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Sample records for self-powered detectors

  1. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, C.S.; Ramachandra Rao, M.N.; Ingale, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of self powered neutron detectors used for in-core flux measurements are described. The characteristics of the various detectors, with emitters Rh, V, Co, Py are presented. Details about the fabrication of these detectors are given. (A.K.)

  2. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passe, J.; Petitcolas, H.; Verdant, R.

    1975-01-01

    The self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) enable to measure continuously high fluxes of thermal neutrons. They are particularly suitable for power reactor cores because of their robustness. Description of two kinds of SPND's characterized by the electrical current production way is given here: the first SPND's which present a V, Ag or Rh emitter are sensitive enough but they offer a few minute delay time: the second SPND's which are depending on the gamma activation have a short delay time. The emitter is made of Co or Pt. In any case, the signal is linear with reaction rates. Finally, the applications are briefly repeated here: irradiation facility monitor in research reactors, and flux map and space instability control in power reactors [fr

  3. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Self-powered gamma radiation detector composed of a conducting emitter surrounded by an insulating medium and a conducting tubular collector, the emitter being a hollow tube containing an electrical insulator [fr

  4. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A self-powered nuclear radiation detector has an emitter electrode of an alloy of a first major constituent metal having a desired high radiation response, and a second minor constituent which imparts to the alloy a desired thermal or mechanical characteristic without diminishing the desired high radiation response. A gamma responsive self-powered detector is detailed which has an emitter with lead as the major constituent, with the minor constituent selected from aluminum, copper, nickel, platinum, or zinc. (author)

  5. Self-powered flux detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1983-02-01

    This bibliography attempts to cover the published literature on the class of radiation detectors most often referred to as 'self-powered'. For this purpose, self-powered detectors are defined as those that have two or more conducting electrodes separated by solid insulation and that generate a signal current without an external power source. Primary sensitivity is unrestricted, but it is usually to neutrons or gamma-rays. The main application is in the core of a nuclear reactor. All relevant facets of the subject are covered including: theory, experiment, development, design, manufacture, instrumentation and application. In addition to the usual reference information, various other designations are included where available, such as CONF-and abstract serial numbers. Where possible, a summary of the content is given with emphasis on specific results and conclusions. Indexing is by author and subject

  6. Self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    A self-powered neutron detector is detailed wherein a thin conductive layer of low neutron cross section, high density material is disposed about an emitter core of material which spontaneously emits radiation on neutron capture. The high density material is absorptive of beta radiation emitted by decay of the emitter core activation product, but is substantially transmissive to the high average energy prompt electrons emitted by the emitter core material. (author)

  7. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation [fr

  8. Self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates a self-powered neutron detector comprising an emitting body, an insulating material surrounding said body, and a conducting outer cover, a power conductor connected to the emitting body and passing through the insulating material permitting to insert an ammeter between said emitting body and said cover. The invention is characterized in that said emitting body is surrounded by a thin conducting layer of small cross section for neutrons made of high density material said material being capable of absorbing the beta-radiations due to the degradation of the emitting body activating product, while transmitting the fast electrons of high average energy emitted by said emitting body. This can be applied to safety control devices required to provide a quick answer [fr

  9. Self-powered detectors with thulium emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Klar, E.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to fission chambers, prompt-indicating self-powered (SPN) detectors are used for measuring the neutron flux density in the core of power reactors. Although current SPN detectors with a cobalt emitter give satisfactora results, detectors with other emitter materials have been analyzed and tested. The author describes the properties and decay pattern of the nuclide thulium and presents the results of measurements made while testing thulium detectors. (orig.) [de

  10. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Wallace.

    1980-01-01

    This invention aims to create a self fed radiation detector comprising a long central emitter-conductor absorbing the neutrons, wrapped in an insulating material, and a thin collector-conductor placed coaxially around the emitter and the insulation, the emitter being constructed of several stranded cables in a given conducting material so that the detector is flexible enough [fr

  11. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The thin-walled, tube-shaped emitter electrode of the gamma flux-sensitive detector consists of Pt, Pb, Bi, Ta or W. At some distance it is enclosed by a coaxial collector tube made of inconel. The interspaces are filled with Al 2 O 3 or MgO. The outer diameter of the detector amounts to about 3.56 mm. (DG) [de

  12. A new self-powered flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1979-11-01

    It has been found that an Inconel-Inconel coaxial cable can be used as a fast-responding, neutron, self-powered flux detector if the core wire is sufficiently large. Test results obtained with such a detector, having a core wire approximately 1.5 mm in diameter, are presented. Other materials suitable for use as an emitter material, in such a relatively large diameter detector, also are included. (auth)

  13. Self-powered neutron flux detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; McIntyre, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    A self-powered neutron flux detector has both the central emitter electrode and its surrounding collector electrode made of inconel 600. The lead cables may also be made of inconel. Other nickel alloys, or iron, nickel, titamium, chromium, zirconium or their alloys may also be used for the electrodes

  14. Self-powered neutron flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1979-01-01

    A self-powered neutron flux detector having an emitter electrode, at least a major portion of which is, 95 Mo encased in a tubular collector electrode and separated therefrom by dielectric material. The 95 Mo emitter electrode has experimentally shown a 98% prompt response, is primarily sensitive to neutron flux, has adequate sensitivity and has low burn up. Preferably the emitter electrode is molybdenum which has been enriched 75% to 99% by weight with 95 Mo

  15. Self-powered detectors sensitivity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, V.; Soares, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the initial sensitivity of Self Powered Detectors (SPDs) was performed. Measurements of thermal, epithermal and to gamma flux sensitivities were made with Vanadium, Cobalt, Rhodium, Silver and Platinum SPDs and, when possible, the values are compared with the ones from the existing literature. The determination of neutron sensitivity was realized using the IEA-R1 Reactor from IPEN. The thermal and epithermal neutron flux were determined with bare and Cadmium covered activation foils. (GOLD). (author)

  16. Transient response of self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Gebureck, P.; Stegemann, D.

    The behaviour of self-powered neutron detectors with Co, Er, Hf and Pt emitters was investigated during reactor square wave and pulse operation. The detector's response was compared with the current of an excore ionization chamber. Characteristical deviations from linearity were observed with all detectors at fast reactor periods. The exact cause of these deviations is not yet fully understood but several possibilities for the nonlinear behaviour of self-powered neutron detectors are outlined. (author)

  17. Self-powered detectors for power reactors: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Self-Powered Detectors (SPDs) for applications in nuclear power reactors have been reviewed. Based on their responses to radiation, these detectors can be divided into delayed response Self-Powered Neutron Detector (SPND), prompt response SPND and Self-Powered Gamma Detector (SPGD). The operational principles of these detectors are presented and their distinctive characteristics are examined accordingly. The analytical models and Monte Carlo method to calculate the responses of these detectors to neutron flux and external gamma rays are reviewed. The paper has also considered some related signal processing techniques, such as detector calibrations and detector signal compensations. Furthermore, a couple of failure modes have also been analyzed. Finally, applications of SPD in nuclear power reactors are summarized. (author)

  18. Self-powered detectors for power reactors: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: jma64@uwo.ca

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, Self-Powered Detectors (SPDs) for applications in nuclear power reactors have been reviewed. Based on their responses to radiation, these detectors can be divided into delayed response Self-Powered Neutron Detector (SPND), prompt response SPND and Self-Powered Gamma Detector (SPGD). The operational principles of these detectors are presented and their distinctive characteristics are examined accordingly. The analytical models and Monte Carlo method to calculate the responses of these detectors to neutron flux and external gamma rays are reviewed. The paper has also considered some related signal processing techniques, such as detector calibrations and detector signal compensations. Furthermore, a couple of failure modes have also been analyzed. Finally, applications of SPD in nuclear power reactors are summarized. (author)

  19. Kalman filtering of self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors employ a wide variety of in-core detectors to determine the neutronic behavior within the core. Among the detectors used are rhodium and vanadium self-powered detectors (SPDs), which are very accurate, but respond slowly to changes in neutron flux. This paper describes a new dynamic compensation algorithm, based on Kalman filtering, which converts delayed-responding rhodium and vanadium SPDs into prompt-responding detectors by reconstructing the dynamic flux signal sensed by the detectors from the prompt and delayed components. This conversion offers the possibility of utilizing current fixed in-core detector systems based on these delayed-responding detectors for core control and/or core protection functions without the need for fixed in-core detectors which are prompt-responding. As a result, the capabilities of current fixed in-core detector systems could be expanded significantly without a major hardware investment

  20. Measurement with self-powered cobalt and cadmium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzoni, A.

    The principle of function is described and the characteristics are given of self-powered cobalt and cadmium neutron detectors. Requirements are summed up for the material used for these detectors, and the specific properties of used detectors are given. The calibration of developed self-powered detectors was carried out using the L 54 CESNEF reactor channels with a maximum output of 40 kW and a neutron flux of 10 10 to 10 12 n.cm -2 s -1 . The absolute measurement of neutron flux and gamma radiation doses in the channel were carried out at an output of 10 kW. The objective of calibration measurements with cadmium and cobalt detectors was to ascertain the promptness of detector response, to determine their sensitivity to neutrons and to gamma radiation, the effects of radiation on the material of the detectors and the contribution thereof on the resulting signal. Inside the CART irradiation channel of the ESSOR reactor three such detectors were used for the measurement of neutron flux and its fluctuations effected by coolant density fluctuations. The behaviour of the detectors was studied in a high neutron flux (10 14 n.cm -2 s -1 ) and at long-term irradiation. It was found that cobalt detectors may be used to advantage for measuring the neutron flux if prompt response is required. The high sensitivity to gamma radiation does, however, limit their uses. Cadmium detectors are sensitive to the neutron flux (currents of several mA with a neutron flux of approximately 10 14 n.cm -2 s -1 ) while response to gamma radiation is considerably limited. These detectors are advantageous for short-term use, such as neutron flux mapping and measuring fluctuations. (B.S.)

  1. Construction of a self-powered neutron detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, J.B.S.M.; Correa, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Description and testing of a self-powered neutron detector and related current measurement electronics, in construction at Centro de Desenvolviemnto da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), are presented. The cylindrical detector has a 9-wires cobalt emitter, Inconel 600 tubing collector and sinterized alumina electrical insulation. The bifilar signal cable is plugged to the detector through a SHV connector. Preliminary testing has giving information about dielectrical properties of the set and impurities of the materials (by means of activation analysis). The main tests, done in a 100 KW Triga Reactor, allowed the verification of the detector response to the neutron flux, the stability and reproducibility of this response, and also the evaluation of sensitivity to gamma radiation. The detector performance is considered good. (Author) [pt

  2. Kalman filtering for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Rhodium self-powered neutron detectors are utilized in many pressurized water reactors to determine the neutronic behavior within the core. In order to compensate for the inherent time delay associated with the response of these detectors, a dynamic compensation algorithm is currently used in Combustion Engineering plants to reconstruct the dynamic flux signal which is being sensed by the rhodium detectors. This paper describes a new dynamic compensation algorithm, based on Kalman filtering, which improves on the noise gain and response time characteristics of the algorithm currently used, and offers the possibility of utilizing the proven rhodium detector based fixed in-core detector system as an integral part of advanced core control and/or protection systems

  3. Measurement of neutron sensitivity of self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahant, A.K.; Yeshuraja, V.; Ghodke, Shobha

    2005-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs ) will form the part of Reactor Instrumentation in the upcoming 500 MWe power reactors. ECIL has developed Vanadium and Cobalt SPNDs for NPCIL to be used in regulation and protection channels. Experimental determination of neutron sensitivity of the vanadium and cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) was carried out in A-l location of Apsara reactor at BARC. The measurements involved determination of total detector signal, its various components and the thermal neutron flux at the detector location. The paper describes the experimental techniques used to measure various parameters required to evaluate the neutron sensitivity of the SPNDs and also the parameters required to ascertain the integrity of SPNDs. Neutron flux measurement was done by gold foil irradiation technique. The predominant signal component from the vanadium SPND is Ib the current due to activation of the vanadium emitter, it forms about 85% of the total signal. The other components I n,γ due to the capture gamma rays of 52 V and I externalγ produced by the external reactor gamma rays contribute about 10% and 5% respectively to the total signal. Whereas in the cobalt SPND the main signal component is due to the capture gamma rays of 60 Co and accounts for about the 95% of the total signal. Remaining 5% signal is due to external reactor gamma rays. (author)

  4. Large area self-powered gamma ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a large area self-powered gamma detector (LASPGD) capable of detecting the movement of sealed radiation sources into and out of industrial radiographic units and to construct a prototype source position monitor (SPM) for these units utilizing the LASPGD. Prototype isotropic and directional LASPGDs, with solid and inert gas dielectrics, were developed and extensively tested using calibrated gamma sources (i.e., Cs-137, and Co-60). The sensitivities of the isotropic detectors, with inert gas dielectrics, were found to be approximately a factor of ten greater than those measured for the solid dielectric LASPGDs. Directionally sensitive self-powered detectors were found to exhibit a forward-to-back hemispherical sensitivity ratio of approximately 2 to 1. Industrial radiographic units containing Ir-192 sources with different activities were used to test the performance of the SPM. The SPM, which utilized a gas dielectric LASPGD, performed as designed. That is, the current generated in the LASPGD was converted to a voltage, amplified and used to control the on/off state of an incandescent lamp. The incandescent lamp, which functions as the source/out warning indicator, flashes at a rate of one flash per second when the source is in use (i.e. out of its shield)

  5. Improved cable compensation technique for self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhove, R. van

    1996-01-01

    Measurements with cobalt self powered neutron detectors on the BR2 reactor have revealed that the currents induced by external gamma radiation can be of the same order as the neutron induced signal and that the gamma induced current on the emitter and the compensator wires are not symmetric. In this case, the standard detection electronic setup leads to erroneous results. It is shown that a slightly modified electronic setup, in which this asymmetry is compensated for, can nevertheless allow to obtain correct neutron flux measurements. Measures to reduce the influence of external gamma radiation in general will also be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Self-powered neutron detector of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Spillekothen, H.G.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.

    1983-01-01

    A self-powered neutron detector is proposed, consisting of three concentrically arranged electrically conducting tubes; where the central one forms the emitter and the inner and outer ones form the collector and where the tubes are electrically insulated from each other by insulating material. The emitter consists of a material with a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, particularly of gadolinium, and is provided with an auxiliary emitter layer on the inside or the outside. With suitable dimensions and material, the auxiliary emitter layer increases the yield of electrons. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Method of fabricating self-powered nuclear radiation detector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.; Bauer, R.F.; Sekella, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a method of fabricating a self-powered nuclear radiation detector assembly an emitter electrode wire and signal cable center wire are connected and disposed within the collector electrode tubular sheath with compressible insulating means disposed between the wires and the tubular sheath. The above assembly is reduced in diameter while elongating the tubular sheath and the emitter wire and signal cable wire. The emitter wire is reduced to a predetermined desired diameter, and is trimmed to a predetermined length. An end cap is hermetically sealed to the tubular sheath at the extending end of the emitter with insulating means between the emitter end and the end cap. (author)

  8. Design and fabrication of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Garcia, Florencio.

    1979-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors are becoming more and more popular in reactor instrumentation. A fast response detector of this type was made at the Reactor Division, La Reina Nuclear Center in Santiago. Cobalt wire was the emitter, teflon the insulator and a stainless steel tubing was the collector. The overall dimensions of the detector are 6 mms diameter and 700 mms length. The irradiation tests, carried out at the Center's 5 Mw research reactor showed a very reasonably linear relation between current supplied by the detector and thermal neutron flux, over a range extending from 10 10 to 10 13 n/cm 2 x seg. These tests also showed a good agreement between calculated and measured current. The models used for the calculation of current are fully explained and they include some improvements over those that have been published recently. An important conclusion for the case of the cobalt detectors is that the wire's diameter must be at least 1 mm. in order to have a neutron induced current bigger than the parasitic components generated by indirect processes. Calculations for other emitters such as vanadium, silver and rhodum are also included. (EC)

  9. Self-powered in-core detectors of cobalt type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Georg

    1975-01-01

    Testing and development of self-powered neutron detectors with a cobalt emitter is described. Long term irradiation at 400 deg C is expected to indicate insulation quality, change in calibration and 60 Co build-up. Dynamic tests to investigate possible transient effects due to temperature changes are being performed on a number of detectors up to about 600 deg C. A long term irradiation at low temperature has been terminated after 4.5 years. On completion, neutron dose was estimated to be 5.6 x 10 21 nvt and the 60 Co background was 9.3 % of the full flux signal. A recently introduced long term test is expected to provide data on instability effects due to 61 Co. For a BWR in-core detector installation, the main advantage of cobalt detectors, apart from the small size, appears to be long life. Development work is being done on detectors with vanadium-cobalt emitters, electronic separation of fast and delayed signals and reduction of gamma sensitivity. (O.T.)

  10. Self-powered neutron and gamma-ray flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Shields, R.B.; Lynch, G.F.; Cuttler, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of self-powered neutron detector was developed which is sensitive to both the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes. The emitter comprises two parts. The central emitter core is made of materials that generate high-energy electrons on exposure to neutrons. The outer layer acts as a gamma-ray/electron converter, and since it has a higher atomic number and higher back-scattering coefficient than the collector, increases the net outflow or emmission of electrons. The collector, which is around the emitter outer layer, is insulated from the outer layer electrically with dielectric insulation formed from compressed metal-oxide powder. The fraction of electrons given off by the emitter that is reflected back by the collector is less than the fraction of electrons emitted by the collector that is reflected back by the emitter. The thickness of the outer layer needed to achieve this result is very small. A detector of this design responds to external reactor gamma-rays as well as to neutron capture gamma-rays from the collector. The emitter core is either nickel, iron or titanium, or alloys based on these metals. The outer layer is made of platinum, tantalum, osmium, molybdenum or cerium. The detector is particularly useful for monitoring neutron and gamma ray flux intensities in nuclear reactor cores in which the neutron and gamma ray flux intensities are closely proportional, are unltimately related to the fission rate, and are used as measurements of nuclear reactor power. (DN)

  11. Industrial development of neutron detectors, fission chambers, self powered detectors, ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constans, H.; Coville, P.; Guerre, J.

    1975-01-01

    Reactor control requires the determination of neutron flux at all times. The needed characteristics lead to use of several types of detectors: boron lined counters, boron lined ionization chambers, fission ionization chambers and self powered detectors. The principle of the reaction involved the fabrication requirements, the different modes of utilization and the characteristics obtained are examined for each detector. The problem of electric connections in the active area has been solved by developing ''integrated cables'' [fr

  12. Sensitivity Calculation of Vanadium Self-Powered Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho

    2011-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is being widely used to monitor the reactor core of the nuclear power plants. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. Currently, the rhodium SPND has been used in many nuclear power plants. The lifetime of rhodium is too short (about 3∼5 years) to operate the nuclear power plant economically. The vanadium (V) SPND is also primarily sensitive to neutrons like rhodium, but is a somewhat slower reaction time as that of a rhodium SPND. The benefit of vanadium over rhodium is its low depletion rate, which is a factor of 7 times less than that of rhodium. For this reason, a vanadium SPND has been being developed to replace the rhodium SPND which is used in OPR1000. Some Monte Carlo simulations were accomplished to calculate the initial sensitivity of vanadium emitter material and alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) insulator with a cylindrical geometry. An MCNP-X code was used to simulate some factors (neutron self shielding factor and electron escape probability from the emitter) necessary to calculate the sensitivity of vanadium detector. The simulation results were compared with some theoretical and experimental values. The method presented here can be used to analyze the optimum design of the vanadium SPND

  13. Self-powered neutron and γ-ray flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    According to the invention there is provided a self-powered neutron and γ-ray flux detector, comprising: a) an emitter core wire; b) an emitter outer layer around the core wire and of different metal thereto; c) a metal collector around the emitter core wire and the emitter outer layer; and d) dielectric insulation electrically insulating the emitter core wire and the emitter outer layer from the metal collector. The improvement comprises: a) the overall diameter of the emitter core wire and the emitter outer layer is at least of the order of 0.4 mm in diameter; b) the emitter outer layer covers only of the order of l0 percent of the order of 90 percent of the emitter core wire surface area and comprises at least one band around the emitter core wire and is of a thickness in the range of the order 0.02 mm to of the order of 0.07 mm; and c) the metal of the emitter core wire, the metal of the emitter outer layer, the metal of the metal collector, the overall diameter of the emitter core wire and the emitter outer layer and the surface area of the emitter core wire that is covered by the emitter outer layer are selected so that the detector has a prompt fraction in the range of the order of 90 percent to of the order of 96 percent and has a dynamic response which substantially matches the dynamic response of the power in the fuel of the nuclear reactor in which the detector is to be used

  14. Calculating the Responses of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aim of this research is to review and develop the theoretical understanding of the responses of Self -Powered Radiation Detectors (SPDs) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Two very different models are considered. A simple analytic model of the responses of SPDs to neutrons and gamma radiation is presented. It is a development of the work of several previous authors and has been incorporated into a computer program (called GENSPD), the predictions of which have been compared with experimental and theoretical results reported in the literature. Generally, the comparisons show reasonable consistency; where there is poor agreement explanations have been sought and presented. Two major limitations of analytic models have been identified; neglect of current generation in insulators and over-simplified electron transport treatments. Both of these are developed in the current work. A second model based on the Explicit Representation of Radiation Sources and Transport (ERRST) is presented and evaluated for several SPDs in a PWR at beginning of life. The model incorporates simulation of the production and subsequent transport of neutrons, gamma rays and electrons, both internal and external to the detector. Neutron fluxes and fuel power ratings have been evaluated with core physics calculations. Neutron interaction rates in assembly and detector materials have been evaluated in lattice calculations employing deterministic transport and diffusion methods. The transport of the reactor gamma radiation has been calculated with Monte Carlo, adjusted diffusion and point-kernel methods. The electron flux associated with the reactor gamma field as well as the internal charge deposition effects of the transport of photons and electrons have been calculated with coupled Monte Carlo calculations of photon and electron transport. The predicted response of a SPD is evaluated as the sum of contributions from individual

  15. Health physics aspects in disposal of self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, D.V.; Tibrewala, S.K.; Singh, K.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are being used in reactor core for neutron flux measurement at Nuclear Power Plants. After their useful life, SPNDs are replaced and are disposed off in Tile holes. The Cobalt SPNDs having activity in the range of 35 to 160 TBq were encompassed in carbon steel canister. The canister having dose 25 to 50 Sv/h at 1 meter were transported in shielded flask for disposal in specially designed Tile hole at Solid Waste Management Facility (SWMF) at Tarapur. To keep personal exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) the disposal operation was carried out remotely from a shielded cabin placed at a distance of 50 meter from the disposal site. During the disposal radiation measurements were carried out remotely by installing radiations monitors at a distance of 10 m, 25 m, and 50 m from the Tile hole. Estimations of radiation levels were carried out before jobs were taken up. Disposal of 70 numbers of Cobalt SPNDs was carried out by implementing ALARA. The decrease in collective dose is achieved due to improved operational practices, mock-up trials, effective monitoring program and safety compliance at various stages of operation

  16. Self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly with uniform perturbation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H.; Playfoot, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosed is a self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly in which a plurality of longitudinally extending self-powered detectors have neutron responsive active portions spaced along a longitudinal path. A low neutron absorptive extension extends from the active portions of the spaced active portions of the detectors in symmetrical longitudinal relationship with the spaced active detector portions of each succeeding detector. The detector extension terminates with the detector assembly to provide a uniform perturbation characteristic over the entire assembly length

  17. Initial absolute calibration factors for some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered flux detectors have found extensive use as monitoring devices in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) cores and CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type power reactors. The detectors measure fuel power distributions and indicate trip parameters for reactor control and safety requirements. Both applications demand accurate absolute initial calibration factors. Experimental results obtained in calibrating some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors is presented. (author)

  18. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    neutron sensi- tivities of a Pt self - powered detector ,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 25, 292–295 (1978). 6T. A. Dellin, R. E. Huddleston, and C. J...Gamma-sensitive self - powered detectors and their use for in-core flux -mapping,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 28, 752–757 (1981). 9E. A. Burke and J. Wall...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0006 PROTOTYPES OF SELF - POWERED RADIATION DETECTORS EMPLOYING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (POSTPRINT) Piotr

  19. Characteristics of self-powered neutron detectors used in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, William H. Sr.

    1998-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors have been used effectively as in-core flux monitors for over twenty-five years in nuclear power reactors worldwide. This paper describes the basic properties of these radiation sensors including their nuclear, electrical and mechanical characteristics. Recommendations are given for the proper choice of the self-powered detector emitter to provide the proper response time and radiation sensitivity desired for use in an effective in-core radiation monitoring system. Examples are shown of specific self-powered detector designs, which are being effectively, used in in-core instrumentation systems for pressurized water, heavy water and graphite moderated light water reactors. Also examples are shown of the mechanical configurations of in-core assemblies of self-powered detectors combined with in-core thermocouples presently used in pressurized water and heavy water reactors worldwide. (author)

  20. Environmental effects on the response of self-powered flux detectors in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Shields, R.B.; Joslin, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Self-powered flux detectors are playing an increasingly important role in the control and safety systems of CANDU-type reactors. In this paper we report on recent experiments to determine how local reactor conditions affect the output signals from self-powered detectors with vanadium, platinum and cobalt emitters. The results are interpreted in terms of variations in the local neutron, γ-ray and electron fluxes. (author)

  1. Self-powered in-core neutron detector assembly with uniform perturbation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An in-core neutron detector assembly consisting of a number of longitudinally extending self-powered detectors is described. The uniform mechanical structures and materials are placed symmetrically at each active detector portion thus ensuring that local perturbation factors are uniform. (U.K.)

  2. Threshold self-powered gamma detector for use as a nuclear reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    A study of a threshold self-powered gamma detector for use as a nuclear reactor power monitor was conducted. Measurements were performed to ascertain whether certain detector material arrangements could be used to obtain significant discrimination against low energy gammas. Results indicating agreement between detector response and reactor power output are presented. Evidence of rejection of low energy gammas by the detector is presented. The simplicity of construction and ruggedness of the detector are also discussed

  3. Sensitivity change of rhodium self -powered detectors with burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, R.; Akimov, I.S.; Hamouda, I.

    1976-01-01

    The scope of the present paper is to obtain the calculation formulae to evaluate the rate of sensitivity change of the neutron self-powered detectors with burn-up. A code written in FORTRAN 4 was developed to be operational on the IBM-1130 computer. It has been established in the case of rhodium detectors that neglecting the β-particle absorption in the calculations leads to the underestimation of the detector sensitivity decrease up to 40%. The derived formulae can be used for other self-powered detectors. (author)

  4. Self-Powered Neutron and Gamma Detectors for In-Core Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1971-11-01

    The performance of various types of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors intended for control and power distribution measurements in water cooled reactors is discussed. The self-powered detectors are compared with other types of in-core detectors and attention is paid to such properties as neutron and gamma sensitivity, high-temperature performance, burn-up rate and time of response. Also treated are the advantages and disadvantages of using gamma detector data for power distribution calculations instead of data from neutron detectors. With regard to neutron-sensitive detectors, results from several long-term experiments with vanadium and cobalt detectors are presented. The results include reliability and stability data for these two detector types and the Co build-up in cobalt detectors. Experimental results which reveal the fast response of cobalt detectors are presented, and the use of cobalt detectors in reactor safety systems is discussed. Experience of the design and installation of complete flux probes, electronic units and data processing systems for power reactors is reported. The investigation of gamma-sensitive detectors includes detectors with emitters of lead, zirconium, magnesium and Inconel. Measured gamma sensitivities from calibrations both in a reactor and in a gamma cell are given, and the signal levels of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors when applied to power reactors are compared

  5. Self-Powered Neutron and Gamma Detectors for In-Core Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1971-11-15

    The performance of various types of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors intended for control and power distribution measurements in water cooled reactors is discussed. The self-powered detectors are compared with other types of in-core detectors and attention is paid to such properties as neutron and gamma sensitivity, high-temperature performance, burn-up rate and time of response. Also treated are the advantages and disadvantages of using gamma detector data for power distribution calculations instead of data from neutron detectors. With regard to neutron-sensitive detectors, results from several long-term experiments with vanadium and cobalt detectors are presented. The results include reliability and stability data for these two detector types and the Co build-up in cobalt detectors. Experimental results which reveal the fast response of cobalt detectors are presented, and the use of cobalt detectors in reactor safety systems is discussed. Experience of the design and installation of complete flux probes, electronic units and data processing systems for power reactors is reported. The investigation of gamma-sensitive detectors includes detectors with emitters of lead, zirconium, magnesium and Inconel. Measured gamma sensitivities from calibrations both in a reactor and in a gamma cell are given, and the signal levels of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors when applied to power reactors are compared

  6. Self powered platinum flux detector application for shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guoquan

    2005-01-01

    This article introduce Neutron Flux Detector application in Candu Power Plant, including: design purpose, location in the site, dynamic compensation, differential compensation, detector assembly pressurized with high pure helium etc. And shielding grounding improvement is suggested because of detector signal and setpoint signal noise. (authors)

  7. A CMOS self-powered front-end architecture for subcutaneous event-detector devices

    CERN Document Server

    Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS Self-Powered Front-End Architecture for Subcutaneous Event-Detector Devices presents the conception and prototype realization of a Self-Powered architecture for subcutaneous detector devices. The architecture is designed to work as a true/false (event detector) or threshold level alarm of some substances, ions, etc. that are detected through a three-electrodes amperometric BioSensor approach. The device is conceived as a Low-Power subcutaneous implantable application powered by an inductive link, one emitter antenna at the external side of the skin and the receiver antenna under the ski

  8. Analysis of output currents of self-powered detectors polarized by an external potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, K; Glowacki, S

    1980-01-01

    During measurement of self-powered detector current the electrical potential is induced between the emitter and collector caused by the input resistivity of measuring device. The detector current dependence on the emitter potential has been analyzed. The experimental results confirm the theoretical model of electronic processes within the insulator and also give the requirements that measuring device should fulfil.

  9. Characteristics of self-powered neutron detectors used in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Self-Powered Neutron Detectors have been used effectively as in-core flux monitors for over twenty-five years in nuclear power reactors world-wide. The basic properties of these radiation sensors are described including their nuclear, electrical and mechanical characteristics. Recommendations are given for the proper choice of the self-powered detector emitter to provide the proper response time and radiation sensitivity desired for use in an effective in-core radiation monitoring system. Examples are shown of specific self-powered detector designs which are being effectively used in in-core instrumentation systems for pressurised water, heavy water and graphite moderated light water reactors. Examples are also shown of the mechanical configurations of in-core assemblies of self-powered detectors combined with in-core thermocouples presently used in pressurised water and heavy water reactors worldwide. This paper is a summary of a new IEC standard to be issued in 1996 describing the characteristics and test methods of self-powered detectors used in nuclear power reactors. (author)

  10. Recent advances in self-powered flux detector development for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Drewell, N.H.; Hall, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of self-powered flux detectors used in CANDU reactors are reviewed. Detectors with emitters of vanadium, platinum, platinum-clad Inconel and Inconel are used. Data on dynamic response, relative neutron and gamma-ray sensitivities, and burnout, obtained both from experiments and from the Monte Carlo code ICARES, are presented. Since the response of a detector depends on the relative magnitudes of the various current-producing mechanisms, the operating principles of self-powered detectors are briefly reviewed. Current research programmes are discussed. These include modifying the design of the platinum-clad Inconel detector in order to match its dynamic response to that of the fuel power and developing a prompt-responding flux-mapping detector. (author)

  11. Self powered neutron detectors as in-core detectors for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V., E-mail: vasudha.verma@physics.uu.se [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barbot, L.; Filliatre, P. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hellesen, C. [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Svärd, S. Jacobsson [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-07-11

    Neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the design of a Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor. Diverse possibilities of detector system installation must be studied for various locations in the reactor vessel in order to detect any perturbations in the core. Results from a previous paper indicated that it is possible to detect changes in neutron source distribution initiated by an inadvertent withdrawal of outer control rod with in-vessel fission chambers located azimuthally around the core. It is, however, not possible to follow inner control rod withdrawal and precisely know the location of the perturbation in the core. Hence the use of complimentary in-core detectors coupled with the peripheral fission chambers is proposed to enable robust core monitoring across the radial direction. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) as in-core detectors in fast reactors for detecting local changes in the power distribution when the reactor is operated at nominal power. We study the neutron and gamma contributions to the total output current of the detector modelled with Platinum as the emitter material. It is shown that this SPND placed in an SFR-like environment would give a sufficiently measurable prompt neutron induced current of the order of 600 nA/m. The corresponding induced current in the connecting cable is two orders of magnitude lower and can be neglected. This means that the SPND can follow in-core power fluctuations. This validates the operability of an SPND in an SFR-like environment. - Highlights: • Studied possibility of using SPNDs as in-core detectors in SFRs. • Study done to detect local power profile changes when reactor is at nominal power. • SPND with a Pt-emitter gives measurable prompt current of the order of 600 nA/m. • Dominant proportion of prompt response is maintained throughout the operation. • Detector signal gives dynamic information on the power fluctuations.

  12. Self powered neutron detectors as in-core detectors for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, V.; Barbot, L.; Filliatre, P.; Hellesen, C.; Jammes, C.; Svärd, S. Jacobsson

    2017-07-01

    Neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the design of a Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor. Diverse possibilities of detector system installation must be studied for various locations in the reactor vessel in order to detect any perturbations in the core. Results from a previous paper indicated that it is possible to detect changes in neutron source distribution initiated by an inadvertent withdrawal of outer control rod with in-vessel fission chambers located azimuthally around the core. It is, however, not possible to follow inner control rod withdrawal and precisely know the location of the perturbation in the core. Hence the use of complimentary in-core detectors coupled with the peripheral fission chambers is proposed to enable robust core monitoring across the radial direction. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) as in-core detectors in fast reactors for detecting local changes in the power distribution when the reactor is operated at nominal power. We study the neutron and gamma contributions to the total output current of the detector modelled with Platinum as the emitter material. It is shown that this SPND placed in an SFR-like environment would give a sufficiently measurable prompt neutron induced current of the order of 600 nA/m. The corresponding induced current in the connecting cable is two orders of magnitude lower and can be neglected. This means that the SPND can follow in-core power fluctuations. This validates the operability of an SPND in an SFR-like environment.

  13. On-power verification of the dynamic response of self-powered in-core detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdula, K.; Beaudet, M.

    1996-01-01

    Self-powered in-core detectors are used for on-line safety and regulation purposes in CANDU reactors. Such applications require use of detectors whose response is primarily prompt to changes in flux. In-service verification of the detectors' response is required to ensure significant degradation in performance has not occurred during long-term operation. Changes in the detector characteristics occur due to nuclear interactions and failures. Present verification requires significant station resources and disrupts power production. Use of the 'noise' in the detector signal is being investigated as an alternative to assess the dynamic response of the detectors during long-term operation. Measurements of reference 'signatures' were obtained from replacement shutdown system detectors. Results show 'noise' measurements are a promising alternative to the current verification method. Identification of changes in the detector response function assist in accurate diagnosis and prognosis of changes in detector signals due to process changes. (author)

  14. Use of FET in automatic scanning of measurements using thermocouples and self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages lying in using FET switches in the relays of multiplexing systems are shown with two examples of application. Their performance as regard fast reliable operation are used in temperature measurement scanning inside nuclear reactors. As for current measurements using self-powered neutron detectors, the weak leakage currents of said switches ( [fr

  15. Investigation of the response of improved self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erk, S.

    1982-01-01

    The self-powered neutron detectors have been successfully employed for the most important parameters both for neutron flux and flux fluence determination. Their preference for such measurements due to their simplicity, convenience in use, rigidity, voluminal smallness and low price. However, self-powered neutron detectors depend on the type used, can only follow the neutron flux changes with a certain delay when they are compared to fission chambers which are thought to be the best detectors. In this thesis, a system has been proposed and considered carefully in order to speed up the response time, in another word, to correct the detector response to a level very near to fission chamber performance, a circuitry has been realized in the frame of principles so forth and applied to the experiments carried out in the TR-1 Reactor. Their positive results are presented. (author)

  16. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector's lifetime for korean standard nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Park, Jong Ho; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    A method to estimate the relative sensitivity of a self-powered rhodium detector for an upcoming cycle is developed by combining the rhodium depletion data from a nuclear design with the site measurement data. This method can be used both by nuclear power plant designers and by site staffs of Korean standard nuclear power plants for determining which rhodium detectors should be replaced during overhauls

  17. Research on self-powered detectors for gamma-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.W.; Lee, Y.J.

    1984-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors are used extensively in power reactors both for flux mapping and for power control and over-power protection, because of their small size, ruggedness and simplicity. But they have a few disadvantages such as high burn-up rate and background signal produced by the gamma-rays from the reactor itself. In order to overcome these disadvantages and to achieve a better understanding of gamma-ray effects of self-power detectors, a new type of self-powered detectors was designed and fabricated by the author,and experiments have carried out in the 10kCi sup(60)Co gamma irradiation facility in Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute. The configuration of the new type detectors is not of coaxial type but of paralled plate in order to obtain directional effects of gamma-ray incidence. Detector materials and dimensions are so chosen that the output current signal is large enough to be detected using some commercial measuring divice even at low dose rate and the contribution of the lead cable to the total signal is negligibly small. The results are 1)sensitivity is depended primarily on the materials of the insulator, 2)output signal has a good linearity to gamma dose rate, 3) response of detectors is prompt, but not perfect, 4) critical thickness for satusation of the output current is thinner than the range of photoelectron in the materials. (Author)

  18. Research on self-powered detectors for gamma-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors are used extensively in power reactors both for flux mapping and for power control and over-power protection, because of their small size, ruggedness and simplicity. But they have a few disadvantages such as high burn-up rate and background signal produced by the gamma-rays from the reactor itself. In order to overcome these disadvantages and to achieve a better understanding of gamma-ray effects of self-powered detectors, a new type of self-powered detectors was designed and fabricated by the author, and experiments have been carried out in the 10kCi sup(60)Co gamma irradiation facility in Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute. The configuration of the new type detectors is not of coaxial type but of paralled plate in order to obtain directional effects of gamma-ray incidence. Detector materials and dimensions are so chosen that the output current signal is large enough to be detected using some commercial measuring divice even at low dose rate and the contribution of the lead cable to the totel signal is negligibly small. The results are 1) sensitivity is depended primarily on the materials of the insulator, 2) output signal has a good linearity to gamma dose rate, 3) response of detectors is prompt, but not perfect, 4) critical thickness for satusation of the output current is thinner than the range of photoelectron in the materials. (Author) πT

  19. In-core neutron flux measurements at PARR using self powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ansari, S.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes experimental reactor physics measure ments at PARR using the in-core neutron detectors. Rhodium self powered neutron detectors (SPND) were used in the PARR core and several measurements were made aimed at detector calibration, response time determination and neutron flux measurements. The detectors were calibrated at low power using gold foils and full power by the thermal channel. Based on this calibration it was observed that the detector response remains almost linear throughout the power range. The self powered detectors were used for on-line determination of absolute neutron flux in the core as well as the spatial distribution of neutron flux or reactor power. The experimental, axial and horizontal flux mapping results at certain locations in the core are presented. The total response time of rhodium detector was experimentally determined to be about 5 minutes, which agree well with the theoretical results. Because of longer response time of SPND of the detectors it is not possible to use them in the reactor protection system. (author). 10 figs

  20. Comparison of dynamic compensation methods for delayed self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang Kee; Kim, Joon Sung; Auh, Geun Sun; Yoon, Tae Young

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic compensation methods for rhodium self-powered neutron detector have been developed by Banda and Hoppe to compensate for the time delay associated with detector signals. The time delay is due to the decay of the neutron-activated rhodium and results in delayed detector response. Two digital dynamic compensation methods, were compared for step change of neutron flux in this paper. The inverse kinetics method gave slightly better response time and noise gain. However, the inverse kinetics method also showed overshooting of neutron flux for the step change. (Author)

  1. In-reactor testing of self-powered neutron detectors and miniature fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, J.; LeMeur, R.; Verdant, R.

    1975-01-01

    The CEA has tested a variety of ''slow'' self-powered neutron detectors with rhodium, silver and vanadium emitters. Currently there are 120 vanadium detectors in the EL4 heavy water reactor. In addition, ''fast'' detectors with cobalt emitters have been tested at Saclay and 50 of these are in reactor. Other studies are concerned with 6 mm diameter miniature fission chambers. Two fast response chambers with argon-nitrogen filling gas became slow during irradiation, but operated to 600 deg C. An argon filled chamber of 4.7 mm diameter, for traversing in core system in pressurized water reactor, has shown satisfactory test results. (author)

  2. Development of measuring system with self-powered neutron detectors for the LR-0 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.; Horinek, K.; Szasz, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A measuring channel with self-powered detectors was developed for measuring neutron fluxs density in the reactor core. The measuring channel consists of a measuring probe with standard self-powered detectors of Soviet make, a signal pathway, a current/voltage converter and a measuring and recording unit. Neutron flux density in the LR-0 reactor core reaches a maximum of 10 13 m -2 s -1 . Experiments using the channel were carried out both in steady-state operation and after emergency shutdown of the reactor, this from power levels of 2,096 W and 1,830 W. The results of the experiments are tabulated and briefly analyzed. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 5 refs

  3. Dynamical model of computation of the rhodium self-powered neutron detector current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.; Slovacek, M.; Zerola, L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of the rhodium self-powered neutron detector current in dependence on the neutron flux density during reactor core transients. The total signal consists of a beta emission, prompt, and gamma component and a background signal. The model has been verified by means of experimental data obtained during measurements on the LVR-15 research reactor and at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. (author) 9 figs., 21 refs

  4. Design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties of detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Nevertheless, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were performed in a 100 KW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (author) [pt

  5. Design constrution and testing of a self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, contruction and testing of a self-powered neutron detector (SPN) and associated electronics are described. Several tests were performed giving information about dielectrical properties od detector and cable, gamma spectra induced in the detector through reactor irradiation, detector response as a function of neutron flux, current stability and reproductibility with the neutron flux. The gamma and neutron sensitivities were also evaluated, by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters and gold foils as references. The test results are presented and show that the detector response is reliable. The gamma and neutron sensitivities are in agreement with those found in the available literature. Neverthe less, a ceramic insulated cable should be employed for permanent use in a reactor. The tests were perfomance in a 100 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear of NUCLEBRAS,in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  6. Measuring delayed part of the current of a self powered neutron detector and comparison with calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kophazi, J.; Czifrus, Sz.; Feher, S.; Por, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the measurement of the delayed signal of a Rh emitter Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) separately from other signal components originating from (n-gamma-e), (background gamma-e) and other effects. In order to separate the delayed signal, the detector was removed from the reactor core and placed to an adequately distant location during the measurement, where the radiation from the core was negligible. The experiment was carried out on the 100kW light water tank-type reactor of Technical University of Budapest and the results of the measurement were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations.(author)

  7. Development of an inconel self powered neutron detector for in-core reactor monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, M.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.

    2007-04-01

    The paper describes the development and testing of an Inconel600 (2 mm diameter×21 cm long) self-powered neutron detector for in-core neutron monitoring. The detector has 3.5 mm overall diameter and 22 cm length and is integrally coupled to a 12 m long mineral insulated cable. The performance of the detector was compared with cobalt and platinum detectors of similar dimensions. Gamma sensitivity measurements performed at the 60Co irradiation facility in 14 MR/h gamma field showed values of -4.4×10 -18 A/R/h/cm (-9.3×10 -24 A/ γ/cm 2-s/cm), -5.2×10 -18 A/R/h/cm (-1.133×10 -23 A/ γ/cm 2-s/cm) and 34×10 -18 A/R/h/cm (7.14×10 -23 A/ γ/cm 2-s/cm) for the Inconel, Co and Pt detectors, respectively. The detectors together with a miniature gamma ion chamber and fission chamber were tested in the in-core Apsara Swimming Pool type reactor. The ion chambers were used to estimate the neutron and gamma fields. With an effective neutron cross-section of 4b, the Inconel detector has a total sensitivity of 6×10 -23 A/nv/cm while the corresponding sensitivities for the platinum and cobalt detectors were 1.69×10 -22 and 2.64×10 -22 A/nv/cm. The linearity of the detector responses at power levels ranging from 100 to 200 kW was within ±5%. The response of the detectors to reactor scram showed that the prompt response of the Inconel detector was 0.95 while it was 0.7 and 0.95 for the platinum and cobalt self-powered detectors, respectively. The detector was also installed in the horizontal flux unit of 540 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The neutron flux at the detector location was calculated by Triveni code. The detector response was measured from 0.02% to 0.07% of full power and showed good correlation between power level and detector signals. Long-term tests and the dynamic response of the detector to shut down in PHWR are in progress.

  8. Development of an inconel self powered neutron detector for in-core reactor monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, M.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the development and testing of an Inconel600 (2 mm diameterx21 cm long) self-powered neutron detector for in-core neutron monitoring. The detector has 3.5 mm overall diameter and 22 cm length and is integrally coupled to a 12 m long mineral insulated cable. The performance of the detector was compared with cobalt and platinum detectors of similar dimensions. Gamma sensitivity measurements performed at the 60 Co irradiation facility in 14 MR/h gamma field showed values of -4.4x10 -18 A/R/h/cm (-9.3x10 -24 A/γ/cm 2 -s/cm), -5.2x10 -18 A/R/h/cm (-1.133x10 -23 A/γ/cm 2 -s/cm) and 34x10 -18 A/R/h/cm (7.14x10 -23 A/γ/cm 2 -s/cm) for the Inconel, Co and Pt detectors, respectively. The detectors together with a miniature gamma ion chamber and fission chamber were tested in the in-core Apsara Swimming Pool type reactor. The ion chambers were used to estimate the neutron and gamma fields. With an effective neutron cross-section of 4b, the Inconel detector has a total sensitivity of 6x10 -23 A/nv/cm while the corresponding sensitivities for the platinum and cobalt detectors were 1.69x10 -22 and 2.64x10 -22 A/nv/cm. The linearity of the detector responses at power levels ranging from 100 to 200 kW was within ±5%. The response of the detectors to reactor scram showed that the prompt response of the Inconel detector was 0.95 while it was 0.7 and 0.95 for the platinum and cobalt self-powered detectors, respectively. The detector was also installed in the horizontal flux unit of 540 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The neutron flux at the detector location was calculated by Triveni code. The detector response was measured from 0.02% to 0.07% of full power and showed good correlation between power level and detector signals. Long-term tests and the dynamic response of the detector to shut down in PHWR are in progress

  9. Development of an inconel self powered neutron detector for in-core reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, M. [Electronics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: maryalex@barc.gov.in; Ghodgaonkar, M.D. [Electronics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)

    2007-04-21

    The paper describes the development and testing of an Inconel600 (2 mm diameterx21 cm long) self-powered neutron detector for in-core neutron monitoring. The detector has 3.5 mm overall diameter and 22 cm length and is integrally coupled to a 12 m long mineral insulated cable. The performance of the detector was compared with cobalt and platinum detectors of similar dimensions. Gamma sensitivity measurements performed at the {sup 60}Co irradiation facility in 14 MR/h gamma field showed values of -4.4x10{sup -18} A/R/h/cm (-9.3x10{sup -24} A/{gamma}/cm{sup 2}-s/cm), -5.2x10{sup -18} A/R/h/cm (-1.133x10{sup -23} A/{gamma}/cm{sup 2}-s/cm) and 34x10{sup -18} A/R/h/cm (7.14x10{sup -23} A/{gamma}/cm{sup 2}-s/cm) for the Inconel, Co and Pt detectors, respectively. The detectors together with a miniature gamma ion chamber and fission chamber were tested in the in-core Apsara Swimming Pool type reactor. The ion chambers were used to estimate the neutron and gamma fields. With an effective neutron cross-section of 4b, the Inconel detector has a total sensitivity of 6x10{sup -23} A/nv/cm while the corresponding sensitivities for the platinum and cobalt detectors were 1.69x10{sup -22} and 2.64x10{sup -22} A/nv/cm. The linearity of the detector responses at power levels ranging from 100 to 200 kW was within {+-}5%. The response of the detectors to reactor scram showed that the prompt response of the Inconel detector was 0.95 while it was 0.7 and 0.95 for the platinum and cobalt self-powered detectors, respectively. The detector was also installed in the horizontal flux unit of 540 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The neutron flux at the detector location was calculated by Triveni code. The detector response was measured from 0.02% to 0.07% of full power and showed good correlation between power level and detector signals. Long-term tests and the dynamic response of the detector to shut down in PHWR are in progress.

  10. Performance of self-powered neutron detectors in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, H.D.; Bozarch, D.P.

    1977-01-01

    A typical Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor (PWR) contains 364 rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and 52 background detectors. The detectors are inserted into the reactor core in 52 dry, multidetector assemblies. Each assembly contains seven SPNDs and one background detector. By mid-1977, eight B and W PWRs, each fitted with SPNDs, were in operation. Many of the SPNDs have operated successfully for more than four years. This paper describes the operational performance of the SPNDs and special tests conducted to improve that performance. Topics included are (1) insulation performance versus neutron dose to the SPND, (2) background signals in the leadwire region of the SPND, and (3) depletion of the SPND emitter versus absorbed neutron dose

  11. Response characteristics of self-powered flux detectors in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1978-05-01

    As part of the development of a new flux-detector assembly for future CANDU reactors, the sensitivities of a variety of vanadium, cobalt and platinum self-powered detectors have been determined in a simulated CANDU core installed in the ZED-2 test reactor at CRNL. While the vanadium and cobalt detectors had solid emitters, the platinum detectors were of two types, having either solid platinum emitters, or emitters consisting of a platinum sheath over an Inconel core. Almost all of the signal from the cobalt and vanadium detectors is due to neutron events in the emitters. For these detectors we have measured the total sensitivities per unit length. For the platinum detectors, reactor γ-rays and neutrons both contribute appreciably to the output signal, and in addition to the total sensitivity, we have determined the individual neutron and γ-ray sensitivities for these detectors. It was found that the detector sensitivities depend primarily on emitter diameter and that the observed variations can be fitted by means of power laws. (author)

  12. Burnup Estimation of Rhodium Self-Powered Neutron Detector Emitter in VVER Reactor Core Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Khrutchinsky, А. А.; Kuten, S. A.; Babichev, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of burn-up in a rhodium-103 emitter of self-powered neutron detector in VVER-1000 reactor core has been performed using Monte Carlo simulations within approximation of a constant neutron flux.

  13. Analysis of the sensitivity concept of self-powered neutron detector (SPND)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, O.; Lescano, H.

    2012-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPND) are widely used to monitor the neutron flux, either in nuclear as in irradiation facilities and medical treatments. However, the physical meaning of the parameter that is used to relate the detector signal (an electrical current) with the neutron flux, i.e., the sensitivity of the detector, has not been sufficiently analyzed. Since the definition of sensitivity, ε=i/φ is calculated for particular reactor conditions, i.e., for thermal neutrons at room temperature, it does not take into account the deviation originated from other conditions of temperature (above ambient), as found for example in nuclear power plants. In this work we calculated the microscopic cross section weighted with the neutron flux, defined in the usual way. This weighted microscopic cross section reveals the no proportionality between the absorption rate and the neutron flux, exhibiting the problem that the SPND current signal has to properly represent the neutron flux (author)

  14. Analysis of self-powered gamma ray detector with directional discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levert, F.E.; Beyerlein, R.A.; Cox, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a combined Monte Carlo simulation and experimental investigation of the directional and energy dependent response of a self-powered gamma detector with a flat plate Pb-C central electrode are presented. The electron yield of the central electrode in a three dimensional mockup of the detector was calculated for photons of several discrete energies, emanating from an infinitely thin planar source, incident on the outer surface of the detector. Separate computations were done with the source facing the lead side and carbon side of the central electrode. Experimental measurements with a detector that closely matched the design used in the simulation were conducted in a graphite column next to a neutron leakage face of a low flux reactor. A localized gamma ray source was created by positioning a 235 U strip between the leakage face of the reactor and the detector. A comparison of results obtained in both cases showed good agreement. Also experimental measurements to determine the effect of the thickness of lead shielding surrounding the outer wall of the detector and space charge in the vacuum insulator between the central electrode and the inner wall on the response of the detector were performed. (Auth.)

  15. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Myong-Seop; Park Byung-Gun; Kang Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affe...

  16. Application of the self-powered detector concept in the design of a threshold gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The self-powered detector concept has been utilized to develop an energy threshold gamma-ray detector. Gamma-ray energy discrimination is achieved by using a thick annular lead shield around the outer wall (emitter) of the detector in conjunction with a self-shielding central electrode (collector). Measurements conducted in the graphite pit of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor have confirmed its ability to detect high-energy prompt fission gamma rays while discriminating against a significant flux of low-energy gamma rays from the decay of fission products. Also, auto-power spectral densities obtained with the detector were used to estimate the kinetic parameter, β/l, of the reactor

  17. Robust filtering for dynamic compensation of self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Li, Qing; Zhao, Wenbo; Gong, Helin; Wang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three dynamic compensation methods based on robust filtering theory are proposed. • Filter design problems are converted into linear matrix inequality problems. • Rhodium and Vanadium self-powered neutron detectors are used to validate the use of these three dynamic compensation methods. • The numerical simulation results show that all three methods can provide a reasonable balance between response speed and noise suppression. - Abstract: Self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), which are widely used in nuclear reactors to obtain core neutron flux distribution, are accurate at steady state but respond slowly to changes in neutron flux. Dynamic compensation methods are required to improve the response speed of the SPNDs and make it possible to apply the SPNDs for core monitoring and surveillance. In this paper, three digital dynamic compensation methods are proposed. All the three methods are based on the convex optimization framework using linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The simulation results show that all three methods can provide a reasonable balance between response speed and noise suppression

  18. Use of self powered neutron detectors in the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galo Rocha, F. del.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of self-powered neutron detectors, SPND, which are used as part of the in-core instrumentation of nuclear reactors is presented. Measurements with Co and Er SPND's were made in the IEA-R1 reactor for determining the neutron flux distribution and the integral reactor power. Due to the size of the available detectors, the neutron flux distribution could not be obtained with accuracy. The results obtained in the reactor power measurements demonstrate that the SPND have the linearity and the quick response necessary for a reactor power channel. This work also presents a proposed design of a SPND using Pt as wire emissor. This proposed design is based in the experience gained in building two prototypes. The greatest difficulties encountered include materials and technology to perform the delicate weldings. (author)

  19. Characterization of hybrid self-powered neutron detector under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamichi, M. E-mail: masaru@oarai.jaeri.go.jp; Nagao, Y.; Yamamura, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Kawamura, H

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the irradiation behaviour of a blanket mock-up on in-pile functional test, it is necessary to measure the neutron flux change in the in-pile mock-up by a neutron detector, such as the self-powered neutron detector (SPND). With its small-sized emitter, which has high sensitivity and fast response time, SPND is an indispensable tool in order to measure the local neutron flux change. In the case of an in-pile functional test, it is necessary that response time is less than 1s and ratio of SPND output current is more than 0.3 of output current of SPND with Rh emitter. Therefore, a hybrid SPND with high sensitivity and fast response time was developed. This hybrid SPND used a hybrid emitter, i.e. Co cladded Pt-13%R000.

  20. An investigation of models of rhodium emitter used in self-powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, V.I.; Piontkovskij, Yu.F.; Goranchuk, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    he paper presents the results of MCNP simulation of the self-powered neutron detector (SPND) signal formation as a result of emitter nuclei activation under the irradiation with neutrons generated in the fuel assemblies. To account for the non-uniformity of emitter burnup along the radius, its model was divided radially into 10 layers of equal thickness. It has been shown that the main contribution of about 88 % of SPND signal is provided by the four peripheral emitter layers. The contribution of different parts of emitter to the SPND signal formation throughout the lifetime of the SPND in the In-Core Monitoring System was found. Simulation results allow us to determine the SPND signal when the spectral characteristics of the neutron flux at the detector location change during the fuel campaign. The study has investigated and proposed a SPND model with the higher neutron sensitivity even though a smaller amount of expensive rhodium is used.

  1. Characterization of hybrid self-powered neutron detector under neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamichi, M; Yamamura, C; Nakazawa, M; Kawamura, H

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the irradiation behaviour of a blanket mock-up on in-pile functional test, it is necessary to measure the neutron flux change in the in-pile mock-up by a neutron detector, such as the self-powered neutron detector (SPND). With its small-sized emitter, which has high sensitivity and fast response time, SPND is an indispensable tool in order to measure the local neutron flux change. In the case of an in-pile functional test, it is necessary that response time is less than 1s and ratio of SPND output current is more than 0.3 of output current of SPND with Rh emitter. Therefore, a hybrid SPND with high sensitivity and fast response time was developed. This hybrid SPND used a hybrid emitter, i.e. Co cladded Pt-13%Rh.

  2. Rhodium self-powered detector for monitoring neutron fluence, energy production, and isotopic composition of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A.P.; Pochivalin, G.P.; Shipovskikh, Yu.M.; Garusov, Yu.V.; Chernikov, O.G.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of self-powered detectors (SPDs) with a rhodium emitter customarily involves monitoring of neutron fields in the core of a nuclear reactor. Since current in an SPD is generated primarily because of the neutron flux, which is responsible for the dynamics of particular nuclear transformations, including fission reactions of heavy isotopes, the detector signal can be attributed unambiguously to energy release at the location of the detector. Computation modeling performed with the KOMDPS package of programs of the current formation in a rhodium SPD along with the neutron-physical processes that occur in the reactor core makes it possible to take account of the effect of the principal factors characterizing the operating conditions and the design features of the fuel channel and the detector, reveal quantitative relations between the generated signal and individual physical parameters, and determine the metrological parameters of the detector. The formation and transport of changed particles in the sensitive part of the SPC is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The emitter activation, neutron transport, and dynamics of the isotopic composition in the fuel channel containing the SPD are determined by solving the kinetic equation in the multigroup representation of the neutron spectrum, using the discrete ordinate method. In this work the authors consider the operation of a rhodium SPD in a bundle of 49 fuel channels of the RBMK-1000 reactor with a fuel enrichment of 2.4% from the time it is inserted into a fresh channel

  3. A study on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gil Gon

    1999-02-01

    The rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) in a reactor core provide the operator with the on-line 3-dimensional nuclear power distribution. The signal produced by rhodium SPND is interpreted into the local neutron flux by using a sensitivity depletion law and the local neutron flux is interpreted into the local power by using a power conversion factor. This work on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) is performed to improve the uncertainty of the sensitivity depletion law used in ABB-CE reactors employing a rhodium SPND and to develop a calculational tool for providing the sensitivity depletion laws to interpret the signal of the newly designed rhodium SPND into the local neutron flux. The calculational tools for a time dependent neutron flux distribution in the rhodium emitter during depletion and for a time dependent beta escape probability that a beta generated in the emitter is escaped into the collector were developed. Due to the cost, the exposure to the radiation, and the longer fuel cycle, there is a strong incentive that the loading density of an in-core instrumentation is reduced and the lifetime of the detector is lengthened. These objectives can be achieved by reducing the uncertainty which is amplified as it depletes. The calculational tools above provide the sensitivity depletion law and show the reduction of the uncertainty to about 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux compared to the method employed by ABB-CE. The reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux is equivalent to the reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % or more in interpreting the signal into the local power and to the extension of the lifetime of rhodium SPND to about 10 % as reported by ABB-CE

  4. Analysis and solution of current spike occurred in dynamic compensation of self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Li, Qing; Wang, Kan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The current spike problem is observed in the dynamic compensation process of SPNDs. • The current spike is caused by unphysical current change due to range switching. • Modification on the compensation algorithm is introduced to deal with current spike. - Abstract: Dynamic compensation methods are required to improve the response speed of the Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) and make it possible to apply the SPNDs for core monitoring and surveillance. During the experimental test of the compensation method based on linear matrix inequality (LMI), spikes are observed in the compensated SPND current. After analyzing the measurement data, the cause is fixed on the unphysical change of the uncompensated SPND current due to range switching. Then some modifications on the dynamic compensation algorithms are proposed to solve the current spike problem.

  5. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lone, M A; Wong, P Y [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD`s are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD`s to electrons and {gamma}-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and {gamma}-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  6. Application of nuclear pumped laser to an optical self-powered neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, N.; Takahashi, H.; Iguchi, T.; Nakazawa, M.; Kakuta, T.; Yamagishi, H.; Katagiri, M.

    1996-05-01

    A Nuclear Pumped Laser (NPL) using 3He/Ne/Ar gas mixture is investigated for a purpose of applying to an optical self-powered neutron detector. Reactor experiments and simulations on lasing mechanism have been made to estimate the best gas pressure and mixture ratios on the threshold input power density (or thermal neutron flux) in 3He/Ne/Ar mixture. Calculational results show that the best mixture pressure is 3He/Ne/Ar=2280/60/100 Torr and thermal neutron flux threshold 5×1012 n/cm2 sec, while the reactor experiments made in the research reactor ``YAYOI'' of the University of Tokyo and ``JRR-4'' of JAERI also demonstrate that excitational efficiency is maximized in a similar gas mixture predicted by the calculation.

  7. Mathematical model of rhodium self-powered detectors and algorithms for correction of their time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bur'yan, V.I.; Kozlova, L.V.; Kuzhil', A.S.; Shikalov, V.F.

    2005-01-01

    The development of algorithms for correction of self-powered neutron detector (SPND) inertial is caused by necessity to increase the fast response of the in-core instrumentation systems (ICIS). The increase of ICIS fast response will permit to monitor in real time fast transient processes in the core, and in perspective - to use the signals of rhodium SPND for functions of emergency protection by local parameters. In this paper it is proposed to use mathematical model of neutron flux measurements by means of SPND in integral form for creation of correction algorithms. This approach, in the case, is the most convenient for creation of recurrent algorithms for flux estimation. The results of comparison for estimation of neutron flux and reactivity by readings of ionization chambers and SPND signals, corrected by proposed algorithms, are presented [ru

  8. Neutron sensitivity of prompt-response self-powered neutron detectors and the interval rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Avila, J.; Carmolopes, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of thermal s th and epithermal s epi sensitivities of cobalt prompt-response Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs). The thermal sensitivity was obtained for a Maxwellian neutron field, and the effect of scattering on the self-shielding correction was taken into consideration in the second-collision approximation. The dependence of s th on the emitter radius R was studied in a wide region of R (0.025 to 0.2 cm). The differential and global epithermal sensitivities were calculated using a simple expression for the first-collision neutron absorption probability. Finally, a criterion to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters of the model was established in the form of some Interval Rule which is very sensitive to the radial dependence of the flux perturbation correction and other parameters of the model in both the thermal and epithermal regions

  9. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.; Wong, P.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD's are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD's to electrons and γ-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of γ-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and γ-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  10. Neutron and gamma sensitivities of self-powered detectors: Monte Carlo modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a detailed Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of the absolute neutron sensitivity of SPNDs, which makes use of the MCNP code. We will explain the calculation approach, including the activation and beta emission steps, the gamma-electron interactions, the charge deposition in the various detector parts and the effect of the space charge field in the insulator. The model can also be applied for the calculation of the gamma sensitivity of self-powered detectors and for the radiation-induced currents in signal cables. The model yields detailed information on the various contributions to the sensor currents, with distinct response times. Results for the neutron sensitivity of various types of SPNDs are in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained at the BR2 research reactor. For typical neutron to gamma flux ratios, the calculated gamma induced SPND currents are significantly lower than the neutron induced currents. The gamma sensitivity depends very strongly upon the immediate detector surroundings and on the gamma spectrum. Our calculation method opens the way to a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile thermal neutron flux. (authors)

  11. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myong-Seop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  12. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Byung-Gun; Kang, Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  13. Real time neutron flux monitoring using Rh self powered neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juna, Byung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Jun; Jung, Hoan Sung

    2012-01-01

    Rhodium (Rh) self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are widely used for on line monitoring of local neutron flux. Its signal is slower than the actual variation of neutron flux owing to a delayed β decay of the Rh activation product, but real time monitoring is possible by solving equations between the neutron reaction rate in the detector and its signal. While the measuring system is highly reliable, the accuracy depends on the method solving the equations and accuracy of the parameters in the equations. The uncertain parameters are the contribution of gamma rays to the signal, and the branching ratios of Rh 104 and Rh 104m after the neutron absorption of Rh 103. Real time neutron flux monitoring using Rh SPNDs has been quite successful for neutron transmutation doping (NTD) at HANARO. We revisited the initial data used for the verification of a real time monitoring system, to refine algorithm for a better solution and to check the parameters for correctness. As a result, we suggest an effective way to determine the prompt parameter

  14. Real time neutron flux monitoring using Rh self powered neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juna, Byung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Jun; Jung, Hoan Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Rhodium (Rh) self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are widely used for on line monitoring of local neutron flux. Its signal is slower than the actual variation of neutron flux owing to a delayed {beta} decay of the Rh activation product, but real time monitoring is possible by solving equations between the neutron reaction rate in the detector and its signal. While the measuring system is highly reliable, the accuracy depends on the method solving the equations and accuracy of the parameters in the equations. The uncertain parameters are the contribution of gamma rays to the signal, and the branching ratios of Rh 104 and Rh 104m after the neutron absorption of Rh 103. Real time neutron flux monitoring using Rh SPNDs has been quite successful for neutron transmutation doping (NTD) at HANARO. We revisited the initial data used for the verification of a real time monitoring system, to refine algorithm for a better solution and to check the parameters for correctness. As a result, we suggest an effective way to determine the prompt parameter.

  15. Use of self-powered detectors of near containment gamma monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, J.; LaFontaine, M.; Sharma, H.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted during the period April to May 1988, to select a self-powered detector (SPD) with an appropriate emitter for measuring the gamma radiation dose rate in near-containment. The selected SPD would be used in the containment monitoring systems for the Ringhals and Forsmark reactors in Sweden. In-containment gamma radiation (81 keV to ∼3 MeV energy range) could result from the release of gaseous fission-product nuclides of bromine, krypton, iodine and xenon. Associated dose rates can range from 10 to 10 6 Gy/h. Tests were performed on platinum and vanadium emitter SPDs 1 using 60 Co, 192 Ir and X-ray gamma/photon sources. A gamma energy dependent polarity change in the signal from the Pt SPD (signal goes from positive to negative as energy drops below 100 keV), coupled with a non-linear response, eliminated that design from further study in this application. The vanadium SPDs produced a linear, negative signal irrespective of the impingent gamma energy level. The gamma sensitivity of the 18 V SPDs tested in the program, ranged from -1.07 x 10 -14 A/Gy/h to -1.87 x 10 -14 A/Gy/h per metre emitter length. (author)

  16. A study on the sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and a new proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1997-01-01

    Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are currently used to estimate the power generation distribution and fuel burn-up in several nuclear power reactors in Korea. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is accomplished to calculate the escape probability of beta particle as a function of their birth position for the typical geometry of rhodium-based SPNDs. Also, a simple numerical method calculates the initial generation rate of beta particles and the change of generation rate due to rhodium burn-up. Using the simulation and the numerical method, the burn-up profile of rhodium density and the neutron sensitivity are calculated as a function of burn-up time in the reactor. The sensitivity of the SPNDs decreases non-linearly due to the high absorption cross-section and the non-uniform burn-up of rhodium in the emitter rod. In addition, for improvement of some properties of rhodium-based SPNDs which are currently used, this paper presents a new material. The method used here can be applied to the analysis of other types of SPNDs and will be useful in the optimum design of new SPNDs for long term usage

  17. Industrial tests of rhodium self-powered detectors: the Golfech 2 experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourlevat, J.L.; Janvier, D.; Warren, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    In co-operation with Electricite de France (EDF), FRAMATOME has been testing two in-core strings which are equipped with rhodium self-powered detectors (SPDs) in the Golfech Unit 2 reactor (1300 MW, 4L plant) since August 1997. The rhodium SPDs and the strings which support them were designed and built by the US FRAMATOME subsidiary FRAMATOME-COGEMA-FUEL (FCF). The rhodium signals and some other plant parameters are acquired through the use of a specific device designed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and are processed off-line by FRAMATOME. This demonstration test is planned to last until mid-2000. The following presentation is focused on the results obtained during the first demonstration cycle (from 08/97 to 12/98). The tests that have been conducted consist of checking the rhodium depletion and of comparing the rhodium signals to the movable probes. In order to compensate for the delay in the rhodium signals, a deconvolution algorithm has also been tested. Up to now, the results are very satisfactory and a future large scale industrial application is being discussed with the EDF. The main objective of the next experimentation phase is to test - under industrial conditions - a prototype of an on-line monitoring unit known as the Partial In-Core Monitoring System (PIMS). This system will include 16 rhodium in-core strings and will use an on-line 3-D core model. (authors)

  18. A study on the sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wanno; Cho, Gyuseong; Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Hee Joon; choi, Yuseon; Park, Moon Chu; Kim, Soongpyung

    2001-08-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are widely used in reactors to monitor neutron flux, while they have several advantages such as small size, and relatively simple electronics required in conjunction with those usages, they have some intrinsic problems of the low level of output current-a slow response time and the rapid change of sensitivity-that make it difficult to use for a long term. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the escape probability as a function of the birth position of emitted beta particle for geometry of rhodium-based SPNDs. A simple numerical method calculated the initial generation rate of beta particles and the change of generation rate due to rhodium burnup. Using results of the simulation and the simple numerical method, the burnup profile of rhodium number density and the neutron sensitivity were calculated as a function of burnup time in reactors. This method was verified by the comparison of this and other papers, and data of YGN3.4 (Young Gwang Nuclear plant 3, 4) about the initial sensitivity. In addition, for improvement of some properties of rhodium-based SPNDs, which are currently used, a modified geometry is proposed. The proposed geometry, which is tube-type, is able to increase the initial sensitivity due to increase of the escape probability. The escape probability was calculated by changing the thickness of the insulator and compared solid-type with tube-type about each insulator thickness. The method used here can be applied to the analysis and design of other types of SPNDs.

  19. Development of high sensitivity transimpedance amplifier module for self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.K.; Tamboli, P.K.; Antony, J.; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.; Pramanik, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes design and development of a Transimpedance Amplifier for amplification of very low current from in core Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND). Measurement of neutron flux is very important for operation, control and protection of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). SPND is used to measure Reactor incore flux/power. Based on sensitivity of emitter material used in SPND, pitch length and neutron flux (power level); the current output from SPND varies from few pA to few μA. The described amplifier is suitable to use for this current range. The amplifier provides a very high gain using a resistive T network feedback topology. The amplifier is designed in two stages using ultra low bias current FET OPAMPs. Design of Transimpedance amplifier is carefully done to include ultra low input bias current, low offset voltage and noise. The amplifier has in built test facility for calibration and on line test facility for measurement of insulation resistance (IR). The amplifier module has on board isolated DC-DC converter circuit complying MIL/STD/461C/D which generate isolated +/-15V and +12V supply to provide parameter to parameter ground isolation and independence among each module/signal.The output from the amplifier is 0V to 6V for 0 to 150%FP. The design is simulated in computer and amplifier used at TAPS-3 was modified as per new design and has been tested at TAPS-3 site. The amplifier performed satisfactorily. The results showed that the IR measurement technique adopted in the design can tolerate lower IR of SPND in existing design. (author)

  20. A Self-Powered Thin-Film Radiation Detector Using Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    of electromagnetic 85 pulse effects on cables and electrical devices4 and as a self - powered detector for in-core neutron flux measurement in nuclear...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0003 A SELF - POWERED THIN-FILM RADIATION DETECTOR USING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (AUTHOR’S FINAL VERSION...14 -- 5 Oct 15 A self - powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic high-energy current (HEC) (Author’s Final Version) FA8051-15-P-0010

  1. Implantable self-powered detector for on-line determination of neutron flux in patients during NCT treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M E; Mariani, L E; Gonçalves-Carralves, M L Sztejnberg; Skumanic, M; Thorp, S I

    2004-11-01

    A novel system to determine thermal neutron flux in real time during NCT treatments was developed in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The system is based on a special self-powered detector that can be implanted in patients owing to its small size and biocompatibility. High voltage is not required to operate this kind of detectors, which is a considerable advantage in terms of medical uses. By choosing the appropriate materials, it was possible to obtain a prototype with thermal neutron sensitivity providing for an adequate signal level in typical NCT thermal fluxes. It was also possible to minimize gamma response in order to neglect its contribution.

  2. Implantable self-powered detector for on-line determination of neutron flux in patients during NCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.E. E-mail: miller@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Mariani, L.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Skumanic, M.; Thorp, S.I

    2004-11-01

    A novel system to determine thermal neutron flux in real time during NCT treatments was developed in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The system is based on a special self-powered detector that can be implanted in patients owing to its small size and biocompatibility. High voltage is not required to operate this kind of detectors, which is a considerable advantage in terms of medical uses. By choosing the appropriate materials, it was possible to obtain a prototype with thermal neutron sensitivity providing for an adequate signal level in typical NCT thermal fluxes. It was also possible to minimize gamma response in order to neglect its contribution.

  3. Investigation of self-powered gamma flux detectors with Lead(II) oxide serving as both emitter and insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, H.; Yue, S.; Jonkmans, G.; Sur, B.; Hilborn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Lead(II) oxide as the electron-emitting component and the insulating component of self-powered flux detectors is a concept that had not been previously explored. Detectors constructed from various combinations of electrodes (stainless steel, Al, Pb, and W) and insulating materials (Al 2 O 3 and PbO) were irradiated in a 427 Gy/h gamma field. Although high gamma sensitivities were achieved, PbO did not prove to be a strong emitter of gamma-induced electrons. Nevertheless, PbO did serve as a better insulator than one that is currently in use, namely alumina. (author)

  4. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Qualification for Absolute On-Line In-Pile Neutron Flux Measurements in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, L.; Wéber, M.

    2003-06-01

    A set of ten Self-Powered Neutron Detectors with Co, Rh and Ag emitters has been irradiated in several channels of the BR2 research reactor at SCK•CEN aiming at a comparison of their performance as thermal neutron flux detectors under various conditions. To allow for a correct interpretation of their signals, all detector sensitivity contributions (prompt and delayed) were calculated using a dedicated Monte Carlo model. The various contributions were also measured separately; the agreement between calculated and experimental data, including data from activation dosimetry, was excellent. Detailed neutron flux profiles were obtained from the SPND data, after correction for the finite detector lengths and for the slow response of delayed SPNDs.

  5. Long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium self-powered neutron detectors in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca

    2007-07-01

    The CANDU-type of in-core vanadium self-powered neutron flux detectors have been installed in NRU to monitor the axial neutron flux distributions adjacent to the loop fuel test sites since 1996. This paper describes how the thermal neutron fluxes were measured at two monitoring sites, and presents a method of correcting the vanadium burn-up effect, which can be up to 2 to 3% per year, depending on the detector locations in the reactor. It also presents the results of measurements from neutron flux detectors that have operated for over eight-years in NRU. There is good agreement between the measured and simulated neutron fluxes, to within {+-} 6.5%, and the long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium neutron flux detectors in NRU is satisfactory. (author)

  6. A study on the sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors(SPNDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No

    1997-02-01

    Self-Powered Neutron Detectors(SPND) are currently used to estimate the power generation distribution and fuel burn-up in several nuclear power reactors in Korea. While they have several advantages such as small size, low cost, and relatively simple electronics required in conjunction with those usage, they have some intrinsic problems of the low level of output current, a slow response time, the rapid change of sensitivity which makes it difficult to use for a long term. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is accomplished to calculate the escape probability as a function of the birth position of emitted beta particle for a geometry of rhodium-based SPNDs. A simple numerical method calculates the initial generation rate of beta particles and the change of generation rate due to rhodium burn-up. Using the simulation result, the burn-up profile of rhodium number density and the neutron sensitivity are calculated as a function of burn-up time in reactors. The sensitivity of the SPND decreases non-linearly due to the high absorption cross-section and the non-uniform burn-up of rhodium in the emitter rod. In addition, for improvement of some properties of rhodium-based SPNDs which are currently used, this paper presents a new material and modified geometry. From searching nuclear data, Ag 109 is chosen as a replacing material for rhodium. Silver has a low neutron absorption cross-section and a high beta energy and a low density when it is compared with rhodium. The sensitivity and the density change of silver as a function of burn-up are calculated using this method. Also, this paper compares the initial sensitivity of a solid type with its of a tube type. The initial sensitivity is increased with the new material and the tube type. Silver is also found to be used for longer time than rhodium. The method used here can be applied to the analysis of other types of SPNDs and will be useful in the optimum design of new SPNDs for long term usage

  7. Feasibility study of Self Powered Neutron Detectors in Fast Reactors for detecting local change in neutron flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammes, Christian; Filliatre, Philippe; Verma, Vasudha; Hellesen, Carl; Jacobsson Svard, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the design of a Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor system. Diverse possibilities of detector systems installation have to be investigated with respect to practicality and feasibility according to the detection parameters. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using self powered neutron detectors as in-core detectors in fast reactors for detecting local change in neutron flux distribution. We show that the gamma contribution from fission products decay in the fuel and activation of structural materials is very small compared to the fission gammas. Thus, it is possible for the in-core SPND signal to follow changes in local neutron flux as they are proportional to each other. This implies that the signal from an in-core SPND can provide dynamic information on the neutron flux perturbations occurring inside the reactor core. (authors)

  8. Feasibility study of Self Powered Neutron Detectors in Fast Reactors for detecting local change in neutron flux distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, Christian; Filliatre, Philippe [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Verma, Vasudha; Hellesen, Carl; Jacobsson Svard, Staffan [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron flux monitoring system forms an integral part of the design of a Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor system. Diverse possibilities of detector systems installation have to be investigated with respect to practicality and feasibility according to the detection parameters. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using self powered neutron detectors as in-core detectors in fast reactors for detecting local change in neutron flux distribution. We show that the gamma contribution from fission products decay in the fuel and activation of structural materials is very small compared to the fission gammas. Thus, it is possible for the in-core SPND signal to follow changes in local neutron flux as they are proportional to each other. This implies that the signal from an in-core SPND can provide dynamic information on the neutron flux perturbations occurring inside the reactor core. (authors)

  9. The Self-Powered Detector Simulation `MATiSSe' Toolbox applied to SPNDs for severe accident monitoring in PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Fourrez, Stéphane; Pichon, Laurent; Makil, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the French National Research Agency program on nuclear safety and radioprotection, the `DIstributed Sensing for COrium Monitoring and Safety' project aims at developing innovative instrumentation for corium monitoring in case of severe accident in a Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor. Among others, a new under-vessel instrumentation based on Self-Powered Neutron Detectors is developed using a numerical simulation toolbox, named `MATiSSe'. The CEA Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Lab developed MATiSSe since 2010 for Self-Powered Neutron Detectors material selection and geometry design, as well as for their respective partial neutron and gamma sensitivity calculations. MATiSSe is based on a comprehensive model of neutron and gamma interactions which take place in Selfpowered neutron detector components using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code. As member of the project consortium, the THERMOCOAX SAS Company is currently manufacturing some instrumented pole prototypes to be tested in 2017. The full severe accident monitoring equipment, including the standalone low current acquisition system, will be tested during a joined CEA-THERMOCOAX experimental campaign in some realistic irradiation conditions, in the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II research reactor.

  10. Threshold self-powered gamma detector for use as a monitor of power in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1978-01-01

    A self-powered gamma monitor for placement near the core of a nuclear reactor comprises a lead prism surrounded by a coaxial thin nickel sheet, the combination forming a collector. A coaxial polyethylene electron barrier encloses the collector and is separated from the nickel sheet by a vacuum region. The electron barrier is enclosed by a coaxial stainless steel emitter which, in turn, is enclosed within a lead casing. When the detector is placed in a flux of gamma rays, a measure of the current flow in an external circuit between emitter and collector provides a measure of the power level of the reactor.

  11. Threshold self-powered gamma detector for use as a monitor of power in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.; Cox, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    A self-powered gamma monitor for placement near the core of a nuclear reactor comprises a lead prism surrounded by a coaxial thin nickel sheet, the combination forming a collector. A coaxial polyethylene electron barrier encloses the collector and is separated from the nickel sheet by a vacuum region. The electron barrier is enclosed by a coaxial stainless steel emitter which, in turn, is enclosed within a lead casing. When the detector is placed in a flux of gamma rays, a measure of the current flow in an external circuit between emitter and collector provides a measure of the power level of the reactor

  12. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  13. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  14. Responses of platinum, vanadium and cobalt self-powered flux detectors near simulated booster rods in a ZED-2 mockup of a Bruce reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.M.; Shields, R.B.; Kroon, J.C.

    1978-02-01

    The static responses of Pt, V and Co self-powered detectors have been compared with copper-foil neutron activation profiles in reference and perturbed Bruce reactor core mockups assembled in the ZED-2 test reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The results indicate that the normalized response of each self-powered detector is an accurate measure of the thermal-neutron flux at locations greater than one lattice pitch from either a booster rod or the core boundary. They indicate that, in the Bruce booster/detector configuration, the normalized static Pt response overestimates the neutron flux by less than 3.5% upon full booster-rod insertion. (author)

  15. Design and fabrication of a novel self-powered solid-state neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiCausi, Nicholas

    There is a strong interest in intercepting special nuclear materials (SNM) at national and international borders and ports for homeland security applications. Detection of SNM such as U and Pu is often accomplished by sensing their natural or induced neutron emission. Such detector systems typically use thermal neutron detectors inside a plastic moderator. In order to achieve high detection efficiency gas filled detectors are often used; these detectors require high voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when tens or hundreds of detectors are deployed. A better type of detector would be an inexpensive solid-state detector that can be mass-produced like any other computer chip. Research surrounding solid-state detectors has been underway since the late 1990's. A simple solid-state detector employs a planar solar-cell type p-n junction and a thin conversion material that converts incident thermal neutrons into detectable alpha-particles and 7Li ions. Existing work has typically used 6LiF or 10B as this conversion layer. Although a simple planar detector can act as a highly portable, low cost detector, it is limited to relatively low detection efficiency (˜10%). To increase the efficiency, 3D perforated p-i-n silicon devices were proposed. To get high efficiency, these detectors need to be biased, resulting in increased leakage current and hence detector noise. In this research, a new type of detector structure was proposed, designed and fabricated. Among several detector structures evaluated, a honeycomb-like silicon p-n structure was selected, which is filled with natural boron as the neutron converter. A silicon p+-n diode formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic alpha-particles emitted from the boron conversion layer. The silicon detection layer is fabricated to be fully depleted with an integral step during the boron filling process. This novel feature results in a simplified fabrication process. Three

  16. The determination of self-powered neutron detector sensitivity on thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.

    1980-01-01

    The coefficients of thermal and epithermal neutron flux density depression and self-shielding for the SPN detectors with vanadium, rhodium, silver and cobalt emitters are presented, (for cobalt SPN detectors the functions describing the absorbtion of neutrons along the emitter cross-section are also shown). Using these coefficients and previously published beta particle escape efficiencies, sensitivities are determined for the principal types of detectors produced by Les Cables de Lyon and SODERN companies. The experiments and their results verifying the validity of the theoretical work are described. (author)

  17. H{infinity} Filtering for Dynamic Compensation of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors - A Linear Matrix Inequality Based Method -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.G.; Kim, Y.H.; Cha, K.H.; Kim, M.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    A method is described to develop and H{infinity} filtering method for the dynamic compensation of self-powered neutron detectors normally used for fixed incore instruments. An H{infinity} norm of the filter transfer matrix is used as the optimization criteria in the worst-case estimation error sense. Filter modeling is performed for both continuous- and discrete-time models. The filter gains are optimized in the sense of noise attenuation level of H{infinity} setting. By introducing Bounded Real Lemma, the conventional algebraic Riccati inequalities are converted into Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the filter design problem is solved via the convex optimization framework using LMIs. The simulation results show that remarkable improvements are achieved in view of the filter response time and the filter design efficiency. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Studies on Flat Sandwich-type Self-Powered Detectors for Flux Measurements in ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prasoon; Angelone, Maurizio; Döring, Toralf; Eberhardt, Klaus; Fischer, Ulrich; Klix, Axel; Schwengner, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Neutron and gamma flux measurements in designated positions in the test blanket modules (TBM) of ITER will be important tasks during ITER's campaigns. As part of the ongoing task on development of nuclear instrumentation for application in European ITER TBMs, experimental investigations on self-powered detectors (SPD) are undertaken. This paper reports the findings of neutron and photon irradiation tests performed with a test SPD in flat sandwich-like geometry. Whereas both neutrons and gammas can be detected with appropriate optimization of geometries, materials and sizes of the components, the present sandwich-like design is more sensitive to gammas than 14 MeV neutrons. Range of SPD current signals achievable under TBM conditions are predicted based on the SPD sensitivities measured in this work.

  19. Development of self-powered neutron detectors for neutron flux monitoring in HCLL and HCPB ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Klix, A.; Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Santagata, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Self powered neutron detector (SPND) is attractive neutron monitor for TBM in ITER. •In hard neutron spectra (e.g. TBM) there is the need to optimize their response. •Three state-of-the-art SPNDs were tested using fast and 14 MeV neutrons. •The response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. •FISPACT calculations performed to find out candidate materials in hard spectra. -- Abstract: Self powered neutron detectors (SPND) have a number of interesting properties (e.g. small dimensions, capability to operate in harsh environments, absence of external bias), so they are attractive neutron monitors for TBM in ITER. However, commercially available SPNDs are optimized for operation in a thermal nuclear reactor where the neutron spectrum is much softer than that expected in a TBM. This fact can limit the use of SPND in a TBM since the effective cross sections for the production of beta emitters are much lower in a fast neutron spectrum. This work represents the first attempt to study SPNDs as neutron flux monitors for TBM. Three state-of-the-art SPND available on the market were bought and tested using fast neutrons at TAPIRO fast neutron source of ENEA Casaccia and with 14 MeV neutrons at the Frascati neutron generator (FNG). The results clearly indicate that in fast neutron spectra, the response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to find out possible material candidates for SPND suitable for operation in TBM neutron spectra

  20. Development of self-powered neutron detectors for neutron flux monitoring in HCLL and HCPB ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla FusioneENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Klix, A. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla FusioneENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, U. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santagata, A. [ENEA C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese Km. 1,300, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Self powered neutron detector (SPND) is attractive neutron monitor for TBM in ITER. •In hard neutron spectra (e.g. TBM) there is the need to optimize their response. •Three state-of-the-art SPNDs were tested using fast and 14 MeV neutrons. •The response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. •FISPACT calculations performed to find out candidate materials in hard spectra. -- Abstract: Self powered neutron detectors (SPND) have a number of interesting properties (e.g. small dimensions, capability to operate in harsh environments, absence of external bias), so they are attractive neutron monitors for TBM in ITER. However, commercially available SPNDs are optimized for operation in a thermal nuclear reactor where the neutron spectrum is much softer than that expected in a TBM. This fact can limit the use of SPND in a TBM since the effective cross sections for the production of beta emitters are much lower in a fast neutron spectrum. This work represents the first attempt to study SPNDs as neutron flux monitors for TBM. Three state-of-the-art SPND available on the market were bought and tested using fast neutrons at TAPIRO fast neutron source of ENEA Casaccia and with 14 MeV neutrons at the Frascati neutron generator (FNG). The results clearly indicate that in fast neutron spectra, the response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to find out possible material candidates for SPND suitable for operation in TBM neutron spectra.

  1. Use of in-core self-powered detectors in the nuclear reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitel'man, M.G.; Andreev, L.G.; Batenin, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the results of experiments conducted at the Obninsk atomic power station on the establishment of an integrated system for the control and automatic regulation of the distribution of energy liberation. The pick-ups used for this system are direct-charge detectors with rhodium emitters. The system, which consists of 12 integral DPZ-7 detectors distributed evenly on 2 mutually perpendicular diamaters and 2 assemblies, each containing 4 1n direct-charge detectors, monitors the distribution of neutron flow density according to core height. Increased signals from the detectors were fed into the summation block, in which the outgoing signal was also adjusted. The half-life of the rhodium was calculated and the non-inertia of the entire system ascertained. The total operating time of the system for the automatic control of reactor power is approximately 1 h. The influence of interference was not determined. During the experiment, the power of the reactor remained constant, i.e. its regulation by the direct-charge detectors inside the core was effective. (author)

  2. Dynamic compensation of the Silver self-powered neutron detector in the ramp program at the OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Silver self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is a common detector used in the ramp program at the OSIRIS reactor. The Silver SPND signal is a reference during steady states, but its response is too slow for monitoring transient tests. In order to compensate for the inherent time delay a mathematical processing method of the Silver SPND signal was developed. Based on a convolution-type resolution of the kinetics equations, a dynamic compensation algorithm can be used for transient conditions as well as steady state conditions. A computer program reconstructs, in real-time, the dynamic neutron flux sensed by the Silver detector from the current measured between the emitter and the collector of the SPND. Although this method decreases slightly the signal-to-noise ratio, it maintains the SPND's characteristics and reduces the response time from about 10 minutes to less than 4 seconds for a step change in flux. This provides for prompt and accurate measurement of fuel rod power during ramp experiments in the OSIRIS reactor. This development makes the Silver SPND very suitable for many on-line monitoring applications

  3. Boiling detection using signals of self-powered neutron detectors and thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.

    1989-01-01

    A specially-equipped simulated fuel assembly has been placed into the core of the 2 MW research reactor of the IRI, Delft. In this paper the recent results concerning the detection of coolant boiling in the simulated fuel assembly are introduced. Applying the theory of boiling temperature noise, different stages of boiling, i.e. one-phase flow, subcooled boiling, volume boiling, were identified in the measurements using the low-frequency noise components of the thermocouple signals. It has been ascertained that neutron noise spectra remained unchanged when subcooled boiling appeared, and that they changed reasonably only when developed volume boiling took place in the channels. At certain neutron detector positions neutron spectra did not vary at all, although developed volume boiling occurred at a distance of 3-4 cm from these neutron detectors. This phenomenon was applied in studying the field-of-view of neutron detectors

  4. Gamma flux responsive self-powered detector with a tubular emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A gamma-sensitive flux detector comprises tubular emitter, an insulating core within the emitter and an insulating layer about the emitter, and a tubular conductive collector electrode about the insulating layer. The emitter material may be platinum, lead, bismuth, tantalum, tungsten; platinum preferred

  5. A self-powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic high-energy current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmanski, Piotr, E-mail: pzygmanski@LROC.HARVARD.EDU, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sajo, Erno, E-mail: pzygmanski@LROC.HARVARD.EDU, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The authors introduce a radiation detection method that relies on high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary charged particles in the detector material, which induces conduction current in an external readout circuit. Direct energy conversion of the incident radiation powers the signal formation without the need for external bias voltage or amplification. The detector the authors consider is a thin-film multilayer device, composed of alternating disparate electrically conductive and insulating layers. The optimal design of HEC detectors consists of microscopic or nanoscopic structures. Methods: Theoretical and computational developments are presented to illustrate the salient properties of the HEC detector and to demonstrate its feasibility. In this work, the authors examine single-sandwiched and periodic layers of Cu and Al, and Au and Al, ranging in thickness from 100 nm to 300 μm and separated by similarly sized dielectric gaps, exposed to 120 kVp x-ray beam (half-value thickness of 4.1 mm of Al). The energy deposition characteristics and the high-energy current were determined using radiation transport computations. Results: The authors found that in a dual-layer configuration, the signal is in the measurable range. For a defined total detector thickness in a multilayer structure, the signal sharply increases with decreasing thickness of the high-Z conductive layers. This paper focuses on the computational results while a companion paper reports the experimental findings. Conclusions: Significant advantages of the device are that it does not require external power supply and amplification to create a measurable signal; it can be made in any size and geometry, including very thin (sub-millimeter to submicron) flexible curvilinear forms, and it is inexpensive. Potential applications include medical dosimetry (both in vivo and external), radiation protection, and other settings where one or more of the above qualities are desired.

  6. Changes in the long-term delayed response of platinum self-powered detector with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, G.; Serdula, K.J.; Eng, P.

    1989-01-01

    Two long-term delayed response characteristics have been observed for platinum, Pt, detectors in the Gentilly-2 600 MW(e) CANDU PHWR reactor. The first effect is a dip in the signal two to three hours after a shutdown, due to the (n,beta) interactions of Mn-55 and Ni-64 which exist as impurities in the detector assembly. The second effect is an increase of the delayed fraction of the signal. The low neutron absorption cross-section of Pt-196 combined with the conversion of the Pt-194 and Pt-195 results in build-up of the Pt-196. The long half-lives associated with the beta-emission in the transmutation of Pt-196 to Hg-198 or Hg-199 give rise to the observed long-term delayed response

  7. The use of self-powered neutron detectors (SPN) to measure reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    Due to the complicated design and technical difficulties of the conventional chamber method, neutron flux measurement between fuel rods is not possible. SPN detectors have a very simple design and a small size; therefore, they are suitable for the use inside the space available in the reactor core. The SPN detector consists of an emitter which emits particles by neutron absorption. The particles penetrate in an insulator and reach an outer collector. Among fission products, electrons might be produced by photoeffect or compton effect, internal conversion or pair production which, will also reach the collector. Cobalt and rhodium emitters have found practical application because of their fast response and sensitivity. The (n, γ) reaction in 103 Rh and 60 Co yields several isotopes and isomers which are discussed in the present report

  8. Cadmium-emitter self-powered thermal neutron detector performance characterization & reactor power tracking capability experiments performed in ZED-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFontaine, M.W., E-mail: physics@execulink.com [LaFontaine Consulting, Kitchener, Ontario (Canada); Zeller, M.B. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nielsen, K. [Royal Military College of Canada, SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium-emitter self-powered thermal neutron flux detectors (SPDs), are typically used for flux monitoring and control applications in low temperature, test reactors such as the SLOWPOKE-2. A collaborative program between Atomic Energy of Canada, academia (Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC)) and industry (LaFontaine Consulting) was initiated to characterize the incore performance of a typical Cd-emitter SPD; and to obtain a definitive measure of the capability of the detector to track changes in reactor power in real time. Prior to starting the experiment proper, Chalk River Laboratories' ZED-2 was operated at low power (5 watts nominal) to verify the predicted moderator critical height. Test measurements were then performed with the vertical center of the SPD emitter positioned at the vertical mid-plane of the ZED-2 reactor core. Measurements were taken with the SPD located at lattice position L0 (near center), and repeated at lattice position P0 (in D{sub 2}O reflector). An ionization chamber (part of the ZED-2 control instrumentation) monitored reactor power at a position located on the south side of the outside wall of the reactor's calandria. These experiments facilitated measurement of the absolute thermal neutron sensitivity of the subject Cd-emitter SPD, and validated the power tracking capability of said SPD. Procedural details of the experiments, data, calculations and associated graphs, are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Comparison of Thermal Neutron Flux Measured by Uranium 235 Fission Chamber and Rhodium Self-Powered Neutron Detector in MTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Lyoussi, A.; Geslot, B.; Malo, J.-Y.; Carcreff, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.

    2013-06-01

    Thermal neutron flux is one of the most important nuclear parameter to be measured on-line in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). In particular two types of sensors with different physical operating principles are commonly used: self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) and fission chambers with uranium 235 coating. This work aims to compare on one hand the thermal neutron flux evaluation given by these two types of sensors and on the other hand to compare these evaluations with activation dosimeter measurements, which are considered as the reference for absolute neutron flux assessment. This study was conducted in an irradiation experiment, called CARMEN-1, performed during 2012 in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France). The CARMEN-1 experiment aims to improve the neutron and photon flux and nuclear heating measurements in MTRs. In this paper we focus on the thermal neutron flux measurements performed in CARMEN-1 experiment. The use of fission chambers to measure the absolute thermal neutron flux in MTRs is not very usual. An innovative calibration method for fission chambers operated in Campbell mode has been developed at the CEA Cadarache (France) and tested for the first time in the CARMEN-1 experiment. The results of these measurements are discussed, with the objective to measure with the best accuracy the thermal neutron flux in the future Jules Horowitz Reactor. (authors)

  10. Study on the sensitivity of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND) and its change due to burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gyuseong; Lee, Wanno; Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun.

    1996-01-01

    Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND) are currently used to estimate the power generation distribution and fuel burn-up in several nuclear power reactors in Korea. While they have several advantages such as small size, low cost, and relatively simple electronics required in conjunction with its usage, it has some intrinsic problems of the low level of output current, a slow response time, the rapid change of sensitivity which makes it difficult to use for a long term. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation was accomplished to calculate the escape probability as a function of the birth position for the typical geometry of rhodium-based SPNDs. Using the simulation result, the burn-up profile of rhodium number density and the neutron sensitivity is calculated as a function of burn-up time in the reactor. The sensitivity of the SPND decreases non-linearly due to the high absorption cross-section and the non-uniform burn-up of rhodium in the emitter rod. The method used here can be applied to the analysis of other types of SPNDs and will be useful in the optimum design of new SPNDs for long-term usage. (author)

  11. Radiological safety aspects associated with the handling, storage and disposal of self power neutron detectors in TAPS - 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, B.K.; Mudgal, B.; Ghadigoankar, V.R.; Niraj; Ashok; Pati, C.K.; Patil, P.M.; Pawar, S.K.; Varadhan, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    At Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4, 540 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, core being large in size requires a continuous in core monitoring for local flux disturbances. Nearly 200 Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) of the Straight Individually Replaceable (SIR) type are distributed in the reactor core. For purpose of reactor regulation and protection, cobalt SPNDs that have a prompt response for changes in power is used for in-core flux mapping, vanadium SPNDs that provide accurate measure of neutron flux, even though having slow response is used In core SPNDs are placed in Vertical Flux Units (VFU) and Horizontal Flux Units (HFUs). These SPNDs were to be replaced at regular intervals to meet the design intent. Cobalt SPNDs have dose rates of the order of 1000 Gy/h and the Mineral Insulated (MI) cables of Vanadium SPNDs have dose rates of the order of 100 Gy/h. So far 3 Cobalt SPNDs were removed from HFUs and are being stored in lead shielding inside spent fuel storage facility. These high active components were handled with meticulous planning with lowest exposures to the maintainers. Radiological safety aspects of handling and storage of SPNDs are discussed in this report. (author)

  12. Review of some problems encountered with In-Core Fission chambers and Self-Powered Neutron Detectors in PWR's. Tests - Present use - Outlook on the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, Jean; Verdant, Robert.

    1979-01-01

    The working conditions of in-core detectors are investigated as well as some reliability problems which depend on nuclear environment (such as decrease of sensibility, loss of insulation...). Then we review the long-term irradiation tests in experimental reactor that have been carried out by the CEA these last years, with fission chambers (FC) and Self-Powered Detectors (SPD). The travelling probe system with moveable FC used in the 900 MWe PWR is briefly described. Finally an outlook on future possibilities is given; for instance the use of fixed SPD and a moveable FC in the same thimble, allowing recalibration of the fixed detectors [fr

  13. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcelo E; Sztejnberg, Manuel L; González, Sara J; Thorp, Silvia I; Longhino, Juan M; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global thermal and mixed

  14. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429, Argentina and CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and

  15. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global

  16. Improvement of core monitoring code cecor by the virtual segmentation of the self powered neutron detector loaded at Korean Standard Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.; Jung, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Korean Standard Nuclear Plant uses Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) to measure the neutron flux in the reactor core. The SPND's height is 40 cm and is located axially at the five different positions and 45 radial places. The design code simulated a reactor core is calculated by segmentation of the core. The segmentation is called as 'node', of which size is normally 20 cm. The axial height of the detector is larger than that of the node, and the larger detector's height maybe product some error on the axially complex shape. The analysis with the detector's signals showed some errors at the non-cosine axial flux shape. In order to reduce the errors for the shape, we tried to divide the detector by introducing the virtual boundary in the detector. Then, each axially 5 detectors had two virtual segmentations respectively and the detector's signal was divided by the inputs. So the more virtual detector's signals were gotten, the more accurate axial shape was produced. The result with virtual segmentations in a detector gave less deviation than the case without virtual segmentation (the current model). After the middle of cycle at the initial core specially, the axial neutron flux shape is changed to the saddle type one. The current model gave some error in Root Mean Square (RMS) between the measured value and the calculated one. The virtual segmentation model gave the better agreement at that time

  17. Development of signal processing electronics for self powered neutron detector signal with built-in on-line insulation monitoring [Paper No.:E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitabha; Chaganty, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are employed to monitor in-core neutron flux in nuclear reactors for control, safety and mapping of in-core neutron flux. The d.c. current produced by SPND is converted into a proportional d.c. voltage, which in turn is used for various purposes stated above. This paper describes various features of the SPND amplifier developed in the Electronics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). It also outlines the principle of working of on-line monitoring of insulation resistance (IR) of the detector and associated mineral insulated (MI) and soft cables. The amplifier generates an alarm in case of the IR of the detector and the cable assembly falls below an accepted value or the cable is not connected to the amplifier and relieves the operator from periodic and manual checking of each of the individual detectors and ensures the validity of the signal for further processing. (author). 3 figs

  18. Enhanced photoelectric performance in self-powered UV detectors based on ZnO nanowires with plasmonic Au nanoparticles scattered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yiyu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Bin; Dai, Wei; Pan, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. Au nanoparticles were well dispersed in the mixed solution of ethanol and deionized water. A simple self-powered ultraviolet detector based on solid-liquid heterojunction was fabricated, utilizing ZnO NWs as active photoanode and such prepared mixed solution as electrolyte. The introduction of Au nanoparticles results in considerable improvements in the responsivity and sensitivity of the device compared with the one using deionized water as electrolyte, which is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting by Au nanoparticles.

  19. Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Beschreibung der Wirkungsweise und Effektivität von grossflächigen hochsensitiven SPNDs : Self-Powered-Neutron-Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dabagh, D.

    1981-01-01

    In the present work the neutron sensitivity of large surface "Self-Powered- Neutron-Detectors«SPNDs) is determined numericaily and experimentally. First a computer model for the parametric caIculation of the (n,$\\gamma$)-reaction rates in the emitter of the SPND was developed under use of the Monte-Carlo-Program KENO 11 ‘To determine the escape-probability of the electrons produced via Comptonor photoelectric effect by the emitter as weil as fron the surrounding isolator, a new Monte-Carlo-Pr...

  20. A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.B.; Hall, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    Self-powered flux detectors are used in CANDU nuclear power reactors to determine the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core for use by both the reactor control and safety systems. To establish the dynamic response of different types of flux detectors, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have an ongoing experimental irradiation program in the NRU research reactor for which a data acquistion system has been developed. The system described in this paper is used to measure the currents from the detectors both at a slow, regular logging interval, and at a rapid, adaptive rate following a reactor shutdown. Currents that range from 100 pA to 1 mA full scale can be measured from up to 38 detectors and stored at sampling rates of up to 20 samples per second. The dynamic characteristics of the detectors can be computed from the stored records. The data acquisition system comprises a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer, dual cartridge disks, floppy disks, a hard copy and a video display terminal. The RT-11 operating system is used and all application programs are written in FORTRAN

  1. Large-area self-powered neutron-detectors for neutron-flux measurements in HTRs. Status of developmental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Serpekian, T.; Benninghofen, G.; Serafin, N.; Spillekothen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The development is described of the large-area SPN-detector as an out of core power monitoring system. Gadolinium or cobalt was used as the emitter. Response functions of the gadolinium SPN-detector were found with regard to the reactor power, the effect of the gamma field, its short-term behaviour following reactor shutdown and long-term behaviour during reactor operation. It was shown that a detector of 0.1 mm emitter thickness can withstand an integral thermal neutron flux of 2.10 20 nvt almost without efficiency loss thus indicating that the large-area gadolinium SPN-detector is a suitable means for power monitoring in large HTGR's

  2. The influence of rhodium burn-up on the sensitivity of rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.

    1980-01-01

    Depression and self-shielding coefficients are presented for thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities. Functions are shown describing the distribution of beta particle sources on the emitter cross section for 0 to 50% rhodium burnup. The values are calculated of detector sensitivity to thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities for the said burnup for main types of rhodium SPN detectors made by SODERN. (J.B.)

  3. Absolute on-line in-pile measurement of neutron fluxes using self-powered neutron detectors: Monte Carlo sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, L. [SCK/CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are well suited to monitor continuously the neutronic operating conditions of driver fuel of research reactors and to follow its burnup evolution. This is of particular importance when advanced or new MTR fuel designs need to be qualified. We have developed a detailed MCNP-4B based Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of neutron sensitivities of SPNDs. Results for the neutron sensitivity of a Rh SPND are in excellent agreement with experimental data recently obtained at the BR2 research reactor. A critical comparison of the Monte Carlo results with results from standard analytical methods reveals an important deficiency of the analytical methods in the description of the electron transport efficiency. Our calculation method allows a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile neutron flux. (author)

  4. Absolute on-line in-pile measurement of neutron fluxes using self-powered neutron detectors: Monte Carlo sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.

    2001-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are well suited to monitor continuously the neutronic operating conditions of driver fuel of research reactors and to follow its burnup evolution. This is of particular importance when advanced or new MTR fuel designs need to be qualified. We have developed a detailed MCNP-4B based Monte Carlo approach for the calculation of neutron sensitivities of SPNDs. Results for the neutron sensitivity of a Rh SPND are in excellent agreement with experimental data recently obtained at the BR2 research reactor. A critical comparison of the Monte Carlo results with results from standard analytical methods reveals an important deficiency of the analytical methods in the description of the electron transport efficiency. Our calculation method allows a reliable on-line determination of the absolute in-pile neutron flux. (author)

  5. Device for neutron flux monitoring in IEA-R1 reactor using rhodium self powered neutron detector; Dispositivo de mapeamento de fluxo de neutron atraves do SPN/Rodio no IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci Filho, Walter; Fernando, Alberto de Jesus; Jerez, Rogerio; Tondin, Julio B.M.; Pasqualetto, Hertz [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The IEA-R1 reactor has undergone a modernization tio increase its operating power to 5 MW, in order to allow a more efficient production of radioisotopes. The objective of this work is to provide the reactor with flux monitoring device using a rhodium self powered neutron detector. Self powered detectors are rugged miniature devices with are increasingly being used for fixed in core reactor monitoring both for safety purposes and flux mapping. The work presents the results obtained with Rhodium-SPND in several irradiation position inside the reactor core. (author)

  6. Thermal neutron flux measurement using self-powered neutron detector (SPND) at out-core locations of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nur Syazwani Mohd; Hamzah, Khaidzir; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Hairie Rabir, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The thermal neutron flux measurement has been conducted at the out-core location using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs). This work represents the first attempt to study SPNDs as neutron flux sensor for developing the fault detection system (FDS) focusing on neutron flux parameters. The study was conducted to test the reliability of the SPND’s signal by measuring the neutron flux through the interaction between neutrons and emitter materials of the SPNDs. Three SPNDs were used to measure the flux at four different radial locations which located at the fission chamber cylinder, 10cm above graphite reflector, between graphite reflector and tank liner and fuel rack. The measurements were conducted at 750 kW reactor power. The outputs from SPNDs were collected through data acquisition system and were corrected to obtain the actual neutron flux due to delayed responses from SPNDs. The measurements showed that thermal neutron flux between fission chamber location near to the tank liner and fuel rack were between 5.18 × 1011 nv to 8.45 × 109 nv. The average thermal neutron flux showed a good agreement with those from previous studies that has been made using simulation at the same core configuration at the nearest irradiation facilities with detector locations.

  7. The domestic development of rhodium self-powered detector used in the core of Qinshan third nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weihua; Zhang Zhenhua; Yu Yijun; Zhang Yun; Wu Jun; Deng Peng

    2009-01-01

    This article introduced Qinshan third nuclear power plant's Vanadium detector's principle of work, the domestically development's earlier period preparation, the craft processing process, the domestically sample's experiment as well as the sample in core demonstration test. Elaborated process of manufacture's quality control request and the essential craft, and the factory manufacture experiment situation, and to the installation and trial run process, the modification factor and the test result has carried on the introduction and the analysis. (authors)

  8. Results and interpretation of noise measurements using in-core self powered neutron detector strings at Unit 2 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, O.; Por, G.; Valko, J.

    1986-11-01

    In-core neutron noise and fuel assembly outlet temperature noise measurements were performed at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Characteristics of the reactor and the noise measuring equipment are briefly described. The in-core Rhodium emitter selfpowered neutron detector strings positioned axially above the other show high coherence and linear phase at low frequencies indicating a marked transport effect, not regularly measured in PWRs. The coherence between horizontally placed neutron detectors is small and the phase is zero. A transport effect of different nature is obtained between neutron detectors (in-core and ex-core) and fuel assembly outlet thermocouples. The observed characteristics depend on reactor and fuel assembly power in a way supporting interpretation in terms of coolant density and void content changes and power feedback effects. During routine analysis vibration of 1.1 Hz appeared as a strong peak in the power spectra. The control assembly that was responsible for the observed behaviour could be localized with high certainty. (author)

  9. Numerical and experimental investigations to describe the mode of operation and effectivity of large surface high sensitive SPNDs (Self-Powered-Neutron-Detectors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabagh, D.

    1981-08-01

    First a computer model for the parametric calculation of the (n,γ)-reaction rates in the emitter of the SPND was developed under use of the Monte-Carlo Program KENO II. To determine the escape-probability of the electrons produced via Compton- or photoelectric effect by the emitter as well as from the surrounding isolator, a new Monte-Carlo-Program was implemented under consideration of the Klein-Nishina-formula and the energy-range relationships for electrons. The approximate calculations performed for the electrons produced in the isolator show that the 'isolator flux' can give an important contribution to the total signal of the SPND. Subsequently with this program system an optimization of the neutron sensitivity was performed by a suitable choice of geometry (emitter thickness, isolator thickness). For a specially built large surface SPND with Gadolinium-emitter the neutron sensitivity was calculated. These results were checked by an In-Pile-Experiment in the FRJ-1 reactor. Very good agreement was found. The detector was also shown to exhibit excellent linearity and showed also the expected enhanced sensitivity. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Development of a Self Powered Vehicle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Housing Tube ..... ................. .189 83 Brown Magnetometer Circuit Board Layout ................ .. 194 84 Digital Nulling Loop Circuit Board...offset drift . Two digital nulling loops are required to null out the magnetometer offset with respect to time and temperature. There is much thermal...listed below. Magnetic Core Winding Instructions 1. Wrap cores with teflon tape (•4 mil thick) or mylar tape to insulate the stainless steel bobbin from

  11. Self-powered enzyme micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Samudra; Patra, Debabrata; Ortiz-Rivera, Isamar; Agrawal, Arjun; Shklyaev, Sergey; Dey, Krishna K.; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Sen, Ayusman

    2014-05-01

    Non-mechanical nano- and microscale pumps that function without the aid of an external power source and provide precise control over the flow rate in response to specific signals are needed for the development of new autonomous nano- and microscale systems. Here we show that surface-immobilized enzymes that are independent of adenosine triphosphate function as self-powered micropumps in the presence of their respective substrates. In the four cases studied (catalase, lipase, urease and glucose oxidase), the flow is driven by a gradient in fluid density generated by the enzymatic reaction. The pumping velocity increases with increasing substrate concentration and reaction rate. These rechargeable pumps can be triggered by the presence of specific analytes, which enables the design of enzyme-based devices that act both as sensor and pump. Finally, we show proof-of-concept enzyme-powered devices that autonomously deliver small molecules and proteins in response to specific chemical stimuli, including the release of insulin in response to glucose.

  12. Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Shen, Qingqing; Sun, Xuhui

    2017-10-01

    Looking toward world technology trends over the next few decades, self-powered sensing networks are a key field of technological and economic driver for global industries. Since 2006, Zhong Lin Wang's group has proposed a novel concept of nanogenerators (NGs), including piezoelectric nanogenerator and triboelectric nanogenerator, which could convert a mechanical trigger into an electric output. Considering motion ubiquitously exists in the surrounding environment and for any most common materials used every day, NGs could be inherently served as an energy source for our daily increasing requirements or as one of self-powered environmental sensors. In this regard, by coupling the piezoelectric or triboelectric properties with semiconducting gas sensing characterization, a new research field of self-powered gas sensing has been proposed. Recent works have shown promising concept to realize NG-based self-powered gas sensors that are capable of detecting gas environment without the need of external power sources to activate the gas sensors or to actively generate a readout signal. Compared with conventional sensors, these self-powered gas sensors keep the approximate performance. Meanwhile, these sensors drastically reduce power consumption and additionally reduce the required space for integration, which are significantly suitable for the wearable devices. This paper gives a brief summary about the establishment and latest progress in the fundamental principle, updated progress and potential applications of NG-based self-powered gas sensing system. The development trend in this field is envisaged, and the basic configurations are also introduced.

  13. Self-Powered Sun Sensor Microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; Graaf, G. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    An analog sun sensor has been designed based on shade profile proportional to the angle of incidence of incoming light projected onto a 2×2 array of photodiodes. This concept enables an autonomous self-powered optical system with two the main functions (electrical power generation for the amplifier

  14. Printed Self-Powered Miniature Air Sampling Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Birmingham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent geo-political climate has increased the necessity for autonomous, chip-sized, lightweight, air sampling systems which can quickly detect and characterize chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE hazardous materials and relay the results. To address these issues, we have developed a self-powered 3-D chip architecture that processes air to produce concentrated size- sorted particle (and vapor samples that could be integrated with on-chip nanoelectronic detectors for the discovery of weapons of mass destruction (WMD. The unique air movement approach is composed of a nanoscale energy harvester that provides electricity to a printed ion-drag pump to push air through coated-microstructured arrays. The self-powered microstructured array air sampler was designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling to collect particles from 1-10 microns at greater than 99.9999 % efficiency with less than 100 Pascal [Pa] pressure drop at a specified air flow rate. Surprisingly, even at minimum air flow rates below specifications, these CFD predictions were matched by experimental results gathered in a Government aerosol chamber. The microstructured array engineered filter equaled the collection capability of a membrane or a high efficiency particle air (HEPA filter at a fraction of the filter pressure drop.

  15. Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and characterization of a self-powered electrochemical lactate biosensor for real-time monitoring of lactic acid. The bioanode and biocathode were modified with D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOD, respectively, to facilitate the oxidation and reduction of lactic acid and molecular oxygen. The bioelectrodes were arranged in a parallel configuration to construct the biofuel cell. This biofuel cell’s current–voltage characteristic was analyzed in the presence of various lactic acid concentrations over a range of 1–25 mM. An open circuit voltage of 395.3 mV and a short circuit current density of 418.8 µA/cm² were obtained when operating in 25 mM lactic acid. Additionally, a 10 pF capacitor was integrated via a charge pump circuit to the biofuel cell to realize the self-powered lactate biosensor with a footprint of 1.4 cm × 2 cm. The charge pump enabled the boosting of the biofuel cell voltage in bursts of 1.2–1.8 V via the capacitor. By observing the burst frequency of a 10 pF capacitor, the exact concentration of lactic acid was deduced. As a self-powered lactate sensor, a linear dynamic range of 1–100 mM lactic acid was observed under physiologic conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4 and the sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity of 125.88 Hz/mM-cm2. This electrochemical lactate biosensor has the potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of lactic acid level in biological fluids.

  16. Research Update: Nanogenerators for self-powered autonomous wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Hinchet, Ronan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Largely distributed networks of sensors based on the small electronics have great potential for health care, safety, and environmental monitoring. However, in order to have a maintenance free and sustainable operation, such wireless sensors have to be self-powered. Among various energies present in our environment, mechanical energy is widespread and can be harvested for powering the sensors. Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been recently introduced for mechanical energy harvesting. Here we introduce the architecture and operational modes of self-powered autonomous wireless sensors. Thereafter, we review the piezoelectric and triboelectric NGs focusing on their working mechanism, structures, strategies, and materials.

  17. A Self-Powered Insole for Human Motion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhou Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure. The energy harvesting insole is capable of driving some common electronics by scavenging energy from human walking. Moreover, it can be used to recognize human motion as the waveforms it generates change when people are in different locomotion modes. It is demonstrated that different types of human motion such as walking and running are clearly classified by the insole without any external power source. This work not only expands the applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters for wearable power supplies and self-powered sensors, but also provides possible approaches for wearable self-powered human motion monitoring that is of great importance in many fields such as rehabilitation and sports science.

  18. Self Powered Non-Dispersive Infra-Red CO{sub 2} Gas Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, D R; MacGregor, C, E-mail: des@gassensing.co.uk [Gas Sensing Solutions Ltd, 60 Grayshill Road, Westfield North Courtyard, Glasgow G68 9HQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    This paper describes a non-dispersive infra-red CO{sub 2} gas sensor, incorporating a mid-infra-red solid state light source/ detector combination, tuned to match the spectral absorption characteristic of CO{sub 2} gas. Injection moulded optics provide low cost manufacture. Continuous operation power consumption is < 3.5mW and pulsed mode with energy per measurement < 6mJ. Self powered operation using a solar cell is demonstrated together with wireless capability. Performance of two path length variants (20mm and 70mm) is described. The sensor shows invariant temperature output characteristic from -25 to 50 deg. C. Accuracy level is typically {+-}3% of reading.

  19. Self-powered wireless disposable sensor for welfare application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douseki, Takakuni; Tanaka, Ami

    2013-01-01

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor consisting of a flexible urine-activated battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The flexible urine-activated battery is embedded in a disposal diaper and makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit supplies the power to a wireless transmitter. A 315-MHz-band wireless transmitter performs low-power operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, we fabricated a prototype sensor system. When 80 cc of urine is poured onto the diaper, the battery outputs a voltage of 1 V; and the sensor can transmit an ID signal over a distance of 5 m.

  20. Paper-based supercapacitors for self-powered nanosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Xiao, Xu; Ding, Tianpeng; Zhong, Junwen; Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yue; Hu, Bin; Huang, Yunhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-05-14

    Energy storage on paper: paper-based, all-solid-state, and flexible supercapacitors were fabricated, which can be charged by a piezoelectric generator or solar cells and then discharged to power a strain sensor or a blue-light-emitting diode, demonstrating its efficient energy management in self-powered nanosystems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Local irradiation effects of one-dimensional ZnO based self-powered asymmetric Schottky barrier UV photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yaxue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi, Junjie, E-mail: junjieqi@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Biswas, Chandan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Li, Feng; Zhang, Kui; Li, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Materials and Technologies, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A self-powered metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetector was successfully fabricated based on Ag/ZnO/Au structure with asymmetric Schottky barriers. This exhibits excellent performance compared to many previous studies. Very high photo-to-dark current ratio (approximately 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6}) was demonstrated without applying any external bias, and very fast switching time of less than 30 ms was observed during the investigation. Opposite photocurrent direction was generated by irradiating different Schottky diodes in the fabricated photodetector. Furthermore, the device performance was optimized by largely irradiating both the ZnO microwire (MW) junctions. Schottky barrier effect theory and O{sub 2} adsorption–desorption theories were used to investigate the phenomenon. The device has potential applications in self-powered UV detection field and can be used as electrical power source for electronic, optoelectronic and mechanical devices. - Highlights: • A self-powered Schottky barrier UV photodetector based on 1-D ZnO is fabricated. • For the first time we investigate the local irradiation effects of UV detector. • Irradiating both the junctions and ZnO can optimize the performance of the device.

  2. Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation: SIMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Park, Younggeun; Vencelj, Matjaž; Jenko, Monika; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-21

    Reliable, autonomous, internally self-powered microfluidic pumps are in critical demand for rapid point-of-care (POC) devices, integrated molecular-diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Here we report on a Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation (SIMPLE), which is disposable, autonomous, easy to use and fabricate, robust, and cost efficient, as a solution for self-powered microfluidic POC devices. The imbibition pump introduces the working liquid which is sucked into a porous material (paper) upon activation. The suction of the working liquid creates a reduced pressure in the analytical channel and induces the sequential sample flow into the microfluidic circuits. It requires no external power or control and can be simply activated by a fingertip press. The flow rate can be programmed by defining the shape of utilized porous material: by using three different paper shapes with circular section angles 20°, 40° and 60°, three different volume flow rates of 0.07 μL s(-1), 0.12 μL s(-1) and 0.17 μL s(-1) are demonstrated at 200 μm × 600 μm channel cross-section. We established the SIMPLE pumping of 17 μL of sample; however, the sample volume can be increased to several hundreds of μL. To demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of SIMPLE, we used a simple, robust and cheap foil-laminating fabrication technique. The SIMPLE can be integrated into hydrophilic or hydrophobic materials-based microfluidic POC devices. Since it is also applicable to large-scale manufacturing processes, we anticipate that a new chapter of a cost effective, disposable, autonomous POC diagnostic chip is addressed with this technical innovation.

  3. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-04-23

    In today\\'s world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  4. Passive and Self-Powered Autonomous Sensors for Remote Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Serpelloni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires. Furthermore, they enable measurements in harsh or hermetic environments, such as under extreme heat, cold, humidity or corrosive conditions. The use of batteries as a power supply for these devices represents one solution, but the size, and sometimes the cost and unwanted maintenance burdens of replacement are important drawbacks. In this paper passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for harsh or hermetical environments without batteries are discussed. Their general architectures are presented. Sensing strategies, communication techniques and power management are analyzed. Then, general building blocks of an autonomous sensor are presented and the design guidelines that such a system must follow are given. Furthermore, this paper reports different proposed applications of autonomous sensors applied in harsh or hermetic environments: two examples of passive autonomous sensors that use telemetric communication are proposed, the first one for humidity measurements and the second for high temperatures. Other examples of self-powered autonomous sensors that use a power harvesting system from electromagnetic fields are proposed for temperature measurements and for airflow speeds.

  5. Passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for remote measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardini, Emilio; Serpelloni, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires. Furthermore, they enable measurements in harsh or hermetic environments, such as under extreme heat, cold, humidity or corrosive conditions. The use of batteries as a power supply for these devices represents one solution, but the size, and sometimes the cost and unwanted maintenance burdens of replacement are important drawbacks. In this paper passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for harsh or hermetical environments without batteries are discussed. Their general architectures are presented. Sensing strategies, communication techniques and power management are analyzed. Then, general building blocks of an autonomous sensor are presented and the design guidelines that such a system must follow are given. Furthermore, this paper reports different proposed applications of autonomous sensors applied in harsh or hermetic environments: two examples of passive autonomous sensors that use telemetric communication are proposed, the first one for humidity measurements and the second for high temperatures. Other examples of self-powered autonomous sensors that use a power harvesting system from electromagnetic fields are proposed for temperature measurements and for airflow speeds.

  6. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Fahad, H.; Rojas, J.; Hasan, M.; Talukdar, A.; Oommen, J.; Mink, J.

    2010-04-01

    In today's world, consumer driven technology wants more portable electronic gadgets to be developed, and the next big thing in line is self-powered handheld devices. Therefore to reduce the power consumption as well as to supply sufficient power to run those devices, several critical technical challenges need to be overcome: a. Nanofabrication of macro/micro systems which incorporates the direct benefit of light weight (thus portability), low power consumption, faster response, higher sensitivity and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency to reduce power consumption and to supply enough power to meet that low power demand. We present a pragmatic perspective on a self-powered integrated System on Chip (SoC). We envision the integrated device will have two objectives: low power consumption/dissipation and on-chip power generation for implementation into handheld or remote technologies for defense, space, harsh environments and medical applications. This paper provides insight on materials choices, intelligent circuit design, and CMOS compatible integration.

  7. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  8. A Wireless Self-Powered Urinary Incontinence Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ami; Utsunomiya, Fumiyasu; Douseki, Takakuni

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor system consisting of a urine-activated coin battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The urine-activated battery makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit and a 1-V surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator reduce the power dissipation of a wireless transmitter. The SAW oscillator quickly responds to the on-off control of the power supply, which is suitable for intermittent operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, the authors fabricated a prototype sensor system. When the volume of urine is 0.2 ml, the battery outputs a voltage of over 1.3 V; and the sensor system can transmit signals over a distance of 5 m.

  9. Passive (self-powered) fiber-optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, S.A.; Falter, D.D.; Todd, R.A.; Simpson, M.L.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    ORNL is developing new group of fiber-optic sensors for characterizing physical aspects such as ambient temperature. These sensors exploit the inherent property of thermographic materials that the lifetime and/or intensity of the emitted fluorescence decreases with increasing temperature. Unlike current fluorescent temperature sensors that use a light source for excitation, these sensors are totally passive (self-powered) and use either an embedded or external radiation source. A proof-of-principle temperature sensor was developed, based on this concept, using a well-known thermographic material, magnesium fluorogermanate. Experimental results showed that the radiation-induced fluorescence resulted in an intensity change but no significant decay rate change with increasing temperature

  10. Multi-sensor radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.G.; Cyboron, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is a multi-sensor radiation detection system including a self-powered detector and an ion or fission chamber, preferably joined as a unitary structure, for removable insertion into a nuclear reactor. The detector and chamber are connected electrically in parallel, requiring but two conductors extending out of the reactor to external electrical circuitry which includes a load impedance, a voltage source, and switch means. The switch means are employed to alternately connect the detector and chamber either with th load impedance or with the load impedance and the voltage source. In the former orientation, current through the load impedance indicates flux intensity at the self-powered detector and in the latter orientation, the current indicates flux intensity at the detector and fission chamber, though almost all of the current is contributed by the fission chamber. (auth)

  11. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  12. Evaluation of in-core measurements with self-powered detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoden, E.

    1977-01-01

    A calculational method is presented for transformation of n-β currents into relative thermal neutron fluxes taking into account an epithermal correction. The difference between epithermal corrections with cross section ratios is demonstrated based on calculations with NR approximation and multiplied by the ratio of mean epithermal and thermal first collision probabilities as well as on calculations using the model of infinite dilution. The effects of this difference on axial power density distribution, relative power of the fuel assemblies, and the inhomogeneity coefficients are discussed in the light of a characteristic measurement with rhodium emitter in a WWER-type reactor. The effect of errors in the nuclear data on the mean error of relative thermal neutron flux is evaluated. (author)

  13. Performance testing of self-powered detector signal converters at Dukovany nuclear power plant - stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.; Hajek, P.; Zerola, L.; Karsulin, M.

    1990-11-01

    The converters were manufactured at the Institute of Nuclear Research, Rez. Dynamic functions of the converters were tested during the start-up of reactor unit 4, Dukovany nuclear power plant, and their stability during its normal operation. The results and evaluation of the measurements show a good performance of converters. They have a low offset, good stability and the values of current are in a good agreement with the values obtained using other methods. The values of insulation resistance are in a good agreement with the values obtained manually using the method of additional resistance. These converters are planned to be used in the upgraded in-service inspection system in WWER-440 nuclear power plants. (Z.S.) 9 tabs., 22 figs., 1 ref

  14. Convective flow reversal in self-powered enzyme micropumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivera, Isamar; Shum, Henry; Agrawal, Arjun; Sen, Ayusman; Balazs, Anna C

    2016-03-08

    Surface-bound enzymes can act as pumps that drive large-scale fluid flows in the presence of their substrates or promoters. Thus, enzymatic catalysis can be harnessed for “on demand” pumping in nano- and microfluidic devices powered by an intrinsic energy source. The mechanisms controlling the pumping have not, however, been completely elucidated. Herein, we combine theory and experiments to demonstrate a previously unreported spatiotemporal variation in pumping behavior in urease-based pumps and uncover the mechanisms behind these dynamics. We developed a theoretical model for the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical fluid flow in these systems, capturing buoyancy effects due to the solution containing nonuniform concentrations of substrate and product. We find that the qualitative features of the flow depend on the ratios of diffusivities δ=D(P)/D(S) and expansion coefficients β=β(P)/β(S) of the reaction substrate (S) and product (P). If δ>1 and δ>β (or if δself-powered fluidic devices.

  15. Energy harvesting for self-powered aerostructure actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Pizzonia, Matthew; Mehallow, Michael; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally investigates applying piezoelectric energy harvesting devices driven by flow induced vibrations to create self-powered actuation of aerostructure surfaces such as tabs, flaps, spoilers, or morphing devices. Recently, we have investigated flow-induced vibrations and limit cycle oscillations due to aeroelastic flutter phenomena in piezoelectric structures as a mechanism to harvest energy from an ambient fluid flow. We will describe how our experimental investigations in a wind tunnel have demonstrated that this harvested energy can be stored and used on-demand to actuate a control surface such as a trailing edge flap in the airflow. This actuated control surface could take the form of a separate and discrete actuated flap, or could constitute rotating or deflecting the oscillating energy harvester itself to produce a non-zero mean angle of attack. Such a rotation of the energy harvester and the associated change in aerodynamic force is shown to influence the operating wind speed range of the device, its limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude, and its harvested power output; hence creating a coupling between the device's performance as an energy harvester and as a control surface. Finally, the induced changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag acting on a wing model are quantified and compared for a control surface equipped with an oscillating energy harvester and a traditional, static control surface of the same geometry. The results show that when operated in small amplitude LCO the energy harvester adds negligible aerodynamic drag.

  16. A Self-Powered and Flexible Organometallic Halide Perovskite Photodetector with Very High Detectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Leung, Siu; Ho, Kang-Ting; Kung, Po-Kai; Hsiao, Vincent K. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Wang, Zhong Lin; He, Jr-Hau

    2018-01-01

    Flexible and self-powered photodetectors (PDs) are highly desirable for applications in image sensing, smart building, and optical communications. In this paper, a self-powered and flexible PD based on the methylammonium lead iodide (CH3 NH3 PBI3

  17. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  18. Towards Flexible Self-powered Micro-scale Integrated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-04-01

    nanotubes (CNT)-based anode and the second with a more sustainable design and easy to implement. Power production ranges from 392 to 100 mW/m3 depending on design. Additionally we have explored a flexible thermoelectric generator (0.139 μW/cm2) and a lithium-ion battery (~800 μAh/m2) for back-up energy generation and storage. Future work includes the implementation of a self-powered System-on-Package which gathers together energy generation, storage and consumption. Additionally we are working to demonstrate Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry on our flexible platform, as well as memory systems.

  19. Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses off the...

  20. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  1. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  2. A Self-Powered and Flexible Organometallic Halide Perovskite Photodetector with Very High Detectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Leung, Siu

    2018-01-10

    Flexible and self-powered photodetectors (PDs) are highly desirable for applications in image sensing, smart building, and optical communications. In this paper, a self-powered and flexible PD based on the methylammonium lead iodide (CH3 NH3 PBI3 ) perovskite is demonstrated. Such a self-powered PD can operate even with irregular motion such as human finger tapping, which enables it to work without a bulky external power source. In addition, with high-quality CH3 NH3 PBI3 perovskite thin film fabricated with solvent engineering, the PD exhibits an impressive detectivity of 1.22 × 1013 Jones. In the self-powered voltage detection mode, it achieves a large responsivity of up to 79.4 V mW-1 cm-2 and a voltage response of up to ≈90%. Moreover, as the PD is made of flexible and transparent polymer films, it can operate under bending and functions at 360 ° of illumination. As a result, the self-powered, flexible, 360 ° omnidirectional perovskite PD, featuring high detectivity and responsivity along with real-world sensing capability, suggests a new direction for next-generation optical communications, sensing, and imaging applications.

  3. A Self-Powered and Flexible Organometallic Halide Perovskite Photodetector with Very High Detectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Ho, Kang-Ting; Kung, Po-Kai; Hsiao, Vincent K S; Alshareef, Husam N; Wang, Zhong Lin; He, Jr-Hau

    2018-02-01

    Flexible and self-powered photodetectors (PDs) are highly desirable for applications in image sensing, smart building, and optical communications. In this paper, a self-powered and flexible PD based on the methylammonium lead iodide (CH 3 NH 3 PBI 3 ) perovskite is demonstrated. Such a self-powered PD can operate even with irregular motion such as human finger tapping, which enables it to work without a bulky external power source. In addition, with high-quality CH 3 NH 3 PBI 3 perovskite thin film fabricated with solvent engineering, the PD exhibits an impressive detectivity of 1.22 × 10 13 Jones. In the self-powered voltage detection mode, it achieves a large responsivity of up to 79.4 V mW -1 cm -2 and a voltage response of up to ≈90%. Moreover, as the PD is made of flexible and transparent polymer films, it can operate under bending and functions at 360 ° of illumination. As a result, the self-powered, flexible, 360 ° omnidirectional perovskite PD, featuring high detectivity and responsivity along with real-world sensing capability, suggests a new direction for next-generation optical communications, sensing, and imaging applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A novel self-powered wireless temperature sensor based on thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yongming; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Ye, Huihong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-powered temperature sensor, based on thermoelectric generator, is presented. • This novel sensor can operate without any batteries or other power sources. • This sensor combines signal sensing and power supplying together. • The measurement error is 0.5 K during the sensor operating period. • This sensor can detect temperature fluctuation situations such as fire disaster. - Abstract: A novel self-powered wireless temperature sensor has been designed and presented for solving the power supply problem of temperature sensors. This sensor can autonomously measure temperature under positive temperature fluctuation situations. The self-powered characteristic, realized by using four thermoelectric generators, enables the sensor to operate without any batteries or other power sources. In order to obtain these features, attentions are not only focused on the method to combine signal sensing and power generating together, but also on the method to improve measurement accuracy. Experimental results confirm that this novel sensor has excellent measurement accuracy. The measured performance is consistent with the calculated characteristics. For typical application, this self-powered temperature sensor can detect fire before it develops to flashover state. And the maximum detection distance grows with the growth of burning rate. All the results indicate this innovative sensor is a promising self-powered device which can be used to measure temperature value in positive temperature fluctuation situations

  5. Wearable and Implantable Mechanical Energy Harvesters for Self-Powered Biomedical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchet, Ronan; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2015-08-25

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Tang et al. investigate the ability of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to self-power a low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis by studying the efficiency of a bone remodeling laser treatment that is powered by a skin-patch-like TENG instead of a battery. We outline this field by highlighting the motivations for self-powered biomedical systems and by discussing recent progress in nanogenerators. We note the overlap between biomedical devices and TENGs and their dawning synergy, and we highlight key prospects for future developments. Biomedical systems should be more autonomous. This advance could improve their body integration and fields of action, leading to new medical diagnostics and treatments. However, future self-powered biomedical systems will need to be more flexible, biocompatible, and biodegradable. These advances hold the promise of enabling new smart autonomous biomedical systems and contributing significantly to the Internet of Things.

  6. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  7. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm2, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  8. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  9. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  10. Advanced Nanofabrication Process Development for Self-Powered System-on-Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2010-01-01

    In summary, by using a novel sustainable energy component and scalable nano-patterning for logic and computing module, this work has successfully collected the essential base knowledge and joined two different elements that synergistically will contribute for the future implementation of a Self-Powered System-on-Chip.

  11. A novel high-performance self-powered ultraviolet photodetector: Concept, analytical modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new MSM-UV-photodetector (PD) based on dual wide band-gap material (DM) engineering aspect is proposed to achieve high-performance self-powered device. Comprehensive analytical models for the proposed sensor photocurrent and the device properties are developed incorporating the impact of DM aspect on the device photoelectrical behavior. The obtained results are validated with the numerical data using commercial TCAD software. Our investigation demonstrates that the adopted design amendment modulates the electric field in the device, which provides the possibility to drive appropriate photo-generated carriers without an external applied voltage. This phenomenon suggests achieving the dual role of effective carriers' separation and an efficient reduce of the dark current. Moreover, a new hybrid approach based on analytical modeling and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to achieve improved photoelectric behavior at zero bias that can ensure favorable self-powered MSM-based UV-PD. It is found that the proposed design methodology has succeeded in identifying the optimized design that offers a self-powered device with high-responsivity (98 mA/W) and superior ION/IOFF ratio (480 dB). These results make the optimized MSM-UV-DM-PD suitable for providing low cost self-powered devices for high-performance optical communication and monitoring applications.

  12. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  13. Solar driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cells for simultaneous energy conversion, storage and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Zhang, Lina; Cui, Kang; Xu, Caixia; Li, Hao; Liu, Hong; Yu, Jinghua

    2018-02-15

    One solar-driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cell (PFC) with highly efficient energy conversion and storage is easily constructed to achieve quantitative self-powered sensing. Layered bismuth oxyiodide-zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO@BiOI NRA) with a core/shell p-n heterostructure are fabricated as the photoanode with electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) as the cathode. The core/shell p-n heterostructure for the ZnO@BiOI photoanode can effectively boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance through the improvement of photon absorption and charge carrier separation. The optimal assembled PFC yields an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.48 V with the maximum power output density (P max ) as high as 155 μW cm -2 upon illumination. Benefitting from the interactive color-changing behavior of PB, the cathode not only exhibits cathodic catalytic activity in the PFC but also serves as an electrochromic display for self-powered sensing. The as-constructed PFC possesses multiple readable signal output nanochannels through the maximum power output density (P max ) of the PFC or the color change of PB. Meanwhile, the dual-signal-output makes the as-constructed self-powered sensor highly available in various operations demands with the enhanced reliability. With the advantages of high efficiency of PFCs, unique assay ability, and broad environmental suitability, the constructed self-powered platform shows broad application prospects as an integrated smart analytical device.

  14. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm 2 , which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics

  15. Recent Progress of Self-Powered Sensing Systems for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zheng; Li, La; Wang, Lili; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-12-01

    Wearable/flexible electronic sensing systems are considered to be one of the key technologies in the next generation of smart personal electronics. To realize personal portable devices with mobile electronics application, i.e., wearable electronic sensors that can work sustainably and continuously without an external power supply are highly desired. The recent progress and advantages of wearable self-powered electronic sensing systems for mobile or personal attachable health monitoring applications are presented. An overview of various types of wearable electronic sensors, including flexible tactile sensors, wearable image sensor array, biological and chemical sensor, temperature sensors, and multifunctional integrated sensing systems is provided. Self-powered sensing systems with integrated energy units are then discussed, separated as energy harvesting self-powered sensing systems, energy storage integrated sensing systems, and all-in-on integrated sensing systems. Finally, the future perspectives of self-powered sensing systems for wearable electronics are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Flexible Sensor for Human Sleep Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoheng Ding

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG and its application as a sensor is a popular research subject. There is demand for self-powered, flexible sensors with high sensitivity and high power-output for the next generation of consumer electronics. In this study, a 300 mm × 300 mm carbon nanotube (CNT-doped porous PDMS film was successfully fabricated wherein the CNT influenced the micropore structure. A self-powered TENG tactile sensor was established according to triboelectric theory. The CNT-doped porous TENG showed a voltage output seven times higher than undoped porous TENG and 16 times higher than TENG with pure PDMS, respectively. The TENG successfully acquired human motion signals, breath signals, and heartbeat signals during a sleep monitoring experiment. The results presented here may provide an effective approach for fabricating large-scale and low-cost flexible TENG sensors.

  17. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao

    2017-09-26

    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  18. In Vivo Self-Powered Wireless Cardiac Monitoring via Implantable Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Bojing; Xue, Xiang; Liu, Zhuo; Jin, Yiming; Ma, Ye; Zou, Yang; Wang, Xinxin; An, Zhao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lang, Xilong; Xu, Zhiyun; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo is an important route in obtaining sustainable electric energy for powering implantable medical devices. Here, we demonstrate an innovative implantable triboelectric nanogenerator (iTENG) for in vivo biomechanical energy harvesting. Driven by the heartbeat of adult swine, the output voltage and the corresponding current were improved by factors of 3.5 and 25, respectively, compared with the reported in vivo output performance of biomechanical energy conversion devices. In addition, the in vivo evaluation of the iTENG was demonstrated for over 72 h of implantation, during which the iTENG generated electricity continuously in the active animal. Due to its excellent in vivo performance, a self-powered wireless transmission system was fabricated for real-time wireless cardiac monitoring. Given its outstanding in vivo output and stability, iTENG can be applied not only to power implantable medical devices but also possibly to fabricate a self-powered, wireless healthcare monitoring system.

  19. Compact self-powered synchronous energy extraction circuit design with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Zhao, Caiyou; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Zhu, Qiao; Hu, Guangdi

    2018-04-01

    Synchronous switching circuit is viewed as an effective solution of enhancing the generator’s performance and providing better adaptability for load variations. A critical issue for these synchronous switching circuits is the self-powered realization. In contrast with other methods, the electronic breaker possesses the advantage of simplicity and reliability. However, beside the energy consumption of the electronic breakers, the parasitic capacitance decreases the available piezoelectric voltage. In this technical note, a new compact design of the self-powered switching circuit using electronic breaker is proposed. The envelope diodes are excluded and only a single envelope capacitor is used. The parasitic capacitance is reduced to half with boosted performance while the components are reduced with cost saved.

  20. Reviving Vibration Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Sensing by a Triboelectric Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun

    2017-10-10

    Vibration energy harvesting and sensing is a traditional and growing research field in which various working mechanisms and designs have been developed for an improved performance. Relying on a coupling effect of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, in the past 5 years, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been applied as a fundamentally new technology to revive the field of vibration energy harvesting and self-powered sensing, especially for low-frequency vibrations such as human motion, automobile, machine, and bridge vibrations. The demonstrated instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼70% and a total efficiency up to 85% distinguished TENG from traditional techniques. In this article, both TENG-enabled vibration energy harvesting and self-powered active sensing are comprehensively reviewed. Moving toward future development, problems pressing for solutions and onward research directions are also posed to deliver a coherent picture.

  1. An Active Capacitor with Self-Power and Internal Feedback Control Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of two-terminal active capacitor implemented by power semiconductor switches and passive elements. The active capacitor has the same level of convenience as a passive one with two power terminals only. A control strategy that does not require any external feedback...... signal is proposed and a self-power scheme for gate drivers and the controller is applied to achieve the two-terminal active capacitor. The concept, control method, self-power scheme, efficiency, and impedance characteristics of the active capacitor are presented. A case study of the proposed active...... capacitor for a capacitive DC-link application is discussed. The results reveal a significantly lower overall energy storage of passive elements and a reduced cost to fulfill a specific reliability target, compared to a passive capacitor solution. Proof-of-concept experimental results are given to verify...

  2. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Powered Implantable and Wearable Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez-Solino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in nanotechnology and microengineering, point-of-care and personalised healthcare, based on wearable and implantable diagnostics, is becoming a reality. Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs hold great potential as a sustainable means to power such devices by using physiological fluids as the fuel. This review summarises the fundamental operation of EFCs and discusses the most recent advances for their use as implantable and wearable self-powered sensors.

  3. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Powered Implantable and Wearable Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Solino, Carla; Lorenzo, Mirella Di

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid progress in nanotechnology and microengineering, point-of-care and personalised healthcare, based on wearable and implantable diagnostics, is becoming a reality. Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) hold great potential as a sustainable means to power such devices by using physiological fluids as the fuel. This review summarises the fundamental operation of EFCs and discusses the most recent advances for their use as implantable and wearable self-powered sensors. PMID:29382147

  4. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Powered Implantable and Wearable Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Solino, Carla; Lorenzo, Mirella Di

    2018-01-29

    With the rapid progress in nanotechnology and microengineering, point-of-care and personalised healthcare, based on wearable and implantable diagnostics, is becoming a reality. Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) hold great potential as a sustainable means to power such devices by using physiological fluids as the fuel. This review summarises the fundamental operation of EFCs and discusses the most recent advances for their use as implantable and wearable self-powered sensors.

  5. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Powered Implantable and Wearable Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Gonzalez-Solino; Mirella Di Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid progress in nanotechnology and microengineering, point-of-care and personalised healthcare, based on wearable and implantable diagnostics, is becoming a reality. Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) hold great potential as a sustainable means to power such devices by using physiological fluids as the fuel. This review summarises the fundamental operation of EFCs and discusses the most recent advances for their use as implantable and wearable self-powered sensors.

  6. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  7. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  8. Novel design of a self powered and self sensing magneto-rheological damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdaus, Mohammad Meftahul; Rashid, M M; Bhuiyan, M M I; Muthalif, Asan Gani Bin Abdul; Hasan, M R

    2013-01-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers are semi-active control devices and use MR fluids. Magneto-rheological dampers have successful applications in mechatronics engineering, civil engineering and numerous areas of engineering. At present, traditional MR damper systems, require a isolated power supply and dynamic sensor. This paper presents the achievability and accuracy of a self- powered and self-sensing magneto-rheological damper using harvested energy from the vibration and shock environment in which it is deployed and another important part of this paper is the increased yield stress of the Magneto rheological Fluids. Magneto rheological fluids using replacement of glass beads for Magnetic Particles to surge yield stress is implemented here. Clearly this shows better result on yield stress, viscosity, and settling rate. Also permanent magnet generator (PMG) is designed and attached to a MR damper. For evaluating the self-powered MR damper's vibration mitigating capacity, an Engine Mount System using the MR damper is simulated. The ideal stiffness of the PMG for the Engine Mount System (EMS) is calculated by numerical study. The vibration mitigating performance of the EMS employing the self-powered and self sensing MR damper is theoretically calculated and evaluated in the frequency domain

  9. Novel design of a self powered and self sensing magneto-rheological damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftahul Ferdaus, Mohammad; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Muthalif, Asan Gani Bin Abdul; Hasan, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers are semi-active control devices and use MR fluids. Magneto-rheological dampers have successful applications in mechatronics engineering, civil engineering and numerous areas of engineering. At present, traditional MR damper systems, require a isolated power supply and dynamic sensor. This paper presents the achievability and accuracy of a self- powered and self-sensing magneto-rheological damper using harvested energy from the vibration and shock environment in which it is deployed and another important part of this paper is the increased yield stress of the Magneto rheological Fluids. Magneto rheological fluids using replacement of glass beads for Magnetic Particles to surge yield stress is implemented here. Clearly this shows better result on yield stress, viscosity, and settling rate. Also permanent magnet generator (PMG) is designed and attached to a MR damper. For evaluating the self-powered MR damper's vibration mitigating capacity, an Engine Mount System using the MR damper is simulated. The ideal stiffness of the PMG for the Engine Mount System (EMS) is calculated by numerical study. The vibration mitigating performance of the EMS employing the self-powered & self sensing MR damper is theoretically calculated and evaluated in the frequency domain.

  10. A novel integrated self-powered brake system for more electric aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoxing SHANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional hydraulic brake systems require a complex system of pipelines between an aircraft engine driven pump (EDP and brake actuators, which increases the weight of the aircraft and may even cause serious vibration and leakage problems. In order to improve the reliability and safety of more electric aircraft (MEA, this paper proposes a new integrated self-powered brake system (ISBS for MEA. It uses a hydraulic pump geared to the main wheel to recover a small part of the kinetic energy of a landing aircraft. The recovered energy then serves as the hydraulic power supply for brake actuators. It does not require additional hydraulic source, thus removing the pipelines between an EDP and brake actuators. In addition, its self-powered characteristic makes it possible to brake as usual even in an emergency situation when the airborne power is lost. This paper introduces the working principle of the ISBS and presents a prototype. The mathematical models of a taxiing aircraft and the ISBS are established. A feedback linearization control algorithm is designed to fulfill the anti-skid control. Simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the ISBS, and experiments are conducted on a ground inertia brake test bench. The ISBS presents a good performance and provides a new potential solution in the field of brake systems for MEA. Keywords: Hydraulic, Feedback linearization control, More electric aircraft, Novel brake system, Self-powered

  11. Design innovations in neutron and gamma detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and gamma radiation needs to be monitored in most nuclear installations since it is highly penetrating. On-line monitoring of these radiations is very important for the safe and controlled operation of nuclear reactors, accelerators etc. Several design innovations have been carried out on gas ionisation detectors such as boron-lined proportional counters and ion chambers, fission detectors, gamma ion chambers as well as self-powered detectors. The use of additional structures within boron-lined detectors has enhanced their neutron sensitivity without a corresponding increase in the unwanted gamma sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity of fission counters can be enhanced by designing them as transmission line devices. Ion chambers with two and six pairs of electrodes have been developed for monitoring pulsed x-ray background at accelerator areas. Ion chambers have been employed at gamma fields up to 80 kR/h by deriving the exposure levels on-line using microcontroller devices programmed on the basis of theoretical and empirical formulas. The use of gas electron multiplier foils is proposed for charge multiplication in ion chambers. Self-powered detectors with new emitter materials like Hi, Ni and Inconel have been developed. (author)

  12. Design and fabrication of self-powered micro-harvesters rotating and vibrated micro-power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, C T; Lin, Liwei; Chen, Ying-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Presents the latest methods for designing and fabricating self-powered micro-generators and energy harvester systems Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters introduces the latest trends of self-powered generators and energy harvester systems, including the design, analysis and fabrication of micro power systems. Presented in four distinct parts, the authors explore the design and fabrication of: vibration-induced electromagnetic micro-generators; rotary electromagnetic micro-generators; flexible piezo-micro-generator with various widths; and PVDF electrospunpiezo-energy with

  13. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  14. The basic concepts of a fuel-power detector for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel power is proposed as an alternative to neutron or gamma-ray flux for control and safety functions in CANDU power reactors. To satisfy in-core power monitoring requirements, a detector whose dynamic response corresponds to the heat production rate in the fuel is needed. This report explores the concept of tailoring the response characteristics of a mixed-response self-powered flux detector to match the requirements of an ideal fuel-power detector. (author)

  15. A platinum in-core flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The performance is described of a platinum emitter self-powered detector having the following parameters: emitter diameter 0.51 mm, Inconel 600 collector of 1.5 mm outer diameter and 0.25 mm wall thickness, compacted powder MgO insulant, thermal neutron flux 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 and gamma radiation dose rate 1.2 x 10 8 rad.h -1 . The advantage of the detector is its sensitivity to both neutrons and gamma radiation. A comparison is made with other types of detectors using Ce, Ta, Os, Rh, V, Co, Zr as emitters, especially in relation to the emitter response time to neutrons or gammas, the output signal amplitude, sensitivity, and the emitter half-life. Extensive tests of the detectors proceeded for two years on the NRU and CANDU-BLW reactors in Gentilly, Canada. (J.B.)

  16. Research on Mechanical Shim Application with Compensated Prompt γ Current of Vanadium Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β...

  17. A method for prompt calculation of neutron flux from measured SPND [self-powered neutron detectors] currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulacsy, K.; Lux, I.

    1997-01-01

    A new, approximate method is given to calculate the in-core flux from the current of SPNDs, with a delay of only a few seconds. The stability of this stepwise algorithm is proven to be satisfactory, and the results of tests performed both on synthetic and on real data are presented. The reconstructed flux is found to follow both steady state and transient fluxes well. (author)

  18. Composite space charge density functions for the calculation of gamma sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors, using Warren's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, A. K.; Rao, P. S.; Misra, S. C.

    1994-07-01

    In the calculational model developed by Warren and Shah for the computation of the gamma sensitivity ( Sγ) it has been observed that the computed Sγ value is quite sensitive to the space charge distribution function assumed for the insulator region and the energy of the gamma photons. The Sγ of SPNDs with Pt, Co and V emitters (manufactured by Thermocoax, France) has been measured at 60Co photon energy and a good correlation between the measured and computed values has been obtained using a composite space charge density function (CSCD), the details of which are presented in this paper. The arguments are extended for evaluating the Sγ values of several SPNDs for which Warren and Shah reported the measured values for a prompt fission gamma spectrum obtained in a swimming pool reactor. These results are also discussed.

  19. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  20. Self-powered information measuring wireless networks using the distribution of tasks within multicore processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravska, Iryna M.; Koretska, Oleksandra O.; Musiyenko, Maksym P.; Surtel, Wojciech; Assembay, Azat; Kovalev, Vladimir; Tleshova, Akmaral

    2017-08-01

    The article contains basic approaches to develop the self-powered information measuring wireless networks (SPIM-WN) using the distribution of tasks within multicore processors critical applying based on the interaction of movable components - as in the direction of data transmission as wireless transfer of energy coming from polymetric sensors. Base mathematic model of scheduling tasks within multiprocessor systems was modernized to schedule and allocate tasks between cores of one-crystal computer (SoC) to increase energy efficiency SPIM-WN objects.

  1. Paper-based origami triboelectric nanogenerators and self-powered pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Pokang

    2015-01-27

    Discovering renewable and sustainable power sources is indispensable for the development of green electronics and sensor networks. In this paper, we present origami triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) using paper as the starting material, with a high degree of flexibility, light weight, low cost, and recyclability. Slinky- and doodlebug-shaped TENGs can be easily fabricated by properly folding printer papers. The as-fabricated TENGs are capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy from various kinds of human motions, such as stretching, lifting, and twisting. The generated electric outputs have been used to directly light-up commercial LEDs. In addition, the as-fabricated TENGs can also serve as self-powered pressure sensors.

  2. Self-powered remotely controlled machines and tools for safety improvement in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaeva, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of meeting the safety requirements of mining industry for implementation of control and monitoring equipment without external wiring. Local power generation and accumulation combined with remote control and wireless data transmission are suggested as an appropriate way to make the implementation of such device safe and convenient, which in its turn would facilitate their wider application for automation and safety improvement. A rope shovel dipper trip system is discussed in detail as an example of a self-powered remotely-controlled system. Other possible applications of the concept are also identified, such as Armoured Face Conveyor (AFC) and water jet drilling operation monitoring. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m...... improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens...

  4. Effect of uncompensated SPN detector cables on neutron noise signals measured in VVER-440 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, S. E-mail: kisss@sunserv.kfki.hu; Lipcsei, S. E-mail: lipcsei@sunserv.kfki.hu; Hazi, G. E-mail: gah@sunserv.kfki.hu

    2003-03-01

    The Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) noise measurements of an operating VVER-440 nuclear reactor are described and characterised. Signal characteristics may be radically influenced by the geometrical properties of the detector and the cable, and by the measuring arrangement. Simulator is used as a means of studying the structure of those phase spectra that show propagating perturbations measured on uncompensated SPN detectors. The paper presents measurements with detectors of very different sizes (i.e. 20 cm length SPNDs and the 200 cm length compensation cables), where the ratios of the global and local component differ significantly for the different detector sizes. This phenomenon is used up for signal compensation.

  5. A novel self-powered MR damper: theoretical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinchun, Guan; Hui, Li; Jinping, Ou; Yonghu, Huang; Yi, Ru

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel magnetorheological (MR) damper with a self-powered capability, which is proposed to have energy harvesting and MR damping technologies integrated into a single device. Vibration energy harvesting mechanisms were adopted, based on ball-screw mechanisms and a rotary permanent magnet dc generator, to convert the external vibration energy into electrical energy to power the MR damping unit. The configuration and operating principles of the proposed self-powered MR damper were presented. Considering the core loss effect on the magnetic field, a theoretical analysis of the proposed MR damper was carried out and a mechanical model was developed. Finally, a prototype with a capacity of 10 kN was fabricated and experimentally investigated in both the direct-supply mode and the supply-with-rectifier mode. The results indicated that the proposed configuration is feasible and that both modes can realize good self-adaptability of the MR damping force. However, the direct-supply mode has a sag effect in the force–displacement curve and provides a lower energy-dissipating capacity than the direct-supply mode does under the same conditions. (paper)

  6. Air-Flow-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Real-Time Respiratory Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jiahao; Tang, Yingjie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Baosen; Liang, Erjun; Mao, Yanchao; Wang, Xudong

    2018-06-04

    Respiration is one of the most important vital signs of humans, and respiratory monitoring plays an important role in physical health management. A low-cost and convenient real-time respiratory monitoring system is extremely desirable. In this work, we demonstrated an air-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring by converting mechanical energy of human respiration into electric output signals. The operation of the TENG was based on the air-flow-driven vibration of a flexible nanostructured polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PTFE) thin film in an acrylic tube. This TENG can generate distinct real-time electric signals when exposed to the air flow from different breath behaviors. It was also found that the accumulative charge transferred in breath sensing corresponds well to the total volume of air exchanged during the respiration process. Based on this TENG device, an intelligent wireless respiratory monitoring and alert system was further developed, which used the TENG signal to directly trigger a wireless alarm or dial a cell phone to provide timely alerts in response to breath behavior changes. This research offers a promising solution for developing self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring devices.

  7. Personalized keystroke dynamics for self-powered human--machine interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Jin; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Weiqing; Qi, Xuewei; Su, Yuanjie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-27

    The computer keyboard is one of the most common, reliable, accessible, and effective tools used for human--machine interfacing and information exchange. Although keyboards have been used for hundreds of years for advancing human civilization, studying human behavior by keystroke dynamics using smart keyboards remains a great challenge. Here we report a self-powered, non-mechanical-punching keyboard enabled by contact electrification between human fingers and keys, which converts mechanical stimuli applied to the keyboard into local electronic signals without applying an external power. The intelligent keyboard (IKB) can not only sensitively trigger a wireless alarm system once gentle finger tapping occurs but also trace and record typed content by detecting both the dynamic time intervals between and during the inputting of letters and the force used for each typing action. Such features hold promise for its use as a smart security system that can realize detection, alert, recording, and identification. Moreover, the IKB is able to identify personal characteristics from different individuals, assisted by the behavioral biometric of keystroke dynamics. Furthermore, the IKB can effectively harness typing motions for electricity to charge commercial electronics at arbitrary typing speeds greater than 100 characters per min. Given the above features, the IKB can be potentially applied not only to self-powered electronics but also to artificial intelligence, cyber security, and computer or network access control.

  8. Waterproof and stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator for biomechanical energy harvesting and self-powered sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexian; Miao, Liming; Guo, Hang; Chen, Haotian; Song, Yu; Su, Zongming; Zhang, Haixia

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a waterproof and stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can be attached on the human body, such as fingers and the wrist, to harvest mechanical energy from body movement. The whole device is composed of stretchable material, making it able to endure diverse mechanical deformations and scavenge energy from them. Under gentle mechanical motions of pressing, stretching and bending, the device with an effective area of 1 × 2 cm2 can generate the peak-to-peak output current of 257.5 nA, 50.2 nA, and 33.5 nA, respectively. Besides, the TENG is tightly encapsulated, enabling it to avoid the influence of the external environment like humidity changes and harvest energy under water. Particularly, owing to the thin and soft properties of the encapsulation film, the device can respond to weak vibrations like the wrist pulse and act as a self-powered pulse sensor, which broadens its application prospects in the field of wearable energy harvesting devices and self-powered sensing systems.

  9. Thermally Driven Transport and Relaxation Switching Self-Powered Electromagnetic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maosheng; Wang, Xixi; Cao, Wenqiang; Fang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Bo; Yuan, Jie

    2018-06-07

    Electromagnetic energy radiation is becoming a "health-killer" of living bodies, especially around industrial transformer substation and electricity pylon. Harvesting, converting, and storing waste energy for recycling are considered the ideal ways to control electromagnetic radiation. However, heat-generation and temperature-rising with performance degradation remain big problems. Herein, graphene-silica xerogel is dissected hierarchically from functions to "genes," thermally driven relaxation and charge transport, experimentally and theoretically, demonstrating a competitive synergy on energy conversion. A generic approach of "material genes sequencing" is proposed, tactfully transforming the negative effects of heat energy to superiority for switching self-powered and self-circulated electromagnetic devices, beneficial for waste energy harvesting, conversion, and storage. Graphene networks with "well-sequencing genes" (w = P c /P p > 0.2) can serve as nanogenerators, thermally promoting electromagnetic wave absorption by 250%, with broadened bandwidth covering the whole investigated frequency. This finding of nonionic energy conversion opens up an unexpected horizon for converting, storing, and reusing waste electromagnetic energy, providing the most promising way for governing electromagnetic pollution with self-powered and self-circulated electromagnetic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Self-powered and broadband photodetectors based on graphene/ZnO/silicon triple junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ching-Cheng; Liao, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yang-Fang, E-mail: yfchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhan, Jun-Yu; Lin, Tai-Yuan [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ya-Ping [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    A self-powered photodetector with ultrahigh sensitivity, fast photoresponse, and wide spectral detectivity covering from 1000 nm to 400 nm based on graphene/ZnO/Si triple junctions has been designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. In this device, graphene serves as a transparent electrode as well as an efficient collection layer for photogenerated carriers due to its excellent tunability of Fermi energy. The ZnO layer acts as an antireflection layer to trap the incident light and enhance the light absorption. Furthermore, the insertion of the ZnO layer in between graphene and Si layers can create build-in electric field at both graphene/ZnO and ZnO/Si interfaces, which can greatly enhance the charge separation of photogenerated electron and hole pairs. As a result, the sensitivity and response time can be significantly improved. It is believed that our methodology for achieving a high-performance self-powered photodetector based on an appropriate design of band alignment and optical parameters can be implemented to many other material systems, which can be used to generate unique optoelectronic devices for practical applications.

  11. Nanostructured Bulk Thermoelectric Generator for Efficient Power Harvesting for Self-powered Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanliang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Butt, Darryl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology research project is to develop high-efficiency and reliable thermoelectric generators for self-powered wireless sensors nodes utilizing thermal energy from nuclear plant or fuel cycle. The power harvesting technology has crosscutting significance to address critical technology gaps in monitoring nuclear plants and fuel cycle. The outcomes of the project will lead to significant advancement in sensors and instrumentation technology, reducing cost, improving monitoring reliability and therefore enhancing safety. The self-powered wireless sensor networks could support the long-term safe and economical operation of all the reactor designs and fuel cycle concepts, as well as spent fuel storage and many other nuclear science and engineering applications. The research is based on recent breakthroughs in high-performance nanostructured bulk (nanobulk) thermoelectric materials that enable high-efficiency direct heat-to-electricity conversion over a wide temperature range. The nanobulk thermoelectric materials that the research team at Boise State University and University of Houston has developed yield up to a 50% increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, compared with state-of-the-art bulk counterparts. This report focuses on the selection of optimal thermoelectric materials for this project. The team has performed extensive study on two thermoelectric materials systems, i.e. the half-Heusler materials, and the Bismuth-Telluride materials. The report contains our recent research results on the fabrication, characterization and thermoelectric property measurements of these two materials.

  12. Self-Powered Wearable Electronics Based on Moisture Enabled Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Daozhi; Xiao, Ming; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Y Norman

    2018-03-24

    Most state-of-the-art electronic wearable sensors are powered by batteries that require regular charging and eventual replacement, which would cause environmental issues and complex management problems. Here, a device concept is reported that can break this paradigm in ambient moisture monitoring-a new class of simple sensors themselves can generate moisture-dependent voltage that can be used to determine the ambient humidity level directly. It is demonstrated that a moisture-driven electrical generator, based on the diffusive flow of water in titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanowire networks, can yield an output power density of up to 4 µW cm -2 when exposed to a highly moist environment. This performance is two orders of magnitude better than that reported for carbon-black generators. The output voltage is strongly dependent on humidity of ambient environment. As a big breakthrough, this new type of device is successfully used as self-powered wearable human-breathing monitors and touch pads, which is not achievable by any existing moisture-induced-electricity technology. The availability of high-output self-powered electrical generators will facilitate the design and application of a wide range of new innovative flexible electronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New flux detectors for CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.; Medak, N.

    1992-06-01

    CANDU reactors utilize large numbers of in-core self-powered detectors for control and protection. In the original design, the detectors (coaxial cables) were wound on carrier tubes and immersed in the heavy water moderator. Failures occurred due to corrosion and other factors, and replacement was very costly because the assemblies were not designed with maintenance in mind. A new design was conceived based on straight detectors, of larger diameter, in a sealed package of individual 'well' tubes. This protected the detectors from hostile environments and enabled individual failed sensors to be replaced by inserting spares in vacant neighbouring tubes. The new design was made retrofittable to older CANDU reactors. Provision was made for on-line scanning of the core with a miniature fission chamber. The modified detectors were tested in a lengthy development program and found to exhibit superior performance to that of the original detectors. Most of the CANDU reactors have now adopted the new design. In the case of the Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau reactors, advantage was taken of the opportunity to redesign the detector layout (using better codes and the increased flexibility in positioning detectors) to achieve better coverage of abnormal events, leading to higher trip setpoints and wider operating margins

  14. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  15. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  16. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  17. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  18. Experimental evaluation of a self-powered smart damping system in reducing vibrations of a full-scale stay cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of a self-powered smart damping system consisting of a magnetorheological (MR) damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) device in reducing cable vibrations. The proposed smart damping system incorporates an EMI device, which is capable of converting vibration energy into useful electrical energy. Thus, the incorporated EMI device can be used as an alternative power source for the MR damper, making it a self-powering system. The primary goal of this experimental study is to evaluate the performance of the proposed smart damping system using a full-scale, 44.7 m long, high-tension cable. To this end, an EMI part and an MR damper were designed and manufactured. Using a cable test setup in a laboratory setting, a series of tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the self-powered smart damping system in reducing free vibration responses of the cable. The performances of the proposed smart damping system are compared with those of an equivalent passive system. Moreover, the damping characteristics of the smart damping system and the passive system are compared. The experimental results show that the self-powered smart damping system outperforms the passive control cases in reducing the vibrations of the cable. The results also show that the EMI can operate the smart damping system as a sole power source, demonstrating the feasibility of the self-powering capability of the system

  19. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    Design and technical advancements in sensing, processing, and wireless communication capabilities of small, portable devices known as wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) have drawn extensive research attention and are vastly applied in science and engineering applications. The WSNs are typically powered by a chemical battery source that has a load dependent finite lifetime. Most applications, including the nuclear industry applications, require WSNs to operate for an extended period of time beginning with their deployment. To ensure longevity, it is important to develop self-powered WSNs. The benefit of self-powered WSNs goes far beyond the cost savings of removing the need for cable installation and maintenance. Self-powered WSNs will potentially offer significant expansion in remote monitoring of nuclear facilities, and provide important data on plant equipment and component status during normal operation, as well as in case of abnormal operation, station blackouts or post-accident evaluation. Advancements in power harvesting technologies enable electric energy generation from many sources, including kinetic, thermal, and radiated energy. For the ongoing research at Idaho National Laboratory, a solid-state thermoelectric-based technology, the thermoelectric generator (TEG), is used to convert thermal energy to power a WSN. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other

  20. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  1. Design and fabrication of self-powered in-core neutron flux monitor assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.K.; Cho, S.W.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, K.K.; Cho, B.S.; Kang, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the prototypical fabrication of an in-core neutron flux monitor detector assembly for a specific power reactor conducted by KAERI from July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1979. It is well known that power reactors require a large number of in-core neutron flux detector for reactor regulation and the structures of detector assemblies are different from reactor to reactor. Therefore, from the nature of this project, it should be noted here that the target model of the prototypical farbrication of an in-core neutron flux monitor detector assembly is a VFD-2 System for Wolsung CANDU. It is concluded that fabrication of in-core neutron flux monitor detector assembly for CANDU reactor is technically feasible and will bring economical benefit as much as 50 % of the unit price if they are fabricated in Korea by using partially materials which are available from local market. (author)

  2. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Network for Automated Corrosion Prediction of Steel Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the key issues that affect the service life and hinders wide application of steel reinforcement. Moreover, corrosion is a long-term process and not visible for embedded reinforcement. Thus, this research aims at developing a self-powered smart sensor system with integrated innovative prediction module for forecasting corrosion process of embedded steel reinforcement. Vibration-based energy harvester is used to harvest energy for continuous corrosion data collection. Spatial interpolation module was developed to interpolate corrosion data at unmonitored locations. Dynamic prediction module is used to predict the long-term corrosion based on collected data. Utilizing this new sensor network, the corrosion process can be automated predicted and appropriate mitigation actions will be recommended accordingly.

  3. Power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jung; Yu, Chong-Gun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, two types of power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting are proposed. First, if a solar cell outputs a very low voltage, less than 0.5 V, as in miniature solar cells or monolithic integrated solar cells, such that it cannot directly power the load, a voltage booster is employed to step up the solar cell's output voltage, and then a power management unit (PMU) delivers the boosted voltage to the load. Second, if the output voltage of a solar cell is enough to drive the load, the PMU directly supplies the load with solar energy. The proposed power management systems are designed and fabricated in a 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, and their performances are compared and analysed through measurements.

  4. Biofuel cell based self-powered sensing platform for L-cysteine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuantao; Fan, Shuqin; Lang, Qiaolin; Liu, Aihua

    2015-03-17

    L-cysteine (L-Cys) detection is of great importance because of its crucial roles in physiological and clinical diagnoses. In this study, a glucose/O2 biofuel cell (BFC) was assembled by using flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH)-based bioanode and laccase-based biocathode. Interestingly, the open circuit potential (OCP) of the BFC could be inhibited by Cu(2+) and subsequently activated by L-Cys, by which a BFC-based self-powered sensing platform for the detection of L-Cys was proposed. The FAD-GDH activity can be inhibited by Cu(2+) and, in turn, subsequent reversible activation by L-Cys because of the binding preference of L-Cys toward Cu(2+) by forming the Cu-S bond. The preferential interaction between L-Cys and Cu(2+) facilitated Cu(2+) to remove from the surface of the bioanode, and thus, the OCP of the system could be turned on. Under optimized conditions, the OCP of the BFC was systematically increased upon the addition of the L-Cys. The OCP increment (ΔOCP) was linear with the concentration of L-Cys within 20 nM to 3 μM. The proposed sensor exhibited lower detection limit of 10 nM L-Cys (S/N = 3), which is significantly lower than those values for other methods reported so far. Other amino acids and glutathione did not affect L-Cys detection. Therefore, this developed approach is sensitive, facile, cost-effective, and environmental-friendly, and could be very promising for the reliable clinically detecting of L-Cys. This work would trigger the interest of developing BFCs based self-powered sensors for practical applications.

  5. Advanced Nanofabrication Process Development for Self-Powered System-on-Chip

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2010-11-01

    In this work the development of a Self-Powered System-On-Chip is explored by examining two components of process development in different perspectives. On one side, an energy component is approached from a biochemical standpoint where a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is built with standard microfabrication techniques, displaying a novel electrode based on Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). The fabrication process involves the formation of a micrometric chamber that hosts an enhanced CNT-based anode. Preliminary results are promising, showing a high current density (113.6mA/m2) compared with other similar cells. Nevertheless many improvements can be done to the main design and further characterization of the anode will give a more complete understanding and bring the device closer to a practical implementation. On a second point of view, nano-patterning through silicon nitride spacer width control is developed, aimed at producing alternative sub-100nm device fabrication with the potential of further scaling thanks to nanowire based structures. These nanostructures are formed from a nano-pattern template, by using a bottom-up fabrication scheme. Uniformity and scalability of the process are demonstrated and its potential described. An estimated area of 0.120μm2 for a 6T-SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) bitcell (6 devices) can be achieved. In summary, by using a novel sustainable energy component and scalable nano-patterning for logic and computing module, this work has successfully collected the essential base knowledge and joined two different elements that synergistically will contribute for the future implementation of a Self-Powered System-on-Chip.

  6. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose and Lactate by Self-powered Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dual self-powered biosensing system integrated with energy amplification circuit is described, for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. The self-powered biosensing system is based on the conventional enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with three 4 mm x 4 mm massively dense mesh network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs bioelectrodes in parallel configuration. The bioelectrodes employed pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH as the biocatalyst for the glucose oxidation and D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH as the biocatalyst for lactate oxidation. A common laccase modified-MWCNTs bioelectrode served as the cathode for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Two charge pump circuits were coupled with 0.1 mF capacitors functioning as transducers. The advantages of employing capacitors were coupled with the efficient energy amplification of the charge pump circuit to amplify the power output from each of the biofuel and charge/discharge the corresponding capacitor. Under operating conditions, the open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities for 180 mg/dL glucose and 25 mM lactate were 339.2 mV and 228.75 µA/cm2 and 370 mV and 66.17 µA/cm2, respectively. The responses for glucose and lactate were linear up to 630 mg/dL and 30 mM with sensitivities of 20.11 Hz/ mM cm-2 and 9.869 Hz/ mM cm-2, respectively. The potential of the described system was demonstrated to provide stable voltage and current output that was capable of driving the charge pump circuit integrated with the capacitor for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. These results were in good agreement with those previously reported.

  7. Comparison study on in-core neutron detector for online neutron flux mapping of research and power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Husin; Nurfarhana Ayuni

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison study on In-Core neutron detector using for online flux mapping of Research and Power reactor. Technical description of in-core neutron also taken into consideration to identify the different characterization of neutron detector and describe on Self Power neutron detector (SPND) for online neutron flux mapping. Able to provide information on the neutron flux distribution and understand how in-core neutron detector are being used in nuclear power plant including to enable to state the principles of neutron detector. (author)

  8. A photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube/Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Li, G H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y Y; Li, T; Zhang, T; Qin, S J

    2017-12-07

    We present a novel photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunction. The energy from visible light suffices to drive the device owing to a built-in electric field (BEF) induced by the differences between the Fermi levels of SWNTs and n-Si.

  9. A smart mobile pouch as a biomechanical energy harvester towards self-powered smart wireless power transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Sudhakaran, M S P; Mok, Young Sun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-07-20

    A Smart Mobile Pouch Triboelectric Nanogenerator (SMP-TENG) is introduced as a promising eco-friendly approach for scavenging biomechanical energy for powering next generation intelligent devices and smart phones. This is a cost-effective and robust method for harvesting energy from human motion, by utilizing worn fabrics as a contact material. The SMP-TENG is capable of harvesting energy in two operational modes: lateral sliding and vertical contact and separation. Moreover, the SMP-TENG can also act as a self-powered emergency flashlight and self-powered pedometer during normal human motion. A wireless power transmission setup integrated with SMP-TENG is demonstrated. This upgrades the traditional energy harvesting device into a self-powered wireless power transfer SMP-TENG. The wirelessly transferred power can be used to charge a Li-ion battery and light LEDs. The SMP-TENG opens a wide range of opportunities in the field of self-powered devices and low maintenance energy harvesting systems for portable and wearable electronic gadgets.

  10. Flexible Self-Powered GaN Ultraviolet Photoswitch with Piezo-Phototronic Effect Enhanced On/Off Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Liu, Yudong; Yu, Aifang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Liu, Jingyu; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Shi, Xieqing; Kou, Jinzong; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Flexible self-powered sensing is urgently needed for wearable, portable, sustainable, maintenance-free and long-term applications. Here, we developed a flexible and self-powered GaN membrane-based ultraviolet (UV) photoswitch with high on/off ratio and excellent sensitivity. Even without any power supply, the driving force of UV photogenerated carriers can be well boosted by the combination of both built-in electric field and piezoelectric polarization field. The asymmetric metal-semiconductor-metal structure has been elaborately utilized to enhance the carrier separation and transport for highly sensitive UV photoresponse. Its UV on/off ratio and detection sensitivity reach to 4.67 × 10(5) and 1.78 × 10(12) cm·Hz(0.5) W(1-), respectively. Due to its excellent mechanical flexibility, the piezoelectric polarization field in GaN membrane can be easily tuned/controlled based on piezo-phototronic effect. Under 1% strain, a stronger and broader depletion region can be obtained to further enhance UV on/off ratio up to 154%. As a result, our research can not only provide a deep understanding of local electric field effects on self-powered optoelectronic detection, but also promote the development of self-powered flexible optoelectronic devices and integrated systems.

  11. Enhanced Performance of a Self-Powered Organic/Inorganic Photodetector by Pyro-Phototronic and Piezo-Phototronic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Wang, Xingfu; Yu, Ruomeng; Dai, Yejing; Zou, Haiyang; Wang, Aurelia C; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-01

    Self-powered photodetectors (PDs) have long been realized by utilizing photovoltaic effect and their performances can be effectively enhanced by introducing the piezo-phototronic effect. Recently, a novel pyro-phototronic effect is invented as an alternative approach for performance enhancement of self-powered PDs. Here, a self-powered organic/inorganic PD is demonstrated and the influences of externally applied strain on the pyro-phototronic and the photovoltaic effects are thoroughly investigated. Under 325 nm 2.30 mW cm -2 UV illumination and at a -0.45% compressive strain, the PD's photocurrent is dramatically enhanced from ≈14.5 to ≈103 nA by combining the pyro-phototronic and piezo-phototronic effects together, showing a significant improvement of over 600%. Theoretical simulations have been carried out via the finite element method to propose the underlying working mechanism. Moreover, the pyro-phototronic effect can be introduced by applying a -0.45% compressive strain to greatly enhance the PD's response to 442 nm illumination, including photocurrent, rise time, and fall time. This work provides in-depth understandings about the pyro-phototronic and the piezo-phototronic effects on the performances of self-powered PD to light sources with different wavelengths and indicates huge potential of these two effects in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inhibition of charge recombination for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells and self-powered UV sensors by surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Liang, E-mail: chuliang@njupt.edu.cn [Advanced Energy Technology Center, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Zhengfei; Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering (SMSE), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Xin’guo, E-mail: maxg2013@sohu.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Inhibition of charge recombination was utilized to prolong electrode lifetime in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered UV sensors based on TiO{sub 2}-modified SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the electron lifetime was significantly prolonged in DSSCs after TiO{sub 2} modification. And in self-powered UV sensors, the sensitivity and response time were enhanced. - Highlights: • The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in photovoltaic devices. • Inhibition of charge recombination can prolong electrode lifetime in photovoltaic devices. • Enhanced DSSCs and self-powered UV sensors based on SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes were obtained by TiO{sub 2} modification. - Abstract: The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered ultraviolet (UV) sensors based on SnO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres by TiO{sub 2} modification. For DSSCs with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved from 1.40% to 4.15% under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the charge recombination was effectively inhibited, resulting in long electron lifetime. For UV sensors with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2} layer, the self-powered property was more obvious, and the sensitivity and response time were enhanced from 91 to 6229 and 0.15 s to 0.055 s, respectively. The surface modification can engineer the interface energy to inhibit charge recombination, which is a desirable approach to improve the performance of photoelectric nanodevice.

  13. Simulation and testing of a micro electromagnetic energy harvester for self-powered system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a low cost and efficient electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (EVEH for a self-powered system. The EVEH consists of a resistant (copper spring, a permanent magnet (NdFeB35 and a wire-wound copper coil. The copper spring was fabricated by the laser precision cutting technology. A numerical model was adopted to analyze magnetic field distribution of a rectangle permanent magnet. The finite element (FEM soft ANSYS was used to simulate the mechanical properties of the system. The testing results show that the micro electromagnetic vibration energy harvester can generate the maximal power 205.38 μW at a resonance frequency of 124.2 Hz with an acceleration of 0.5 g (g = 9.8 ms−2 across a load the 265 Ω and a superior normalized power density (NPD of 456.5 μW cm−3 g−2. The magnetic field distribution of the permanent magnet was calculated to optimize geometric parameters of the coil. The proposed EVEH has a high efficiency with the lower cost.

  14. Photovoltaic-Pyroelectric Coupled Effect Induced Electricity for Self-Powered Photodetector System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Zhang, Kewei; Yang, Ya

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectric materials have demonstrated novel photovoltaic effect to scavenge solar energy. However, most of the ferroelectric materials with wide bandgaps (2.7-4 eV) suffer from low power conversion efficiency of less than 0.5% due to absorbing only 8-20% of solar spectrum. Instead of harvesting solar energy, these ferroelectric materials can be well suited for photodetector applications, especially for sensing near-UV irradiations. Here, a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 film-based photodetector is demonstrated that can be operated without using any external power source and a fast sensing of 405 nm light illumination is enabled. As compared with photovoltaic effect, both the responsivity and the specific detectivity of the photodetector can be dramatically enhanced by larger than 260% due to the light-induced photovoltaic-pyroelectric coupled effect. A self-powered photodetector array system can be utilized to achieve spatially resolved light intensity detection by recording the output voltage signals as a mapping figure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  16. Zinc Oxide-Based Self-Powered Potentiometric Chemical Sensors for Biomolecules and Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr-Qadir, Muhammad; Jamil-Rana, Sadaf; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-07-19

    Advances in the miniaturization and portability of the chemical sensing devices have always been hindered by the external power supply problem, which has focused new interest in the fabrication of self-powered sensing devices for disease diagnosis and the monitoring of analytes. This review describes the fabrication of ZnO nanomaterial-based sensors synthesized on different conducting substrates for extracellular detection, and the use of a sharp borosilicate glass capillary (diameter, d = 700 nm) to grow ZnO nanostructures for intracellular detection purposes in individual human and frog cells. The electrocatalytic activity and fast electron transfer properties of the ZnO materials provide the necessary energy to operate as well as a quick sensing device output response, where the role of the nanomorphology utilized for the fabrication of the sensor is crucial for the production of the operational energy. Simplicity, design, cost, sensitivity, selectivity and a quick and stable response are the most important features of a reliable sensor for routine applications. The review details the extra- and intra-cellular applications of the biosensors for the detection and monitoring of different metallic ions present in biological matrices, along with the biomolecules glucose and cholesterol.

  17. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  18. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluşan, H; Gharehbaghi, K; Külah, H; Zorlu, Ö; Muhtaroğlu, A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage. (paper)

  19. Highly Selective and Sensitive Self-Powered Glucose Sensor Based on Capacitor Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Kulkarni, Tanmay

    2017-05-03

    Enzymatic glucose biosensors are being developed to incorporate nanoscale materials with the biological recognition elements to assist in the rapid and sensitive detection of glucose. Here we present a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on capacitor circuit that is capable of selectively sensing glucose while simultaneously powering a small microelectronic device. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is chemically modified with pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) at anode and cathode, respectively, in the biofuel cell arrangement. The input voltage (as low as 0.25 V) from the biofuel cell is converted to a stepped-up power and charged to the capacitor to the voltage of 1.8 V. The frequency of the charge/discharge cycle of the capacitor corresponded to the oxidation of glucose. The biofuel cell structure-based glucose sensor synergizes the advantages of both the glucose biosensor and biofuel cell. In addition, this glucose sensor favored a very high selectivity towards glucose in the presence of competing and non-competing analytes. It exhibited unprecedented sensitivity of 37.66 Hz/mM.cm 2 and a linear range of 1 to 20 mM. This innovative self-powered glucose sensor opens new doors for implementation of biofuel cells and capacitor circuits for medical diagnosis and powering therapeutic devices.

  20. Energy Harvesting from the Animal/Human Body for Self-Powered Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-21

    Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics. We present material choices, device layouts, and operation principles of these energy harvesters with a focus on in vivo applications. We discuss a broad range of energy harvesters placed in or on various body parts of human and animal models. We conclude with an outlook of future research in which the integration of various energy harvesters with advanced electronics can provide a new platform for the development of novel technologies for disease diagnostics, treatment, and prevention.

  1. Medlay: A Reconfigurable Micro-Power Management to Investigate Self-Powered Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kokert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In self-powered microsystems, a power management is essential to extract, transfer and regulate power from energy harvesting sources to loads such as sensors. The challenge is to consider all of the different structures and components available and build the optimal power management on a microscale. The purpose of this paper is to streamline the design process by creating a novel reconfigurable testbed called Medlay. First, we propose a uniform interface for management functions e.g., power conversion, energy storing and power routing. This interface results in a clear layout because power and status pins are strictly separated, and inputs and outputs have fixed positions. Medlay is the ready-to-use and open-hardware platform based on the interface. It consists of a base board and small modules incorporating e.g., dc-dc converters, power switches and supercapacitors. Measurements confirm that Medlay represents a system on one circuit board, as parasitic effects of the interconnections are negligible. The versatility regarding different setups on the testbed is determined to over 250,000 combinations by layout graph grammar. Lastly, we underline the applicability by recreating three state-of-the-art systems with the testbed. In conclusion, Medlay facilitates building and testing power management in a very compact, clear and extensible fashion.

  2. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-01

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs’ figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  3. Multifunctional TENG for Blue Energy Scavenging and Self-Powered Wind-Speed Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Yi

    2017-02-17

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been considered to be a more effective technology to harvest various types of mechanic vibration energies such as wind energy, water energy in the blue energy, and so on. Considering the vast energy from the blue oceans, harvesting of the water energy has attracted huge attention. There are two major types of “mechanical” water energy, water wave energy in random direction and water flow kinetic energy. However, although the most reported TENG can be used to efficiently harvest one type of water energy, to simultaneously collect two or more types of such energy still remains challenging. In this work, two different freestanding, multifunctional TENGs are successfully developed that can be used to harvest three types of energies including water waves, air flowing, and water flowing. These two new TENGs designed in accordance with the same freestanding model yield the output voltages of 490 and ≈100 V with short circuit currents of 24 and 2.7 µA, respectively, when operated at a rotation frequency of 200 rpm and the movement frequency of 3 Hz. Moreover, the developed multifunctional TENG can also be explored as a self-powered speed sensor of wind by correlating the short-circuit current with the wind speed.

  4. Self-powered photogalvanic phosphorene photodetectors with high polarization sensitivity and suppressed dark current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaishuai; Wang, Tao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Xie, Yiqun; Hu, Yibin

    2018-04-26

    High polarization sensitivity, suppressed dark current and low energy consumption are all desirable device properties for photodetectors. In this work, we propose phosphorene-based photodetectors that are driven using photogalvanic effects (PGEs). The inversion symmetry of pristine phosphorene is broken using either application of an out-of-plane gate voltage or a heterostructure that is composed of the original phosphorene and blue phosphorene. The potential asymmetry enables PGEs under illumination by polarized light. Quantum transport calculations show that robust photocurrents are indeed generated by PGEs under a zero external bias voltage because of the broken inversion symmetry. These results indicate that the proposed photodetector is self-powered. In addition, the zero bias voltage eliminates the dark currents that are caused by application of an external bias voltage to traditional photodetectors. High polarization sensitivity to both linearly and circularly polarized light can also be realized, with extinction ratios ranging up to 102. The photoresponse of the proposed phosphorene/blue phosphorene heterostructure can be greatly enhanced by gating and is several orders of magnitude higher than that in gated phosphorene.

  5. Flexible and multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered human motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ook; Pyo, Soonjae; Oh, Yongkeun; Kang, Yunsung; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-03-01

    A flexible piezoelectric strain energy harvester that is responsive to multi-directional input forces produced by various human motions is proposed. The structure of the harvester, which includes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bump, facilitates the effective conversion of strain energy, produced by input forces applied in random directions, into electrical energy. The structural design of the PDMS bump and frame as well as the slits in the piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film provide mechanical flexibility and enhance the strain induced in the PVDF film under input forces applied at various angles. The amount and direction of the strain induced in PVDF can be changed by the direction of the applied force; thus, the generated output power can be varied. The measured maximum output peak voltage is 1.75, 1.29, and 0.98 V when an input force of 4 N (2 Hz) is applied at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and the corresponding maximum output power is 0.064, 0.026, and 0.02 μW, respectively. Moreover, the harvester stably generates output voltage over 1.4 × 104 cycles. Thus, the proposed harvester successfully identifies and converts strain energy produced by multi-directional input forces by various human motions into electrical energy. We demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed flexible energy harvester as a self-powered human motion sensor for wireless healthcare systems.

  6. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  8. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  9. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  10. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. (Na, K)NbO3-Based Ceramics for Self-Powered Energy Harvesting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhwan; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Self-powered energy harvesting technologies have been intensively investigated by employ- ing Pb-free piezoelectric materials. One such Pb-free piezoelectric material, the ceramic 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3, was prepared by employing the conventional mixed oxide method. 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were prepared and the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were system- atically investigated for energy harvesting applications. The crystal structure of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3- 0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3 Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics, sintered at temperatures between 1080 °C and 1160 °C, was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of 0.97(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics were measured from 1 kHz to 1 MHz for the various sintering temperatures. We expect that optimization of sintering parameters can improve the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.97 (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.03(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics for energy harvesting.

  12. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Falk

    Full Text Available Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor, and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  13. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  14. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  15. Bio-assembled, piezoelectric prawn shell made self-powered wearable sensor for non-invasive physiological signal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-03-01

    A human interactive self-powered wearable sensor is designed using waste by-product prawn shells. The structural origin of intrinsic piezoelectric characteristics of bio-assembled chitin nanofibers has been investigated. It allows the prawn shell to make a tactile sensor that performs also as a highly durable mechanical energy harvester/nanogenerator. The feasibility and fundamental physics of self-powered consumer electronics even from human perception is highlighted by prawn shells made nanogenerator (PSNG). High fidelity and non-invasive monitoring of vital signs, such as radial artery pulse wave and coughing actions, may lead to the potential use of PSNG for early intervention. It is presumed that PSNG has enormous future aspects in real-time as well as remote health care assessment.

  16. Self-powered gustation electronic skin for mimicking taste buds based on piezoelectric-enzymatic reaction coupling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianming; Fu, Yongming; He, Haoxuan; Dong, Chuanyi; Zhang, Linlin; Zeng, Hui; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    A new self-powered wearable gustation electronic skin for mimicking taste buds has been realized based on enzyme-modified/ZnO nanowire arrays on patterned-electrode flexible substrate. The e-skin can actively taste beverages or fruits without any external electric power. Through the piezoelectric-enzymatic reaction coupling effect, the nanowires can harvest the mechanical energy of body movement and output piezoelectric signal. The piezoelectric output is significantly dependent on the concentration of target analyte. The response for detecting 2 × 10-2 M ascorbic acid (ascorbate acid oxidase@ZnO) is up to 171.747, and the selectivity is high. The response for detecting 50% alcohol (alcohol oxidase@ZnO) is up to 45.867. Our results provide a new research direction for the development of multifunctional e-skin and expand the study scope for self-powered bionic systems.

  17. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  19. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  20. Incorporating single detector failure into the ROP detector layout optimization for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: Doddy.Kastanya@snclavalin.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ROP TSP value needs to be adjusted when any detector in the system fails. • Single detector failure criterion has been incorporated into the detector layout optimization as a constraint. • Results show that the optimized detector layout is more robust with respect to its vulnerability to a single detector failure. • An early rejection scheme has been introduced to speed-up the optimization process. - Abstract: In CANDU{sup ®} reactors, the regional overpower protection (ROP) systems are designed to protect the reactor against overpower in the fuel which could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. In the CANDU{sup ®} 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, each of which is connected to a fast-acting shutdown system. Each ROP system consists of a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal flux detector assemblies. The placement of these ROP detectors is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In the past few years, two algorithms, DETPLASA and ADORE, have been developed to optimize the detector layout for the ROP systems in CANDU reactors. These algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. The objective of the optimization process is typically either to maximize the TSP value for a given number of detectors in the system or to minimize the number of detectors in the system to obtain a target TSP value. One measure to determine the robustness of the optimized detector layout is to evaluate the maximum decrease (penalty) in TSP value when any single detector in the system fails. The smaller the penalty, the more robust the design is. Therefore, in order to ensure that the optimized detector layout is robust, the single detector failure (SDF) criterion has been incorporated as an additional constraint into the ADORE algorithm. Results from this study indicate that there

  1. A machine-learning approach for damage detection in aircraft structures using self-powered sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Das, Saptarshi; Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Biswas, Subir; Burgueño, Rigoberto

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes a novel strategy for damage identification in aircraft structures. The strategy was evaluated based on the simulation of the binary data generated from self-powered wireless sensors employing a pulse switching architecture. The energy-aware pulse switching communication protocol uses single pulses instead of multi-bit packets for information delivery resulting in discrete binary data. A system employing this energy-efficient technology requires dealing with time-delayed binary data due to the management of power budgets for sensing and communication. This paper presents an intelligent machine-learning framework based on combination of the low-rank matrix decomposition and pattern recognition (PR) methods. Further, data fusion is employed as part of the machine-learning framework to take into account the effect of data time delay on its interpretation. Simulated time-delayed binary data from self-powered sensors was used to determine damage indicator variables. Performance and accuracy of the damage detection strategy was examined and tested for the case of an aircraft horizontal stabilizer. Damage states were simulated on a finite element model by reducing stiffness in a region of the stabilizer's skin. The proposed strategy shows satisfactory performance to identify the presence and location of the damage, even with noisy and incomplete data. It is concluded that PR is a promising machine-learning algorithm for damage detection for time-delayed binary data from novel self-powered wireless sensors.

  2. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  3. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  4. Feasibility Study of Silver as Emitter of In-core Neutron Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chi Dong; Lee, Hyun Suk [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol; Cha, Kyoon Ho [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deok Jung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The rhodium SPND(rhodium self-powered neutron detectors) provides strong detector signals so that they can be easily detected, but there is an issue the rhodium emitter needs to be replaced frequently because of its fast depletion. As an alternative, the vanadium SPND was designed and evaluated by Lee et al., but it also has an issue the detector signal level is too low. In this work, another material, silver, was introduced as emitter material of in-core detectors because its neutron absorption cross section is bigger than that of vanadium and smaller than rhodium. The feasibility of silver was investigated in comparison with the rhodium and vanadium detectors. The SPND model was designed using a Monte Carlo code MCNP6 and ORIGEN-S in SCALE code package. A silver self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was introduced in this paper, and the feasibility of silver as an emitter material of in-core detectors was investigated. The comparisons with rhodium and vanadium emitters demonstrate that silver has 0.78 years longer lifetime than rhodium and 10 times stronger signal than vanadium. Since a cycle length is generally 1.5 years, silver can be used for three cycles whereas rhodium should be replaced after two cycles.

  5. ZnO Piezoelectric Nanowires for Use in a Self-Powered Structural Health Monitoring Device for Fiber-Reinforced Composites Uploading Attachment Instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new self-powered structural health monitoring (SHM) system for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites by using...

  6. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  7. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  8. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  9. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiin-Kuen Fuh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS. A new integration of print circuit board (PCB technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  11. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  12. Implantable Self-Powered Low-Level Laser Cure System for Mouse Embryonic Osteoblasts' Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Jingjing; Zheng, Qiang; Yan, Lin; Wang, Jiangxue; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment is usually a long-term process. It is highly desirable to speed up the process for effective medical treatment. In this work, a self-powered low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis is developed using the power generated by the triboelectric nanogenerator. It is found that the system significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, which is essential for bone and tooth healing. The system is further demonstrated to be driven by a living creature's motions, such as human walking or a mouse's breathing, suggesting its practical use as a portable or implantable clinical cure for bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment.

  13. Research on Mechanical Shim Application with Compensated Prompt γ Current of Vanadium Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β current, although it promptly reflects the flux change of the core. Based on the features of the prompt γ current, a method for configuration of the lead-lag dynamic compensator is proposed. The simulations indicate that the method can improve dynamic response significantly with negligible adverse effects on the steady response. The robustness of the design implies that the method is of great value for engineering applications.

  14. Research on mechanical shim application with compensated prompt γ current of vanadium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β current, although it promptly reflects the flux change of the core. Based on the features of the prompt γ current, a method for configuration of the lead-lag dynamic compensator is proposed. The simulations indicate that the method can improve dynamic response significantly with negligible adverse effects on the steady response. The robustness of the design implies that the method is of great value for engineering applications.

  15. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  16. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  17. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  18. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  19. Self-Powered UV-Near Infrared Photodetector Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide/n-Si Vertical Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Liu, Lin; Wu, Guan; Chen, Wei; Qin, Sujie; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    A novel self-powered photodetector based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/n-Si p-n vertical heterojunction with high sensitivity and fast response time is presented. The photodetector contains a p-n vertical heterojunction between a drop-casted rGO thin film and n-Si. Contacts between the semiconductor layer (rGO, n-Si) and source-drain Ti/Au electrodes allow efficient transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. The self-powered UV-near infrared photodetector shows high sensitivity toward a spectrum of light from 365 to 1200 nm. Under the 600 nm illumination (0.81 mW cm -2 ), the device has a photoresponsivity of 1.52 A W -1 , with fast response and recover time (2 ms and 3.7 ms), and the ON/OFF ratios exceed 10 4 when the power density reaches ≈2.5 mW cm -2 . The high photoresponse primarily arises from the built-in electric field formed at the interface of n-Si and rGO film. The effect of rGO thickness, rGO reduction level, and layout of rGO/n-Si effective contact area on device performance are also systematically investigated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Direct detection of cysteine using functionalized BaTiO3 nanoparticles film based self-powered biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sophia; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-05-15

    Simple, novel, and direct detection of clinically important biomolecules have continuous demand among scientific community as well as in market. Here, we report the first direct detection and facile fabrication of a cysteine-responsive, film-based, self-powered device. NH 2 functionalized BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT-NH 2 NPs) suspended in a three-dimensional matrix of an agarose (Ag) film, were used for cysteine detection. BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT NPs) semiconducting as well as piezoelectric properties were harnessed in this study. The changes in surface charge properties of the film with respect to cysteine concentrations were determined using a current-voltage (I-V) technique. The current response increased with cysteine concentration (linear concentration range=10µM-1mM). Based on the properties of the composite (BT/Ag), we created a self-powered cysteine sensor in which the output voltage from a piezoelectric nanogenerator was used to drive the sensor. The potential drop across the sensor was measured as a function of cysteine concentrations. Real-time analysis of sensor performance was carried out on urine samples by non-invasive method. This novel sensor demonstrated good selectivity, linear concentration range and detection limit of 10µM; acceptable for routine analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with linear ethanol sensing at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yayu; Lai, Xuan; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-03-21

    A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room temperature has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room temperature. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500 ppm ethanol at room temperature, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419 V, respectively. Moreover, a linear dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a linear ethanol sensing at room temperature can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-temperature gas sensing.

  2. A 3D paper-based enzymatic fuel cell for self-powered, low-cost glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christopher; Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel low-cost, self-powered paper-based biosensor for glucose monitoring. The device operating mechanism is based on a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell using an electrochemical energy conversion as a transducing element for glucose monitoring. The self-powered glucose biosensor features (i) a 3D origami paper-based structure for easy system integration onto paper, (ii) an air-cathode on paper for low-cost production and easy operation, and (iii) a screen printed chitosan/glucose oxidase anode for stable current generation as an analytical signal for glucose monitoring. The sensor showed a linear range of output current at 1-5mM glucose (R(2)=0.996) with a sensitivity of 0.02 µA mM(-1). The advantages offered by such a device, including a low cost, lack of external power sources/sophisticated external transducers, and the capacity to rapidly generate reliable results, are well suited for the clinical and social settings of the developing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Powered, Flexible, and Solution-Processable Perovskite Photodetector Based on Low-Cost Carbon Cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoxuan; Lei, Tianyu; Tian, Wei; Cao, Fengren; Xiong, Jie; Li, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Flexible perovskite photodetectors are usually constructed on indium-tin-oxide-coated polymer substrates, which are expensive, fragile, and not resistant to high temperature. Herein, for the first time, a high-performance flexible perovskite photodetector is fabricated based on low-cost carbon cloth via a facile solution processable strategy. In this device, perovskite microcrystal and Spiro-OMeTAD (hole transporting material) blended film act as active materials for light detection, and carbon cloth serves as both a flexible substrate and a conductive electrode. The as-fabricated photodetector shows a broad spectrum response from ultraviolet to near-infrared light, high responsivity, fast response speed, long-term stability, and self-powered capability. Flexible devices show negligible degradation after several tens of bending cycles and at the extremely bending angle of 180°. This work promises a new technique to construct flexible, high-performance photodetectors with low cost and self-powered capability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 3D Orthogonal Woven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Effective Biomechanical Energy Harvesting and as Self-Powered Active Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Deng, Jianan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Zou, Haiyang; Ding, Wenbo; Dai, Yejing; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-10-01

    The development of wearable and large-area energy-harvesting textiles has received intensive attention due to their promising applications in next-generation wearable functional electronics. However, the limited power outputs of conventional textiles have largely hindered their development. Here, in combination with the stainless steel/polyester fiber blended yarn, the polydimethylsiloxane-coated energy-harvesting yarn, and nonconductive binding yarn, a high-power-output textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with 3D orthogonal woven structure is developed for effective biomechanical energy harvesting and active motion signal tracking. Based on the advanced 3D structural design, the maximum peak power density of 3D textile can reach 263.36 mW m -2 under the tapping frequency of 3 Hz, which is several times more than that of conventional 2D textile TENGs. Besides, its collected power is capable of lighting up a warning indicator, sustainably charging a commercial capacitor, and powering a smart watch. The 3D textile TENG can also be used as a self-powered active motion sensor to constantly monitor the movement signals of human body. Furthermore, a smart dancing blanket is designed to simultaneously convert biomechanical energy and perceive body movement. This work provides a new direction for multifunctional self-powered textiles with potential applications in wearable electronics, home security, and personalized healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty

  6. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man [Nuclear Reactor Safety Lab., KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty.

  7. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  8. Test of In-core Flux Detectors in KNK II

    CERN Document Server

    Hoppe, P

    1979-01-01

    The development of in-core detectors for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) is still in an early stage, and little operation experience is available. Therefore self-powered neutron and gamma detectors and neutron sensitive ionization chambers -especially developed for LMFBRs- have been tested in the Fast Sodium Cooled Test Reactor KNK II. Seven flux detectors have been installed in the core of KNK II by means of a special test rig. Five of them failed already within the first week during operation in the reactor. Due to measurements of electrical resistances and capacities, sodium penetrating into the detectors or cables probably seems to be the cause. As tests prior to the installation in the core proved the tightness of all detectors, it is suspected that small cracks have developed in the detector casings or in the outer cable sheaths during their exposure to the hot coolant. Two ionization chambers did not show these faults. However, one of them failed because the saturation current plateau disap...

  9. Test of In-core Flux Detectors in KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, P.; Mitzel, F.

    1979-10-01

    The development of in-core detectors for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) is still in an early stage, and little operation experience is available. Therefore self-powered neutron and gamma detectors and neutron sensitive ionization chambers -especially developed for LMFBRs- have been tested in the Fast Sodium Cooled Test Reactor KNK II. Seven flux detectors have been installed in the core of KNK II by means of a special test rig. Five of them failed already within the first week during operation in the reactor. Due to measurements of electrical resistances and capacities, sodium penetrating into the detectors or cables probably seems to be the cause. As tests prior to the installation in the core proved the tightness of all detectors, it is suspected that small cracks have developed in the detector casings or in the outer cable sheaths during their exposure to the hot coolant. Two ionization chambers did not show these faults. However, one of them failed because the saturation current plateau disappeared and the other one's sensitivity decreased by a factor of five during the test period. It is suspected that in both cases changes of the filling gas might be involved

  10. Experimental demonstration of H∞ filter performance for dynamic compensation of rhodium neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon-Ghu; Choi, Yu-Sun; Lee, Kwang-Dae

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of the theoretical result of the previous work on LMI (linear matrix inequality) based H ∞ filter for time-delay compensation of self-powered neutron detectors. The filter gains are optimized in the sense of noise attenuation level of H ∞ setting. By introducing bounded real lemma, the conventional algebraic Riccati inequalities are converted into linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the filter design problem is solved via the convex optimization framework using LMIs. The experimental measurements of rhodium detector signal from a research reactor show that the predicted theoretical filter performance is verified by showing successful reconstruction of the reference power signal

  11. Long-lived Hybrid Incore Detector for Core Monitoring and Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The signal production mechanism in a rhodium (Rh) fixed in-core detector emitter relies primarily on the beta particles resulting from neutron absorptions in either of two Rh isotopes to produce an electric current. As the neutron transmutation process depletes the Rh isotopes, the signal output per unit neutron flux from an Rh detector emitter will decrease. A vanadium detector is primarily sensitive to neutrons, but with a somewhat slower reaction time as that of a Rh detector. The benefit of vanadium over rhodium is its low depletion rate, which is a factor of 7 times less than that of rhodium. Platinum detectors are very sensitive to gamma flux, but only mildly sensitive to neutron flux. Because the depletion rate of platinum is very small, it can be neglected. Generally, both gamma and neutron signals are proportional to the assembly power. The characteristics of a new detector are the long life time due to the low depletion of emitter materials and the capability of reactor protection as well as reactor monitoring. The new detector uses vanadium and platinum as the emitter materials to meet the long life time and reactor protection capability. Vanadium detector is used for reactor monitoring and platinum detector is used for reactor protection. To determine the number of emitter strings, a comparative study of the power peaking factor monitoring accuracy for various self-powered fixed in-core detector geometries was made, and the configuration of the optimal detector design was also established and verified. The design of a new detector consists of five-string vanadium detector elements, and three-string platinum detector elements. The detector assembly also contains a background wire for compensation of noise signal and a thermocouple for use in the post-accident monitoring system. This new hybrid detector can be used for both reactor Monitoring And reactor Protection (MAP)

  12. ZnO nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cell and its application in self-powered devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Jingbin; Fan Fengru; Xu Chen; Lin Shisheng; Wang Zhonglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Wei Min; Duan Xue, E-mail: zhong.wang@mse.gatech.edu, E-mail: weimin@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-10-08

    High-density vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays were fabricated on FTO substrates by a simple and facile chemical etching process from electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. The nanotube formation was rationalized in terms of selective dissolution of the (001) polar face. The morphology of the nanotubes can be readily controlled by electrodeposition parameters for the nanorod precursor. By employing the 5.1 {mu}m-length nanotubes as the photoanode for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), a full-sun conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved. Furthermore, we show that the DSSC unit can serve as a robust power source to drive a humidity sensor, with a potential for self-powered devices.

  13. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezaul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A self-powered ultraviolet (UV photodetector (PD based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  14. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Md Rezaul [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Xie, Ting; Liu, Guannan [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Barron, Sara C. [Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Motayed, Abhishek [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Rao, Mulpuri V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Debnath, Ratan, E-mail: ratan.debnath@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  15. A self-powered nano-photodetector based on PFH/ZnO nanorods organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Wei; Li, Peigang; Song, Jia; An, Yuehua; Shen, Jingqin; Wang, Shunli; Guo, Daoyou

    2018-03-01

    PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions were fabricated by spin-coating p-type Poly (9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PFH) on n-type vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown by a facile hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive glass. A typical p-n junction behavior was observed in the fabricated heterojunction. The current of heterojunction increases and decreases dramatically by switching the illumination on and off at zero bias, showing potential self-powered photodetector applications. The heterojunction were capable of generating negative current when illuminated under an appropriate wavelength. The photoresponse properties of the heterojunction can be tuned by the applied bias. In vacuum, the rectifying behavior disappeared, and show only simple semiconductor behavior. Band structure of the heterojunction was schematic drawn and explain the mechanism of the properties of PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions.

  16. Self-Powered Implantable Skin-Like Glucometer for Real-Time Detection of Blood Glucose Level In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanglinhan; Zhang, Linlin; Gao, Huiling; Yang, Wenyan; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-06-01

    Implantable bioelectronics for analyzing physiological biomarkers has recently been recognized as a promising technique in medical treatment or diagnostics. In this study, we developed a self-powered implantable skin-like glucometer for real-time detection of blood glucose level in vivo. Based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling effect of GOx@ZnO nanowire, the device under an applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric signal containing the glucose-detecting information. No external electricity power source or battery is needed for this device, and the outputting piezoelectric voltage acts as both the biosensing signal and electricity power. A practical application of the skin-like glucometer implanted in mouse body for detecting blood glucose level has been simply demonstrated. These results provide a new technique path for diabetes prophylaxis and treatment.

  17. Adaptable piezoelectric hemispherical composite strips using a scalable groove technique for a self-powered muscle monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Vivekananthan, Venkateswaran; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2018-01-18

    Contrary to traditional planar flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs), highly adaptable hemispherical shape-flexible piezoelectric composite strip (HS-FPCS) based PNGs are required to harness/measure non-linear surface motions. Therefore, a feasible, cost-effective and less-time consuming groove technique was developed to fabricate adaptable HS-FPCSs with multiple lengths. A single HS-CSPNG generates 130 V/0.8 μA and can also work as a self-powered muscle monitoring system (SP-MMS) to measure maximum human body part movements, i.e., spinal cord, throat, jaw, elbow, knee, foot stress, palm hand/finger force and inhale/exhale breath conditions at a time or at variable time intervals.

  18. Self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety and application of said 'AND' circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Claude; Therond, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety, which delivers on duty operation an output signal equal to the logic product of the input logic signals. The invention relates also to the use of said 'AND' logic circuits in developing n/m logics also of dynamic types with positive safety, delivering on duty operation a zero valued signal when, at least n of the m input signals have the value zero. This type of logics can be inserted in nuclear reactor protection systems; when the value of the reactor operating physical characteristics go out of the safety margins, or true trouble affects 'AND' circuits the value of the output signal is zero, that triggers off the safety absorber drap, for instance [fr

  19. A self-powered biosensing device with an integrated hybrid biofuel cell for intermittent monitoring of analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdecka, Dominika; Draminska, Sylwia; Janusek, Dariusz; Krysinski, Paweł; Bilewicz, Renata

    2018-04-15

    In this work, we propose an integrated self-powered sensing system, driven by a hybrid biofuel cell (HBFC) with carbon paper discs coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The sensing system has a biocathode made from laccase or bilirubin oxidase, and the anode is made from a zinc plate. The system includes a dedicated custom-built electronic control unit for the detection of oxygen and catechol analytes, which are central to medical and environmental applications. Both the HBFC and sensors, operate in a mediatorless direct electron transfer mode. The measured characteristics of the HBFC with externally applied resistance included the power-time dependencies under flow cell conditions, the sensors performance (evaluated by cyclic voltammetry), and chronoamperometry. The HBFC is integrated with analytical devices and operating in a pulse mode form long-run monitoring experiments. The HBFC generated sufficient power for wireless data transmission to a local computer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High sensitivity, fast speed and self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO micro/nanowire networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Bai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetectors (PDs based on ZnO micro/nanowire (MNW networks with Pt contacts have been fabricated on glass substrates. The PDs exhibited a high photosensitivity (5×103 for 365 nm UV light with a fast recovery time (0.2 s at a reverse bias voltage of 2 V. The light induced modulation of Schottky barrier and MNW–MNW junction barrier was employed to account for the results. It was also observed that the PD had a high on–off ratio of 800 without external bias. The photovoltaic effect was proposed to explain the self-powered phenomenon.

  1. A self-powered nano-photodetector based on PFH/ZnO nanorods organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions were fabricated by spin-coating p-type Poly (9,9-dihexylfluorene (PFH on n-type vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown by a facile hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide (ITO transparent conductive glass. A typical p-n junction behavior was observed in the fabricated heterojunction. The current of heterojunction increases and decreases dramatically by switching the illumination on and off at zero bias, showing potential self-powered photodetector applications. The heterojunction were capable of generating negative current when illuminated under an appropriate wavelength. The photoresponse properties of the heterojunction can be tuned by the applied bias. In vacuum, the rectifying behavior disappeared, and show only simple semiconductor behavior. Band structure of the heterojunction was schematic drawn and explain the mechanism of the properties of PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions.

  2. Implementation of a robust hybrid rotary-translational vibration energy harvester for autonomous self-powered acceleration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Owen R.; Vandewater, Luke A.; Ung, Chandarin; Moss, Scott D.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a self-powered wireless sensor node utilising ambient vibrations for power is described. The device consists of a vibration energy harvester, power management system, microcontroller, accelerometer, RF transmitter/receiver and external LED indicators. The vibration energy harvester is adapted from a previously reported hybrid rotary-translational device and uses a pair of copper coil transducers to convert the mechanical energy of a magnetic sphere into usable electricity. The device requires less than 0.8 mW of power to operate continuously in its present setup (with LED indicators off) while measuring acceleration at a sample rate of 200 Hz, with the power source providing 39.7 mW of power from 500 mg excitations at 5.5 Hz. When usable input energy is removed, the device will continue to transmit data for more than 5 minutes.

  3. ZnO nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cell and its application in self-powered devices

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jingbin

    2010-09-10

    Abstract High-density vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays were fabricated on FTO substrates by a simple and facile chemical etching process from electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. The nanotube formation was rationalized in terms of selective dissolution of the (001) polar face. The morphology of the nanotubes can be readily controlled by electrodeposition parameters for the nanorod precursor. By employing the 5.1 μm-length nanotubes as the photoanode for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), a full-sun conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved. Furthermore, we show that the DSSC unit can serve as a robust power source to drive a humidity sensor, with a potential for self-powered devices. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Nanogenerator-based dual-functional and self-powered thin patch loudspeaker or microphone for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Torres, David; Díaz, Ramón; Wang, Zhengjun; Wu, Changsheng; Wang, Chuan; Lin Wang, Zhong; Sepúlveda, Nelson

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectret nanogenerators were recently introduced as a promising alternative technology for harvesting kinetic energy. Here we report the device's intrinsic properties that allow for the bidirectional conversion of energy between electrical and mechanical domains; thus extending its potential use in wearable electronics beyond the power generation realm. This electromechanical coupling, combined with their flexibility and thin film-like form, bestows dual-functional transducing capabilities to the device that are used in this work to demonstrate its use as a thin, wearable and self-powered loudspeaker or microphone patch. To determine the device's performance and applicability, sound pressure level is characterized in both space and frequency domains for three different configurations. The confirmed device's high performance is further validated through its integration in three different systems: a music-playing flag, a sound recording film and a flexible microphone for security applications.

  5. Self-Powered Wind Sensor System for Detecting Wind Speed and Direction Based on a Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiyu; Ding, Wenbo; Pan, Lun; Wu, Changsheng; Yu, Hua; Yang, Lijun; Liao, Ruijin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-04-24

    The development of the Internet of Things has brought new challenges to the corresponding distributed sensor systems. Self-powered sensors that can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli without an external power supply are highly desirable. In this paper, a self-powered wind sensor system based on an anemometer triboelectric nanogenerator (a-TENG, free-standing mode) and a wind vane triboelectric nanogenerator (v-TENG, single-electrode mode) is proposed for simultaneously detecting wind speed and direction. A soft friction mode is adopted instead of a typical rigid friction for largely enhancing the output performance of the TENG. The design parameters including size, unit central angle, and applied materials are optimized to enhance sensitivity, resolution, and wide measurement scale. The optimized a-TENG could deliver an open-circuit voltage of 88 V and short-circuit current of 6.3 μA, corresponding to a maximum power output of 0.47 mW (wind speed of 6.0 m/s), which is capable of driving electronics for data transmission and storage. The current peak value of the a-TENG signal is used for analyzing wind speed for less energy consumption. Moreover, the output characteristics of a v-TENG are further explored, with six actual operation situations, and the v-TENG delivers fast response to the incoming wind and accurately outputs the wind direction data. As a wind sensor system, wind speed ranging from 2.7 to 8.0 m/s can be well detected (consistent with a commercial sensor) and eight regular directions can be monitored. Therefore, the fabricated wind sensor system has great potential in wireless environmental monitoring applications.

  6. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  7. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  8. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  9. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  10. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  11. Radiation detectors for the control of PWR nuclear boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, J.

    1977-01-01

    The neutronic control in French PWR is effected by: 2 channels of measurement of intermediate power using γ'-compensated boron-coated ionization chambers 4 channels of measurement of high power with 'long' boron chambers also used in axial off-set measurement. A movable in-core measuring system is used for the fuel management and the power distribution monitoring. The instrumentation of start-up and intermediate power is conventional; the chambers of the axial off-set measurement and the in-core system are special for this type of power plant, they are discussed in details. The essential properties of the various types of detector, their major advantages or drawbacks, their comparative adaptation to the functions to be performed in the plant are summarized in a table. The 'long chambers' (on use in Fessenheim I and II, and soon in Bugey II) are boron coated current ionization chambers, without γ compensation, intended for power measurement. In-core measurements first involved activation methods - movable wires giving flux profiles, -or activable nuts (the Aeroball System at Trino Vercellese, Chooz...). In on-line neutron detectors, used at fixed positions, the electric signal is generated from: ionization the gas filling fission ionization chambers and γ ionization chambers; direct collection of the charged particles emitted from the convertor element in self-powered neutron detectors (rhodium, silver or vanadium) or self-powered γ detectors (cobalt); or thermoelectric effect in neutron and γ thermometers. The in-core measurement unit developped by Framatome is a movable miniaturized fission chamber system (at Tihange), every French exported power plant being now equipped with it [fr

  12. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  13. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  15. Methodologies for optimizing ROP detector layout for CANDU (registered) reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: kastanyd@aecl.c [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada); Caxaj, Victor [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The regional overpower protection (ROP) systems protect CANDU (registered) reactors against overpower in the fuel that would reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. Both a localized power peaking within the core (for example, as a result of certain reactivity device configuration) or a general increase in the core power level during a slow-loss-of-regulation (SLOR) event could cause overpower in the fuel. This overpower could lead to fuel sheath dryout. In the CANDU (registered) 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, one for each fast-acting shutdown systems. Each ROP system includes a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal assemblies. Traditionally, the placement of these detectors was done using a method called the detector layout optimization (DLO). A new methodology for designing the detector layout for the ROP system has been developed recently. The new method, called the DETPLASA algorithm, utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. Both methodologies will be discussed in detail in this paper. Numerical examples are employed to better illustrate how each method works. Results from some sensitivity studies on three SA parameters are also presented.

  16. Self-powered highly enhanced broad wavelength (UV to visible) photoresponse of ZnO@ZnO1-xSx@ZnS core-shell heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Das Mahapatra, Ayon; Basak, Durga

    2018-08-01

    In the present scenario of energy crisis, it is inevitable to focus on the low powered or self-powered devices. Multi-spectral photoresponse is an additional advantage to the above feature. We have developed an efficient self-powered photodetector with broad wavelength detection range based on heterostructures of two wide band-gap materials ZnO and ZnS. More than two orders higher responsivity and 'ON/OFF' ratio has been observed in case of heterostructure sample as compared to pristine ZnO. On the basis of the controlled experimental results, it has been established that the interfacial surface engineering, can be useful to improve the visible response and a significant photovoltaic performance under visible light illumination can be achieved. Unlike the other recent reports on self-powered UV-visible photodetector, we have achieved two order higher visible response without compromising the UV photoresponse. Unprecedented broad wavelength photodetection in self-powered mode in the present study highlights the uniqueness and advantage of an interface in a core-shell heterostructure for photodetection applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  18. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  19. A self-powered piezoelectric energy harvesting interface circuit with efficiency-enhanced P-SSHI rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianxi; Pang, Yanbo; Yuan, Wenzhi; Zhu, Zhangming; Yang, Yintang

    2018-04-01

    The key to self-powered technique is initiative to harvest energy from the surrounding environment. Harvesting energy from an ambient vibration source utilizing piezoelectrics emerged as a popular method. Efficient interface circuits become the main limitations of existing energy harvesting techniques. In this paper, an interface circuit for piezoelectric energy harvesting is presented. An active full bridge rectifier is adopted to improve the power efficiency by reducing the conduction loss on the rectifying path. A parallel synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (P-SSHI) technique is used to improve the power extraction capability from piezoelectric harvester, thereby trying to reach the theoretical maximum output power. An intermittent power management unit (IPMU) and an output capacitor-less low drop regulator (LDO) are also introduced. Active diodes (AD) instead of traditional passive ones are used to reduce the voltage loss over the rectifier, which results in a good power efficiency. The IPMU with hysteresis comparator ensures the interface circuit has a large transient output power by limiting the output voltage ranges from 2.2 to 2 V. The design is fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Simulation results show that the flipping efficiency of the P-SSHI circuit is over 80% with an off-chip inductor value of 820 μH. The output power the proposed rectifier can obtain is 44.4 μW, which is 6.7× improvement compared to the maximum output power of a traditional rectifier. Both the active diodes and the P-SSHI help to improve the output power of the proposed rectifier. LDO outputs a voltage of 1.8 V with the maximum 90% power efficiency. The proposed P-SSHI rectifier interface circuit can be self-powered without the need for additional power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574103, U1709218) and the Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (No. 2017ZDXM-GY-006).

  20. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  1. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  2. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  3. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-an; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-21

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa(-1). More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  4. A self-powered glucose biosensor based on pyrolloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase and bilirubin oxidase operating under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tanmay; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-07-01

    A novel biosensing system capable of simultaneously sensing glucose and powering portable electronic devices such as a digital glucometer is described. The biosensing system consists of enzymatic glucose biofuel cell bioelectrodes functionalized with pyrolloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) at the bioanode and biocathode, respectively. A dual-stage power amplification circuit is integrated with the single biofuel cell to amplify the electrical power generated. In addition, a capacitor circuit was incorporated to serve as the transducer for sensing glucose. The open circuit voltage of the optimized biofuel cell reached 0.55 V, and the maximum power density achieved was 0.23 mW/ cm 2 at 0.29 V. The biofuel cell exhibited a sensitivity of 0.312 mW/mM.cm 2 with a linear dynamic range of 3 mM - 20 mM glucose. The overall self-powered glucose biosensor is capable of selectively screening against common interfering species, such as ascorbate and urate and exhibited an operational stability of over 53 days, while maintaining 90 % of its activity. These results demonstrate the system's potential to replace the current glucose monitoring devices that rely on external power supply, such as a battery.

  5. Self-Powered Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Triboelectric and Electrostatic Induction Effects at the Liquid-Dielectric Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Chen, Xiangyu; Cui, Haotian; Chen, Libo; Luo, Jianjun; Tang, Wei; Peng, Mingzeng; Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    Modern cryptography increasingly employs random numbers generated from physical sources in lieu of conventional software-based pseudorandom numbers, primarily owing to the great demand of unpredictable, indecipherable cryptographic keys from true random numbers for information security. Thus, far, the sole demonstration of true random numbers has been generated through thermal noise and/or quantum effects, which suffers from expensive and complex equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for self-powered creation of true random numbers by using triboelectric technology to collect random signals from nature. This random number generator based on coupled triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects at the liquid-dielectric interface includes an elaborately designed triboelectric generator (TENG) with an irregular grating structure, an electronic-optical device, and an optical-electronic device. The random characteristics of raindrops are harvested through TENG and consequently transformed and converted by electronic-optical device and an optical-electronic device with a nonlinear characteristic. The cooperation of the mechanical, electrical, and optical signals ensures that the generator possesses complex nonlinear input-output behavior and contributes to increased randomness. The random number sequences are deduced from final electrical signals received by an optical-electronic device using a familiar algorithm. These obtained random number sequences exhibit good statistical characteristics, unpredictability, and unrepeatability. Our study supplies a simple, practical, and effective method to generate true random numbers, which can be widely used in cryptographic protocols, digital signatures, authentication, identification, and other information security fields.

  6. Self-Powered, One-Stop, and Multifunctional Implantable Triboelectric Active Sensor for Real-Time Biomedical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ye; Zheng, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Bojin; Xue, Xiang; Ji, Weiping; Liu, Zhuo; Jin, Yiming; Zou, Yang; An, Zhao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinxin; Jiang, Wen; Xu, Zhiyun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Hao

    2016-10-12

    Operation time of implantable electronic devices is largely constrained by the lifetime of batteries, which have to be replaced periodically by surgical procedures once exhausted, causing physical and mental suffering to patients and increasing healthcare costs. Besides the efficient scavenging of the mechanical energy of internal organs, this study proposes a self-powered, flexible, and one-stop implantable triboelectric active sensor (iTEAS) that can provide continuous monitoring of multiple physiological and pathological signs. As demonstrated in human-scale animals, the device can monitor heart rates, reaching an accuracy of ∼99%. Cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular premature contraction can be detected in real-time. Furthermore, a novel method of monitoring respiratory rates and phases is established by analyzing variations of the output peaks of the iTEAS. Blood pressure can be independently estimated and the velocity of blood flow calculated with the aid of a separate arterial pressure catheter. With the core-shell packaging strategy, monitoring functionality remains excellent during 72 h after closure of the chest. The in vivo biocompatibility of the device is examined after 2 weeks of implantation, proving suitability for practical use. As a multifunctional biomedical monitor that is exempt from needing an external power supply, the proposed iTEAS holds great potential in the future of the healthcare industry.

  7. Self-Powered Wireless Smart Sensor Node Enabled by an Ultrastable, Highly Efficient, and Superhydrophobic-Surface-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2016-09-27

    Wireless sensor networks will be responsible for a majority of the fast growth in intelligent systems in the next decade. However, most of the wireless smart sensor nodes require an external power source such as a Li-ion battery, where the labor cost and environmental waste issues of replacing batteries have largely limited the practical applications. Instead of using a Li-ion battery, we report an ultrastable, highly efficient, and superhydrophobic-surface-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to scavenge wind energy for sustainably powering a wireless smart temperature sensor node. There is no decrease in the output voltage and current of the TENG after continuous working for about 14 h at a wind speed of 12 m/s. Through a power management circuit, the TENG can deliver a constant output voltage of 3.3 V and a pulsed output current of about 100 mA to achieve highly efficient energy storage in a capacitor. A wireless smart temperature sensor node can be sustainably powered by the TENG for sending the real-time temperature data to an iPhone under a working distance of 26 m, demonstrating the feasibility of the self-powered wireless smart sensor networks.

  8. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. Triboelectric nanogenerators as new energy technology for self-powered systems and as active mechanical and chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-26

    Triboelectrification is an effect that is known to each and every one probably since ancient Greek time, but it is usually taken as a negative effect and is avoided in many technologies. We have recently invented a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that is used to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. As for this power generation unit, in the inner circuit, a potential is created by the triboelectric effect due to the charge transfer between two thin organic/inorganic films that exhibit opposite tribo-polarity; in the outer circuit, electrons are driven to flow between two electrodes attached on the back sides of the films in order to balance the potential. Since the most useful materials for TENG are organic, it is also named organic nanogenerator, which is the first using organic materials for harvesting mechanical energy. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of the TENG in the three basic operation modes: vertical contact-separation mode, in-plane sliding mode, and single-electrode mode. Ever since the first report of the TENG in January 2012, the output power density of TENG has been improved 5 orders of magnitude within 12 months. The area power density reaches 313 W/m(2), volume density reaches 490 kW/m(3), and a conversion efficiency of ∼60% has been demonstrated. The TENG can be applied to harvest all kinds of mechanical energy that is available but wasted in our daily life, such as human motion, walking, vibration, mechanical triggering, rotating tire, wind, flowing water, and more. Alternatively, TENG can also be used as a self-powered sensor for actively detecting the static and dynamic processes arising from mechanical agitation using the voltage and current output signals of the TENG, respectively, with potential applications for touch pad and smart skin technologies. To enhance the performance of the TENG, besides the vast choices of materials in the triboelectric

  11. Underwater thrust and power generation using flexible piezoelectric composites: an experimental investigation toward self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, Alper; Delporte, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-based flexible piezoelectric composites offer several advantages to use in energy harvesting and biomimetic locomotion. These advantages include ease of application, high power density, effective bending actuation, silent operation over a range of frequencies, and light weight. Piezoelectric materials exhibit the well-known direct and converse piezoelectric effects. The direct piezoelectric effect has received growing attention for low-power generation to use in wireless electronic applications while the converse piezoelectric effect constitutes an alternative to replace the conventional actuators used in biomimetic locomotion. In this paper, underwater thrust and electricity generation are investigated experimentally by focusing on biomimetic structures with macro-fiber composite piezoelectrics. Fish-like bimorph configurations with and without a passive caudal fin (tail) are fabricated and compared. The favorable effect of having a passive caudal fin on the frequency bandwidth is reported. The presence of a passive caudal fin is observed to bring the second bending mode close to the first one, yielding a wideband behavior in thrust generation. The same smart fish configuration is tested for underwater piezoelectric power generation in response to harmonic excitation from its head. Resonant piezohydroelastic actuation is reported to generate milli-newton level hydrodynamic thrust using milli-watt level actuation power input. The average actuation power requirement for generating a mean thrust of 19 mN at 6 Hz using a 10 g piezoelastic fish with a caudal fin is measured as 120 mW. This work also discusses the feasibility of thrust generation using the harvested energy toward enabling self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms with comparisons based on the capacity levels of structural thin-film battery layers as well as harvested solar and vibrational energy

  12. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-10-06

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Suspended polytetrafluoroethylene nanostructure electret film in dual variable cavities for self-powered micro-shock sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Chen, Cong; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    We report a suspended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanostructure electret film in dual variable cavities for a self-powered micro-shock sensing application. The prototype contained series variable air cavities, a suspended nanostructure PTFE electret film and independent electrode films. The charges on the suspended nanostructure PTFE electret film provided the electrostatic field around the electret film in the series variable air cavities. When the reported device was driven by a micro-shock pressure, the inducted electrostatic charges on both the top and bottom electrodes would vary as the micro-shock pressing or releasing. Experimental results showed that the maximum of a short-circuit current density (J sc ) and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) reached 3 ± 0.1 nA cm‑2 and 3.6 ± 0.1 V, respectively. It was found that the parameter J sc was more advantageous in identifying stronger shocks (parameter acceleration a bigger than 0.1 m s‑2), whereas the parameter V oc was more sensitive for weaker shocks, such as acceleration a smaller than 0.1 m s‑2. Moreover, finger continuous micro-shock pressure taps application was used to demonstrate the mechanical energy conversion performance with 4.5 ± 0.2 V open-circuit voltages. The research on the nanostructure electret PTFE film in series dual variable air cavities not only gave us a fresh idea about the principle and design of the shocking sensor, but also provided an easy fabrication and a low cost shocking sensor for the Internet of Things (IoT) systems.

  14. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.; Lai, Ying-Chih; He, Xu; Liu, Ruiyuan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  15. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.

    2017-05-15

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  16. Self-powered vision electronic-skin basing on piezo-photodetecting Ppy/PVDF pixel-patterned matrix for mimicking vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wuxiao; Zhang, Linlin; He, Haoxuan; Liu, Hongmin; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-06-01

    The development of multifunctional electronic-skin that establishes human-machine interfaces, enhances perception abilities or has other distinct biomedical applications is the key to the realization of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a new self-powered (battery-free) flexible vision electronic-skin has been realized from pixel-patterned matrix of piezo-photodetecting PVDF/Ppy film. The electronic-skin under applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric voltage, and the outputting signal can be significantly influenced by UV illumination. The piezoelectric output can act as both the photodetecting signal and electricity power. The reliability is demonstrated over 200 light on–off cycles. The sensing unit matrix of 6 × 6 pixels on the electronic-skin can realize image recognition through mapping multi-point UV stimuli. This self-powered vision electronic-skin that simply mimics human retina may have potential application in vision substitution.

  17. Self-powered vision electronic-skin basing on piezo-photodetecting Ppy/PVDF pixel-patterned matrix for mimicking vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wuxiao; Zhang, Linlin; He, Haoxuan; Liu, Hongmin; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-06-22

    The development of multifunctional electronic-skin that establishes human-machine interfaces, enhances perception abilities or has other distinct biomedical applications is the key to the realization of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a new self-powered (battery-free) flexible vision electronic-skin has been realized from pixel-patterned matrix of piezo-photodetecting PVDF/Ppy film. The electronic-skin under applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric voltage, and the outputting signal can be significantly influenced by UV illumination. The piezoelectric output can act as both the photodetecting signal and electricity power. The reliability is demonstrated over 200 light on-off cycles. The sensing unit matrix of 6 × 6 pixels on the electronic-skin can realize image recognition through mapping multi-point UV stimuli. This self-powered vision electronic-skin that simply mimics human retina may have potential application in vision substitution.

  18. Design and development of self-powered sensors on wireless sensor network for standalone plant critical data management during SBO and beyond design basis events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparna, J.; Dulera, I.V.; Rama Rao, A.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced reactors are designed with an aim of maximum safety, optimized fuel utilization and effective system design. Safety aspects in reactor designs are being viewed for all possible vulnerabilities, and as a result, robust self-regulating passive safety features have been favored in Gen IV and advanced reactor designs. In addition to passive systems, the accidents scenarios at Fukushima indicate the dire need of reliable and stand-alone self-powered sensors, for monitoring plant critical parameters for effective damage control actions. There is a strong need for plant critical data management and situation awareness during the unavailability of all conventional power sources in a nuclear power plant, during extended station blackout (SBO) conditions. These self-powered sensors would assist the operators in managing events like SBO and help in containing any Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) conditions, well away from the public domain

  19. Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Nanowire Heterojunction Solar Cells with Gas-Dependent Photovoltaic Performances and Their Application in Self-Powered NO2 Detecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi; Zhang, Zexia; Xiao, Lin; Lv, Ruitao

    2016-12-01

    A multifunctional device combining photovoltaic conversion and toxic gas sensitivity is reported. In this device, carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes are used to cover onto silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays to form heterojunction. The porous structure and large specific surface area in the heterojunction structure are both benefits for gas adsorption. In virtue of these merits, gas doping is a feasible method to improve cell's performance and the device can also work as a self-powered gas sensor beyond a solar cell. It shows a significant improvement in cell efficiency (more than 200 times) after NO2 molecules doping (device working as a solar cell) and a fast, reversible response property for NO2 detection (device working as a gas sensor). Such multifunctional CNT-SiNW structure can be expected to open a new avenue for developing self-powered, efficient toxic gas-sensing devices in the future.

  20. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  1. Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: Phase-Selective Low-Temperature Growth, Carrier Transport Properties, and Self-Powered Photodetection

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-12-06

    A rapid, low-temperature, and solution-based route is developed for growing large-sized cesium lead halide perovskite single crystals under ambient conditions. An ultralow minority carrier concentration was measured in CsPbBr3 (≈108 holes per cm3, much lower than in any other lead halide perovskite and crystalline silicon), which enables to realize self-powered photodetectors with a high ON/OFF ratio (105).

  2. Performance Test for Neutron Detector and Associated System using Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Park, Sung Jae; Cho, Man Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Hyun [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SPND (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) has been developed to extend its lifespan. ENFMS (Ex-Core Flux Monitoring System) of pressurized water reactor has been also improved. After the development and improvement, their performance must be verified under the neutron irradiation environment. We used a research reactor for the performance verification of neutron detector and associated system because the research reactor can meet the neutron flux level of commercial nuclear reactor. In this paper, we report the performance verification method and result for the SPND and ENFMS using the research reactor. The performance tests for the SPND and ENFMS were conducted using UCI TRIGA reactor. The test environment of commercial reactor’s neutron flux level must be required. However, it is difficult to perform the test in the commercial rector due to the constraint of time and space. The research reactor can be good alternative neutron source for the test of neutron detectors and associated system.

  3. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  4. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  5. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  6. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  7. A washable, stretchable, and self-powered human-machine interfacing Triboelectric nanogenerator for wireless communications and soft robotics pressure sensor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-01-20

    Flexible and stretchable human-machine Interfacing devices have attracted great attention due to the need for portable, ergonomic, and geometrically compatible devices in the new era of computer technology. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have shown promising potential for self-powered human–machine interacting devices. In this paper, a flexible, stretchable and self-powered keyboard is developed based on vertical contact-separation mode TENG. The keyboard is fabricated using urethane, silicone rubbers and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes. The structure shows a highly flexible, stretchable, and mechanically durable behavior, which can be conformal on different surfaces. The keyboard is capable of converting mechanical energy of finger tapping to electrical energy based on contact electrification, which can eliminate the need of external power source. The device can be utilized for wireless communication with computers owing to the self-powering mechanism. The keyboards also demonstrate consistent behavior in generating voltage signals regardless of touching objects’ materials and environmental effects like humidity. In addition, the proposed system can be used for keystroke dynamic-based authentication. Therefore, highly secured accessibility to the computers can be achieved owing to the keyboard’s high sensitivity and accurate selectivity of different users.

  8. A fully packaged self-powered sensor based on near-field electrospun arrays of poly(vinylidene fluoride nano/micro fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-K. Fuh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting devices based on the triboelectric and piezoelectric principles have been widely developed to scavenge wasteful and tiny mechanical energy into usable electrical energy. In particular, triboelectric energy harvesting generators with relatively simpler structure and piezoelectric fiber-based counterpart with extremely light weight compositions showed a very promising application in the self-powered sensors. In this paper, a novel hybridization of graphenebased piezoelectric generator (GBPG and graphene-PET triboelectric generator (GPTG were simultaneously packaged. The integrated structure, graphene-based hybridized self-powered sensor (GHSPS, was demonstrated to be optically transparent and mechanically robust. For the piezoelectrically harvesting device, an in-situ poling and direct-write near-field electrospinning (NFES Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF piezoelectric fibers were fabricated and integrated with a single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD grown graphene. On the other hand for GPTG counterpart, two composite layers of a single layer graphene/PET simultaneously served as triboelectrically rubbing layers as well as bottom/top electrode. This GHSPS successfully superimposed both piezoelectric and triboelectric electricity and the synergistically higher output voltage/current/power were measured as ~6 V/280 nA/172 nW in one press-and-release cycle of finger induced motion. The proposed GHSPS showed a promising application in the field of self-powered sensors to be ubiquitously implemented in the future Industry 4.0 scenarios.

  9. A washable, stretchable, and self-powered human-machine interfacing Triboelectric nanogenerator for wireless communications and soft robotics pressure sensor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Zhang, Steven L.; Hassan, Islam; Saadatnia, Zia; Zi, Yunlong; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable human-machine Interfacing devices have attracted great attention due to the need for portable, ergonomic, and geometrically compatible devices in the new era of computer technology. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have shown promising potential for self-powered human–machine interacting devices. In this paper, a flexible, stretchable and self-powered keyboard is developed based on vertical contact-separation mode TENG. The keyboard is fabricated using urethane, silicone rubbers and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes. The structure shows a highly flexible, stretchable, and mechanically durable behavior, which can be conformal on different surfaces. The keyboard is capable of converting mechanical energy of finger tapping to electrical energy based on contact electrification, which can eliminate the need of external power source. The device can be utilized for wireless communication with computers owing to the self-powering mechanism. The keyboards also demonstrate consistent behavior in generating voltage signals regardless of touching objects’ materials and environmental effects like humidity. In addition, the proposed system can be used for keystroke dynamic-based authentication. Therefore, highly secured accessibility to the computers can be achieved owing to the keyboard’s high sensitivity and accurate selectivity of different users.

  10. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  11. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  12. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  13. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  14. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  15. The JADE muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-01-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

  16. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  17. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  20. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  1. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  2. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  3. Development of SiC Neutron Detector Assembly to Measure the Neutron Flux of the Reactor Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Hwan; Park, June Sic; Shin, Hee Sung; Kim, Ho Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    At present, the conventional detector to measure the neutron at harsh environment is a Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND). Rhodium(Rh)-103 is in the SPND. When neutron is incident on the Rhodium, the neutron capture reaction occurs, and the Rh-103 is converted to Rh-104. The Rh-104 is decayed to Pd-104 by {beta}-decay, and electrons are generated as the decay products. Because of the half life of Rh-104, approximately 5 minutes are required for the SPND output to reach the equilibrium condition. Therefore the on-line monitoring of the nuclear reactor state is limited if the neutron flux in the reactor core is monitored with the SPND. Silicon carbide (SiC) has the possibility to be developed as neutron detector at harsh environment, because the SiC can be operative at high temperature and high neutron flux conditions. Previously, the basic operation properties of the SiC detector were studied. Also, the radiation response of the SiC detector was studied at high neutron and gamma dose rate. The measurement results for an ex-core neutron flux monitor or a neutron flux monitor of the spent fuel were published. The SiC detector was also developed as neutron detector to measure the fissile material with active interrogation method. However, the studies about the development of SiC detector are still limited. In the present work, the radiation damage effect of the SiC detector was studied. The detector structure was determined based on the study, and a neutron detector assembly was made with the SiC detectors. The neutron and gamma-ray response of the detector assembly is presented in this paper. The detector assembly was positioned in the HANARO research reactor core, the performance test was done. The preliminary results are also included in this paper

  4. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  5. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  6. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  7. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  8. TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Based Self-Powered UV Photodetector: Heterojunction with NiO Nanoflakes and Enhanced UV Photoresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanyan; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Dong, Hong; Cheng, Yahui; Wei, Chengtai; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Shougen; Li, Lan

    2018-04-04

    The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high-performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO 2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiO x thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO 2 NRs and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices. NiO/TiO 2 nanostructural heterojunctions show excellent rectifying characteristics (rectification ratio of 2.52 × 10 4 and 1.45 × 10 5 for NiO/TiO 2 NRs and NiO/TiO 2 NRs/TiO x , respectively) with a very low reverse saturation current. The PDs based on the heterojunctions exhibit good spectral selectivity, high photoresponsivity, and fast response and recovery speeds without external applied bias under the weak light radiation. The devices demonstrate good stability and repeatability under UV light radiation. The self-powered performance could be attributed to the proper built-in electric field of the heterojunction. TiO 2 NRs and NiO nanoflakes construct the well-aligned energy-band structure. The enhanced responsivity and detectivity for the devices with TiO x thin films is related to the increased interfacial charge separation efficiency, reduced carrier recombination, and relatively good electron transport of TiO 2 NRs.

  9. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  10. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  11. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  12. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  13. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  14. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. Copyright © 2014 ISA. All rights reserved.

  15. Variable self-powered light detection CMOS chip with real-time adaptive tracking digital output based on a novel on-chip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HongYi; Fan, Youyou; Lu, Zhijian; Luo, Tao; Fu, Houqiang; Song, Hongjiang; Zhao, Yuji; Christen, Jennifer Blain

    2017-10-02

    This paper provides a solution for a self-powered light direction detection with digitized output. Light direction sensors, energy harvesting photodiodes, real-time adaptive tracking digital output unit and other necessary circuits are integrated on a single chip based on a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process. Light direction sensors proposed have an accuracy of 1.8 degree over a 120 degree range. In order to improve the accuracy, a compensation circuit is presented for photodiodes' forward currents. The actual measurement precision of output is approximately 7 ENOB. Besides that, an adaptive under voltage protection circuit is designed for variable supply power which may undulate with temperature and process.

  16. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  17. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring panel. Specifications and methods for testing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roguin, Andre.

    1976-02-01

    This document will be of interest to users and makers of neutron and gamma radiations detectors in the field of nuclear reactor control and protection. Information is given which will enable users to optimize their choice and methods of using equipment, and makers to optimize their methods of fabrication. It should also serve as a model from which official specifications, technical instructions and test methods for these detectors, could be established. A detailed description is given of the appropriate parameters, terminology and notations. General specifications, operating conditions and test methods are indicated. The following detectors are studied: in-core detectors: fission ionization chambers, self powered neutron detectors (S.P.N.D.); out-core detectors: boron ionization chambers (for monitoring), boron trifluoride proportional counter tubes, boron lined proportional counter tubes, helium-3 proportional counter tubes. The devices described in the document are intended for industrial radiation monitoring applications and not for calibration standards (dosimetry) or for health physics measurement purposes. They are characterized by their fidelity, fast response, reliability and long lifetimes [fr

  18. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  19. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  20. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  1. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  2. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  3. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  4. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  5. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  6. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  7. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  8. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  9. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  10. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  11. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  12. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  13. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  14. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  15. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  16. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  17. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  18. Detecting Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at Room Temperature Using ZnSnO3/ZnO Nanowire Piezo-Nanogenerator as Self-Powered Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongming; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-05-20

    High sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability have been achieved from ZnSnO3/ZnO nanowire (NW) piezo-nanogenerator (NG) as self-powered gas sensor (SPGS) for detecting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (RT). After being exposed to 8000 ppm LPG, the output piezo-voltage of ZnSnO3/ZnO NW SPGS under compressive deformation is 0.089 V, much smaller than that in air ambience (0.533 V). The sensitivity of the SPGS against 8000 ppm LPG is up to 83.23, and the low limit of detection is 600 ppm. The SPGS has lower sensitivity against H2S, H2, ethanol, methanol and saturated water vapor than LPG, indicating good selectivity for detecting LPG. After two months, the decline of the sensing performance is less than 6%. Such piezo-LPG sensing at RT can be ascribed to the new piezo-surface coupling effect of ZnSnO3/ZnO nanocomposites. The practical application of the device driven by human motion has also been simply demonstrated. This work provides a novel approach to fabricate RT-LPG sensors and promotes the development of self-powered sensing system.

  19. Improving the Working Efficiency of a Triboelectric Nanogenerator by the Semimetallic PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer and Its Application in Self-Powered Active Acetylene Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A S M Iftekhar; Yaqoob, Usman; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2016-11-09

    Herein we report an enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on the contact-separation mode between a patterned film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a semimetallic elastomer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and a nylon fiber film. The addition of ethylene glycol to the PEDOT:PSS film improves the functionality of the TENG significantly, yielding promising applicability in both indoor and outdoor (i.e., under sunlight) environments, with the maximum instantaneous power of 0.09 mW (indoors) and 0.2 mW (outdoors) for the load resistance of 3.8 MΩ. The device can also generate 11.2 V and 0.08 μA cm -2 in response to the forearm movement of a human. Additionally, by replacing the bare nylon fiber in the TENG design with a Ag@ZnO/nylon fiber film, a self-powered active sensor (triboelectric nanogenerator-based sensor; TENS) has been realized to detect acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) gas. The TENS exhibits excellent sensitivity of 70.9% (indoors) and 89% (outdoors) to C 2 H 2 gas of 1000 ppm concentration. The proposed approach for harvesting energy and sensing can be advantageous in practical applications and may stimulate new research that will enhance nanogenerators as well as wearable, self-powered active sensors.

  20. Enhanced Photocurrent in BiFeO3 Materials by Coupling Temperature and Thermo-Phototronic Effects for Self-Powered Ultraviolet Photodetector System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jia; Ma, Nan; Ma, Xiaochen; Adelung, Rainer; Yang, Ya

    2018-04-25

    Ferroelectric materials can be utilized for fabricating photodetectors because of the photovoltaic effect. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of ferroelectric materials is still a challenge. Here, a self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is designed based on the ferroelectric BiFeO 3 (BFO) material, exhibiting a high current/voltage response to 365 nm light in heating/cooling states. The photovoltaic performance of the BFO-based device can be well modulated by applying different temperature variations, where the output current and voltage can be enhanced by 60 and 75% in heating and cooling states, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the photocurrent is associated with both temperature effect and thermo-phototronic effect in the photovoltaic process. Moreover, a 4 × 4 matrix photodetector array has been designed for detecting the 365 nm light distribution in the cooling state by utilizing photovoltage signals. This study clarifies the role of the temperature effect and the thermo-phototronic effect in the photovoltaic process of the BFO material and provides a feasible route for pushing forward practical applications of self-powered UV photodetectors.

  1. Graphene-Silver-Induced Self-Polarized PVDF-Based Flexible Plasmonic Nanogenerator Toward the Realization for New Class of Self Powered Optical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Maiti, Rishi; Jana, Santanu; Adhikari, Basudam; Mandal, Dipankar; Ray, Samit K

    2016-06-22

    Plasmonic characteristics of graphene-silver (GAg) nanocomposite coupled with piezoelectric property of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been utilized to realize a new class of self-powered flexible plasmonic nanogenerator (PNG). A few layer graphene has been prepared in a facile and cost-effective method and GAg doped PVDF hybrid nanocomposite (PVGAg) is synthesized in a one-pot method. The PNG exhibits superior piezoelectric energy conversion efficiency (∼15%) under the dark condition. The plasmonic behavior of GAg nanocomposite makes the PNG highly responsive to the visible light illumination that leads to ∼50% change in piezo-voltage and ∼70% change in piezo-current, leading to enhanced energy conversion efficiency up to ∼46.6%. The piezoelectric throughput of PNG (e.g., capacitor charging performance) has been monitored during the detection of the different wavelengths of visible light illumination and showed maximum selectivity to the green light. The simultaneous mechanical energy harvesting and visible-light detection capabilities of the PNG are attractive for futuristic self-powered optoelectronic smart sensors and devices.

  2. A Self-Powered Wearable Noninvasive Electronic-Skin for Perspiration Analysis Based on Piezo-Biosensing Unit Matrix of Enzyme/ZnO Nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wuxiao; He, Haoxuan; Zhang, Linlin; Dong, Chuanyi; Zeng, Hui; Dai, Yitong; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2017-09-06

    The emerging multifunctional flexible electronic-skin for establishing body-electric interaction can enable real-time monitoring of personal health status as a new personalized medicine technique. A key difficulty in the device design is the flexible power supply. Here a self-powered wearable noninvasive electronic-skin for perspiration analysis has been realized on the basis of a piezo-biosensing unit matrix of enzyme/ZnO nanoarrays. The electronic-skin can detect lactate, glucose, uric acid, and urea in the perspiration, and no outside electrical power supply or battery is used in the biosensing process. The piezoelectric impulse of the piezo-biosensing units serves as the power supply and the data biosensor. The working mechanism can be ascribed to the piezoelectric-enzymatic-reaction coupling effect of enzyme/ZnO nanowires. The electronic-skin can real-time/continuously monitor the physiological state of a runner through analyzing the perspiration on his skin. This approach can promote the development of a new-type of body electric and self-powered biosensing electronic-skin.

  3. The GDH-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, K; Fausten, M; Menze, D; Michel, T; Nagel, A; Ryckbosch, D; Speckner, T; Vyver, R V D; Zeitler, G

    2002-01-01

    For the GDH-Experiment at ELSA, the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross-section is to be determined. These measurements will be performed with the newly developed GDH-Detector which is presented here. The concept of the GDH-Detector is to detect at least one reaction product from all possible hadronic processes with almost complete acceptance concerning solid angle and efficiency. This is realized by an arrangement of scintillators and lead. The overall acceptance for hadronic processes is better than 99%. The electromagnetic background is suppressed by about five orders of magnitude by means of a threshold Cherenkov detector. In dedicated tests, it has been demonstrated that all individual components of the GDH-Detector fulfill the design goals. Measurements of unpolarized total photoabsorption cross-sections were performed to ensure that the complete GDH-Detector is operational.

  4. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  5. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  6. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  7. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  8. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  9. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  10. CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  12. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  13. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  14. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  15. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  16. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  17. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  18. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  19. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  20. The AGILE anticoincidence detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, F.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Mattaini, E.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.

    2006-01-01

    AGILE is a γ-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10 -4 . In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

  1. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  2. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  3. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  4. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  5. The HOTWAXS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  6. The HOTWAXS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D.M.; Fairclough, J.P.A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I.; Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source

  7. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  8. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  9. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  10. Nuclear detectors for in-core power-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, Jean; Verdant, Robert.

    1979-12-01

    Nuclear reactor control is commonly obtained through neutronic measurements, ex-core and in-core. In large size reactors flux instabilities may take place. For a good monitoring of them, local in-core power measurements become particularly useful. This paper intends to review the questions about neutronic sensors with could be used in-core. A historical account about methods is given first, from early power reactors with brief description of each system. Sensors presently used (ionization fission chambers, self-powered detectors) are then considered and also those which could be developped such as gamma thermometers. Their physical basis, main characteristics and operation modes are detailed. Preliminary tests and works needed for an extension of their life-time are indicated. As an example present irradiation tests at the CEA are then proposed. Two tables will help comparing the characteristics of each type in terms of its precise purpose: fuel monitoring, safety or power control. Finally a table summarizes the kind of sensors mounted on working power reactors and another one is a review of characteristics for some detectors from obtainable commercial sheets [fr

  11. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  12. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  13. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  14. Sensitive detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

  15. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  16. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  17. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  18. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  19. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  20. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  1. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  2. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  3. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  4. Microsonic detector (MSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, J.T.; Haridas, P.; Oh, S.H.; Pless, I.A.; Stoughton, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

  5. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  6. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  7. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  8. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  9. Frontier detectors for frontier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, F.; Scribano, A.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  10. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  11. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  12. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  13. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  15. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  16. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  17. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Jacobs, S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given of the initial detector design, focusing on the cost estimates and on the inner detector modules. With regard to inner modules, the rate problem was examined for the closest elements, and the question whether one should use argon or lead-liquid scintillator calorimeters was discussed. New designs which involved major modifications to the lepton detector are considered. The major motivations for alternative designs were twofold. One was that the original detector looked quite expensive, and a study of the tradeoff of money versus physics had not really been done yet. The second point was that, since the physics region to be explored was totally new ground, one would like to leave as many options open as possible and build a detector that was as flexible as possible. A scaled-down version of the original design, which was strongly favored by this study, appears to save an appreciable amount of money with a small decrease in the initial physics scope. The more modular designs seem quite attractive, but not enough time was spent to demonstrate feasibility

  18. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  19. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  20. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  1. Improved photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

  2. The ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, HM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions as well as in highly boosted jets will be discussed.

  3. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  4. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  5. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  6. The AFP detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Sicho, Petr; Zabinski, Bartlomiej

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  7. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  8. Detectors for rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of photographic data retrieval with the flexibility of operation of conventional gaseous or liquid detectors operated with electronic data retrieval. Possible applications of the proposed detectors to such problems as nucleon decay, neutrinoelectron interaction, and the search for magnetic monopoles are examined. Topics considered include the photography of ionization patterns, the photography of ionization tracks with the multistep avalanche chambers, and exploiting the stimulated scintillation light. Two processes which give rise to the emission of light when ionizing electrons interact in gases under the influence of an electric field are described

  9. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  10. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  11. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  12. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  14. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  17. High efficiency scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

  18. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  19. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity monitoring and measurements in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Most changes were motivated by the large (up to 50) number of interactions per bunch-crossing and short (25 ns) bunch-spacing expected in LHC run 2 (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2.

  20. Electret radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubu, M.

    1981-01-01

    The electret radiation detector consists of 30 to 35% of bee wax and of 65 to 70% of colophony. It is mainly the induction conductivity of charo.es between the dipoles in the electret which is used for detection. In the manufacture of the detector, the average atomic number of the electret can be altered by adding various compounds, such as ZnO, which also increases efficiency for gamma radiation. An alpha or beta emitter can also be built-in in the electret. (B.S.)