal modes of both photonic and plasmonic resonators and the concept of a generalized effective mode volume, and we illustrate the theory with several representative cavity structures from the fields of photonic crystals and nanoplasmonics....

  19. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  20. Physics of the H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.; Chu, M.S.; Dominguez, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical picture of the H-mode is proposed which explains some of the most important features of this good confinement mode in neutral beam heated plasmas with divertors. From consideration of the transport through the separatrix and along the open field lines outside the separatrix, as well as the stability of the plasma inside the separatrix, we show that a bifurcation in the operating parameters is possible. At high edge temperatures, very large particle confinement times are possible because of the Ware pinch. The transport of particles and heat along the open field lines to the divertor region depends on temperature in a non-monotonic way, and the bifurcation of the thermal equilibrium which is implied may correspond to the L- to H-mode transition. The improvement of the interior confinement in the H-mode, when the edge temperature is higher, is shown to follow from the tearing mode stability properties of current profiles with pedestals. (author)