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Sample records for self-phase modulation spm

  1. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle terahertz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the terahertz pulse, leading to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency...

  2. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle THz pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the THz pulse. Electron heating leads to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency, which...... results in a strong modification of the THz-range dielectric function of the material. THz SPM is observed directly in the time domain as a characteristic reshaping of single-cycle THz pulse. In the frequency domain, it corresponds to a strong frequency-dependent refractive index nonlinearity of n...

  3. Contrast enhancement in an optical time-domain reflectometer via self-phase modulation compensation by chirped probe pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Vdovenko, V S; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a novel method for optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)–reflectogram contrast enhancement via compensation of nonlinear distortions of propagating probe pulse, which arise due to the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect in optical fiber. The compensation is performed via preliminary frequency modulation (chirp) of the initial probe pulse according to the specific law. As a result the OTDR contrast at some distant predefined fiber point is fully restored to the value of non-distorted probe pulse at the beginning of the fiber line. As a result, the performance of the phase OTDR increases. The point of full SPM compensation could be shifted to any other point of the fiber line via preliminary frequency modulation index change. The feasibility of the proposed method is theoretically proved and experimentally demonstrated. (paper)

  4. Characterization of ultrashort laser pulses employing self-phase modulation dispersion-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharba, A. B.; Chekhlov, O.; Wyatt, A. S.; Pattathil, R.; Borghesi, M.; Sarri, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present a new phase characterization technique for ultrashort laser pulses that employs self-phase modulation (SPM) in the dispersion scan approach. The method can be implemented by recording a set of nonlinearly modulated spectra generated with a set of known chirp values. The unknown phase of the pulse is retrieved by linking the recorded spectra to the initial spectrum of the pulse via a phase function guessed by a function minimization iterative algorithm. This technique has many advantages over the dispersion scan techniques that use frequency conversion processes. Mainly, the use of SPM cancels out the phase and group velocity mismatch errors and dramatically widens the spectral acceptance of the nonlinear medium and the range of working wavelength. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated with smooth and complex phase retrievals using numerical examples. The method is shown to be not affected by the spatial distribution of the beam or the presence of nonlinear absorption process. In addition, we present an efficient method for phase representation based on a summation of a set of Gaussian functions. The independence of the functions from each other prevents phase coupling of any kind and facilitates a flexible phase representation.

  5. Measuring of nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals using of self phase modulation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, M.; Jafari, A.; Tajalli, H.

    2007-01-01

    Self phase modulation in dye doped liquid crystals has investigated and the nonlinearity of dye doped liquid crystals is measured by this effect. The Self phase modulation effect can be used for producing optical micro rings that have many applications in photonics and laser industries.

  6. Black hole in a waveguide: Hawking radiation or self-phase modulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was suggested that Hawking radiation may be observed in a nonlinear electromagnetic waveguide upon propagation of an optical pulse. We show that the spectral characteristics of the Hawking effect in such a waveguide are indistinguishable from the well-known effect of frequency broadening of an optical pulse due to self-phase modulation. Furthermore, we derive an estimate on the critical optical power at which Hawking effect is dominated by the self-phase modulation. It appears that optical experiments reported so far are clearly dominated by self-phase modulation. (paper)

  7. Self-phase modulation of laser light in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Yamanaka, T.; Mizui, J.; Yamaguchi, N.

    1975-02-01

    A spectrum broadening due to the self-phase modulation of a laser light was observed in the laser produced deuterium and hydrogen plasma. Qualitative treatments of the density modulation due to the self-focusing process and the modulational instability were discussed. The theoretical estimation of spectrum broadening fairly accorded with the experimental results. (auth.)

  8. The optimal input optical pulse shape for the self-phase modulation based chirp generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachinyaev, Yuriy; Rumyantsev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The work is aimed to obtain the optimal shape of the input optical pulse for the proper functioning of the self-phase modulation based chirp generator allowing to achieve high values of chirp frequency deviation. During the research, the structure of the device based on self-phase modulation effect using has been analyzed. The influence of the input optical pulse shape of the transmitting optical module on the chirp frequency deviation has been studied. The relationship between the frequency deviation of the generated chirp and frequency linearity for the three options for implementation of the pulse shape has been also estimated. The results of research are related to the development of the theory of radio processors based on fiber-optic structures and can be used in radars, secure communications, geolocation and tomography.

  9. Optical phase conjugation for time-domain undoing of dispersive self-phase-modulation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.A.; Suydam, B.R.; Yevick, D.

    1983-01-01

    We show that the temporal distortion and spectral broadening of a pulse generated by the combined effects of group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation is removed by reflection of a cw-pumped, broadband, unity-reflecting Kerr-like optical phase conjugator followed by retraversal of the nonlinear medium. We also examine numerically the effects of finite linear loss in the material, of nonunity conjugate reflectivity, and of finite conjugator thickness

  10. Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zhigang; Kärtner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2016-07-11

    We propose and demonstrate a new approach to implement a wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser source suitable for multiphoton microscopy. We employ fiber-optic nonlinearities to broaden a narrowband optical spectrum generated by an Yb-fiber laser system and then use optical bandpass filters to select the leftmost or rightmost spectral lobes from the broadened spectrum. Detailed numerical modeling shows that self-phase modulation dominates the spectral broadening, self-steepening tends to blue shift the broadened spectrum, and stimulated Raman scattering is minimal. We also find that optical wave breaking caused by fiber dispersion slows down the shift of the leftmost/rightmost spectral lobes and therefore limits the wavelength tuning range of the filtered spectra. We show both numerically and experimentally that shortening the fiber used for spectral broadening while increasing the input pulse energy can overcome this dispersion-induced limitation; as a result, the filtered spectral lobes have higher power, constituting a powerful and practical approach for energy scaling the resulting femtosecond sources. We use two commercially available photonic crystal fibers to verify the simulation results. More specific, use of 20-mm fiber NL-1050-ZERO-2 enables us to implement an Yb-fiber laser based ultrafast source, delivering femtosecond (70-120 fs) pulses tunable from 825 nm to 1210 nm with >1 nJ pulse energy.

  11. SPM and XPM crosstalk in WDM systems with DRA: Channel spacing and attenuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Emadeldeen; Fayed, Heba A.; Abd El Aziz, Ahmed; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a closed formula for nonlinear crosstalk due to self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (XPM) in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems. The influence of channel spacing and attenuation on the system behavior is modeled and investigated. The system under consideration is a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with a single-span distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) and is operating at 100 Gbps.

  12. Spectral broadening of 25 fs laser pulses via self-phase modulation in a neon filled hollow core fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichert, Stefan

    2017-05-15

    The goal of this work was the realisation of a setup for spectral broadening and subsequent compression of 25 fs laser pulses provided by a commercial Ti:Sapphire based CPA laser system by means of the hollow core fibre chirped mirror compressor technique. For the spectral broadening a vessel containing the hollow waveguide filled with a noble gas serving as the nonlinear medium was set up and an alignment procedure was developed. Neon was chosen as the nonlinear medium for the self-phase modulation of the pulses. With this setup spectral broadening, sufficient for supporting sub 5 fs pulses, was observed. The spectra at different input energies and neon gas pressures were measured and the stability of these and their respective Fourier transform-limited pulses determined in order to find an operating point. For the compression of the self-phase modulated pulses a chirped mirror compressor was designed and set up, but not tested yet. The layout of a single-shot intensity autocorrelator capable of estimating the pulse duration of sub 10 fs pulses was given.

  13. Spectral broadening of 25 fs laser pulses via self-phase modulation in a neon filled hollow core fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this work was the realisation of a setup for spectral broadening and subsequent compression of 25 fs laser pulses provided by a commercial Ti:Sapphire based CPA laser system by means of the hollow core fibre chirped mirror compressor technique. For the spectral broadening a vessel containing the hollow waveguide filled with a noble gas serving as the nonlinear medium was set up and an alignment procedure was developed. Neon was chosen as the nonlinear medium for the self-phase modulation of the pulses. With this setup spectral broadening, sufficient for supporting sub 5 fs pulses, was observed. The spectra at different input energies and neon gas pressures were measured and the stability of these and their respective Fourier transform-limited pulses determined in order to find an operating point. For the compression of the self-phase modulated pulses a chirped mirror compressor was designed and set up, but not tested yet. The layout of a single-shot intensity autocorrelator capable of estimating the pulse duration of sub 10 fs pulses was given.

  14. Electronic origin of spatial self-phase modulation: Evidenced by comparing graphite with C{sub 60} and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. L.; Zhu, L. L. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Q.; Sun, F.; Wei, J. K.; Tian, Y. C.; Wang, W. L.; Bai, X. D.; Zhao, Jimin, E-mail: jmzhao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xzuonku@outlook.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zuo, Xu, E-mail: jmzhao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: xzuonku@outlook.com [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-06-13

    We report unambiguous observation of spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) in a dispersive suspension of graphite flakes. This coherent nonlinear optical effect in bulk graphite is found to be broadband and large, with a third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} of 2.2 × 10{sup −9} esu (i.e., 3.1 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} in SI units) at 532 nm excitation. Comparison with other carbon allotropes shows that this value is 5 × 10{sup 7} times higher than that of C{sub 60} but ∼50 times lower than that of graphene, fully exhibiting the electronic origin of SSPM.

  15. Study of SPM tolerances of electronically compensated DML based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannakis, I; Klonidis, D; Birbas, Alexios N; Kikidis, J; Tomkos, I

    2009-05-25

    This paper experimentally investigates the effectiveness of electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) for signals limited by self phase modulation (SPM) and various dispersion levels. The sources considered are low-cost conventional directly modulated lasers (DMLs), fabricated for operation at 2.5 Gb/s but modulated at 10 Gb/s. Performance improvement is achieved by means of electronic feed-forward and decision-feedback equalization (FFE/DFE) at the receiver end. Experimental studies consider both transient and adiabatic chirp dominated DMLs sources. The improvement is evaluated in terms of required optical signal-to-noise ratio (ROSNR) for bit-error-rate (BER) values of 10(-3) versus launch power over uncompensated links of standard single mode fiber (SSMF).

  16. Analytical Characterization of SPM Impact on XPM-Induced Degradation in Dispersion-Compensated WDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ruben S.; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes the definition of a cross-phase modulation (XPM)-induced power penalty for intensity modulation/direct detection (IM-DD) systems as a function of the normalized variance of the XPM-induced IM. This allows the definition of 1-dB power penalty reference values. New expressions of the equivalent linear model transfer functions for the XPM-induced IM and phase modulation (PM) that include the influence of self-phase modulation (SPM) as well as group-velocity dispersion are derived. The new expressions allow a significant extension for higher powers and dispersion parameters of expressions derived in previous papers for single-segment and multisegment fiber systems with dispersion compensation. Good agreement between analytical results and numerical simulations is obtained. Consistency with work performed numerically and experimentally by other authors is shown, validating the proposed model. Using the proposed model, the influence of residual dispersion and SPM on the limitations imposed by XPM on the performance of dispersion-compensated systems is assessed. It is shown that inline residual dispersion may lead to performance improvement for a properly tuned total residual dispersion. The influence of SPM is shown to degrade the system performance when nonzero-dispersion-shifted fiber is used. However, systems using standard single-mode fiber may benefit from the presence of SPM.

  17. Simultaneous all-optical demultiplexing and regeneration based on self-phase and cross-phase modulation in a dispersion shifted fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous demultiplexing and regeneration of 40-Gb/s optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) signal based on self-phase and cross-phase modulation in a dispersion shifted fiber is numerically and experimentally investigated. The optimal walkoff time between the control pulse and OTDM signal...... is obtained by numerical simulation. Our experiment also shows that it is an effective method for realizing simultaneous demultiplexing and regeneration when used in the middle of a system or in the receiver with a proper walkoff time....

  18. SPM Bulletin 13

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaban, B

    2005-01-01

    Contents of this issue: Workshops on SPM themes; Second workshop on Coverings, Selections and Games in Topology (SPM05); Analysis and Descriptive Set Theory Workshop; Descriptive set theory: Effective methods, equivalence relations; Analysis: typical functions, level sets structure; Organizational and additional details; Research announcements; Cardinal restrictions on some homogeneous compacta; Filters: Topological congruence relations on groups; Inverse Limits and Function Algebras; Ultrafilters and partial products of infinite cyclic groups; More on regular reduced products; Consistency of ``the ideal of null restricted to some A is kappa-complete not kappa^+-complete, kappa weakly inaccessible and cov(M)=aleph_1''; On removing one point from a compact space; Problems from earlier issues.

  19. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  20. SPM for functional identification of individual biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Robert; Schwesinger, Falk; Padeste, Celestino; Plueckthun, Andreas; Anselmetti, Dario; Guentherodt, Hans-Joachim; Tiefenauer, Louis

    1999-06-01

    The identification of specific binding molecules is of increasing interest in the context of drug development based on combinatorial libraries. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is the method of choice to image and probe individual biomolecules on a surface. Functional identification of biomolecules is a first step towards screening on a single molecule level. As a model system we use recombinant single- chain Fv fragment (scFv) antibody molecules directed against the antigen fluorescein. The scFv's are covalently immobilized on a flat gold surface via the C-terminal cysteine, resulting in a high accessibility of the binding site. The antigen is immobilized covalently via a long hydrophilic spacer to the silicon nitride SPM-tip. This arrangement allows a direct measurement of binding forces. Thus, closely related antibody molecules differing in only one amino acid at their binding site could be distinguished. A novel SPM-software has been developed which combines imaging, force spectroscopic modes, and online analysis. This is a major prerequisite for future screening methods.

  1. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huey, Bryan D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  2. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier

  3. The art of SPM : scanning probe microscopy in materials science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this Progress Report, outstanding scientific applications of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the field of materials science and the latest technique developments are introduced and discussed. Besides being able to image the organization of matter with sub-nanometer resolution, SPM, owing to

  4. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  5. Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S; Ogino, T; Shirakashi, J; Takemura, Y

    2008-01-01

    Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution is investigated by optimizing the applied bias voltage (V), scanning speed (S) and the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever (A). We fabricated Si oxide wires with an average width of 9.8 nm (V = 17.5 V, S 250 nm/s, A = 292 nm). In SPM local oxidation with tapping mode operation, it is possible to decrease the size of the water meniscus by enhancing the oscillation amplitude of cantilever. Hence, it seems that the water meniscus with sub-10 nm dimensions could be formed by precisely optimizing the oxidation conditions. Moreover, we quantitatively explain the size (width and height) of Si oxide wires with a model based on the oxidation ratio, which is defined as the oxidation time divided by the period of the cantilever oscillation. The model allows us to understand the mechanism of local oxidation in tapping mode operation with amplitude modulation. The results imply that the sub-10 nm resolution could be achieved using tapping mode SPM local oxidation technique with the optimization of the cantilever dynamics

  6. Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Ozdal; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Jalali, Bahram

    2004-03-01

    The prospect for generating supercontinuum pulses on a silicon chip is studied. Using ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, indicate up to 5 times spectral broadening is achievable at 10x higher peak powers. Representing a nonlinear loss mechanism at high intensities, TPA limits the maximum optical bandwidth that can be generated.

  7. Unified ICA-SPM analysis of fMRI experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Henriksen, Jonas; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen

    2009-01-01

    We present a toolbox for exploratory analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using independent component analysis (ICA) within the widely used SPM analysis pipeline. The toolbox enables dimensional reduction using principal component analysis, ICA using several different ICA...

  8. Analysis of brain SPECT with the statistical parametric mapping package SPM99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnden, L.R.; Rowe, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) package of the Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology permits detection in the brain of different regional uptake in an individual subject or a population of subjects compared to a normal population. SPM does not require a-priori specification of regions of interest. Recently SPM has been upgraded from SPM96 to SPM99. Our aim was to vary brain SPECT processing options in the application of SPM to optimise the final statistical map in three clinical trials. The sensitivity of SPM depends on the fidelity of the preliminary spatial normalisation of each scan to the standard anatomical space defined by a template scan provided with SPM. We generated our own SPECT template and compared spatial normalisation to it and to SPM's internal PET template. We also investigated the effects of scatter subtraction, stripping of scalp activity, reconstruction algorithm, non-linear deformation and derivation of spatial normalisation parameters using co-registered MR. Use of our SPECT template yielded better results than with SPM's PET template. Accuracy of SPECT to MR co-registration was 2.5mm with SPM96 and 1.2mm with SPM99. Stripping of scalp activity improved results with SPM96 but was unnecessary with SPM99. Scatter subtraction increased the sensitivity of SPM. Non-linear deformation additional to linear (affine) transformation only marginally improved the final result. Use of the SPECT template yielded more significant results than those obtained when co registered MR was used to derive the transformation parameters. SPM99 is more robust than SPM96 and optimum SPECT analysis requires a SPECT template. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Transcription and somatic transposition of the maize En/Spm transposon system in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Taal, A.J.C.; Sallaud, C.; Guiderdoni, E.; Meijer, A.H.; Hoge, J.H.C.; Pereira, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Transposition of the maize En/Spm system in rice was investigated using a two-component construct consisting of an immobilised transposase source driven by the CaMV 35S-promoter, and a modified I/dSpm transposon. Mobilization of I/dSpm in somatic sectors was demonstrated by sequencing of excision

  10. COORDINATE-BASED META-ANALYTIC SEARCH FOR THE SPM NEUROIMAGING PIPELINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2009-01-01

    . BredeQuery offers a direct link from SPM5 to the Brede Database coordinate-based search engine. BredeQuery is able to ‘grab’ brain location coordinates from the SPM windows and enter them as a query for the Brede Database. Moreover, results of the query can be displayed in an SPM window and/or exported...

  11. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Fleming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios. In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet.

  12. The Southern Proper Motion Program. IV. The SPM4 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Terrence M.; van Altena, William F.; Zacharias, Norbert; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Castillo, Danilo; Herrera, David; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Monet, David G.; López, Carlos E.

    2011-07-01

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20° declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr-1, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr-1.

  13. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.. In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii dynamic causal modelling (DCM, an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra, induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI and batching tools.

  14. EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools.

  15. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  16. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  17. Formation of oil-SPM aggregates under various mixing intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Zheng, X.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable amount of petroleum products spill into aquatic ecosystems as a result of increased marine transportation of crude oil products. The oil spill response community is therefore seeking an economical and environmentally sound technology to remove oil from shorelines. The formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSAs) occurs when oil and SPM are present in a turbulent system. This process is known to enhance natural cleaning of oiled shorelines by increasing oil dispersion into the water column and accelerating the biodegradation of the oil. This paper reported on a laboratory study that was conducted to investigate OSA formation under different mixing energy levels. It presented the results of experiments conducted with Arabian heavy crude oil, standard reference material 1941b, artificial seawater, and 3 shaking rates of the reciprocating shaker. The results are intended to offer insight into the rate and extent of oil sediment interaction following an oil spill in the marine environment under different mixing conditions. Mixing energy is expected to have a considerable control on OSA formation because it controls the splitting of an oil slick into small droplets, the aggregation between the droplets and SPM, and the breakage rate of natural flocs. The concentration of the OSA was measured using the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method. Ultraviolet epi-fluorescence image analysis was used to measure the structure of OSAs and the concentration of oil droplets forming OSAs. The results showed that the formation of OSAs increased as the mixing energy increased. A consistent increase in droplet concentration in OSAs was also noted as the mixing energy increased. Both oil droplet size and OSA size decreased as the mixing intensity increased. 38 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F.; Mignone, A.; Pupi, A.; Koulibaly, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with 99m TcHMPAO. Since [ 99m Tc] HMPAO and [ 99m Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [ 99m Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [ 99m Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template than using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  19. Scanning transmission ion microscopy on Fudan SPM facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongqiang; Shen Hao; Zheng Yi; Li Xinyi; Liu Bo; Satoh Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report a novel measurement system based on the development of Fudan Scanning Proton Microscopy (SPM) facility. By using Si-PIN diode(Hamamatsu S1223-01) detector, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) measurement system has been set up. It can provide density and structural images with high probing efficiency and non-destruction by utilizing the energy loss of high energy (MeV) and focused ions penetrating through a thin sample. STIM measurement is able to map the density distribution of organic elements which mostly compose biology materials, such information can not be detected by using conventional Be-windowed Si (Li) X-ray detector in Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The spatial resolution capability of STIM is higher than PIXE technique at same accelerator status. As a result of STIM measurement, Paramecium attached on the top of Kapton tube was measured by STIM. (authors)

  20. Observations of a narrow zone of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations along the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hout, C.M.; Gerkema, T.; Nauw, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to localize the transport path of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch coastal zone in the southern North Sea. It is known that a large mass of SPM is transported northward from the Strait of Dover, which is however mostly hidden from

  1. An En/Spm based transposable element system for gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.G.M.

    1996-01-01


    At the start of the research described in this thesis, the main aim was to develop, study and apply an efficient En/Spm-I/dSpm based transposon tagging system in Arabidopsis thaliana to generate tagged mutants and to provide insights in the

  2. A 3D SPM model for biogeochemical modelling, with application to the northwest European continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; Ruardij, P.; Greenwood, N.

    2017-01-01

    An SPM resuspension method was developed for use in 3D coupled hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry models to feed into simulations of the under-water light climate and and primary production. The method uses a single mineral fine SPM component for computational efficiency, with a concentration-dependent

  3. The application of surgical procedure manager (SPM): first experience with FESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, Katharina; Gollnick, Iris; Schmitz, Pia; Strauss, Gero

    2017-09-01

    In our hypothesis, the newly developed program SPM (surgical procedure manager) will ensure successful standardization and efficiency of the FESS (functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and therefore make a decisive contribution in terms of economization and improvement of intraoperative quality. Between 27th March 2015 and 8th October 2015, data from 259 FESS procedures were collected using the SPM. The study took place at the surgical desk, an operating room in the ACQUA clinic in Leipzig, Germany. 233 FESS (90%) of the total FESS (n = 259, 100%) were conducted entirely with SPM. 26 SPM terminations (10%) of 259 FESS remain, which are classified as actual SPM terminations-when the surgeon intentionally stops the SPM. The maximum time slot decreased clearly from 1 h 39 min (period A) to 1 h 10 min (period B). A time reduction can also be seen with the minimum duration of 13.5 min compared to 11 min. The variability of the time slot also decreases since the standard deviation is reduced by 4.5 min. On the basis of available recordings it can be postulated that the application of SPM is suitable for standardization for FESS. Standardization by means of SPM and minimal development can be recognized over a period of time. The SPM makes it possible to transfer the general advantages of mechanization on a concrete FESS and do not influence the medical processes nor even restrict the medical freedom. The users are still entirely free in the implementation of the respective procedure.

  4. VBM with viscous fluid registration of grey matter segments in SPM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. S. Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Improved registration of grey matter segments in SPM has been achieved with the DARTEL algorithm. Previous work from our group suggested, however, that such improvements may not translate to studies of clinical groups. To address the registration issue in atrophic brains, this paper relaxed the condition of diffeomorphism, central to DARTEL, and made use of a viscous fluid registration model with limited regularisation constraints to register the modulated grey matter probability maps to an intra-population template. Quantitative analysis of the registration results after the additional viscous fluid step showed no worsening of co-localisation of fiducials compared to DARTEL or unified segmentation methods, and the resulting voxel based morphometry (VBM analyses were able to better identify atrophic regions and to produce results with fewer apparent false positives. DARTEL showed great sensitivity to atrophy, but the resulting VBM maps presented broad, amorphous regions of significance that are hard to interpret. We propose that the condition of diffeomorphism is not necessary for basic VBM studies in atrophic populations, but also that it has disadvantages that must be taken into consideration before a study. The presented viscous fluid registration method is proposed for VBM studies to enhance sensitivity and localizing power.

  5. Test plan/procedure for the SPM-1 shipping container system. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The 49 CFR 173.465 Type A packaging tests will verify that SPM-1 will provide adequate protection and pass as a Type A package. Test will determine that the handle of the Pig will not penetrate through the plywood spacer and rupture the shipping container. Test plan/procedure provides planning, pre-test, setup, testing, and post-testing guidelines and procedures for conducting the open-quotes Free Drop Testclose quotes procedure for the SPM-1 package

  6. Characterisation of urban catchment suspended particulate matter (Auckland region, New Zealand); a comparison with non-urban SPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, Rebecca L.; Webster-Brown, Jenny G.

    2005-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an important transport agent for metal contaminants in streams, particularly during high flow periods such as storm events. For highly contaminated urban catchments in the greater Auckland (New Zealand) area, trace metal partitioning between the dissolved phase and SPM was determined, and SPM characterised in terms of its Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, TOC, TON and PO 4 concentrations, as well as particle size, abundance, type and surface area. This data was compared to similar data from representative non-urban catchments in the Auckland region, the Kaipara River and Waikato River catchments, to identify any significant differences in the SPM and its potential trace metal adsorption capacity. Trace metal partitioning was assessed by way of a distribution coefficient: K D =[Me SPM ]/[Me DISS ]. Auckland urban SPM comprises quartz, feldspars and clay minerals, with Fe-oxides and minor Mn-oxides. No particles of anthropogenic origin, other than glass shards, were observed. No change in urban SPM particle size or SSA was observed with seasonal change in temperature, but the nature of the SPM was observed to change with flow regime. The abundance of finer particles, SSA and Al content of the SPM increased under moderate flow conditions; however, Si/Al ratios remained constant, confirming the importance of aluminosilicate detrital minerals in surface run-off. The SPM Fe content was observed to decrease with increased flow and was attributed to dilution of SPM Fe-oxide of groundwater origin. The Kaipara River SPM was found to be mineralogically, chemically and biologically similar to the urban SPM. However, major differences between urban catchment SPM and SPM from the much larger (non-urban) Waikato River were observed, and attributed to a higher abundance of diatoms. The Fe content of the Waikato River SPM was consistently lower (<5%), and the Si/Al ratio and Mn content was higher. Such differences observed between urban and non

  7. Ansiedad y diagnóstico del síndrome premenstrual (SPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BORRÁS SANSALONI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La falta de una definición clara y unánime del trastorno constituye uno de los principales problemas metodológicos en la evaluación del síndro m e premenstrual (SPM, dificultando enormemente la diferenciación entre los denominados cambios premenstruales negativos (CPM- y el verdadero síndrome premenstrual (SPM. Algunos autores, con el objeto de solucionar este problema, han propuesto una serie de criterios para el correcto diagnóstico del SPM, criterios que hacen referencia a síntomas tanto emocionales como comportamentales relacionados con la fase premenstrual del ciclo ovárico y cuya severidad interfiere significativamente en la vida cotidiana de las mujeres que los padecen No obstante, por una parte, algunos autores han señalado que dichos criterios diagnósticos se refieren a una manifestación ideal del trastorno y, por otra, numerosos estudios han demostrado que el patrón general de ansiedad constituye uno de los principales factores implicados en el padecimiento del SPM. En el presente trabajo, realizado con una muestra de 133 mujeres se analiza la posible relación entre el patrón general de ansiedad así como de las respuestas emocionales manifestadas en las diferentes fases del ciclo menstrual y los criterios diagnósticos del SPM.

  8. E-Learning Tutoring System for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) English

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Yusof Munirah; Lee Wah Ng; Mohamed Rozlini; Othman Muhaini

    2018-01-01

    An E-Learning tutoring system for English (SPM) is an e-learning platform for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia English subject. E-learning is a web based application that supports the delivery of learning, skills and knowledge related to the English subject in SPM. E-learning use the technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. Besides, it is developed with the purpose to evaluate student’s performance through an online quiz. Nowadays, tuition center have a lot of students, hence insuff...

  9. Fully automated processing of fMRI data in SPM: from MRI scanner to PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, Joseph A; Baer, Aaron H; Kraft, Robert A; Laurienti, Paul J; Burdette, Jonathan H

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe the Wake Forest University Pipeline, a fully automated method for the processing of fMRI data using SPM. The method includes fully automated data transfer and archiving from the point of acquisition, real-time batch script generation, distributed grid processing, interface to SPM in MATLAB, error recovery and data provenance, DICOM conversion and PACS insertion. It has been used for automated processing of fMRI experiments, as well as for the clinical implementation of fMRI and spin-tag perfusion imaging. The pipeline requires no manual intervention, and can be extended to any studies requiring offline processing.

  10. BredeQuery: Coordinate-Based Meta-analytic Search of Neuroscientific Literature from the SPM Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin Marek; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2010-01-01

    Query offers a direct link from SPM to the Brede Database coordinate-based search engine. BredeQuery is able to ‘grab’ brain location coordinates from the SPM windows and enter them as a query for the Brede Database. Moreover, results of the query can be displayed in a MATLAB window and/or exported directly...

  11. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the water-SPM-sediment system of Lake Chaohu, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ning; He, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    in the water, while no obvious seasonal trend was found in the SPM. The residues and distributions of PAHs in the water, SPM and sediment relied heavily on carbon content. Significant Pearson correlations were found between LogKoc and LogKow as well as some hydro-meteorological factors. Three major sources...

  12. Quantitative Comparison of SPM, FSL, and Brainsuite for Brain MR Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate brain tissue segmentation from magnetic resonance (MR images is an important step in analysis of cerebral images. There are software packages which are used for brain segmentation. These packages usually contain a set of skull stripping, intensity non-uniformity (bias correction and segmentation routines. Thus, assessment of the quality of the segmented gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is needed for the neuroimaging applications. Methods: In this paper, performance evaluation of three widely used brain segmentation software packages SPM8, FSL and Brainsuite is presented. Segmentation with SPM8 has been performed in three frameworks: i default segmentation, ii SPM8 New-segmentation and iii modified version using hidden Markov random field as implemented in SPM8-VBM toolbox. Results: The accuracy of the segmented GM, WM and CSF and the robustness of the tools against changes of image quality has been assessed using Brainweb simulated MR images and IBSR real MR images. The calculated similarity between the segmented tissues using different tools and corresponding ground truth shows variations in segmentation results. Conclusion: A few studies has investigated GM, WM and CSF segmentation. In these studies, the skull stripping and bias correction are performed separately and they just evaluated the segmentation. Thus, in this study, assessment of complete segmentation framework consisting of pre-processing and segmentation of these packages is performed. The obtained results can assist the users in choosing an appropriate segmentation software package for the neuroimaging application of interest.

  13. Application study of SPM5 in analysis of PET imaging for epilepsy patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Yanli; Jin Jianhua; Zhang Hong; Tian Mei; Yao Qiong; Li Jing; Zhan Hongwei; Zhao Chunlei; Xu Wei; Ye Xiaojuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of statistical parametric mapping 5 (SPM5) and its parameter settings in analysis of PET imaging for epilepsy patients. Methods: Seventeen epilepsy patients and seventeen controls were scanned with PET. The datas were analyzed using PET and SPM5 with qualitative and semiquantitative analysis, statistical analysis of the percentage (numbers of agent distribution decreasing in focus to brain) for different parameters combinations, which were value adjustment to contral-p and voxels-k. Results: There was decreasing of agent distribution at temporal lobe in epilepsy patients detecting with PET; the T/NT of focus to cerebellum was 1.07±0.24, the T/NT of normal tissue in opposite side to cerebellum was 1.27±0.18, there was a significant difference (t=1.87, P 0.05); for different value of p, the percentage was (42±30)%, (29±25)%, (26±21)% respectively, with a significant difference (F=3.60, P<0.05); there was linear regression in value adjustment to contral-p and the percentage(b=-18.24, t=2.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis by SPM5, the setting of value adjustment to contral-p would affect the results, the smaller of value adjustment to contral-p, the better of the result. SPM5 would be more objective and accurate to locate the focuses. (authors)

  14. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive compulsive disorder patients with SPM and ROI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiyong; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Guo Wanhua; Zhu Chengmo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alternations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Methods: rCBF measurements using 99 Tc m -ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT was performed on 14 OCD patients and 23 age-matched healthy volunteers. The rCBF distribution was compared between these two groups with SPM under the conditions of increased and decreased perfusion, and with regions of interest (ROIs) using cerebral template. P value was set at 0.01 level. Results: SPM analysis showed that rCBF decreased in cerebral areas including bilateral putamen, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus, and right orbital gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyrus, and left temporo-occipital lobule and superior parietal gyrus, and vermis. rCBF was also increased in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. With ROIs method, rCBF was decreased in right anterior frontal, temporo-parietal lobule and left temporo-occipital lobule. Conclusions: The study supports the viewpoint that rCBF abnormality of fronto-striatal circuits is involved in OCD patients. SPM method is a forceful tool in analyzing cerebral regional characters

  15. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:±5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8±2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA

  16. SPM analysis and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Yun, Go Un; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Donga University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is known as a disease of benign nature characterized with clinically transient global antegrade amnesia and a variable degree of global retrograde memory impairment, but it usually resolved within 24 hours. The aims of this study are to assess the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and to verify the cognitive deficits by neuropsychological test in TGA patients. Twelve patients with TGA and age-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within 1 to 19 days (mean duration: 7.3:{+-}5.2 days) after the events to measure the rCBF. SPECT images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery test was also done within 2 to 8 days (mean duration 3.8{+-}2.2 days) for cognitive functions in 8 of 12 patients with TGA. The SPM analysis of SPECT images showed significantly decreased rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 9), the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40), the left postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 40) and the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 4) in patients with TGA (uncorrected p<0.01). Neuropsychological test findings represented that several cognitive functions. such as, verbal memory, visual memory, phonemic fluency and confrontational naming, were impaired in patients with TGA compared with normal control. Additionally, on SPM analysis, we found lesions of hyperperfusion in contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Our study shows perfusion deficits in the left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA and several cognitive dysfunctions. And we found after clinical symptoms were completely resolved, the lesions of hypoperfusion were still remained. We found that functional quantitative neuroimaging study and neuropsychological test are useful to understand underlying pathomachanism of TGA.

  17. High Voltage Smart Power Module For Fault-Tolerant Launcher Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Debrouwere

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a low cost and highly integrated smart power module (SPM intended to be used into launchers applications, embedding technologies and components from automotive world and being mainly producible by large-scale industry.

  18. Dynamics of self-focusing and self-phase modulation of elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a direct variational technique involving elliptic Gaussian laser beam trial function, the combined effect of non-linearity and diffraction on wave propagation of optical beam in a homogeneous bulk Kerr-medium is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the variation of beam width and longitudinal phase delay with the ...

  19. Changes of rCBF on major depressed patients following TMS treatment: and SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Changes of regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) on five drug-resistant depressed patients were examined by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99 Tc m - Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime ( 99 Tc m HMPAO) before and after Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The SPECT images were analysed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) package. TMS at the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) of the depressed patients resulted in an increase of rCBF at a focal region in the vicinity of the stimulation site. No change was observed at any remote region. A 34.8% global CBF reduction for the depressed patients was found in their raw data. SPM analysis of the globally scaled images shows that there are increases of rCBF in the parietal region for the depressed patients. Global CBF scaling might contribute to these increases. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Síndrome premestrual (SPM: Aproximación crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda García Porta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el mal nombrado Síndrome Premenstrual (SPM afecta a un número muy elevado de mujeres y aun siendo un término injustificado, se ha convertido en parte del lenguaje cotidiano. Muchos modelos de los que se parte para estudiar éste fenómeno son unidireccionales mientras que otros reconocen explícitamente factores sociales. Éste artículo describe los orígenes y desarrollo del concepto de SPM así como una revisión crítica de las diferentes aproximaciones al fenómeno, teniendo en cuenta el papel a desempeñar por las ciencias sociales.

  1. The systems prioritization method (SPM) CD-ROM demonstration for Waste Management '96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, C.L.; Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Beyeler, W.

    1996-01-01

    In March 1994, the Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based planning method to assist in prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Probabilistic performance calculations were required for the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) and roughly 46,700 combinations of activities were analyzed, generating a large volume of information to be documented, analyzed, and communicated. A self-contained information management system consisting of a relational database on a 600-megabyte CD-ROM was built to meet this need. The CD-ROM was used to store performance assessment results, data analysis and visualization tools, information about the activities, electronic copies of 40 ILFR 191 and 40 CFR 268, technical reference papers, and the final SPM report. Copies of the CD-ROM were distributed to interested members of the public, WIPP participants, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  2. [Elaboration of the SPM template for the standardization of SPECT images with 123I-Ioflupane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, F J; García-Solís, D; Luis-Simón, F J; Marín-Oyaga, V A; Carrillo, F; Mir, P; Vázquez-Albertino, R J

    2013-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a widely used produced for normalization of functional images. This study has aimed to develop a normalization template of (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging DaTSCAN(®), GE Healthcare), not available in SPM5, and to validate it compared to other quantification methods. In order to write the template we retrospectively selected 26 subjects who had no evidence of nigrostriatal degeneration and whose age distribution was similar to that of the patients in the usual practice of our Department: 2 subjects (7.6%) were 65 years (57.7%). All the studies were normalized with the T1-template available in SPM5 and an average image of the value was obtained for each voxel. For validation we analyzed 60 patients: 30 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with right involvement (66.83±12.20 years) and 30 with essential tremor patients (ET) (67.27±8.33 years). Specific uptake rates (SUR) of different striatal regions were compared after image normalization with our template and the application of a semiautomated VOIs-map created with Analyze v9.0 ((©)BIR, Mayo Clinic), against two quantification methods: a) manual adjustment of a ROIs-map drawn in Analyze, and b) semi-automated method (HERMES-BRASS) with normalization and implementation of VOIs-map. No statistically significant differences in the iPD/ET discriminatory capacity between the three methods analyzed were observed (p0,871, p<0,001). This difference was greater in patients with PD. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of our SPM «template» for (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging, obtained from normalization with «T1-template». Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain SPECT of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): SPM analysis of two age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnden, L.; Casse, R.; Kwiatek, R.; Kitchener, M.; DelFante, P.; Burnet, R.; Behin-Ain, S.; Unger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterised by profound fatigue and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Previous studies with cerebral perfusion SPECT (rCBF) scans were performed with inhomogeneous patient populations and were not analysed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). We have used SPM to study subjects with moderate CFS based on the Fukuda criteria, who were not on medication and not depressed, compared to age matched control subjects. An apparent bimodal age distribution has been observed in CFS. Subjects were therefore divided into two age groups: 16-35 or under 35 (17 CFS, 11 control) and 36-61 or over 35 (15 CFS, 15 control). HMPAO brain SPECT was acquired on a 3-head camera. After lower window scatter subtraction, reconstruction with attenuation correction (mu=0.15/cm) and editing of facial activity, scans were spatially normalised (affine + 2x3x2 nonlinear) to SPM's anatomical space. SPM statistical analysis yielded the location, amplitude and corrected p-value of significant focal rCBF deficits. They were: for under 35, left lateral temporal lobe (13%, 0.004), the left insular region (15%, 0.006) and the right lentiform nucleus (15%, 0.01); and for over 35 the left lentiform nucleus (18%, 0.01). Counts at the most significant voxel in the under 35 age group permitted separation of the CFS and control groups with sensitivity 94% and specificity 100%. We are acquiring more controls to better define the age and sex dependence of rCBF in CFS. Analysis of associated clinical variables will be used to investigate the observed differences between the two age groups. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Movement analysis of chest MR image under rest breath using realignment of SPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shigemi; Usui, Shuji; Horiguchi, Takayoshi; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of diaphragm and chest wall motion are good indicators to evaluate clinical status and pulmonary function before and after surgery for respiratory disease. Noninvasive MR images using fast gradient recalled echo techniques recently have received a great deal of attention for their assessment of inspiratory motion. However, it is laborious to analyze a large number of dynamic MR images. Therefore, we performed movement analyses of chest two-dimensional (2D) MR images by using the public domain software statistical parametric mapping (SPM) Realignment sub-routine, which is commonly used for the motion correction of brain functional MRI analyses. First, dynamic 2D MR images of a glue-stick phantom were measured as a simple reciprocal movement model and were numerically analyzed by the SPM Realignment. The resulting translation to each axis coincided with the measured values. Then the dynamic images of normal volunteers under free breathing were analyzed by the same method, and we found that the inspiratory motions were quantitatively shown as the translation to each axis. These results revealed that the SPM Realignment is a useful tool for screening the magnitude and characteristics of inspiratory motion. (author)

  5. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  6. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  7. Innovative SPM Probes for Energy-Storage Science: MWCNT-Nanopipettes to Nanobattery Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan; Talin, Alec; Pearse, Alexander; Kozen, Alexander; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    As energy-storage materials and designs continue to advance, new tools are needed to direct and explore ion insertion/de-insertion at well-defined battery materials interfaces. Scanned probe tips, assembled from actual energy-storage materials, permit SPM measures of local cathode-anode (tip-sample) interactions, including ion transfer. We present examples of ``cathode'' MWCNT-terminated STM probe tips interacting with Li(s)/Si(111) anode substrates. The MWCNT tip functions as both SPM probe and Li-nanopipette,[1] for controlled transport and manipulation of Li. Local field conditions for lithium ionization and transfer are determined and compared to electrostatic models. Additional lithium metallic and oxide tips have been prepared by thin film deposition on conventional W tips, the latter of which effectively functions as a nanobattery. We demonstrate use of these novel probe materials in the local lithiation of low-index Si anode interfaces, probing local barriers for lithium insertion. Prospects and limitations of these novel SPM probes will be discussed. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  8. Dynamic Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to optimize the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of dynamic SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can optimize all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.

  9. Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for brain disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze data from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients with brain disorders and to assess its potential utility for analyzing brain function. DTI was obtained by performing 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), and the data were analyzed using Matlab-based SPM software. The two-sample t-test was used for error analysis of the location of the activated pixels. We compared regions of white matter where the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were low and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were increased. In the AD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right sub-lobar insula, and right occipital lingual gyrus whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. In the VD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right limbic cingulate gyrus, and right sub-lobar caudate tail whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the left lateral globus pallidus and left medial globus pallidus. In conclusion by using DTI and SPM analysis, we were able to not only determine the structural state of the regions affected by brain disorders but also quantitatively analyze and assess brain function.

  10. E-Learning Tutoring System for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Munirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An E-Learning tutoring system for English (SPM is an e-learning platform for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia English subject. E-learning is a web based application that supports the delivery of learning, skills and knowledge related to the English subject in SPM. E-learning use the technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere. Besides, it is developed with the purpose to evaluate student’s performance through an online quiz. Nowadays, tuition center have a lot of students, hence insufficient time to analyze the individual performance in learning English. In addition, e-learning is able to reduce the printing cost and administrative cost at the same time reducing usage of paper and printed materials associate in learning. The system developed by using Javascript and PHP language based on system prototyping methodology. The result will produce student’s performance in monthly quiz and teacher are able to monitor the performance of each students. Although the development or this e-learning is based on requirement gathered via tuition center, however it can be proposed to be by any learning center or to self-study. It is hoped that this e-learning will be able to improve student knowledge in English language and subsequently help student to obtain the best result in SPM by providing more guided references and practices.

  11. Phase noise reduction by self-phase locking in semiconductor lasers using phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lykke; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov

    1994-01-01

    noise takes a finite-low value corresponding to a state of first-order self-phase locking of the laser. As a result, the spectral shape of the laser signal does not remain Lorentzian but collapses around the carrier to a delta function with a close to carrier noise level of less than -137 d...

  12. Mechanisms controlling the intra-annual mesoscale variability of SST and SPM in the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Julie D.; de Boer, Gerben J.; Eleveld, Marieke A.

    2011-04-01

    Thermal and optical remote sensing data were used to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of sea surface temperature (SST) and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the southern North Sea. Monthly SST composites showed pronounced seasonal warming of the southern North Sea and delineated the English coastal and continental coastal waters. The East-Anglia Plume is the dominant feature of the English coastal waters in the winter and autumn SPM composites, and the Rhine region of freshwater influence (ROFI), including the Flemish Banks, is the dominant feature of the continental waters. These mesoscale spatial structures are also influenced by the evolution of fronts, such as the seasonal front separating well-mixed water in the southern Bight, from the seasonally stratified central North Sea waters. A harmonic analysis of the SST and SPM images showed pronounced seasonal variability, as well as spring-neap variations in the level of tidal mixing in the East Anglia Plume, the Rhine ROFI and central North Sea. The harmonic analysis indicates the important role played by the local meteorology and tides in governing the SST and near-surface SPM concentrations in the southern North Sea. In the summer, thermal stratification affects the visibility of SPM to satellite sensors in the waters to the north of the Flamborough and Frisian Fronts. Haline stratification plays an important role in the visibility of SPM in the Rhine ROFI throughout the year. When stratified, both regions typically exhibit low surface SPM values. A numerical model study, together with the harmonic analysis, highlights the importance of tides and waves in controlling the stratification in the southern North Sea and hence the visibility of SPM.

  13. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  14. LapOntoSPM: an ontology for laparoscopic surgeries and its application to surgical phase recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Julliard, Chantal; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie; Jannin, Pierre; Gibaud, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    The rise of intraoperative information threatens to outpace our abilities to process it. Context-aware systems, filtering information to automatically adapt to the current needs of the surgeon, are necessary to fully profit from computerized surgery. To attain context awareness, representation of medical knowledge is crucial. However, most existing systems do not represent knowledge in a reusable way, hindering also reuse of data. Our purpose is therefore to make our computational models of medical knowledge sharable, extensible and interoperational with established knowledge representations in the form of the LapOntoSPM ontology. To show its usefulness, we apply it to situation interpretation, i.e., the recognition of surgical phases based on surgical activities. Considering best practices in ontology engineering and building on our ontology for laparoscopy, we formalized the workflow of laparoscopic adrenalectomies, cholecystectomies and pancreatic resections in the framework of OntoSPM, a new standard for surgical process models. Furthermore, we provide a rule-based situation interpretation algorithm based on SQWRL to recognize surgical phases using the ontology. The system was evaluated on ground-truth data from 19 manually annotated surgeries. The aim was to show that the phase recognition capabilities are equal to a specialized solution. The recognition rates of the new system were equal to the specialized one. However, the time needed to interpret a situation rose from 0.5 to 1.8 s on average which is still viable for practical application. We successfully integrated medical knowledge for laparoscopic surgeries into OntoSPM, facilitating knowledge and data sharing. This is especially important for reproducibility of results and unbiased comparison of recognition algorithms. The associated recognition algorithm was adapted to the new representation without any loss of classification power. The work is an important step to standardized knowledge and data

  15. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  16. Life time of an SPM electrolyser in a water detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ion

    2006-01-01

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) method in combination with Cryogenic Distillation (CD) was chosen for tritium recovery from tritiated water which will be produced during ITER operation. One of the key components with impact to both the tritium inventory and safety is the electrolyser. The solid polymer electrolyser type is proposed but the main concern is the life time in tritium environment. On overview of main activities devoted to the life time of a SPM and carried out at Mound facility-US, TPL JAERI and TL Karlsruhe are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Fate of oil-SPM aggregates in the St-Lawrence estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Brown, C.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of aggregates of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) has been studied extensively over the last 4 decades. This paper presented the results of a full scale numerical study that examined the fate of oil-SPM aggregates (OSAs) formed in the St-Lawrence estuary in both shallow and deep water. OSAs form from the natural heteroaggregation between suspended oil droplets and SPM following an oil spill in the aquatic environment. Until recently, it was believed that this natural process helps clean oiled shorelines by dispersing spilled oil in coastal waters rich in SPM. However, new studies have shown that the density of OSAs may exceed the density of the seawater and their formation may result in the transfer of considerable amounts of oil from the water column to the seafloor. This study was conducted using real hydrodynamic data, recent laboratory data related to the size, density and oil content of OSAs and the commercial CHEMMAP software. Simulations were run for 5 days for each scenario. The concentrations of OSAs in the water column and on the seafloor were tracked in space and time. According to the results, the size and density of OSAs have a strong influence on the fate of OSAs, as do water depth and current density. OSAs of 200 μm in size and higher settled within half a day in shallow water zones, and within 5 days in deep water zones. The resulting oil concentration in bottom sediment showed strong increase with the size of OSA in shallow water, but small increase in deep water. Sedimentation of OSAs with an average size of 200 μm is affected by the effective density. In general, horizontal mixing had a much smaller effect on the sedimentation of OSAs than those obtained with their size and effective density. It was concluded that ideally, the fate of OSAs should be addressed using a dynamic model that relates the size of OSAs to local intensity of turbulence. 20 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  18. In situ electrochemical etching and examination by SPM of titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorogood, G.J.; Short, K.T; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aqueous durability of titanate related ceramics is of great importance for the immobilisation of high level radioactive waste-in order to observe the reaction progress at the solid-liquid interface of these durable ceramics, we have attempted to accelerate the dissolution process via electrochemical means by using a SPM cell with electrochemical capability. The experiment involves placing a titanate ceramic disk (with flat polished surfaces) in the electrochemical cell. The cell is then set up with the ceramic acting as one electrode and another electrode being placed in the solution. In a flow through cell it is possible to select the pH and observe the change, not only in surface morphology as dissolution occurs, but also the frictional characteristics of the surface. The SPM tip plays no role in the electrochemical reaction. We will be presenting results from our work and discussing possible mechanisms for dissolution and future directions of the work. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of seawater properties, current velocity and SPM concentration off Cassino Beach-Rio Grande-Southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, J. V.; Azevedo, M. M.; Esteves, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    -south direction. Near-surface concentration of SPM oscillated between 11 and 99 mg L-1, in general one order of magnitude lower than near-bed values. However, near-bed concentration of SPM showed large spatial variability: the highest value (2200 mg L-1) was yielded by a water sample collected at similar to 8 m...... water depth, at a station located similar to 2 km away from the shoreline; two water samples collected 500 m, apart from this station, yielded SPM concentrations of 148 and 205 mg L-1, one order of magnitude lower. Spectral analyses of near-bed current speed and SPM concentration indicate the relevance...

  20. Summary of the systems prioritization method (SPM) as a decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.; Mendenhall, F.; Weiner, R.; Bills, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In March 1994, the Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based planning method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project with respect to applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements stated in 40 CFR 191.13(a) and 40 CFR 268.6. This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze potential combinations of activities in terms of predicted contribution to long-term performance; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. SPM results were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned

  1. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  2. Brain perfusion SPECT of patients with anorexia nervosa. Evaluation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajoh, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shinichi

    2001-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has two subtypes; restricting type (AN-R) and binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP). It is suggested that AN-R is different from AN-BP on psychopathological aspects. We compared regional cerebral blood flows of 7 female patients with AN-R, 7 female patients with AN-BP and 7 age-matched normal volunteers (NV) using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT processed by SPM96. There were significant decreased perfusions in the anterior cingulate gyrus in AN-R when compared with those of AN-BP and NV. These results suggest that the mechanism of outbreak of AN-R may be different from that of AN-BP. (author)

  3. Automated Manipulation of Micro-Nano Objects with SPM by Using L1 Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmin Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel control methodology for automatically manipulating micro/nano particles by using a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM is presented. First of all, a mathematical model of micro/nanomanipulation, including the interactive forces and dynamics between the tip, particle and substrate along with the roughness effect of the substrate, is described. Then, the L1 adaptive control design for the manipulation system of micro/nano objects is presented, which consists of a state predictor with fast adaptation, a piece-wise continuous adaptive law and a low-pass filtered control design. This control framework can handle nonlinear uncertainties and ensures uniformly bounded tracking performance. The tracking performance bound can be systematically improved by reducing the step size of integration. Rigorous mathematical proof is provided. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented L1 adaptive control law on the micro/nanomanipulation model.

  4. Brain perfusion SPECT of patients with anorexia nervosa. Evaluation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajoh, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Umanodan, Tomokazu [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shinichi

    2001-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has two subtypes; restricting type (AN-R) and binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP). It is suggested that AN-R is different from AN-BP on psychopathological aspects. We compared regional cerebral blood flows of 7 female patients with AN-R, 7 female patients with AN-BP and 7 age-matched normal volunteers (NV) using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT processed by SPM96. There were significant decreased perfusions in the anterior cingulate gyrus in AN-R when compared with those of AN-BP and NV. These results suggest that the mechanism of outbreak of AN-R may be different from that of AN-BP. (author)

  5. Results of SPM sun photometer measurements at Mirny Antarctic station (58-60th RAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Prakhov, Aleksander N.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Sakerin, Sergey M.

    2015-11-01

    The SPM portable sun photometer observations in the wavelength range of 0.34-2.14 μm are performed at Mirny Antarctic station since fall 2013. The data obtained are used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The sun photometer intercalibration results and statistical characteristics of interdiurnal and seasonal variations in spectral AOD of the atmosphere are discussed. Estimates of interannual variations in the atmospheric AOD in the region of Mirny station and in the coastal zone of Antarctica are presented. The global background level of AOD of the Antarctic atmosphere is noted to be still about 0.02 at the wavelength of 0.5 μm.

  6. Super continuum generation at 800 nm in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers with normal dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per; Larsen, Jacob Juul; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2001-01-01

    More than 90 nm broad self-phase modulation (SPM) induced pulses have been created from both 25 and 50 fs pulses in just 12.5 cm of fiber. The broadening is more than 2.5 times that observed in standard SMF. SPM broadening in PCFs has several advantages over more complex super continuum generatio...

  7. Response of SPM concentrations to storms in the North Sea : Investigating the water-bed exchange of fine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.C.M.; van Prooijen, Bram; Winterwerp, J.C.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; van der Hout, CM; Witbaard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Shallow coastal seas are subject to an increasing pressure by offshore operations. Further to a direct influence these operations impose on benthic and pelagic organisms, an indirect influence is caused by changes in sediment dynamics and morphodynamics. Temporal variations in SPM have a large

  8. Theory of third-harmonic generation using Bessel beams, and self-phase-matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.P.; Huang, H.; Boyd, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Taking Bessel beams (J 0 beam) as a representation of a conical beam, and a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) we obtain the results for the theory of third-harmonic generation from an atomic medium. We demonstrate how the phenomenon of self-phase-matching is contained in the transverse-phase-matching integral of the theory. A method to calculate the transverse-phase-matching integral containing four Bessel functions is described which avoids the computer calculations of the Bessel functions. In order to consolidate the SVEA result an alternate method is used to obtain the exact result for the third-harmonic generation. The conditions are identified in which the exact result goes over to the result of the SVEA. The theory for multiple Bessel beams is also discussed which has been shown to be the source of the wide width of the efficiency curve of the third-harmonic generation observed in experiments. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J D; Litvak, V; Espinosa, J J; Friston, K; Barnes, G R

    2014-01-01

    The MEG/EEG inverse problem is ill-posed, giving different source reconstructions depending on the initial assumption sets. Parametric Empirical Bayes allows one to implement most popular MEG/EEG inversion schemes (Minimum Norm, LORETA, etc.) within the same generic Bayesian framework. It also provides a cost-function in terms of the variational Free energy-an approximation to the marginal likelihood or evidence of the solution. In this manuscript, we revisit the algorithm for MEG/EEG source reconstruction with a view to providing a didactic and practical guide. The aim is to promote and help standardise the development and consolidation of other schemes within the same framework. We describe the implementation in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package, carefully explaining each of its stages with the help of a simple simulated data example. We focus on the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) model, which we compare with the well-known Minimum Norm and LORETA models, using the negative variational Free energy for model comparison. The manuscript is accompanied by Matlab scripts to allow the reader to test and explore the underlying algorithm. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  11. A Novel SPM Probe with MOS Transistor and Nano Tip for Surface Electric Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang H; Lim, Geunbae; Moon, Wonkyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the novel SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) probe with the planar MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) transistor and the FIB (Focused Ion Beam) nano tip is fabricated for the surface electric properties. Since the MOS transistor has high working frequency, the device can overcome the speed limitation of EFM (Electrostatic Force Microscope) system. The sensitivity is also high, and no bulky device such as lock-in-amplifier is required. Moreover, the nano tip with nanometer scale tip radius is fabricated with FIB system, and the resolution can be improved. Therefore, the probe can rapidly detect small localized electric properties with high sensitivity and high resolution. The MOS transistor is fabricated with the common semiconductor process, and the nano tip is grown by the FIB system. The planar structure of the MOS transistor makes the fabrication process easier, which is the advantage on the commercial production. Various electric signals are applied using the function generator, and the measured data represent the well-established electric properties of the device. It shows the promising aspect of the local surface electric property detection with high sensitivity and high resolution

  12. A general XML schema and SPM toolbox for storage of neuro-imaging results and anatomical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David Bryant; Gadde, Syam; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Taylor, Derek V; Potkin, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    With the increased frequency of multisite, large-scale collaborative neuro-imaging studies, the need for a general, self-documenting framework for the storage and retrieval of activation maps and anatomical labels becomes evident. To address this need, we have developed and extensible markup language (XML) schema and associated tools for the storage of neuro-imaging activation maps and anatomical labels. This schema, as part of the XML-based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE) schema, provides storage capabilities for analysis annotations, activation threshold parameters, and cluster and voxel-level statistics. Activation parameters contain information describing the threshold, degrees of freedom, FWHM smoothness, search volumes, voxel sizes, expected voxels per cluster, and expected number of clusters in the statistical map. Cluster and voxel statistics can be stored along with the coordinates, threshold, and anatomical label information. Multiple threshold types can be documented for a given cluster or voxel along with the uncorrected and corrected probability values. Multiple atlases can be used to generate anatomical labels and stored for each significant voxel or cluter. Additionally, a toolbox for Statistical Parametric Mapping software (http://www. fil. ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/) was created to capture the results from activation maps using the XML schema that supports both SPM99 and SPM2 versions (http://nbirn.net/Resources/Users/ Applications/xcede/SPM_XMLTools.htm). Support for anatomical labeling is available via the Talairach Daemon (http://ric.uthscsa. edu/projects/talairachdaemon.html) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (http://www. cyceron.fr/freeware/).

  13. Visual and SPM Analysis of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients of Dementia with Lewy Bodies with Clinical Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is widely recognized as the second commonest form of degenerative dementia. Its core clinical features include persistent visual hallucinosis, fluctuating cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. We evaluated the brain perfusion of dementia with Lewy bodies by SPM analysis and correlated the findings with clinical symptom. Twelve DLB patients (mean age ; 68.88.3 yrs, K-MMSE ; 17.36) and 30 control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 yrs) were included. Control subjects were selected by 28 items of exclusion criteria and checked by brain CT or MRI except 3 subjects. Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT was performed and the image data were analyzed by visual interpretation and SPM99 as routine protocol. In visual analysis, 7 patients showed hypoperfusion in both frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 2 patients in both frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, 2 patients in both temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 1 patients in left temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. In SPM analysis (uncorrected p<0.01), significant hypoperfusion was shown in Lt inf. frontal gyrus (B no.47), both inf. parietal lobule (Rt B no.40), Rt parietal lobe (precuneus), both sup. temporal gyrus (Rt B no.42), Rt mid temporal gyrus, Lt transverse temporal gyrus (B no.41), both para hippocampal gyrus, Rt thalamus (pulvinar), both cingulate gyrus (Lt B no.24, Lt B no.25, Rt B no.23, Rt B no.24, Rt B no.33), Rt caudate body, both occipital lobe (cuneus, Lt B no.17, Rt B no.18). All patients had fluctuating cognition and parkinsonism, and 9 patients had visual hallucination. The result of SPM analysis was well correlated with visual interpretation and may be helpful to specify location to correlate with clinical symptom. Significant perfusion deficits in occipital region including visual cortex and visual association area are characteristic findings in DLB. Abnormalities in these areas may be important in understanding symptoms of visual hallucination and

  14. Visual and SPM Analysis of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients of Dementia with Lewy Bodies with Clinical Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is widely recognized as the second commonest form of degenerative dementia. Its core clinical features include persistent visual hallucinosis, fluctuating cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. We evaluated the brain perfusion of dementia with Lewy bodies by SPM analysis and correlated the findings with clinical symptom. Twelve DLB patients (mean age ; 68.88.3 yrs, K-MMSE ; 17.36) and 30 control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 yrs) were included. Control subjects were selected by 28 items of exclusion criteria and checked by brain CT or MRI except 3 subjects. Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT was performed and the image data were analyzed by visual interpretation and SPM99 as routine protocol. In visual analysis, 7 patients showed hypoperfusion in both frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 2 patients in both frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, 2 patients in both temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 1 patients in left temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. In SPM analysis (uncorrected p<0.01), significant hypoperfusion was shown in Lt inf. frontal gyrus (B no.47), both inf. parietal lobule (Rt B no.40), Rt parietal lobe (precuneus), both sup. temporal gyrus (Rt B no.42), Rt mid temporal gyrus, Lt transverse temporal gyrus (B no.41), both para hippocampal gyrus, Rt thalamus (pulvinar), both cingulate gyrus (Lt B no.24, Lt B no.25, Rt B no.23, Rt B no.24, Rt B no.33), Rt caudate body, both occipital lobe (cuneus, Lt B no.17, Rt B no.18). All patients had fluctuating cognition and parkinsonism, and 9 patients had visual hallucination. The result of SPM analysis was well correlated with visual interpretation and may be helpful to specify location to correlate with clinical symptom. Significant perfusion deficits in occipital region including visual cortex and visual association area are characteristic findings in DLB. Abnormalities in these areas may be important in understanding symptoms of visual hallucination and

  15. Four-photon parametric light scattering of ultrashort laser pulses in water in case of weak self-phase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V A; Sychev, Andrei A

    2009-01-01

    The hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) of light in water is detected reliably by the active spectroscopy method of coherent light scattering, in particular, by the method of four-photon parametric light scattering in a medium in which HRS is a 'signal' wave in the parametric process involving simultaneously two high-power laser photons and IR photons of an 'idler' wave. Hyper-Raman scattering by libration vibrations of water molecules, which virtually cannot be detected by conventional methods of Raman scattering, was observed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Development of a Micro-SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope by Post-Assembly of a MEMS-Stage and an Independent Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of miniature scanning probe microscopes (SPM on the basis of the MEMS technique has gained more and more interest. Here a novel approach is presented to realize a micro-SPM, in which by means of post-assembly a conventional cantilever is mounted onto a MEMS positioning stage and used to detect the topography variation of the surface under test. Compared with other integrated micro-SPMs, the proposed micro-SPM can maintain the lateral resolution by simply renewing its cantilever in use, and therefore features low cost, practicability and longer lifetime. Preliminary experimental results are reported, which demonstrate that the proposed microSPM can be realized.

  17. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended particulate matter sampling at the Nairobi industrial area and inside one workplace are reported. Included also are the results of analysis of water samples and effluents collected from a sugar factory, a tannery, and mercury (Hg) analysis in some beauty creams sold in Nairobi. The samples were analysed for heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) while the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were determined by gravimetric technique. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXF), atomic absorption spectrophotometry and PIXE analytical techniques plus the use of Standard and Certified Reference Materials (SRM's and CRM's) were used for quality control, analysis and evaluation of the accrued data. Air sampling in the industrial area was done twice (Wednesday and Saturday) every week for a period of two months (November and December, 1996) and twice monthly for a period of six months (January-June 1997). Each sample covering approximately 24 hours, was collected using the 'Gent' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU), for day and night times. The SPM were found to vary from 16 to 83 mgm -3 during the sampling period. The analysis of dust collected inside a workplace showed that there was poor filtration of the air pumped into the building and that there was a need for improvement of the air conditioning unit plus reduction of emissions from a neighbouring tyre factory. Beauty creams analysed showed that there is some mercury present in significant amounts (0.14 - 3.0%). The results of these mercury levels are presented for various brands of cosmetics sold in some market outlets in Nairobi. The health implications on the presence of mercury in some of these beauty

  18. SPM analysis of cerebral blood flow changes related to age in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Byeong II; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neural activities of schizophrenic patients related to current age including the age of onset and also we examined the correlation patterns between age and neural correlates. 21 patients with schizophrenia (female/male; 10/11, mean age; 36.1 11.2) participated in this study and all patients were evaluated by criteria of DSM-IV as a schizophrenia patient. Exclusion criteria included inability to give informed consent and a history of significant neurological illness. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were obtained from 21 schizophrenic patients. Using SPM (statistical parametric mapping), all images were normalized to a SPECT template (MNI template) and then smoothed. We performed an ANCOVA analysis with current age (covariate variable) and the age of onset (nuisance variable). The correlation was analyzed into positive and negative patterns. Findings are reported as a Z scores with a significance threshold of p < 0.005 (uncorrected) and a minimum cluster size of 10. Significant difference was found between current age and premorbid age (p < 0.05). Cerebral regions that were positively correlated with current age were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's area; BA 9) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 46). Also, in relation to negative correlations, there were many regions in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 30) and the left cuneus (BA 30), middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 13, 39). Additionally, the occipital regions were found in the right cuneus (BA 18) including the right middle occipital gyrus (BA 18) and right lingual gyrus (BA 19). Age effect in schizophrenic patients was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with positive correlation. We suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity which is important for cognitive task performance is related to an increase of patients age

  19. SPM analysis of cerebral blood flow changes related to age in patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Byeong II; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neural activities of schizophrenic patients related to current age including the age of onset and also we examined the correlation patterns between age and neural correlates. 21 patients with schizophrenia (female/male; 10/11, mean age; 36.1 11.2) participated in this study and all patients were evaluated by criteria of DSM-IV as a schizophrenia patient. Exclusion criteria included inability to give informed consent and a history of significant neurological illness. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were obtained from 21 schizophrenic patients. Using SPM (statistical parametric mapping), all images were normalized to a SPECT template (MNI template) and then smoothed. We performed an ANCOVA analysis with current age (covariate variable) and the age of onset (nuisance variable). The correlation was analyzed into positive and negative patterns. Findings are reported as a Z scores with a significance threshold of p < 0.005 (uncorrected) and a minimum cluster size of 10. Significant difference was found between current age and premorbid age (p < 0.05). Cerebral regions that were positively correlated with current age were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's area; BA 9) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 46). Also, in relation to negative correlations, there were many regions in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 30) and the left cuneus (BA 30), middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 13, 39). Additionally, the occipital regions were found in the right cuneus (BA 18) including the right middle occipital gyrus (BA 18) and right lingual gyrus (BA 19). Age effect in schizophrenic patients was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with positive correlation. We suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity which is important for cognitive task performance is related to an increase of patients

  20. Monitoring of suspended particulate matter (SPM), heavy metals and other parameters in some workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.; Korir, A.K.; Bartilol, S.; Maina, D.M.; Mugera, W.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Chakaya, J.M.; Karama, M.; Miungu, D.M.; Kitio, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements of sound levels, chemical analysis of air particulate matter and soil samples from two factories in Nairobi. A preliminary assessment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a residential site and its possible impacts on acute respiratory infections (ARI) of children under five years of age is also reported. Our investigations show that for Factory A, the Soil pH measurements within the Factory were more basic (pH=8.5) than those collected near a complainant's residence (pH=7.2). The sound level measurements showed that the maximum noise level recorded was 90 dB. This was at a distance of about 0.5 m from the main exhaust vent of the Factory (20 m above ground level). There was a strong ''detergent-perfume'' odour within and outside the Factory premises especially towards the complainant's side. However, the odour fluctuated. There was also no smoke emissions noticed during the site visits when the factory was operational. For Factory B, the major source of environmental degradation was drainage and management of the factory effluents. The BOD and COD levels for effluents samples analyzed ( 3 whereas the fine particles ranged from 16.2-24.4 μm/m 3 . The prevalence of ARI cases in 1998 ranged between 29.9% in January to the highest level of 59.6% in June. The total number of children who presented themselves throughout the study period, January-December 1998, was 146. A parallel study of dust sampling was also carried out from January to December 1998 in a typical office environment. Dust levels recorded from the working office environment at the Institute of Nuclear Science was found to range from 0. 44 -1.79 μg/cm 2 /day. (author)

  1. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Barbosa Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centres. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5 899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM-1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes.

  2. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana P B; Ortiz, Mauro F; Martins, Willames M B S; Morais, Guilherme L; Fehlberg, Lorena C C; Almeida, Luiz G P; Ciapina, Luciane P; Gales, Ana C; Vasconcelos, Ana T R

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginos a PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the bla SPM-1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  4. Compensation for the phase-type spatial periodic modulation of the near-field beam at 1053 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaru; Liu, Dean; Yang, Aihua; Tang, Ruyu; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2017-10-01

    A phase-only spatial light modulator is used to provide and compensate for the spatial periodic modulation (SPM) of the near-field beam at the near infrared at 1053nm wavelength with an improved iterative weight-based method. The transmission characteristics of the incident beam has been changed by a spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the spatial intensity of the output beam. The propagation and reverse propagation of the light in free space are two important processes in the iterative process. The based theory is the beam angular spectrum transmit formula (ASTF) and the principle of the iterative weight-based method. We have made two improvements to the originally proposed iterative weight-based method. We select the appropriate parameter by choosing the minimum value of the output beam contrast degree and use the MATLAB built-in angle function to acquire the corresponding phase of the light wave function. The required phase that compensates for the intensity distribution of the incident SPM beam is iterated by this algorithm, which can decrease the magnitude of the SPM of the intensity on the observation plane. The experimental results show that the phase-type SPM of the near-field beam is subject to a certain restriction. We have also analyzed some factors that make the results imperfect. The experiment results verifies the possible applicability of this iterative weight-based method to compensate for the SPM of the near-field beam.

  5. Study on the occurrence of platinum in Xinjie Cu-Ni sulfide deposits by a combination of SPM and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong; Gu Yingmei; Wu Xiankang; Chen Youhong

    1997-01-01

    A combination of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) and scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to study the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGEs) in rocks and ores from Xinjie Cu-Ni deposit. The minimum detection limits of PGEs by NAA had been much improved by means of a nickel-sulfide fire-assay technique for pre-concentration of PGEs in the ore samples. A simple and effective method was developed for true element mapping in SPM experiments. A pair of moveable absorption filters was set up in the target chamber for high sensitivities of both major and trace elements. The bulk analysis results by NNA indicated that the PGE mineralization occurred at the base of Xinjie layered intrusion in clino-pyroxenite rocks and the Cu-Ni sulfide minerals disseminated within the rocks had high abundance level of PGEs. However, the micro-PIXE analysis of the Cu-Ni sulfide mineral grains did not find PGEs above the MDL of (6-9) x 10 -6 for Rh, Ru and Pd, and 6- x 10 -6 for Pt. The search for platinum occurrence in sulfide minerals was followed by scanning analysis of SPM when some smaller platinum enriched grains were found in the sulfide minerals. The microscopic analysis results suggested that platinum occurred in the Cu-Ni sulfide matrix as independent arsenide mineral grains. The chemical formula of the arsenide sperrylite was PtAs2. The information of the platinum occurrence was helpful to future mineralogical research and mineral processing and beneficiation of the Cu-Ni deposit

  6. Study on the occurrence of platinum in Xinjie CuNi sulfide deposits by a combination of SPM and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jieqing; Lu, Rongrong; Gu, Yingmei; Wu, Xiankang; Chen, Youhong

    1997-07-01

    A combination of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) and scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to study the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGEs) in rocks and ores from Xinjie CuNi deposit. The minimum detection limits of PGEs by NAA had been much improved by means of a nickel-sulfide fire-assay technique for pre-concentration of PGEs in the ore samples. A simple and effective method was developed for true element mapping in SPM experiments. A pair of moveable absorption filters was set up in the target chamber for high sensitivities of both major and trace elements. The bulk analysis results by NNA indicated that the PGE mineralization occurred at the base of Xinjie layered intrusion in clinopyroxenite rocks and the CuNi sulfide minerals disseminated within the rocks had high abundance level of PGEs. However, the micro-PIXE analysis of the CuNi sulfide mineral grains did not find PGEs above the MDL of 6-9 ppm for Rh, Ru and Pd, and 60 ppm for Pt. The search for platinum occurrence in sulfide minerals was followed by scanning analysis of SPM when some smaller platinum enriched grains were found in the sulfide minerals. The microscopic analysis results suggested that platinum occurred in the CuNi sulfide matrix as independent arsenide mineral grains. The chemical formula of the arsenide sperrylite was PtAs 2. The information of the platinum occurrence was helpful to future mineralogical research and mineral processing and beneficiation of the CuNi deposit.

  7. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  8. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hout, C. M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M. J. N.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Rozemeijer, M. J. C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of 1.8 years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0-2 m) in the shallow (11 m deep) coastal zone at 1 km off the Dutch coast are shown. Temporal variations in the concentration of both parameters are found on tidal and seasonal scales, and a marked response to episodic events (e.g. storms). The seasonal cycle in the near-bed CHL-a concentration is determined by the spring bloom. The role of the wave climate as the primary forcing in the SPM seasonal cycle is discussed. The tidal current provides a background signal, generated predominantly by local resuspension and settling and a minor role is for advection in the cross-shore and the alongshore direction. We tested the logarithmic Rouse profile to the vertical profiles of both the SPM and the CHL-a data, with respectively 84% and only 2% success. The resulting large percentage of low Rouse numbers for the SPM profiles suggest a mixed suspension is dominant in the TMZ, i.e. surface SPM concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as near-bed concentrations.

  9. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  10. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  11. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  12. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  13. Spermine modulates the expression of two probable polyamine transporter genes and determines growth responses to cadaverine in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, G H M; Berberich, Thomas; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2016-06-01

    Two genes, LAT1 and OCT1 , are likely to be involved in polyamine transport in Arabidopsis. Endogenous spermine levels modulate their expression and determine the sensitivity to cadaverine. Arabidopsis spermine (Spm) synthase (SPMS) gene-deficient mutant was previously shown to be rather resistant to the diamine cadaverine (Cad). Furthermore, a mutant deficient in polyamine oxidase 4 gene, accumulating about twofold more of Spm than wild type plants, showed increased sensitivity to Cad. It suggests that endogenous Spm content determines growth responses to Cad in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we showed that Arabidopsis seedlings pretreated with Spm absorbs more Cad and has shorter root growth, and that the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the SPMS gene are hypersensitive to Cad, further supporting the above idea. The transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing L-Amino acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) absorbed more Cad and showed increased Cad sensitivity, suggesting that LAT1 functions as a Cad importer. Recently, other research group reported that Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) is a causal gene which determines the Cad sensitivity of various Arabidopsis accessions. Furthermore, their results suggested that OCT1 is involved in Cad efflux. Thus we monitored the expression of OCT1 and LAT1 during the above experiments. Based on the results, we proposed a model in which the level of Spm content modulates the expression of OCT1 and LAT1, and determines Cad sensitivity of Arabidopsis.

  14. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8{+-}8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3{+-}6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4{+-}7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7{+-}4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD.

  15. Cerebral blood flow imaging in staging of dementia of Alzheimer type. A study using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    One hundred twenty-two patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Patients with DAT were subdivided on the results of their score on the Japanese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-J cog.), into mild (score lower than or equal to 15, n=47), moderate (score 16 to 35, n=63), and severe (score greater than or equal to 36, n=12) groups. Seventy age-matched controls who had no signs or symptoms of dementia were recruited from the Memory Clinic. The reconstructed {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT data were analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping technique. In mild stage of DAT, SPM analysis demonstrated that bilateral posterior parietal lobes, superior occipital lobes, and posterior cingulated gyri were significantly decreased in CBF as compared with the normal controls. In moderate stage of DAT, extension of the hypoperfusion to the frontal lobes was detected as compared with the mild stage of DAT. In severe stage of DAT, SPM image showed the diffuse hypoperfusion in bilateral hemispheres. The frequency of hypoperfusions in the DAT group was observed with the following: 15.0% in the mild stage, 34.9% in the moderate stage, and 66.7% in the severe stage. Our results indicate that the frequency and progression of the hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal regions and/or the other regions in DAT is related to the severity of the dementia. (author)

  16. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5±5.6 years, educational period: 4.5±4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1±4.5 years, educational period: 6.5±4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP

  17. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  18. Cerebral blood flow imaging in staging of dementia of Alzheimer type. A study using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura

    2001-01-01

    One hundred twenty-two patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Patients with DAT were subdivided on the results of their score on the Japanese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-J cog.), into mild (score lower than or equal to 15, n=47), moderate (score 16 to 35, n=63), and severe (score greater than or equal to 36, n=12) groups. Seventy age-matched controls who had no signs or symptoms of dementia were recruited from the Memory Clinic. The reconstructed 123 I-IMP-SPECT data were analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping technique. In mild stage of DAT, SPM analysis demonstrated that bilateral posterior parietal lobes, superior occipital lobes, and posterior cingulated gyri were significantly decreased in CBF as compared with the normal controls. In moderate stage of DAT, extension of the hypoperfusion to the frontal lobes was detected as compared with the mild stage of DAT. In severe stage of DAT, SPM image showed the diffuse hypoperfusion in bilateral hemispheres. The frequency of hypoperfusions in the DAT group was observed with the following: 15.0% in the mild stage, 34.9% in the moderate stage, and 66.7% in the severe stage. Our results indicate that the frequency and progression of the hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal regions and/or the other regions in DAT is related to the severity of the dementia. (author)

  19. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).

  20. A laboratory study on formation of oil-SPM aggregates using the NIST standard reference material 1941b. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Landriault, M.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.; Pjontek, D.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of spilled oil in water can be enhanced by a natural process in which suspended particulate matter (SPM) combines with oil droplets to form Oil-SPM aggregates (OSA). A laboratory setup and procedure were developed in this study to examine the formation of OSAs in which the sediment (Standard Reference Material 1941b) was mixed with Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crudes at concentrations varying from 25 to 300 mg/L. The OSAs were separated from the bulk water using a newly developed procedure. Gas chromatography combined with flame ionization analysis was used to measure the oil trapped in the OSAs. The sediment trapped in the sinking OSAs was then isolated for gravimetric quantification. This procedure has the potential to isolate sinking OSAs with minimum alteration with dispersed oil. Oil mass of less than 2 mg trapped in OSAs was measured with 0.8 mg uncertainty at a 95 per cent confidence level. This setup was capable of imaging droplets of 0.1 μg and up in size. The study showed that formation of sinking OSAs reaches maximum efficiency at an optimum oil to sediment ratio that decreases from 0.5 to approximately 0.1 when the ratio between oil density and the water density increases from 0.84 to 0.97. The percentage of oil trapped in sinking OSAs increases quickly from approximately 0.5 per cent to 30 per cent of the initial oil mass when sediment concentration increases from 25 to 100 mg/l. The highest trapping efficiency was found to decrease exponentially with oil density. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Nature, Origin and Transfers of SPM (Mineral, Organic, and Biological) in Hydrosystems : a New Methodological Approach by Morphogranulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, D.; Fournier, M.; Copard, Y.; Dupont, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Source to sink is one of the main concepts in Earth Sciences for a better knowledge of hydrosystems dynamics. Regarding this issue, the present day challenge consists in the characterization by in-situ measurements of the nature and the origin of suspended particles matters (SPM). Few methods can fully cover such requirements and among them, the methodology using the form of particles deserves to be developed. Indeed, morphometry of particles is widely used in sedimentology to identify different sedimentary stocks, source-to-sink transport and sedimentation mechanisms. Currently, morphometry analyses are carried out by scanning electron microscope coupled to image analysis to measure various size and shape descriptors on particles like flatness, elongation, circularity, sphericity, bluntness, fractal dimension. However, complexity and time of analysis are the main limitations of this technique for a long-term monitoring of SPM transfers. Here we present an experimental morphometric approach using a morphogranulometer (a CCD camera coupled to a peristaltic pump). The camera takes pictures while the sample is circulating through a flow cell, leading to the analysis of numerous particles in a short time. The image analysis provides size and shape information discriminating various particles stocks according to their nature and origin by statistical analyses. Measurements were carried out on standard samples of particles commonly found in natural waters. The size and morphological distributions of the different mineral fractions (clay, sand, oxides etc), biologic (microalgae, pollen, etc) and organic (peat, coal, soil organic matter, etc) samples are statistically independent and can be discriminated on a 4D graph. Next step will be on field in situ measurements in a sink-spring network to understand the transfers of the particles stocks inside this simple karstic network. Such a development would be promising for the characterisation of natural hydrosystems.

  2. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD

  3. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  4. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  5. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll- a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hout, C.M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of 1.8 years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0–2 m) in the shallow (11

  6. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van der C.M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of 1.8. years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0-2. m) in the shallow

  7. Molecular characterization of Vulmar1, a complete mariner transposon of sugar beet and diversity of mariner- and En/Spm-like sequences in the genus Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gunnar; Dechyeva, Daryna; Menzel, Gerhard; Dombrowski, Cora; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Transposons of the Tc1-mariner superfamily are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. We have isolated the mariner element Vulmar1 from Beta vulgaris L., which is 3909 bp long and bordered by perfect terminal inverted repeats of 32 bp with homology to terminal inverted repeats of transposons from soybean and rice. According to a characteristic amino acid signature, Vulmar1 can be assigned to the DD39D group of mariner transposons. Vulmar1 is flanked by a 5'-TA-3' target site duplication that is typical for mariner transposons. Southern hybridization revealed that mariner-like copies are highly abundant in Beta species, and sequence analysis of 10 transposase fragments from representative species of the four Beta sections revealed an identity between 34% and 100% after conceptual translation. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, Vulmar1 was detected in distal euchromatin as well as in some intercalary and pericentromeric regions of all B. vulgaris chromosomes. In addition, using PCR, we were able to amplify fragments of the transposase gene of En/Spm-like transposons in the genus Beta. En/Spm-like transposase sequences are highly amplified in four Beta sections and showed a considerable degree of conservation (88.5-100%) at the protein level, while the homology to corresponding regions of En/Spm transposons of other plant species ranges from 49.5% to 62.5%. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, En/Spm-like transposon signals of strong intensity were detected on all chromosomes of B. vulgaris.

  8. Mineralogy and Sr–Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Singh, S.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    downstream in both estuaries. Smectite contents were much higher in Zuari than in Mandovi estuary. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and error termsNd of SPM were higher than those in hinterland rocks and laterite soils. The Sr ratios were...

  9. Nonlinear self-modulation of ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; Schwarzenegger, K.; Simons, A.L.; Ohsawa, Y.; Kamimura, T.

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of an ion-acoustic wave packet is studied. Experimentally, it is found that (i) nonlinear phase modulation develops in the wave packet; (ii) the phase modulation, together with the dispersion effect, causes expansion and breaking of the wave packet; (iii) the ions trapped in the troughs of the wave potential introduce self-phase modulation; and (iv) the ion-acoustic wave is stable with respect to the modulational instability. Computer simulations have reproduced the experimental results. The physical picture and the model equation describing the wave evolution are discussed

  10. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8±8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3±6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4±7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7±4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD

  11. Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Choi, Wonshik; Oh, Seungeun; Lue, Niyom; Park, Yongkeun; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a quantitative phase microscope based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and line-field illumination. The line illumination allows self phase-referencing method to reject common-mode phase noise. The quantitative phase microscope also features a separate reference arm, permitting the use of high numerical aperture (NA > 1) microscope objectives for high resolution phase measurement at multiple points along the line of illumination. We demonstrate that the path-length sensitivity of the instrument can be as good as 41 pm/Hz, which makes it suitable for nanometer scale study of cell motility. We present the detection of natural motions of cell surface and two-dimensional surface profiling of a HeLa cell. PMID:19550464

  12. High mortality of bloodstream infection outbreak caused by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa producing SPM-1 in a bone marrow transplant unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lucas; Tomich, Lísia Moura; Salomão, Matias; Leite, Gleice Cristina; Ramos, Jessica; Martins, Roberta Ruedas; Rizek, Camila; Neves, Patricia; Batista, Marjorie Vieira; Amigo, Ulysses; Guimaraes, Thais; Levin, Anna Sara; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo

    2017-12-01

    Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa is increasing worldwide. In Brazil, SPM-1 is the main P. aeruginosa carbapenemase identified. Little is known about the virulence factor in SPM-1 clones.Methodolgy. We describe a carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (CRPa-BSI) outbreak in a bone marrow transplant Unit (BMT). Twenty-nine CRPa-BSI cases were compared to 58 controls. Microbiological characteristics of isolates, such as sensitivity, carbapenemase gene PCR for P. aeruginosa, and PFGE are described, as well as the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of three strains.Results/Key findings. The cultures from environmental and healthcare workers were negative. Some isolates harboured KPC and SPM. The WGS showed that the 03 strains belonged to ST277, presented the same mutations in outer membrane protein, efflux pump, and virulence genes such as those involved in adhesion, biofilm, quorum-sensing and the type III secretion system, but differ regarding the carbapenemase profile. A predominant clone-producing SPM harbouring Tn 4371 was identified and showed cross-transmission; no common source was found. Overall mortality rate among cases was 79 %. The first multivariate analysis model showed that neutropenia (P=0.018), GVHD prophylaxis (P=0.016) and prior use of carbapenems (P=0.0089) were associated with CRPa-BSI. However, when MASCC>21 points and platelets were added in the final multivariate analysis, only prior use of carbapenems remained as an independent risk factor for CRPa-BSI (P=0.043). The predominant clone belonging to ST277 showed high mortality. Carbapenem use was the only risk factor associated with CRPa-BSI. This finding is a wake-up call for the need to improve management in BMT units.

  13. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral perfusion with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young

    2003-01-01

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to inadequate language acquisition at the expected age in children with otherwise normal development. However, language delay can be observed in patients with other developmental disoder (ODD). We, therefore, evaluated regional cerebral perfusion pattern in patients with DLD and ODD by means of visual and SPM analysis. Twelve patients, who underwent Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT within 3 weeks of their first visit, were included in the study. Psychological and language tests classified the patients into 2 groups ; 6 with DLD (3-7 yr, 5 male and I female) and 6 with ODD (2-6 yr, 6 male). Visual analysis for regional cerebral perfusion was done in each patient. SPM with 7 controls (age=7) was performed to evaluate difference between 2 groups using t-test. P value of less than 0.005 was considered to be significant. All patients had significant language delay for their age (9 month 3.5 yr). Among 6 patients with ODD, 4 had pervasive developmental disorder, 1 mental retardation and 1 attachment disorder. Visual analysis revealed significant perfusion decrease in only 1 patient with DLD and 2 with ODD ; the regions were left parieto-temporal cortex, both frontal and cerebellar cortices, and right temporal cortex respectively. Nine of 12 patients showed normal perfusion. SPM demonstrated perfusion decrease in left inferior frontal cortex and left superior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area) in patients with DLD, while, in patients with ODD, perfusion decrease was mostly located in the right hemisphere (lateral frontoorbital gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum). Corpus callosum showed no significant perfusion abnormality in both groups. Regional cerebral perfusion of patients with DLD, which was mainly located in the speech area, is quite different from that of ODD-patients with language delay. While SPM successfully revealed this difference in perfusion pattern, visual analysis had limited value

  14. Coproduction of Novel 16S rRNA Methylase RmtD and Metallo-β-Lactamase SPM-1 in a Panresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate from Brazil▿

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Yohei; de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti; Adams, Jennifer; Paterson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Serious infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently treated with the combination of a β-lactam antimicrobial and an aminoglycoside. P. aeruginosa strain PA0905 was isolated in 2005 from an inpatient in Brazil. It showed a panresistant phenotype that included resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. The β-lactam resistance was conferred by the production of the metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1. No inhibitory zone was observed when a disk diffusion test was performed w...

  15. Effect of linearization correction on statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A 99mTc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT study in mild Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, A.B.; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Kazui, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was employed to investigate the regional decline in cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured by 99m Tc-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of the post reconstruction image processing on the interpretation of SPM, which detects rCBF pattern, has not been precisely studied. We performed 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in mild AD patients and analyzed the effect of linearization correction for washout of the tracer on the detectability of abnormal perfusion. Eleven mild AD (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NINCDS-ADRDA), male/female, 5/6; mean±SD age, 70.6±6.2 years; mean±SD mini-mental state examination score, 23.9±3.41; clinical dementia rating score, 1) and eleven normal control subjects (male/female, 4/7; mean±SD age, 66.8±8.4 years) were enrolled in this study. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed with a four-head rotating gamma camera. We employed linearization uncorrected (LU) and linearization corrected (LC) images for the patients and controls. The pattern of hypoperfusion in mild AD on LU and LC images was detected by SPM99 applying the same image standardization and analytical parameters. A statistical inter image-group analysis (LU vs. LC) was also performed. Clear differences were observed between the interpretation of SPM with LU and LC images. Significant hypoperfusion in mild AD was found on the LU images in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, right precuneus, left hippocampus, left uncus, and left superior temporal gyrus (cluster level, corrected p 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with or without linearization correction, which should be carefully evaluated when interpreting the pattern of rCBF changes in mild Alzheimer's disease. (author)

  16. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral perfusion with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to inadequate language acquisition at the expected age in children with otherwise normal development. However, language delay can be observed in patients with other developmental disoder (ODD). We, therefore, evaluated regional cerebral perfusion pattern in patients with DLD and ODD by means of visual and SPM analysis. Twelve patients, who underwent Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT within 3 weeks of their first visit, were included in the study. Psychological and language tests classified the patients into 2 groups ; 6 with DLD (3-7 yr, 5 male and I female) and 6 with ODD (2-6 yr, 6 male). Visual analysis for regional cerebral perfusion was done in each patient. SPM with 7 controls (age=7) was performed to evaluate difference between 2 groups using t-test. P value of less than 0.005 was considered to be significant. All patients had significant language delay for their age (9 month 3.5 yr). Among 6 patients with ODD, 4 had pervasive developmental disorder, 1 mental retardation and 1 attachment disorder. Visual analysis revealed significant perfusion decrease in only 1 patient with DLD and 2 with ODD ; the regions were left parieto-temporal cortex, both frontal and cerebellar cortices, and right temporal cortex respectively. Nine of 12 patients showed normal perfusion. SPM demonstrated perfusion decrease in left inferior frontal cortex and left superior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area) in patients with DLD, while, in patients with ODD, perfusion decrease was mostly located in the right hemisphere (lateral frontoorbital gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum). Corpus callosum showed no significant perfusion abnormality in both groups. Regional cerebral perfusion of patients with DLD, which was mainly located in the speech area, is quite different from that of ODD-patients with language delay. While SPM successfully revealed this difference in perfusion pattern, visual analysis had limited value.

  17. Efficient constraint-based Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM algorithm to understand customers’ buying behaviour from time stamp-based sequence dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Ashish Kumar Desai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategies are formulated based on an understanding of customer needs. This requires development of a strategy to understand customer behaviour and buying patterns, both current and future. This involves understanding, first how an organization currently understands customer needs and second predicting future trends to drive growth. This article focuses on purchase trend of customer, where timing of purchase is more important than association of item to be purchased, and which can be found out with Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM methods. Conventional SPM algorithms worked purely on frequency identifying patterns that were more frequent but suffering from challenges like generation of huge number of uninteresting patterns, lack of user’s interested patterns, rare item problem, etc. Article attempts a solution through development of a SPM algorithm based on various constraints like Gap, Compactness, Item, Recency, Profitability and Length along with Frequency constraint. Incorporation of six additional constraints is as well to ensure that all patterns are recently active (Recency, active for certain time span (Compactness, profitable and indicative of next timeline for purchase (Length―Item―Gap. The article also attempts to throw light on how proposed Constraint-based Prefix Span algorithm is helpful to understand buying behaviour of customer which is in formative stage.

  18. Cerebral blood flow abnormalities induced by transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. Analysis by Tc-99m-HMPAO and SPM96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Ishida, Yasushi; Fujita, Seigo; Futami, Shigemi; Kodama, Takao; Tamura, Shozo; Kawai, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    The current study is an investigation of alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in patients with transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. In addition, the effects of thyroxine treatment on rCBF changes were studied. Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were performed on 24 post-thyroidectomy patients who were in a hypothyroidic state. The measurements were conducted before 131 I therapy and after thyroid hormone (thyroxine) replacement. We used adjusted rCBF images (normalization of global CBF for each subject to 50 ml/100 g/min with proportional scaling) to compare these data with age-matched normal control groups (n=15) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96. We also compared the absolute rCBF value of hypothyroidic patients with those of normal control groups. In addition, the association between rCBF alteration and the severity of depression was also analyzed. Finally, the effect of thyroid hormone replacement on rCBF was investigated individually using the Jack-knife test, in which patient data were compared with those from healthy volunteers. According to the result of this test, all cases were categorized into three subgroups, namely, improved, unchanged group and normal. To prove the reversibility of rCBF alteration after thyroid hormone replacement, a group comparison test between the normal controls and the improved group was done before and after thyroid hormone replacement. Similarly a group comparison test between the unchanged group and normal controls was also performed. In the hypothyroidic condition, there was a significant decrease in the posterior part of the bilateral parietal lobes and in part of the bilateral occipital lobes, including the cuneus. These decreased rCBF areas extended to the bilateral prefrontal cortices as deterioration became more profound. On individual analysis, 16 of 24 patients (66.7%) demonstrated rCBF reduction, while 8 patient did not show significant rCBF change

  19. シンガポールおよびマレーシアにおける浮遊粒子状物質(SPM)の測定

    OpenAIRE

    中山, 榮子; 中島, 利誠; 佐藤, 豊; Eiko, NAKAYAMA; Toshinari, NAKAJIMA; Yutaka, SATO; 生活環境学科; 生活環境学科; 生活環境学科

    2004-01-01

    The result of SPM measurements in Singapore, Malacca and Kuala Lumpur on September 9-14, 2002 was reported and contour maps of the SPM concentration were made. The results varied considerably from 'good' in the urban districts of Singapore to 'bad' in the places where overlapping traffic jams occurred in Kuala Lumpur. Other Asian countries including Japan are very interested in this research. Previously measurements were made in Shanghai and Hong Kong and now they have been made in Singapore ...

  20. Experimental verification of the intrinsic ultrafast delayed nonlinearity of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lysenko, Oleg; Olivier, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic metal waveguides can excite a third-order nonlinear response [1] much akin the well-known self-phase modulation (SPM) and two-photon absorption seen in light propagating in dielectric waveguides. In metals, the nonlinearity mainly arises as a self...

  1. SPECT image analysis using SPM in patients with parkinson's disease and essential tremor : rCBF correlates of immediate surgical outcome following unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Nam Bum; Lee, Uhn

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with PD and essential tremor (ET) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and rCBF correlates of immediate surgical outcome following unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in patients with PD. Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 10 PD (60.5±8.7), 10 ET (55.5±17.7) patients and 10 healthy controls (56.2±12.0). Eight patients with PD following unilateral right thalamo-pallidotomy and five following unilateral left thalamo-pallidotomy underwent pre- and post-operative rCBF SPECT both one week before and after surgery. Acquisition were acquired within 30 min, 360 rotations with 90 projections were collected in a 128 x 128 matrix using a dual head gamma camera (Siemens, Multispect II). Data were analyzed using SPM 99. We found definite bilateral decreased rCBF in perfrontal cortex, bilateral increased rCBF in dentate nucleus of superomedial cerebellum in patients with PD and bilateral increased rCBF in lateral aspect of cerebellum in ET, respectively, compared with healthy controls. In addition, rCBF suspiciousely increased bilaterally in left dorsolateral frontal cortex in ET with equivocal clinical significance. Following 8 right and 5 left unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD patients, immediate postop declines in ipsilateral fronto-temporal and temporal cortical perfusion, respectively, as well as pallidothalamic hypoperfusion were significant. SPM analysis showed that significantly decreased rCBF in bilateral perfrontal cortex and increased rCBF in dentate uncleus of superomedial cerebellum in PD and increased bilateral rCBF in lateral aspect of cerebellum in ET. Unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD patients reduced the immediate post-operative rCBF declines in ipsilateral temporal (frontal) cortex as well as pallidothalamic hypoperfusion which is suggestive of thalamo-cortical diaschisis

  2. Caracterização dos Genes de metalo-beta-lactamase blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistentes a Carbapenens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: P. aeruginosa é responsável por causar grande variedade de infecções agudas e crônicas. A resistência aos carbapenêmicos está se tornando um problema terapêutico mundial e a produção de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL tem surgido como um dos mecanismos responsáveis por esta resistência. Objetivou-se identificar as cepas produtoras de MBL e verificar a presença dos genes codificador blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em isolados de P. aeruginosa resistentes aos carbapenens. Métodos: Foram analisadas 16 cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes sítios de indivíduos atendidos pelo Hospital do Vale do Rio Pardo-RS, no período de março 2014 a fevereiro de 2015. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada segundo protocolo da ANVISA e o antibiograma pelo método de ágar difusão em disco. A triagem fenotípica foi feita pelo teste modificado de aproximação de discos utilizando o EDTA como inibidor e a presença dos genes através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: O setor clínico com maior prevalência de isolamento de P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenens é a unidade de terapia intensiva (50%. Em relação aos espécimes clínicos, 62,5% dos isolados foram identificados no trato respiratório inferior. Através do teste fenotípico, 50% das amostras analisadas mostraram ser produtora da enzima MBL. Através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase foi possível identificar a presença de um dos três genes propostos, sendo eles blaSPM. Conclusão: Os isolados de P. aeruginosa mostraram serem produtores de MBL e apresentaram o gene de resistência blaSPM nesta espécie no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Palavras Chaves: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; metalo-beta-lactamases; blaNDM, blaIMP, e blaSPM .

  3. Interest of the supplementary analysis of inter hemisphere asymmetry in the study with S.P.M. of cerebral PET-F.D.G. of patients suffering of temporal epilepsy; Interet de l'analyse supplementaire d'asymetrie interhemispherique dans l'etude avec SPM des TEP-FDG cerebrales de patients avec epilepsie temporale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, C.; Wolf, D. [CRAN-INPL, universite de Nancy, 54 (France); Gillet, N.; Marie, P.Y.; Laurens, M.H.; Djaballah, W.; Karcher, G. [CHU de Nancy, service de medecine nucleaire, 54 (France); Maillard, L.; Vespignani, H. [CHU de Nancy, service de neurologie, 54 (France); Guedj, E. [Hopital de la Timone, service de medecine nucleaire, AP-HM13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementary information provided by the asymmetry analysis in the study by S.P.M. (statistical parametric mapping) of cerebral PET-F.D.G. images got for patients suffering of a drug resistant temporal epilepsy. It appears that the supplementary analysis of inter hemisphere asymmetry allow to improve the detection rate of the involved temporal lobe and bring complementary information concerning the delimitation of the hypo metabolic temporal area. (N.C.)

  4. Theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures including the effects of self-phase modulation, dispersion and pulse collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, R.G.M.P.; Roijen, van R.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures using a semiconductor laser amplifier and absorber. The mode-locking system is described in terms of the different elements in the semiconductor laser structure. We derive mode-locking conditions and show how other

  5. Self-phase modulation in a thin fused silica plate upon interaction with a converging beam of down-chirped femtosecond radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudtsyn, Ya V; Zubarev, I G; Mamaev, S B; Mikheev, L D; Stepanov, S G; Yalovoi, V I [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koribut, A V [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kuchik, I E; Trofimov, V A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Semjonov, S L [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    The mechanism of spectral broadening and self-compression of down-chirped femtosecond pulses in the visible range (473 nm) upon nonlinear interaction of a converging Gaussian beam with a 1-mm-thick fused silica plate is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is found experimentally that when the intensity increases and plasma is formed in the sample, the regime of femtosecond pulse splitting is transformed into the single-pulse generation regime during nonlinear interaction. As a result of selfcompression, the duration of the initial transform-limited pulse is reduced by a factor of 3. Based on the numerical solution of the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation, with the plasma formation disregarded, it is shown that the profile, spectrum and temporal phase of the pulse transmitted through the sample acquire a stationary shape behind the focal plane of the focusing mirror. The calculation results are in good agreement with experimental data. The possibility of parametric amplification of the pulse spectral components under given experimental conditions is discussed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Role of Spm-Cer-S1P signalling pathway in MMP-2 mediated U46619-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2015-10-01

    During remodelling of pulmonary artery, marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) occurs, which contributes to pulmonary hypertension. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) has been shown to produce pulmonary hypertension. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the TxA2 mimetic, U46619-induced proliferation of PASMCs. U46619 at a concentration of 10 nM induces maximum proliferation of bovine PASMCs. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of p(38)MAPK, NF-κB and MMP-2 significantly inhibit U46619-induced cell proliferation. EGCG markedly abrogate U46619-induced p(38)MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB activation, proMMP-2 expression and activation, and also the cell proliferation. U46619 causes an increase in the activation of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and also increase sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) level. U46619 also induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which phosphorylates SPHK leading to an increase in S1P level. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of SMase and SPHK markedly inhibit U46619-induced cell proliferation. Additionally, pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of MMP-2 markedly abrogate U46619-induced SMase activity and S1P level. EGCG markedly inhibit U46619-induced SMase activity, ERK1/2 and SPHK phosphorylation and S1P level in the cells. Overall, Sphingomyeline-Ceramide-Sphingosine-1-phosphate (Spm-Cer-S1P) signalling axis plays an important role in MMP-2 mediated U46619-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Importantly, EGCG inhibits U46619 induced increase in MMP-2 activation by modulating p(38)MAPK-NFκB pathway and subsequently prevents the cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Nitrogen oxides, ozone and heavy metals analysis of suspended particulate matter (spm) of air in Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odhiambo, O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in most urban centers. In Kenya, Nairobi city has the highest traffic density and is therefore a particular cause for concern due to the poor maintenance standards of most vehicles plus the use of leaded gasoline. This study was carried out to determine the levels of nitrogen oxides (nox), suspended particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O3) and heavy metals in the SPM collected from the ambient air of Nairobi city. Sampling was done once every week for a period of three months (February to April 2000). Hourly average concentrations of N0 2 , NO and O3 were measured simultaneously from 9.00 am to 5.00 p.m., at a roundabout connecting two main highways (University and Uhuru) in the city. PM10 was collected using Gent Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) air sampler on nuclepore filters (0.4 and 8.0 ?m pore size for fine and coarse filters respectively) which were weighed and analysed for trace elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique. Nitrogen oxides were analysed with thermo electron's Chemiluminescent nox Model 14B analyser while ozone was by using DASIBI ozone monitor, Model 1003 AH. An automatic vehicle counter was used For determining the vehicle density at the sampling point. The findings of the study show that the values obtained for Pb, Mn, Fe, Br, Zn, Cu and Ca are within the Who guidelines. Lead concentrations ranged from 0.051 to 1.106?g/m3; Fe, 0.149 to 3.154?g/m3; Mn, 0.002 to 0.526?g/m3; Cu, lower limit of detection (LLD) to 0.15?g/m3; Br, LLD to 0.43?g/m3; Zn, LLD to 0.14 ?g/m3 and Ca 2.18 to 5.389?g/m3. Concentrations of NO 2 , NO and O3 were also within the 8-hour Who limits with levels ranging from 0.011-0.976 ppm for NO, 0.001-0.2628 ppm for NO 2 and LLD-0.1258 ppm for ozone. The O3 levels were slightly higher in the afternoons when solar intensity was high especially the days with cloud cover of less than 3 Oktas. PM10 levels were, however, above the Who guidelines for most of

  8. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  9. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young; Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0±2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3±4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group

  10. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.

  11. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD

  12. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  13. SPM analysis of cerebrovascular reserve capacity after stimulation with acetazolamide measured by Tc-99m ECD SPECT in normal brain MRI patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Yoon, J. K.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate normal response of acetazolamide in normal individuals, whose brain MRI is normal, using SPM99. In total, 10 Tc- 99m ECD brain SPECT were evaluated retrospectively. The half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 47.1 years old with a range of 33-61 years. They all visited our neurology department to evaluate stroke symptom. Their brain MRI was normal. Rest/acetazolamide brain SPECT was perfomed using Tc-99m ECD and the sequential injection and subtraction method. SPECT was acquired using fanbeam collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT III, Siemens medical systems, Inc. Hoffman Estates, III, USA). Chang's attenuation correction was applied their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis by two nuclear physician and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared rest brain SPECT images with those of acetazolamide brain SPECT and measured the extent of the area with significant perfusion change (P<0.05) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Acetazolamide brain SPECT showed no significant decreased region in comparison to rest brain SPECT. Only small portion of left mid temporal gyrus revealed increased rCBF on acetazolamide brain SPECT in comparison to rest brain SPECT. It apperas that there is no significant change in rCBF between rest and acetazolamide brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. The small number of this study is limitation of our study.

  14. Synaptosomal ecto-5'-nucleotidases activity modulation after ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakulic, D.; Stanojevic, I.; Petrovic, S.; Velickovic, N.; Horvat, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adenine nucleotides, such as ATP and adenosine are involved in the regulation of variety of physiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS), including development and tissue remodeling following trauma, stroke, ischemia or neurodegenerative disorders. Ecto-5'- nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT), membrane enzyme, catalyzes the last step of extracellular nucleotide degradation and it is responsible for purinergic signaling modulation and termination. In order to investigate if ionizing irradiation could modulate CNS purinergic signalization in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) the activity of ecto-5'-NT was monitored after whole-body acute irradiation with low (0,5 Gy) or therapeutic (2 Gy) doses, 1h, 24h and 72h after irradiating juvenile (15-day old), prepubertal (30 days), pubertal (60 days) and adult (90-day old) female rats. Results suggest that acute irradiation could modulate activity of the enzymes that are necessary for purinergic signal termination depended of dose and time after irradiation, as well as brain development stage. (author) [sr

  15. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.

  16. Characteristics of Cerebral Blood Flow in Vascular Dementia using SPM Analysis Compared to Normal Control and Alzheimer's Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Cerebral perfusion pattern of vascular dementia (VD) was not well established and overlap of cerebral perfusion pattern was reported between VD and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of SPECT finding in VD compared with normal control subjects and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD were investigated using statistic parametric mapping analysis. Thirty-two VD (mean age ; 67.86.4 years, mean CDR ; 0.980.27), 51 AD (mean age ; 71.47.2 years, CDR ; 1.160.47), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, and 30 normal control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 years) participated in this study. The Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT data were analyzed by SPM99. The SPECT data of the patients with VD were compared to those of the control subjects and then compared to the patients with AD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the both frontal (both cingulate gyrus, both inferior frontal gyrus, B no.47, right frontal rectal gyrus, left frontal subcallosal gyrus, B no.25), both temporal (right insula, B no.13, left superior temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, B no.35), occipital (occipital lingual gyrus), right corpus callosum and right cerebellar tonsil regions in subjects with VD compared with normal control subjects (uncorrected p<0.01). Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both parietal posterior central gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (B no.47), left insula, right thalamus (ventral lateral nucleus), right claustrum and right occipital cuneus regions in VD group compared with AD. There were no typical confined regional hypoperfusion areas but scattered multiple perfusion deficits in VD compared AD. These findings may be helpful to reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of VD and to disclose differences of cerebral blood flow between subjects with VD and AD.

  17. An SPM8-based approach for attenuation correction combining segmentation and nonrigid template formation: application to simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E; Förster, Stefan; Benoit, Didier; Schachoff, Sylvia; Fürst, Sebastian; Chen, Kevin T; Chonde, Daniel B; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    We present an approach for head MR-based attenuation correction (AC) based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) software, which combines segmentation- and atlas-based features to provide a robust technique to generate attenuation maps (μ maps) from MR data in integrated PET/MR scanners. Coregistered anatomic MR and CT images of 15 glioblastoma subjects were used to generate the templates. The MR images from these subjects were first segmented into 6 tissue classes (gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, bone, soft tissue, and air), which were then nonrigidly coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomic MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients to be used for AC of PET data. The method was validated on 16 new subjects with brain tumors (n = 12) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 4) who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. The μ maps and corresponding reconstructed PET images were compared with those obtained using the gold standard CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method available on the Biograph mMR scanner. Relative change (RC) images were generated in each case, and voxel- and region-of-interest-based analyses were performed. The leave-one-out cross-validation analysis of the data from the 15 atlas-generation subjects showed small errors in brain linear attenuation coefficients (RC, 1.38% ± 4.52%) compared with the gold standard. Similar results (RC, 1.86% ± 4.06%) were obtained from the analysis of the atlas-validation datasets. The voxel- and region-of-interest-based analysis of the corresponding reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors of 3.87% ± 5.0% and 2.74% ± 2.28%, respectively. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse (the mean RC values were 13.0% ± 10.25% and 9.38% ± 4.97%, respectively). Areas closer to the skull showed

  18. An SPM8-based Approach for Attenuation Correction Combining Segmentation and Non-rigid Template Formation: Application to Simultaneous PET/MR Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E.; Förster, Stefan; Benoit, Didier; Schachoff, Sylvia; Fürst, Sebastian; Chen, Kevin T.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for head MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC) based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software that combines segmentation- and atlas-based features to provide a robust technique to generate attenuation maps (µ-maps) from MR data in integrated PET/MR scanners. Methods Coregistered anatomical MR and CT images acquired in 15 glioblastoma subjects were used to generate the templates. The MR images from these subjects were first segmented into 6 tissue classes (gray and white matter, cerebro-spinal fluid, bone and soft tissue, and air), which were then non-rigidly coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomical MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to be used for AC of PET data. The method was validated on sixteen new subjects with brain tumors (N=12) or mild cognitive impairment (N=4) who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. The µ-maps and corresponding reconstructed PET images were compared to those obtained using the gold standard CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method available on the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. Relative change (RC) images were generated in each case and voxel- and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses were performed. Results The leave-one-out cross-validation analysis of the data from the 15 atlas-generation subjects showed small errors in brain LACs (RC=1.38%±4.52%) compared to the gold standard. Similar results (RC=1.86±4.06%) were obtained from the analysis of the atlas-validation datasets. The voxel- and ROI-based analysis of the corresponding reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors of 3.87±5.0% and 2.74±2.28%, respectively. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse (the mean RC values were 13.0±10.25% and 9.38±4.97%, respectively). Areas closer to skull showed the largest

  19. Pengembangan Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Pengelolaan Keuangan Negara (SIAPKAN Modul Aset Tetap Menggunakan Bahasa Pemrograman Java dan Database PostgreSQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahrizal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Satuan kerja (satker merupakan unit organisasi terendah dalam pengelolaan keuangan negara. Untuk membantu dalam pengelolaan keuangan negara pada tingkat satker, saat ini digunakan tujuh buah aplikasi berbasis desktop, yaitu Aplikasi RKAKL, Aplikasi DIPA, Aplikasi SPM, Aplikasi SISKA, Aplikasi SIMAK-BMN, Aplikasi Persediaan, dan Aplikasi SAKPA. Meskipun terpisah-pisah, antaraplikasi tersebut memiliki keterkaitan satu dengan yan  lain. Namun, karena masih terpisah-pisah, akibatnya terdapat duplikasi data dan fungsi di antara aplikasi tersebut. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, dikembangkan sebuah aplikasi baru, yaitu Aplikasi Sistem Informasi dan Akuntansi Keuangan Negara (SIAPKAN dengan menggunakan database terintegrasi. Aplikasi SIAPKAN merupakan aplikasi berbasis web yang dikembangkan dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java (servlet dan JSP dan database PostrgeSQL. Aplikasi SIAPKAN terdiri atas tujuh modul, yaitu modul penganggaran, modul pembayaran, modul bendahara, modul aset tetap, modul persediaan, dan modul administrasi.

  20. Detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in 12 years of solar VIRGO-SPM data—tests on Kepler observations of 16 Cyg A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Mikkel Nørup; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Handberg, Rasmus; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in power spectra of the Sun, constructed from 12 yr full-disk VIRGO-SPM data sets. A method for enhancing the detectability of these modes in asteroseismic targets is presented and applied to Kepler data of the two solar analogues 16 Cyg A and B. For these targets, we see indications of a signal from ℓ = 4 modes, while nothing is yet seen for ℓ = 5 modes. We further simulate the power spectra of these stars and from this we estimate that it should indeed be possible to see such indications of ℓ = 4 modes at the present length of the data sets. In the simulation process, we briefly look into the apparent misfit between observed and calculated mode visibilities. We predict that firm detections of at least ℓ = 4 should be possible in any case at the end of the Kepler mission. For ℓ = 5, we do not predict any firm detections from Kepler data.

  1. Cross talk between MMP2-Spm-Cer-S1P and ERK1/2 in proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under angiotensin II stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Pramanik, Pijush Kanti; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish the mechanism associated with the proliferation of PASMCs under ANG II stimulation. The results showed that treatment of PASMCs with ANG II induces an increase in cell proliferation and 100 nM was the optimum concentration for maximum increase in proliferation of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with AT1, but not AT2, receptor antagonist inhibited ANG II induced cell proliferation. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) prevented ANG II-induced cell proliferation. ANG II has also been shown to induce SMase activity, SPHK phosphorylation and S1P production. In addition, ANG II caused an increase in proMMP-2 expression and activation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activation. Upon inhibition of MMP-2, SMase activity and S1P level were curbed leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. SPHK was phosphorylated by ERK1/2 during ET-1 stimulation of the cells. ANG II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proMMP-2 expression and activation in the cells were abrogated upon inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Overall, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in proMMP-2 expression and activation and that MMP-2 mediated SMC proliferation occurs through the involvement of Spm-Cer-S1P signaling axis under ANG II stimulation of PASMCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of low alloy ferritic steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interface by SPM techniques, SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS and SVET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Siyan; Ding, Jie; Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu, E-mail: wangjianqiu@imr.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    The interface region of welded A508–Alloy 52 M is characterized by scanning probe microscope (SPM) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning vibrate electrode technique (SVET). The regions along the welded A508–Alloy 52 M interface can be categorized into two types according to their different microstructures. In the type-I interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by the fusion boundary, while in the type-II interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by a martensite zone. A508, martensite zone and grain boundaries in Alloy 52 M are ferromagnetic while the Alloy 52 M matrix is paramagnetic. The Volta potentials measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) of A508, martensite zone and Alloy 52 M follow the order: V{sub 52} {sub M} > V{sub A508} > V{sub martensite}. The corrosion behavior of A508–Alloy 52 M interface region is galvanic corrosion, in which Alloy 52 M is cathode while A508 is anode. The martensite dissolves faster than Alloy 52 M, but slower than A508 in the test solution. - Highlights: • The A508–Alloy 52 M interface regions can be categorized into two types. • The chromium depleted region is observed along the Alloy 52 M grain boundary. • The Alloy 52 M grain boundaries which are close to the interface are ferromagnetic. • Martensite zone has lower Volta potential but higher corrosion resistance than A508.

  3. The effect of scatter correction on {sup 123}I-IMP brain perfusion SPET with the triple energy window method in normal subjects using SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, Tohru; Takano, Akihiro; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kubo, Naoki [Department of Radiological Technology, College of Medical Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kobayashi, Junko; Takeda, Yoji; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Koyama, Tsukasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Scatter correction (SC) using the triple energy window method (TEW) has recently been applied for brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scatter correction using TEW on N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPET in normal subjects. The study population consisted of 15 right-handed normal subjects. SPET data were acquired from 20 min to 40 min after the injection of 167 MBq of IMP, using a triple-head gamma camera. Images were reconstructed with and without SC. 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were also obtained with a 1.5-Tesla scanner. First, IMP images with and without SC were co-registered to the 3D MRI. Second, the two co-registered IMP images were normalised using SPM96. A t statistic image for the contrast condition effect was constructed. We investigated areas using a voxel-level threshold of 0.001, with a corrected threshold of 0.05. Compared with results obtained without SC, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly decreased in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle, and also in the lateral occipital cortex and the base of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the insular cortex and the medial part of the thalamus. It is concluded that differences in the IMP distribution with and without SC exist not only in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle but also in the occipital lobe, the base of the temporal lobe, the insular cortex, the medial part of the thalamus, and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. This needs to be recognised for adequate interpretation of IMP brain perfusion SPET after scatter correction. (orig.)

  4. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  5. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  6. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  7. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  8. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  9. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  10. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  11. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  12. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions

  13. A Signal Processing Module for the Analysis of Heart Sounds and Heart Murmurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Faizan; Venkatachalam, P A; H, Ahmad Fadzil M [Signal and Imaging Processing and Tele-Medicine Technology Research Group, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2006-04-01

    In this paper a Signal Processing Module (SPM) for the computer-aided analysis of heart sounds has been developed. The module reveals important information of cardiovascular disorders and can assist general physician to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. It can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. The module has five main blocks: Data Acquisition and Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Murmur Detection and Murmur Classification. The heart sounds are first acquired using an electronic stethoscope which has the capability of transferring these signals to the near by workstation using wireless media. Then the signals are segmented into individual cycles as well as individual components using the spectral analysis of heart without using any reference signal like ECG. Then the features are extracted from the individual components using Spectrogram and are used as an input to a MLP (Multiple Layer Perceptron) Neural Network that is trained to detect the presence of heart murmurs. Once the murmur is detected they are classified into seven classes depending on their timing within the cardiac cycle using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The module has been tested with real heart sounds from 40 patients and has proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  14. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  15. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  16. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotto Milena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%, followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST, the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and

  17. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  18. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  19. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  20. CDC 7600 module slice

    CERN Multimedia

    Each module contained 8 circuit cards for a total of about 300-500 uncovered transistors packaged with face plates so the Freon plates wouldn't touch the circuits. (cooling plates that surrounded each module).

  1. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  2. The robustness of subcarrier-index modulation in 16-QAM CO-OFDM system with 1024-point FFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Omar H A; Sandel, David; Puntsri, Kidsanapong; Al-Bermani, Ali; El-Darawy, Mohamed; Noé, Reinhold

    2012-12-17

    We present in numerical simulations the robustness of subcarrier index modulation (SIM) OFDM to combat laser phase noise. The ability of using DFB lasers with SIM-OFDM in 16-QAM CO-OFDM system with 1024-point FFT has been verified. Although SIM-OFDM has lower spectral efficiency compared to the conventional CO-OFDM system, it is a good candidate for 16-QAM CO-OFDM system with 1024-point FFT which uses a DFB laser of 1 MHz linewidth. In addition, we show the tolerance of SIM-OFDM for mitigation of fiber nonlinearities in long-haul CO-OFDM system. The simulation results show a significant penalty reduction, essentially that due to SPM.

  3. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  4. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  5. An investigation into modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, E.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the MEA-update it is important to establish which modulators are necessary. In this report it is lookedif the existing modulators can be maintained or new modulators have to be made. Besides technical aspects also material expenses and necessary manpower play a role. 12 figs.; 6 tabs

  6. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  7. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  8. Exact modelling of the optical bistability in ferroelectics via two-wave mixing: A system with full nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushaini, Muhammad Asif A.; Ibrahim, Abdel-Baset M. A.; Choudhury, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a complete mathematical model of the phenomenon of optical bistability (OB) resulting from the degenerate two-wave mixing (TWM) process of laser beams interacting with a single nonlinear layer of ferroelectric material. Starting with the electromagnetic wave equation for optical wave propagating in nonlinear media, a nonlinear coupled wave (CW) system with both self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) sources of nonlinearity are derived. The complete CW system with full nonlinearity is solved numerically and a comparison between both the cases of with and without SPM at various combinations of design parameters is given. Furthermore, to provide a reliable theoretical model for the OB via TWM process, the results obtained theoretically are compared with the available experimental data. We found that the nonlinear system without SPM fails to predict the bistable response at lower combinations of the input parameters. However, at relatively higher values, the solution without SPM shows a reduction in the switching contrast and period in the OB response. A comparison with the experimental results shows better agreement with the system with full nonlinearity.

  9. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  10. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, H K; Liu, Y

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on two-photon absorption (TPA), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and optical Kerr effect in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is reviewed and some potential applications of these optical nonlinearities, including silicon-based autocorrelation detectors, optical amplifiers, high speed optical switches, optical wavelength converters and self-phase modulation (SPM), are highlighted. The importance of free carriers generated by TPA in nonlinear devices is discussed, and a generalized definition of the nonlinear effective length to cater for nonlinear losses is proposed. How carrier lifetime engineering, and in particular the use of helium ion implantation, can enhance the nonlinear effective length for nonlinear devices is also discussed

  12. Influence of dispersion of nonlinearity on coherent supercontinuum generation bandwidth in photonic crystal fibers pumped at 2 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Siwicki, Bartlomiej; Zhou, Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Sources of spectrally broadband and coherent light are necessary for frequency metrology and ultrashort pulse generation. Near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are practical for such devices because of the emergence of robust and reasonably priced femtosecond lasers operating in this part of spectrum...... lasers as pump sources, exceeding the 2400 nm barrier has proved a challenge. ANDi SC requires strong nonlinear response of the optical material, since self-phase modulation (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB) mediated four-wave mixing (FWM) are almost exclusively shaping the ANDi SC pulses. Flatness...

  13. Enhancement of high-order harmonics in a plasma waveguide formed in clustered Ar gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaotao; Zhong, Shiyang; Chen, Guanglong; Ling, Weijun; He, Xinkui; Wei, Zhiyi; Kim, Dong Eon

    2018-02-05

    Generation of high-order harmonics (HHs) is intensified by using a plasma waveguide created by a laser in a clustered gas jet. The formation of a plasma waveguide and the guiding of a laser beam are also demonstrated. Compared to the case without a waveguide, harmonics were strengthened up to nine times, and blue-shifted. Numerical simulation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in strong field approximation agreed well with experimental results. This result reveals that the strengthening is the result of improved phase matching and that the blue shift is a result of change in fundamental laser frequency due to self-phase modulation (SPM).

  14. Classes of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dauns, John

    2006-01-01

    Because traditional ring theory places restrictive hypotheses on all submodules of a module, its results apply only to small classes of already well understood examples. Often, modules with infinite Goldie dimension have finite-type dimension, making them amenable to use with type dimension, but not Goldie dimension. By working with natural classes and type submodules (TS), Classes of Modules develops the foundations and tools for the next generation of ring and module theory. It shows how to achieve positive results by placing restrictive hypotheses on a small subset of the complement submodules, Furthermore, it explains the existence of various direct sum decompositions merely as special cases of type direct sum decompositions. Carefully developing the foundations of the subject, the authors begin by providing background on the terminology and introducing the different module classes. The modules classes consist of torsion, torsion-free, s[M], natural, and prenatural. They expand the discussion by exploring...

  15. High-power Yb-fiber comb based on pre-chirped-management self-similar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Daping; Liu, Yang; Gu, Chenglin; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenchao; Deng, Zejiang; Zhou, Lian; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping

    2018-02-01

    We report a fiber self-similar-amplification (SSA) comb system that delivers a 250-MHz, 109-W, 42-fs pulse train with a 10-dB spectral width of 85 nm at 1056 nm. A pair of grisms is employed to compensate the group velocity dispersion and third-order dispersion of pre-amplified pulses for facilitating a self-similar evolution and a self-phase modulation (SPM). Moreover, we analyze the stabilities and noise characteristics of both the locked carrier envelope phase and the repetition rate, verifying the stability of the generated high-power comb. The demonstration of the SSA comb at such high power proves the feasibility of the SPM-based low-noise ultrashort comb.

  16. Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol

    2010-01-01

    Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.

  17. Time-Frequency (Wigner Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Azaña

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-frequency analysis, and, in particular, Wigner analysis, is applied to the study of picosecond pulse propagation through optical fibers in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The effects of first- and second-order group velocity dispersion (GVD and self-phase modulation (SPM are first analyzed separately. The phenomena resulting from the interplay between GVD and SPM in fibers (e.g., soliton formation or optical wave breaking are also investigated in detail. Wigner analysis is demonstrated to be an extremely powerful tool for investigating pulse propagation dynamics in nonlinear dispersive systems (e.g., optical fibers, providing a clearer and deeper insight into the physical phenomena that determine the behavior of these systems.

  18. Comparison of different wavelength pump sources for Tm subnanosecond amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sébastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    We report here a comparison of different pumping wavelengths for short pulse Thulium fibre amplifiers. We compare the results in terms of efficiency and required fibre length. As we operate the laser in the sub-nanosecond regime, the fibre length is a critical parameter regarding non linear effects. With 793 nm clad-pumping, a 4 m long active fibre was necessary, leading to strong spectral deformation through Self Phase Modulation (SPM). Core-pumping scheme was then more in-depth investigated with several wavelengths tested. Good results with Erbium and Raman shifted pumping sources were obtained, with very short fibre length, aiming to reach a few micro-joules per pulse without (or with limited) SPM.

  19. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table

  20. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  1. Crossed modules of racks

    OpenAIRE

    Crans, Alissa S.; Wagemann, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    We generalize the notion of a crossed module of groups to that of a crossed module of racks. We investigate the relation to categorified racks, namely strict 2-racks, and trunk-like objects in the category of racks, generalizing the relation between crossed modules of groups and strict 2-groups. Then we explore topological applications. We show that by applying the rack-space functor, a crossed module of racks gives rise to a covering. Our main result shows how the fundamental racks associate...

  2. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  3. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on purinergic signaling modulation in rat brain nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, I.; Milosevic, M.; Drakulic, D.; Horvat, A.; Stanojevic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is composed of three modulatory components: a) source of extracellular nucleotides, b) specific receptor expression for these transmitter molecules and c) ectonucleotidase selection that dictate cell response gradually degradation extracellular nucleotides to nucleosides. ATP acts as a fast excitatory transmitter in the CNS. Postsynaptic actions of ATP are mediated by an extended family of purinergic, P2X receptors, widely expressed throughout the CNS. NTPDases hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP and are responsive for purinergfic termination. To investigate if ionizing irradiation could modulate CNS purinergic signalization we monitored activity of NTPDases and abundance of P2X7 receptor in synaptic plasma membranes after whole-body acute irradiation using low (0,5Gy) or therapeutic (2Gy) doses, 1h i 72h after irradiating juvenile (15-day old) and adult (90-day old) rats. Acute irradiation modulate purinergic system components investigated at the different ways in the rat development brain SPM and in the adult brain dependent of dose and time after irradiation [sr

  5. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.

  6. Defect detection module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, R.; Westermann, G.

    1986-01-01

    The ''defect detector'' module is aimed at exceptional event or state recording. Foreseen for voltage presence monitoring on high supply voltage module of drift chambers, its characteristics can also show up the vanishing of supply voltage and take in account transitory fast signals [fr

  7. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  8. The FPAX fastbus module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlag, S.; Bouquet, B.; Lavigne, B.; Rypko, J.

    1989-07-01

    The FPAX is a Fastbus module with 4 independent, 2 slave and 2 master, ports on two segments. It operates as a normal master on either segment or as a Block-Mover on both. The processor board is based on a 68020 microprocessor. A local/network switch allows operation as a host or as a normal module on the Fastbus network

  9. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  10. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  11. Performance of a nonlinear receiver for the ultrashort-pulse optical CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Lehnert, James S.

    2005-09-01

    At the receiver of an ultrashort-pulse optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system, a nonlinear thresholder is needed to discriminate between the correctly decoded short pulse and the interference that appears to be a pseudorandom signal. It has been demonstrated that the self phase modulation (SPM) effect can be used to realize this nonlinear thresholder. The performance of a system that exploits this phenomenon is analyzed in this paper. If the spreading code is random, the electrical field of the interfering signal from the multiple users can be shown to be a complex Gaussian random process. The broadened power spectral density (PSD) function caused by the SPM effect can be calculated. When "1" is transmitted, the correctly decoded signal from the desired user, which is a deterministic waveform, is added to the Gaussian random process. Beating between the two signals causes random fluctuations in the power. Since the strength of the SPM effect is proportional to the variation rate of power, the broadened signal spectrum will appear random. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the properties of the decision statistic. Finally, the bit-error rate (BER) is calculated, and the simulation results are presented. The result reveals that the performance of the SPM-based nonlinear receiver can outperform the ideal linear receiver in some circumstances.

  12. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  13. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail: lafoux@cea.fr; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.

    2002-05-21

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  14. The ANTARES optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.; Tilav, S.; Triay, R.; Valente, V.; Varlamov, I.; Vaudaine, G.; Vernin, P.; Witt Huberts, P. de; Wolf, E. de; Zakharov, V.; Zavatarelli, S.; D Zornoza, J. de; Zuniga, J.

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km 2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail

  15. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  16. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  17. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  18. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  19. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  20. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  1. Nestor optical modules blackening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelli, M.; Rutili, A.; Trasatti, L.

    1998-09-01

    The optical modules (OM) containing the photomultiplier tubes (PM) for a deep sea neutrino telescope must be protected them from direct sunlight. The problem has been solved using a heat shrink plastic sheet with very good optical and mechanical properties

  2. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  3. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  4. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  5. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  6. Second generation SLAC modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cron, J.C.; Hanselman, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken the construction of a single pass electron-positron collider. In order to reach required beam energy 235 new klystrons needed upgraded modulator systems. The collider will use 50 GeV electrons and positrons. The increase in accelerator energy from the present 30 GeV necessitates the replacement of existing 35 MW klystrons with new 67 MW units. The doubling of klystron output power required a redesign of the modulator system. The 67 MW klystron needs a 350 kV beam voltage pulse with a 3.7 μs pulse width. A new pulse transformer was designed to deliver the increased voltage and pulse width. Pulse cable design was evaluated to obtain increased reliability of that critical element. The modulator, with the exception of its power supply, was rebuilt to produce the required power increase while enhancing reliability and improving maintainability. An investigation of present thyratron switch tube performance under the new operating conditions resulted in agitation and some warranted panic but these conditions were mitigated after several successful experiments and some evolutionary narrowing of the klystron pulse width. The discussion will cover the upgraded modulator system specifications and some details of the new pulse transformer tank, pulse cable, modulator, and modulator switch tube

  7. Decoupled Modulation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Renke; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng

    2016-06-03

    The objective of this research work is to develop decoupled modulation control methods for damping inter-area oscillations with low frequencies, so the damping control can be more effective and easier to design with less interference among different oscillation modes in the power system. A signal-decoupling algorithm was developed that can enable separation of multiple oscillation frequency contents and extraction of a “pure” oscillation frequency mode that are fed into Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) as the modulation input signals. As a result, instead of introducing interferences between different oscillation modes from the traditional approaches, the output of the new PSS modulation control signal mainly affects only one oscillation mode of interest. The new decoupled modulation damping control algorithm has been successfully developed and tested on the standard IEEE 4-machine 2-area test system and a minniWECC system. The results are compared against traditional modulation controls, which demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the newly-developed decoupled modulation damping control algorithm.

  8. Superstability for Generalized Module Left Derivations and Generalized Module Derivations on a Banach Module (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassias JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the superstability of generalized module left derivations and generalized module derivations on a Banach module. Let be a Banach algebra and a Banach -module, and . The mappings , and are defined and it is proved that if (resp., is dominated by then is a generalized (resp., linear module- left derivation and is a (resp., linear module- left derivation. It is also shown that if (resp., is dominated by then is a generalized (resp., linear module- derivation and is a (resp., linear module- derivation.

  9. Pulse power modulators - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse power modulators are electronic devices to provide, high voltage, high current, power bursts. Ideally, a modulator, with the means to shape and control the pulses, acts as a switch between a high voltage power supply and its load. This article gives an overview of the pulse power modulators: starting with the basics of pulse and modulation, it covers modulation topologies, different types of modulators, major subsystems and pulse measurement techniques. The various applications of pulse power modulators and the recent trends have been included at the end. (author)

  10. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  11. Bunch identification module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  13. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  14. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 μs conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC

  15. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  16. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  17. CAMAC system test module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, W.K.; Gjovig, A.; Naivar, F.; Potter, J.; Smith, W.

    1981-01-01

    Since the CAMAC Branch Highway is used to both send information to and receive information from a CAMAC crate, faults in this highway can be difficult to recognize and diagnose. Similarly faults caused by a Crate Controller corrupting either instructions or data are difficult to distinguish from faults caused by the modules themselves. The CLIVIT (CAMAC Logic Integrity Via Interactive Testing) module is designed to largely eliminate such difficulties and ambiguities by allowing the verification of Branch Highway and Dataway transactions via an independent data communication path. The principle of operation of the CLIVIT is explained. Described are the prototype construction, testing and use

  18. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  19. Flexible programmable logic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  20. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  1. Does caffeine modulate verbal working memory processes? An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelstaetter, F; Poeppel, T D; Siedentopf, C M; Ischebeck, A; Verius, M; Haala, I; Mottaghy, F M; Rhomberg, P; Golaszewski, S; Gotwald, T; Lorenz, I H; Kolbitsch, C; Felber, S; Krause, B J

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effect of caffeine on the functional MRI signal during a 2-back verbal working memory task, we examined blood oxygenation level-dependent regional brain activity in 15 healthy right-handed males. The subjects, all moderate caffeine consumers, underwent two scanning sessions on a 1.5-T MR-Scanner separated by a 24- to 48-h interval. Each participant received either placebo or 100 mg caffeine 20 min prior to the performance of the working memory task in blinded crossover fashion. The study was implemented as a blocked-design. Analysis was performed using SPM2. In both conditions, the characteristic working memory network of frontoparietal cortical activation including the precuneus and the anterior cingulate could be shown. In comparison to placebo, caffeine caused an increased response in the bilateral medial frontopolar cortex (BA 10), extending to the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32). These results suggest that caffeine modulates neuronal activity as evidenced by fMRI signal changes in a network of brain areas associated with executive and attentional functions during working memory processes.

  2. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  3. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  4. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  5. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  6. Barrel Module0 Autopsy

    CERN Document Server

    Cobal, M; Nessi, Marzio; Blanch, O; Zamora, Y

    1999-01-01

    Using the information from the Cs calibration runs, many of the problems affecting the response of the barrel Module0 prototype have been spotted out. These can be bad fibre-tile couplings, light losses from fibres bundling, broken fibres, not transparent tiles etc. After a visual inspection, most of these problems have been repaired.

  7. Rescue Manual. Module 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The sixth of 10 modules contains 4 chapters: (1) industrial rescue; (2) rescue from a confined space; (3) extrication from heavy equipment; and (4) rescue operations involving elevators. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany…

  8. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  9. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  10. Young module multiplicities and classifying the indecomposable Young permutation modules

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    We study the multiplicities of Young modules as direct summands of permutation modules on cosets of Young subgroups. Such multiplicities have become known as the p-Kostka numbers. We classify the indecomposable Young permutation modules, and, applying the Brauer construction for p-permutation modules, we give some new reductions for p-Kostka numbers. In particular we prove that p-Kostka numbers are preserved under multiplying partitions by p, and strengthen a known reduction given by Henke, c...

  11. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic collec....... The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence......Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... collection of data describing age-related changes in organisms, organs, tissues, cells and macromolecules, biogerontologists are now in a position to construct general principles of ageing and explore various possibilities of intervention using rational approaches. While not giving serious consideration...

  12. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  13. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  14. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Thor LIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular mapping of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm and loss (dB/mm for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  15. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions

  17. Sparx PCA Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Sparx, a new environment for Cryo-EM image processing; Cryo-EM, Single particle reconstruction, principal component analysis; Hardware Req.: PC, MAC, Supercomputer, Mainframe, Multiplatform, Workstation. Software Req.: operating system is Unix; Compiler C++; type of files: source code, object library, executable modules, compilation instructions; sample problem input data. Location/transmission: http://sparx-em.org; User manual & paper: http://sparx-em.org;

  18. Modulated Pade approximant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)

  19. of Banach modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a Banach algebra, E be a Banach A-bimodule and Δ E → A be a bounded Banach A-bimodule homomorphism. It is shown that under some mild conditions, the weakΔ''-amenability of E'' (as an A''-bimodule necessitates weak Δ-amenability of E (as an A-bimodule. Some examples of weak-amenable Banach modules are provided as well.

  20. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  1. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  2. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    by applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  3. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoelae, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L 0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the 'left module', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the 'right module'. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  4. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  5. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoelae, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-06-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  6. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-12-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  7. Weyl modules, demazure modules, KR-modules, crystals, fusion products and limit constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Fourier, G.; Littelmann, P.

    2007-01-01

    We study finite dimensional representations of current algebras, loop algebras and their quantized versions. For the current algebra of a simple Lie algebra of type {\\tt ADE}, we show that Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules and Weyl modules are in fact all Demazure modules. As a consequence one obtains an elementary proof of the dimension formula for Weyl modules for the current and the loop algebra. Further, we show that the crystals of the Weyl and the Demazure module are the same up to some addi...

  8. Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, C.J.; Anker, J.N.; Kopelman, R.

    2004-01-01

    Brownian modulated optical nanoprobes (Brownian MOONs) are fluorescent micro- and nanoparticles that resemble moons: one hemisphere emits a bright fluorescent signal, while an opaque metal darkens the other hemisphere. Brownian motion causes the particles to tumble and blink erratically as they rotate literally through the phases of the moon. The fluctuating probe signals are separated from optical and electronic backgrounds using principal components analysis or images analysis. Brownian MOONs enable microrheological measurements on size scales and timescales that are difficult to study with other methods. Local chemical concentrations can be measured simultaneously, using spectral characteristics of indicator dyes embedded within the MOONs

  9. Oscillator, neutron modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.

    1960-01-01

    The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented

  10. CDC 7600 Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The CDC 7600 has been created by Seymour Cray. It was designed to be compatible with the 6600, which allows for a substantial increase in performance. Furthermore the rise of new technologies has enabled this performance by reducing the minor cycle clock period from 100 ns to 27.5 ns (4 time faster). A very large machine, the 7600 had over 120 miles of hand-wired interconnections. It was the most powerful computer of its time. However, this speed caused a ground-loop problem causing intermittent faults, and eventually requiring all modules to be fitted with sheathed rubber bands. The CDC 7600 was replaced in 1983 by CRAY-1A.

  11. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  12. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S M; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C; Watzich, M; Xing Lei

    2003-01-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 ± 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 ± 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases

  13. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-Xl Dragon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    On September 26 and September 28,2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 m1 evacuated canisters from the sealed Space-Xl Dragon Module. One sample was also acquired from Space-X Facility near the module at the start of the test. Samples of the module air were taken in triplicate once the module had been sealed, and then taken again in triplicate 1.98 days later. Ofthe triplicate samples, the first served as a line purge, and the last two were analyzed. The results of 5 samples are reported.

  14. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated...... composite description with two basic subsystems corresponding to the two different modules, it is shown how a more efficient description can be achieved using so-called zigzag modulation functions. These linear zigzag modulations, newly implemented in the program JANA2006, have very large fixed amplitudes...... and introduce in the starting model the two orientations of the underlying module sublattices. We show that a composite approach with this type of function, which treats the cations and anions as two separate subsystems forming a misfit compound, is the most appropriate and robust method for the refinements....

  15. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  16. Mixed twistor D-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce mixed twistor D-modules and establish their fundamental functorial properties. We also prove that they can be described as the gluing of admissible variations of mixed twistor structures. In a sense, mixed twistor D-modules can be regarded as a twistor version of M. Saito's mixed Hodge modules. Alternatively, they can be viewed as a mixed version of the pure twistor D-modules studied by C. Sabbah and the author. The theory of mixed twistor D-modules is one of the ultimate goals in the study suggested by Simpson's Meta Theorem, and it would form a foundation for the Hodge theory of holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular singular.  .

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  19. Perancangan Modul Penggajian Berbasis Odoo

    OpenAIRE

    Koeswanto, Vincent K. Edison; Yulia, Yulia; Adipranata, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Human Resource Module is one of the modules owned by Odoo. One of the feature of this module is payroll. However, the features is not in accordance with the needs of companies in Indonesia in general. This causes the payroll system in Odoo not suitable to be implemented directly in the company.To solve these problems, author develop the payroll system in Human Resource module in Odoo. The development of this system is preceded by designing and analyze the payroll system at PT X. It also condu...

  20. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  1. Multichip module technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Boissevain, J.G.; Muck, R.C.; Smith, G.D.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Ziock, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Multichip Module (MCM) was designed and submitted for fabrication to the Lockheed Martin foundry using a licensed process called High Density Interconnect (HDI). The HDI process uses thin film techniques to create circuit interconnect patterns on multiple layers of dielectric film which are deposited directly on top of unpackaged electronic die. This results in an optimally small package that approaches the area of the bare die themselves. This project tested the capability of the Lockheed Martin foundry to produce, in an HDI process, a complex mixed-mode (analog and digital) circuit on a single MCM substrate

  2. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system.   Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: E2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  3. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system. Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: F2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  4. Modulated convection at high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    Modulated Rayleigh-Benard convection is analyzed for high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes. The linear theory of Gershuni and Zhukhovitskii is generalized to the nonlinear domain, and a subcritical bifurcation to convection is found in agreement with the experiments of Niemela and Donnelly. The crossover between the high-frequency (''Stokes layer'') regime and the low-frequency regime studied previously is analyzed

  5. Modulation masking produced by second-order modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C.J.; Demany, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that an auditory nonlinearity converts second-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) (i.e., modulation of SAM depth) into a first-order SAM component, which contributes to the perception of second-order SAM. However, conversion may also occur in other ways such as coch...

  6. Mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Sarid, Eyal; Wart, Maxim; Granot, Er'el

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of pump and Stokes light in a Brillouin medium, where both beams are modulated, can be utilized for controlling the group velocity of the amplified Stokes (or depleted pump). The dependence of the group velocity for this mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM) technique on the Brillouin gain parameter is studied. A sharp transition to slow light occurs in the G 1 α/β≈1 regime, where G 1 is the Brillouin gain parameter, and α and β are the pump and Stokes modulation indices, respectively. A comparison of MMXGM slow light to the Brillouin dispersion-based slow-light technique reveals the fundamental differences between them. The formation of higher harmonics of the modulation frequency is also discussed. The theoretical predictions are experimentally corroborated and potential applications in fiber-based sensing and interferometry are discussed

  7. Power requirements reducing of FBG based all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Ľubomír.; Solanská, Michaela; Ladányi, Libor; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    Although Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well known devices, their using as all-optical switching elements has been still examined. Current research is focused on optimization of their properties for their using in future all-optical networks. The main problem are high switching intensities needed for achieving the changes of the transmission state. Over several years switching intensities have been reduced from hundreds of GW/cm2 to tens of MW/cm2 by selecting appropriate gratings and signal parameters or using suitable materials. Two principal nonlinear effects with similar power requirements can result in the bistable transmission/reflection of an input optical pulse. In the self-phase modulation (SPM) regime switching is achieved by the intense probe pulse itself. Using cross-phase modulation (XPM) a strong pump alters the FBG refractive index experienced by a weak probe pulse. As a result of this the detuning of the probe pulse from the center of the photonic band gap occurs. Using of XPM the effect of modulation instability is reduced. Modulation instability which is the main SPM degradation mechanism. We focused on nonlinear FBGs based on chalcogenide glasses which are very often used in various applications. Thanks to high nonlinear parameters chalcogenide glasses are suitable candidates for reducing switching intensities of nonlinear FBGs.

  8. Noise study of all-normal dispersion supercontinuum sources for potential application in optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    bandwidths, such sources are characterized by large intensity fluctuations, limiting their performance for applications in imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). An approach to eliminate the influence of noise sensitive effects is to use a so-called all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fiber, in which...... the dispersion is normal for all the wavelengths of interest. Pumping these types of fibers with short enough femtosecond pulses allows to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which is known to be as noisy process as modulation instability (MI), and coherent SC is generated through self-phase modulation...... (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB). In this study, we show the importance of the pump laser and fiber parameters in the design of low-noise ANDi based SC sources, for application in OCT. We numerically investigate the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the SC, calculating the relative intensity noise...

  9. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    with a photonic layer on top to interconnect them. For such systems, silicon is an attractive candidate enabling both electronic and photonic control. For some network scenarios, it may be beneficial to use optical on-chip packet switching, and for high data-density environments one may take advantage...... of the ultra-fast nonlinear response of silicon photonic waveguides. These chips offer ultra-broadband wavelength operation, ultra-high timing resolution and ultra-fast response, and when used appropriately offer energy-efficient switching. In this presentation we review some all-optical functionalities based...... on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show...

  10. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  11. Acceleration recorder and playback module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  12. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  13. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on-off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s-1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on-off-keyed 10 Gbit s-1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s-1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.

  14. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. [37 FR 3292, Feb. 12, 1972, as amended...

  15. Modulated Source Interferometry with Combined Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved interferometer is produced by modifying a conventional interferometer to include amplitude and/or frequency modulation of a coherent light source at radio or higher frequencies. The phase of the modulation signal can be detected in an interfering beam from an interferometer and can be used to determine the actual optical phase of the beam. As such, this improvement can be adapted to virtually any two-beam interferometer, including: Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers. The use of an amplitude modulated coherent tight source results in an interferometer that combines the wide range advantages of coherent interferometry with the precise distance measurement advantages of white light interferometry.

  16. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  17. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  18. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  19. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  20. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  1. Modelling modulation perception : modulation low-pass filter or modulation filter bank?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dau, T.; Kollmeier, B.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    In current models of modulation perception, the stimuli are first filtered and nonlinearly transformed (mostly half-wave rectified). In order to model the low-pass characteristic of measured modulation transfer functions, the next stage in the models is a first-order low-pass filter with a typical

  2. Superstability for Generalized Module Left Derivations and Generalized Module Derivations on a Banach Module (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Xin Cao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the superstability of generalized module left derivations and generalized module derivations on a Banach module. Let 𝒜 be a Banach algebra and X a Banach 𝒜-module, f:X→X and g:𝒜→𝒜. The mappings Δf,g1, Δf,g2, Δf,g3, and Δf,g4 are defined and it is proved that if ∥Δf,g1(x,y,z,w∥ (resp., ∥Δf,g3(x,y,z,w,α,β∥ is dominated by φ(x,y,z,w, then f is a generalized (resp., linear module-𝒜 left derivation and g is a (resp., linear module-X left derivation. It is also shown that if ∥Δf,g2(x,y,z,w∥ (resp., ∥Δf,g4(x,y,z,w,α,β∥ is dominated by φ(x,y,z,w, then f is a generalized (resp., linear module-𝒜 derivation and g is a (resp., linear module-X derivation.

  3. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    control technique is done through simulations and ex control technique .... HYBRID MODULATION SCHEME FOR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER CELLS. C. I. Odeh ..... and OR operations. Referring to ... MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  4. Reachability modules for the description logic SRIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate module extraction for the Description Logic SRIQ. We formulate modules in terms of the reachability problem for directed hypergraphs. Using inseperability relations, we investigate the module-theoretic properties...

  5. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    A complete and detailed description of the theoretical background of an '(1D) thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid' coolant channel model and its resulting module CCM will be presented. The objective of this module is to simulate as universally as possible the steady state and transient behaviour of the key characteristic parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel. Due to the possibility that different flow regimes can appear along any channel, such a 'basic (BC)' 1D channel is assumed to be subdivided into a number of corresponding sub-channels (SC-s). Each SC can belong to only two types of flow regime, an SC with just a single-phase fluid, containing exclusively either sub-cooled water or superheated steam, or an SC with a two-phase mixture flow. After an appropriate nodalisation of such a BC (and therefore also its SC-s) a 'modified finite volume method' has been applied for the spatial discretisation of the partial differential equations (PDE-s) which represent the basic conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics. Special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable SC entrance or outlet positions (which describe boiling boundaries or mixture levels) and thus the fact that an SC can even disappear or be created anew. The procedure yields for each SC type (and thus the entire BC), a set of non-linear ordinary 1st order differential equations (ODE-s). To link the resulting mean nodal with the nodal boundary function values, both of which are present in the discretised differential equations, a special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be constructed. Together with the very thoroughly tested packages for drift-flux, heat transfer and single- and two-phase friction factors this procedure represents the central part of the here presented 'Separate-Region' approach, a theoretical model which provides the basis to the very effective working code package CCM

  6. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  7. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  8. Light intensity modulation in phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanovich, P. A.; Zon, B. A.; Kunin, A. A.; Pankova, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    A hypothesis that blocking ATP synthesis is one of the main causes of the stimulating effect is considered based on analysis of the primary photostimulation mechanisms. The light radiation intensity modulation is substantiated and the estimates of such modulation parameters are made. An explanation is offered to the stimulation efficiency decrease phenomenon at the increase of the radiation dose during the therapy. The results of clinical research of the medical treatment in preventive dentistry are presented depending on the spectrum and parameters of the light flux modulation.

  9. Complex Wavelet Based Modulation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luneau, Jean-Marc; Lebrun, Jérôme; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    Low-frequency modulation of sound carry important information for speech and music. The modulation spectrum i commonly obtained by spectral analysis of the sole temporal envelopes of the sub-bands out of a time-frequency analysis. Processing in this domain usually creates undesirable distortions...... polynomial trends. Moreover an analytic Hilbert-like transform is possible with complex wavelets implemented as an orthogonal filter bank. By working in an alternative transform domain coined as “Modulation Subbands”, this transform shows very promising denoising capabilities and suggests new approaches for joint...

  10. Induced modules over group algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, Gregory

    1990-01-01

    In 1898 Frobenius discovered a construction which, in present terminology, associates with every module of a subgroup the induced module of a group. This construction proved to be of fundamental importance and is one of the basic tools in the entire theory of group representations.This monograph is designed for research mathematicians and advanced graduate students and gives a picture of the general theory of induced modules as it exists at present. Much of the material has until now been available only in research articles. The approach is not intended to be encyclopedic, rather each topic is

  11. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  12. Ammonia corrodes solar modules; Salmiakgeist greift Module an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2011-07-01

    Ammonia is an aggressive gas produced in animal shelters, which may cause corrosion of solar modules. Various institutions, e.g. DLG and TUeV Rheinland, therefore offer an ammonia test for solar modules. The TUeV Rheinland recently commissioned a walk-in test chamber and now issues an official seal of approval, while the DLG doubts the practical value of the test.

  13. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C.

    1991-01-01

    During the current project period we have demonstrated correspondence between animal models and in vitro models of modulated lymphopoiesis. Our finding that G-CSF, a growth factor for neutrophil granulocytes, suppresses lymphopoiesis in long term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) has important implications both for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of hemopoiesis and for clinical use of recombinant growth factors that are beginning to be widely used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. During the present project period we adopted LTBMC systems developed by others for the purposes of our specific aims. Also we developed a novel long term culture system for NK cells. The discovery of a new growth factor, O-CSF, specific for osteoclasts and the establishment of a clonal assay system that provides evidence for a new class of hemopoietic progenitor cells, the osteoclast progenitor, are important contributions. Given the important role T cells play in the immune response and in the regulation of other lymphohemopoietic cell lineages through the lymphokines they secrete, the need for an in vitro system that lends itself to the analysis of T cell maturation and to the testing of factors that may adversely affect T lymphopoiesis cannot be overemphasized. We believe that we can exploit an advantageous set of circumstances that present an excellent opportunity for initiating a focused experimental program for developing such a system. By a systematic and selective analysis of molecular interactions between heterogenous thymic stromal cells and T cell progenitors at different stages of maturation, it will be possible for our program to define the complement of critical cellular interactions on which successive stages of T lymphopoiesis depend. The experiments we propose will lay a rational foundation for the development of a long term culture system for T lymphopoiesis. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  15. Cortical-limbic regions modulate depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia. A PET-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mailan; Liang Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Tang Yong; Lan Lei; Song Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe some specific brain areas or cerebral functional network participating in the modulation of depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients by detecting cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans. Eight FD patients with depression and anxiety (DA-FD group) and eight FD patients without depression and anxiety (non-DA-FD group) were recruited and evaluated by the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and Dyspepsia Symptom Scores (DSS). Cerebral 18 F-FDG PET-CT scans were performed on the DA-FD group and non-DA-FD group, respectively. The differences in CGM between the two groups were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 2.0 (SPM2). Extensive changes in the CGM signals were observed in the cerebral cortex and limbic system of FD patients with depression and anxiety. Compared to non-DA-FD patients, DA-FD patients showed a higher glucose metabolism in the right postcentral gyrus (BA 1 and 5), inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), middle temporal gyrus (BA 22), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), lingual gyrus (BA 18) and the left middle occipital gyrus (BA 37), as well as the limbic system including the left thalamus, lateral globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35), right insular cortex (BA 13) and parahippocampal gyrus (BA 18); a lower glucose metabolism was presented in the left middle cingulated gyrus (BA 24), the right superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), the medial frontal gyrus (BA 6) and middle temporal gyrus (BA 21). An extensive cortical-limbic brain network might modulate the procession of FD patients with depression and anxiety factors. (author)

  16. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  17. Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H

    2015-02-23

    The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wohlgemuth, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bosco, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Nancy [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States); Earnest, Thomas [DuPont, Wilmington, DE (United States); Romero, Ralph [Black & Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  19. Graphene based terahertz phase modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakenov, N.; Ergoktas, M. S.; Balci, O.; Kocabas, C.

    2018-07-01

    Electrical control of amplitude and phase of terahertz radiation (THz) is the key technological challenge for high resolution and noninvasive THz imaging. The lack of active materials and devices hinders the realization of these imaging systems. Here, we demonstrate an efficient terahertz phase and amplitude modulation using electrically tunable graphene devices. Our device structure consists of electrolyte-gated graphene placed at quarter wavelength distance from a reflecting metallic surface. In this geometry, graphene operates as a tunable impedance surface which yields electrically controlled reflection phase. Terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy reveals the voltage controlled phase modulation of π and the reflection modulation of 50 dB. To show the promises of our approach, we demonstrate a multipixel phase modulator array which operates as a gradient impedance surface.

  20. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Wu, Albert T.; Wei, Pei-chun; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module

  1. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  2. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  3. Modulational instability of coupled waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Bingham, R.

    1989-01-01

    The collinear propagation of an arbitrary number of finite-amplitude waves is modeled by a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations; one equation for each complex wave amplitude. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate larger than the modulational growth rate of any wave alone. Moreover, waves that are modulationally stable by themselves can be driven unstable by the nonlinear coupling. The general theory is then applied to the relativistic modulational instability of two laser beams in a beat-wave accelerator. For parameters typical of a proposed beat-wave accelerator, this instability can seriously distort the incident laser pulse shapes on the particle-acceleration time scale, with detrimental consequences for particle acceleration

  4. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) project is a NASA-industry partnership with Bigelow Aerospace (BA) that has developing the first human-rated expandable...

  5. US ITER limiter module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.; Hassanein, A.

    1996-08-01

    The recent U.S. effort on the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield has been focused on the limiter module design. This is a multi-disciplinary effort that covers design layout, fabrication, thermal hydraulics, materials evaluation, thermo- mechanical response, and predicted response during off-normal events. The results of design analyses are presented. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented concerning, the capability of the limiter modules to meet performance goals and to be fabricated within design specifications using existing technology

  6. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  7. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  8. Installing Python Modules with pip

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Gibbs

    2013-01-01

    This lesson shows you how to download and install Python modules. There are many ways to install external modules, but for the purposes of this lesson, we’re going to use a program called pip. As of Python 2.7.9 and newer, pip is installed by default. This tutorial will be helpful for anyone using older versions of Python (which are still quite common).

  9. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  10. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  11. Research on modulated structure alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Tokuzo; Saito, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Kenki

    1982-01-01

    Research was carried out for the purposes of clarifying the cause of modulated structure formation, developing the structure control method utilizing modulated structure and clarifying the suitability of modulated structure alloys as radiation damage-resisting materials. The research on structure control method encountered a difficulty in the analysis of experimental results, bu the following results were obtained in the other items. The method of solving a diffusion equation including a nonlinear term was found in course of the clarification of the cause of modulated structure formation. As a means of detecting faint unevenness in solid solution, of which the deviation of composition is a few %, the structure analysis method utilizing magnetic property was developed. This method was applied to Ni-9.6 at.% Ti alloy, and the process of expanding amplitude in composition variation in spinodal decomposition and the formation of solute atomshort region at the time of nucleation-growth were confirmed. Utilizing the high energy electron beam generated in a superhigh voltage electron microscope, electron beam irradiation experiment was carried out on precipitation hardening alloys with modulated structure. As the result, it was found that in Ni-Ti alloy, the amount of void swelling resistance showed the change with the increase of modulated structure period. (Kako, I.)

  12. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  13. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  14. Module-theoretic properties of reachability modules for SRIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ]. Definition 1. (Module for the arbitrary DL L) Let L be an arbitrary de- scription language, O an L ontology, and σ a statement formulated in L. Then, 2 O′ ⊆ O is a module for σ in O(a σ-module in O) whenever: O |= σ if and only if O′ |= σ. Definition 1... > 1, a SRIQ TBox T is in normal form if every axiom α ∈ T is in one of the following forms: α1: B1 u . . . uBn v C1 unionsq . . . unionsq Cm α2: D v C1 unionsq . . . unionsq Cm α3: B1 u . . . uBn v D α4: R1 ◦ . . . ◦Rn v Rn+1 α5: R1 v R2 α6: D1 v D2 α7...

  15. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  16. Feasibility of photovoltaic: thermoelectric hybrid modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules suffers from elevated temperatures. Conversion efficiency losses of up to about 25% can result, depending on the type of integration of the modules in the roof. Cooling of modules would therefore enhance annual PV performance. Instead of module

  17. 47 CFR 74.663 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 74.663 Section 74.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.663 Modulation limits. If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall...

  18. Medical Terminology: Suffixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…

  19. Low-cost solar module manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Roger G.; Nowlan, Michael J.; Matthei, Keith W.; Darkazalli, Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    As the market for terrestrial photovoltaic modules expands beyond the 80 MW per year level, module manufacturers are adopting a number of cost-reduction strategies, including the use of higher throughput equipment, increased process automation, and the fabrication of larger area cells and modules. This paper reviews recent activities at Spire Corporation in the development of advanced module manufacturing and testing equipment

  20. Health Occupations Module. The Integumentary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the integumentary system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, objectives (e.g., list and describe the types of glands formed in the skin, and explain the…

  1. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  2. Whole Module Offgas Test Report: Space-X Dragon Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 7 April and 11 April 2012 a chemist from the JSC Toxicology Group acquired samples of air in 500 ml evacuated canisters from the sealed Dragon Module at the Space-X facility at KSC. Three samples were taken of facility air (two before the test and one after the test), and a total of 9 samples were taken from the sealed module in triplicate at the following times: 0 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours. The module contained 470 kg, which was 100% of the mass to be launched. Analytical data contained in the Toxicology Group Report (attached) show that the ambient facility air was clean except for almost 9 milligrams per cubic meter of isopropanol (IPA) in the sample taken at the end of the test. Space-X must ensure that IPA is not introduced into the module before it is sealed for launch. Other minor contaminants in the ambient air included the following: perfluoro(2-methyl)pentane and hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane. The first-acquired samples of each triplicate from the module were not analyzed. Analyses of pairs of samples that were taken during the test show excellent agreement between the pairs and a linear increase in the T-values during the 4 days of the test (figure below). The rate of increase averaged 0.124 T units per day. If the time from last purge of the module on the ground to crew first entry on orbit is 10 days, then the T value at first entry should be less than 1.2 units, which is well below the criterion of 3.0 for consideration of additional protection of the crew from offgas products. The primary contributors were as follows: trimethylsilanol (0.057), fluorotrimethylsilane (0.047), acetaldehyde (0.004), hexamethylcyclopentasiloxane (0.003), and toluene (0.002).

  3. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent module......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules.......The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules...

  4. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  5. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibira, Gabriel, E-mail: cibira@lm.uniza.sk; Koščová, Marcela, E-mail: mkoscova@lm.uniza.sk

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab{sup ®} and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  6. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  7. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab ® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  8. Command and Service Module Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Command and Service Module (CSM) Communications. The communication system's capabilities are defined, including CSM-Earth, CSM-Lunar Module and CSM-Extravehicular crewman communications. An overview is provided for S-band communications, including data transmission and receiving rates, operating frequencies and major system components (pre-modulation processors, unified S-band electronics, S-band power amplifier and S-band antennas). Additionally, data transmission rates, operating frequencies and the capabilities of VHF communications are described. Major VHF components, including transmitters and receivers, and the VHF multiplexer and antennas are also highlighted. Finally, communications during pre-launch, ascent, in-flight and entry are discussed. Overall, the CSM communication system was rated highly by flight controllers and crew. The system was mostly autonomous for both crew and flight controllers and no major issues were encountered during flight.

  9. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  10. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  11. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  12. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  15. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay

    2018-02-21

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module and illustrate the inter-diffusions across the interface of constituent layers. For Bi2Te3-based module, soldering is the primary bonding method, giving rise to the investigations on the selections of solder, diffusion barrier layer and electrode. For mid-temperature PbTe-based TE module, hot-pressing or spark plasma sintering are alternative bonding approaches; the inter-diffusions between the diffusion barrier layer, electrode and TE substrate are addressed as well.

  16. Thermal management, systems and modules; Thermomanagement, Systeme und Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, M. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Up till now the individual systems for engine temperature control and air conditioning of the vehicle cabin have to a large extent been viewed independently of one another. With the progress of electronic control systems, however, Behr has adopted an integrative approach to managing all heat and substance flows outside of the engine. This perspective, which is known as thermal management, has significantly boosted the rate of innovation. In a short period of time, new and optimized modules and systems have allowed considerable improvements to be made in relation to passenger comfort and safety, the integration of subsystems and modules into the vehicle and environmental compatibility. This innovation drive, which also extends to the design of major modules, will continue to gain impetus in the future. (orig.) [German] Bisher wurden die verschiedenen Systeme zur Temperierung des Motors und zur Klimatisierung der Fahrzeugkabine weitgehend unabhaengig voneinander betrachtet. Mit dem Vordringen der elektronischen Regelung hat bei Behr jedoch eine gesamtheitliche Betrachtung aller Waerme- und Stoffstroeme ausserhalb des Motors eingesetzt. Diese Sichtweise, Thermomanagement genannt, hat eine erhebliche Innovationsdynamik ermoeglicht. Mit neuen und optimierten Modulen und Systemen konnten in kurzer Zeit betraechtliche Verbesserungen erzielt werden - bei Komfort und Sicherheit der Fahrzeuginsassen, bei der Integration der Subsysteme und Module ins Fahrzeug sowie bei seiner oekologischen Vertraeglichkeit. Diese Innovationsdynamik, die auch die Bildung von Grossmodulen einschliesst, wird in Zukunft noch zunehmen. (orig.)

  17. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  18. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  19. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  20. Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Naoaki

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analysed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are evaluated using the data of the low pressure Argon-discharge, and the simple solutions (plane wave and envelope soliton type solutions) are presented. Under a certain condition an envelope soliton is propagated through the positive column. (author)

  1. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  2. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Martinek, J; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Miles, M; Yacoot, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm 2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. (paper)

  3. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  4. Proper Motion Of Teh Magellanic Clouds Using SPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1.05,−1.03) ± (0.30, 0.29) masa año−1, basado en dos muestras de 3800 y 769 es- trellas gigantes rojas de la LMC y SMC respectivamente. Una porción...justment also helps to correct residual distortions, as they are statistically smoothed out in the average frame. To avoid frames drifting away from the

  5. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic- force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single-molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecules * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  6. Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon

    2009-01-01

    By holding a complex object in multiple optical traps, it may be harmonically bound with respect to both its position and its orientation. In this way a small probe, or nanotool, can be manipulated in three dimensions and used to measure and apply directed forces, in the manner of a scanning probe microscope. In this paper we evaluate the thermal motion of such a probe held in holographic optical tweezers, by solving the Langevin equation for the general case of a set of spherical vertices linked by cylindrical rods. The concept of a corner frequency, familiar from the case of an optically trapped sphere, is appropriately extended to represent a set of characteristic frequencies given by the eigenvalues of the product of the stiffness matrix and the inverse hydrodynamic resistance matrix of the tool. These eigenvalues may alternatively be interpreted as inverses of a set of characteristic relaxation times for the system. The approach is illustrated by reference to a hypothetical tool consisting of a triangular arrangement of spheres with a lateral probe. The characteristic frequencies and theoretical resolution of the device are derived; variations of these quantities with tool size and orientation and with the optical power distribution, are also considered.

  7. Impact of pumping configuration on all-fibered femtosecond chirped pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, Jean-Bernard; Duterte, Charles; Bertrand, Anthony; Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2008-04-01

    We experimentally compared the co- and counter-propagative pumping scheme for the amplification of ultra-short optical pulses. According to pumping direction we show that optical pulses with a duration of 75 fs and 100mW of average output power can be obtained for co-propagative pumping, while pulse duration is never shorter than 400 fs for the counter-propagative case. We show that the impact of non-linear effects on pulse propagation is different for the two pumping configurations. We assume that Self Phase Modulation (SPM) is the main effect in the copropagative case, whereas the impact of Stimulated Raman Scattering is bigger for the counter-propagative case.

  8. Coherent states on Hilbert modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S Twareque; Bhattacharyya, T; Roy, S S

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the concept of coherent states, traditionally defined as special families of vectors on Hilbert spaces, to Hilbert modules. We show that Hilbert modules over C*-algebras are the natural settings for a generalization of coherent states defined on Hilbert spaces. We consider those Hilbert C*-modules which have a natural left action from another C*-algebra, say A. The coherent states are well defined in this case and they behave well with respect to the left action by A. Certain classical objects like the Cuntz algebra are related to specific examples of coherent states. Finally we show that coherent states on modules give rise to a completely positive definite kernel between two C*-algebras, in complete analogy to the Hilbert space situation. Related to this, there is a dilation result for positive operator-valued measures, in the sense of Naimark. A number of examples are worked out to illustrate the theory. Some possible physical applications are also mentioned.

  9. Adolescence Education: Physical Aspect, Module One; Social Aspects, Module Two; Sex Roles, Module Three; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Module Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Adolescence Education is a family life education training program designed to assist young people in their physical, social, emotional, and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, parenthood, aging, and social relationships in the context of family and society. This package consists of four individually bound modules: (1)…

  10. WRAP module 1 treatment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This document provides the methodology to treat waste in the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions or the Waste Isolation and Pilot Plant waste acceptance criteria. This includes Low-Level Mixed Waste, Transuranic Waste, and Transuranic Mixed Waste

  11. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  12. The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  13. The Chainstitch Machine. Module 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the chainstitch machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the chainstitch machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and…

  14. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  15. Bidirectional reachability-based modules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce an algorithm for MinA extraction in EL based on bidirectional reachability. They obtain a significant reduction in the size of modules extracted at almost no additional cost to that of extracting standard reachability...

  16. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  17. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  18. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  19. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  20. Exercises in modules and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2009-01-01

    This volume offers a compendium of exercises of varying degree of difficulty in the theory of modules and rings. All exercises are solved in full detail. Each section begins with an introduction giving the general background and the theoretical basis for the problems that follow.

  1. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  2. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  3. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  4. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  5. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  6. Spring-cleaning at the solar module; Fruehjahrsputz am Modul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orben, Steffen [Orben Wasseraufbereitung, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The solar power yield of a photovoltaic power plant can be reduced significantly by a natural pollution. The average loss in performance and yield at mild and moderate surface contaminations is between eight and sixteen percent. The self-cleaning effect due to wind, rain and snow is not sufficient in order to purify the solar panels. In contrast, the purification with desalinated water receives the performance of solar generators and ensures the yields. Desalinated water can be produced from tap water by reverse osmosis and ion exchange. The water consumption amounts ten liters for a performance of one kilowatt of the solar module. Other important factors are 0.23 Euro for a filter cartridge as well as 11.50 Euro for personnel costs for a performance of one kilowatt of the solar module.

  7. Structural modules in AP1000 plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.; Tunon-Sanjur, L.

    2007-01-01

    Structural modules are extensively used in AP1000 plant design. The shop manufacturing of modules components improves the quality and reliability of plant structures. The application of modules has a positive impact on construction schedules, and results in substantial savings in the construction cost. This paper describes various types of structural modules used for AP1000 plant structures. CA structural wall modules are steel plate modules with concrete placed, on or within the module, after module installation. The layout and design of the largest CA wall modules, CA01 and CA20, is described in detail. General discussion of structural floor modules, such as the composite and finned floors, is also included. Steel form CB modules (liners) consist of plate reinforced with angle stiffeners and tee sections. The angles and the tee sections are on the concrete side of the plate. Design of CB20 has been included as an example of CB type modules. Design codes and structural concepts related to module designs are discussed. (authors)

  8. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  9. Module-Amenability on Module Extension Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ebrahimi Bagha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $A$ be a Banach algebra and $E$ be a Banach‎ ‎$A$-bimodule then $S=A\\oplus E$‎, ‎the $l^1$-direct sum of $A$ and $E$‎ ‎becomes a module extension Banach algebra when equipped with the‎ ‎algebras product $ (a‎ , ‎x‎. ‎(a'‎, ‎x' = (aa'‎ , ‎a.x'‎ + ‎x.a'$‎. ‎In this‎ ‎paper‎, ‎we investigate $\\triangle$-amenability for these Banach‎ ‎algebras and we show that for discrete inverse semigroup $S$ with‎ ‎the set of idempotents $E_{S}$‎, ‎the module extension Banach algebra $S=l^{1} (E_{S} \\op l^{1} (S$ is $ \\tr$-amenable‎ ‎as a $l^{1}(E_{S} $-module if and only if $l^{1}(E_{S}$ is amenable as Banach algebra‎.

  10. Index modulation for 5G wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Miaowen; Yang, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a thorough examination of index modulation, an emerging 5G modulation technique. It includes representative transmitter and receiver design, optimization, and performance analysis of index modulation in various domains. First, the basic spatial modulation system for the spatial domain is introduced. Then, the development of a generalized pre-coding aided quadrature spatial modulation system as well as a virtual spatial modulation system are presented. For the space-time domain, a range of differential spatial modulation systems are examined, along with the pre-coding design. Both basic and enhanced index modulated OFDM systems for the frequency domain are discussed, focusing on the verification of their strong capabilities in inter-carrier interference mitigation. Finally, key open problems are highlighted and future research directions are considered. Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is essential for anyone working in communications networking, 5G, and system design. A...

  11. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  12. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  13. Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

  14. Photoacoustic investigation of QCL modulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germer, M; Wolff, M

    2010-01-01

    High detection sensitivity and spectral selectivity is important for gas analysers to identify the measured compound and to detect low concentrations. We investigated three different modulation methods - pulse gate modulation, pulse frequency modulation and chopper modulation - for a new pulsed quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic sensor. The spectral selectivity and the detection limit for the three modulation methods are compared by measuring nitric oxide absorption lines and different concentrations. The highest detection sensitivity of 70 ppb was achieved with pulse gate modulation but at the lowest spectral resolution. The highest spectral resolution was achieved with chopper modulation but at the lowest detection sensitivity. It is demonstrated that for the three modulation methods a compromise has to be made between selectivity and sensitivity for each measuring task.

  15. Laser frequency modulation with electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, T. J.; Latorre, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    When laser beam passes through electron plasma its frequency shifts by amount proportional to plasma density. This density varies with modulating signal resulting in corresponding modulation of laser beam frequency. Necessary apparatus is relatively inexpensive since crystals are not required.

  16. Last LEP superconducting module travels to surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The last superconducting module is raised from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider tunnel, through the main shaft, to the surface. Superconducting modules were only used in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  17. Pulse shaping using a spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...

  18. Preparing last LEP superconducting module for removal

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    The last superconducting module travels along the LEP tunnel towards one of the shafts where it will be lifted to the surface. Superconducting modules were only used in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  19. Multichip module technology for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

  20. Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-01-01

    related to plasma frequency modulation in such systems. Our approach provides new physical insight for the design of plasmonic devices for biochemical sensing and optical modulation and future active metamaterial applications. © 2011 American Physical

  1. Modulation Algorithms for Manipulating Nuclear Spin States

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Boyang; Zhang, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the impact of exact frequency modulation on transition time of steering nuclear spin states from theoretical point of view. 1-stage and 2-stage Frequency-Amplitude-Phase modulation (FAPM) algorithms are proposed in contrast with 1-stage and 3-stage Amplitude-Phase modulation (APM) algorithms. The sufficient conditions are further present for transiting nuclear spin states within the specified time by these four modulation algorithms. It is demonstrated that transition time performa...

  2. Automatic modulation classification principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhechen

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC) has been a key technology in many military, security, and civilian telecommunication applications for decades. In military and security applications, modulation often serves as another level of encryption; in modern civilian applications, multiple modulation types can be employed by a signal transmitter to control the data rate and link reliability. This book offers comprehensive documentation of AMC models, algorithms and implementations for successful modulation recognition. It provides an invaluable theoretical and numerical comparison of AMC algo

  3. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    form of partial response modulation, employs simple codification and filtering at the transmitter to drastically increase the spectral efficiency. At the receiver side, poly binary modulation requires low complexity direct detection and very little digital signal processing. This talk will review...... the recent results on poly binary modulation, comprising both binary and multilevel signals as seed signals. The results will show how poly binary modulation effectively reduces the bandwidth requirements on optical links while providing high spectral efficiency....

  4. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  5. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  6. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  7. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  8. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  9. The Decision Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    and goal change has received very little attention In the litera- ture on the analysis of choice situations. It has generally been the case that the...Decision Making: Approach and Prototype" (197:0, done In context of the Mesarovlc - Pestel World Model Projet’ The Issues dealing with «-he cho ce...Nelson, Winder, and Schuette (1973) on evolutionary economic growth models. The discussion of the two components of the decision module that follows

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E; Glatstein, Eli

    2002-07-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an increasingly popular technical means of tightly focusing the radiation dose around a cancer. As with stereotactic radiotherapy, IMRT uses multiple fields and angles to converge on the target. The potential for total dose escalation and for escalation of daily fraction size to the gross cancer is exciting. The excitement, however, has greatly overshadowed a range of radiobiological and clinical concerns.

  11. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  12. Applying Economics Using Interactive Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of web-based, interactive learning modules in the principles of economics course. The learning modules introduce students to important, historical economic events while providing real-world application of the economic theory presented in class. Each module is designed to supplement and complement the economic theory…

  13. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  14. New Technologies for Managing Cotton Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of RFID transponders in the module tags on round modules formed by John Deere harvesters has opened up new possibilities for managing modules and harvest data. Tools are needed to help integrate this new technology and provide additional value to growers and ginners. A mobile application w...

  15. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  16. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital modulation techniques and operating below 25.25 GHz (except for MVDDS stations in the 12,200-12,700 MHz band...

  17. Antimicrobial and modulation effects of selected Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of the three plants studied here are good modulators as they reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole by factors that are comparable to that of reserpine. However the exact compounds and their exact mechanism of modulation require further investigation. Keywords: Anti-infective, modulation, ...

  18. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  19. Specification of the GummyModule Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    The GummyModule language is an extension to the Java language and is the successor of the EventReactor language The GummyModule language adopts the linguistic constructs of offered by EventReactor to define event types, events and to publish events. As for EventReactor, GummyModule facilitates

  20. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 8: Force Transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on force transformers is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each energy…

  1. Strain absorbent modules for cavity filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Strain absorbent modules made from weldmesh panels and helical steel binders can be used, together with timber packing, to support the roof and sides of cavities instead of softwood and hardwood nogs. A description of these modules and a series of load tests and underground trials carried out on the modules is given.

  2. Building CMS Pixel Barrel Detectur Modules

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Horisberger, R.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Weber, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Erdmann, W.

    2007-01-01

    For the barrel part of the CMS pixel tracker about 800 silicon pixel detector modules are required. The modules are bump bonded, assembled and tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This article describes the experience acquired during the assembly of the first ~200 modules.

  3. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  4. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  5. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  6. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  7. Auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation phase reversal as a function of modulation depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Grose, John

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation by determining the modulation depth required to detect modulation phase reversal. This approach may be preferable to spectral modulation detection with a spectrally flat standard, since listeners appear unable to perform the task based on the detection of temporal modulation. While phase reversal thresholds are often evaluated by holding modulation depth constant and adjusting modulation rate, holding rate constant and adjusting modulation depth supports rate-specific assessment of modulation processing. Stimuli were pink noise samples, filtered into seven octave-wide bands (0.125-8 kHz) and spectrally modulated in dB. Experiment 1 measured performance as a function of modulation depth to determine appropriate units for adaptive threshold estimation. Experiment 2 compared thresholds in dB for modulation detection with a flat standard and modulation phase reversal; results supported the idea that temporal cues were available at high rates for the former but not the latter. Experiment 3 evaluated spectral modulation phase reversal thresholds for modulation that was restricted to either one or two neighboring bands. Flanking bands of unmodulated noise had a larger detrimental effect on one-band than two-band targets. Thresholds for high-rate modulation improved with increasing carrier frequency up to 2 kHz, whereas low-rate modulation appeared more consistent across frequency, particularly in the two-band condition. Experiment 4 measured spectral weights for spectral modulation phase reversal detection and found higher weights for bands in the spectral center of the stimulus than for the lowest (0.125 kHz) or highest (8 kHz) band. Experiment 5 compared performance for highly practiced and relatively naïve listeners, and found weak evidence of a larger practice effect at high than low spectral modulation rates. These results provide preliminary data for a task that may provide a better estimate of

  8. Cross-Modulation Interference with Lateralization of Mixed-Modulated Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Petrosyan, Agavni; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Hickok, Gregory; Saberi, Kourosh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the ability to use spatial information in mixed-modulated (MM) sounds containing concurrent frequency-modulated (FM) and amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds by exploring patterns of interference when different modulation types originated from different loci as may occur in a multisource acoustic field. Method:…

  9. Development of the module inspection system for new standardized radiation monitoring modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masami; Shimizu, Kazuaki; Hiruta, Toshihito; Mizugaki, Toshio; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tooru.

    1994-10-01

    This report mentions about the module inspection system which does the maintenance check of the monitoring modules adapted the new monitoring standard, as well as the result of the verification of the modules. The module inspection system is the automatic measurement system with the computer. The system can perform the functional and the characteristic examination of the monitoring modules, the calibration with radiation source and inspection report. In the verification of the monitoring module, three major items were tested, the adaptability for the new monitoring standard, the module functions and each characteristics. All items met the new monitoring standard. (author)

  10. Model Development of Degradation of PV Modules Backsheet with Locating Place of Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Yu [Case Western Reserve University; Fairbrother, Andrew [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Merzlic, Sebastien [Arkema; Julien, Scott [Northeastern University; Fridman, Lucas S. [Case Western Reserve University; Loyer, Camille [Arkema; Lefebvre, Amy L. [Arkema; O' Brien, Gregory [Arkema; Gu, Xiaohong [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Ji, Liang [Underwriters Laboratories; Boyce, Kenneth P. [Underwriters Laboratories; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern University; French, Roger H. [Case Western Reserve University; Bruckman, Laura S. [Case Western Reserve University

    2017-08-23

    Performance of a photovoltaic (PV) module is related to the micro-environment around the module. The position of photovoltaic modules in an array row have a large effect on the yellowing and gloss of PV module backsheet exposed in Dfa climatic zone (Gaithersburg, MD) with a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) outer layer. Stress/Response models of yellowing and gloss-losing as function of location parameters of module, including the shed, row, measurement position in a same module and the distance of module location to the row center, are under development. The module installation height had the greatest influence on degradation of PEN PV backsheet in the Dfa climatic zone. The module backsheets at the end of an array have higher degradation rate (edge effect). The edge effect decreases with increasing of module installation heights.

  11. Can we trust module-respect heuristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang

    2013-01-01

    BDD (Binary Decision Diagrams) have proven to be a very efficient tool to assess Fault Trees. However, the size of BDD, and therefore the efficiency of the whole methodology, depends dramatically on the choice of variable ordering. The determination of the best variable ordering is intractable. Therefore, heuristics have been designed to select reasonably good variable orderings. One very important common feature for good static heuristics is to respect modules. In this paper, the notion of module-respect is studied in a systematic way. It is proved that under certain condition there always exists an optimal ordering that respects modules. This condition is that for each module there is always a smallest module BDD and each included module variable appears only once. On the other hand, it is shown that for the trees not satisfying the above sufficient condition the optimal orderings may not be able to be directly generated using module-respect heuristics, even when the shuffling strategy is used.

  12. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  13. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  14. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  15. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  16. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  17. Klystrons and modulators for SBLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, M.; Choroba, S.; Hameister, J.; Lewin, H.-Ch. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For SBLC, the DESY/THD S-band linear collider study, klystrons with 150 MW rf-pulse power at 50 Hz repetition rate and 3 {mu}s pulse duration are required [1]. This paper will give a short overview of the SBLC parameters and the S-band test linac at DESY. Two different modulator schemes, the conventional line type pulser and the hard tube pulser, will be discussed. After a brief description of the 150 MW S-band klystron the first operating experience with the klystron and a line type pulser at DESY will be presented. (author)

  18. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  19. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  20. Temperature Modulated Nanomechanical Thermal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Gustavo Marcati A.; Bose-Goswami, Sanjukta; Mansano, Ronaldo D.

    2018-01-01

    The response of microcantilever deflection to complex heating profiles was used to study thermal events like glass transition and enthalpy relaxation on nanograms of the biopolymer Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The use of two heating rates enables the separation of effects on the deflection...... response that depends on previous thermal history (non-reversing signal) and effects that depends only on the heating rate variation (reversing signal). As these effects may appear superposed in the total response, temperature modulation can increase the measurement sensitivity to some thermal events when...

  1. Modulation of Current Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct torque control with Current Source Inverter (CSI instead of voltage source inverter is so appropriate because of determining the torque of induction motor with machine current and air gap flux. In addition, Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is a more proper method for CSI because of low order harmonics reduction, lower switching frequency and easier implementation. This paper introduces the SVM method for CSI and uses the proposed inverter for vector control of an induction motor. The simulation results illustrate fast dynamic response and desirable torque and speed output. Fast and accurate response to changes of speed and load torque reference completely proves the prominence of this method.

  2. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  4. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  5. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  6. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  7. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  8. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  9. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  10. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    or fs/ð range respectively, where fs is the switching frequency of the converter. For some applications this will require unacceptable high switching frequency to achieve enough control loop bandwidth for the desired dynamic performance. With self oscillating modulators, the open loop bandwidth is equal...... to fs which makes this type of modulators an excellent choice for a wide range of applications. Self oscillating PWM modulators can be made in a number of ways, either as voltage or current mode modulators, and the self oscillating behavior can be achieved either by using hysteresis control...... or by shaping the open loop function of the modulator so its gain and phase response causes a closed loop natural oscillation. The two main types of self oscillating modulators have many similarities, but differences in dynamic performance and linearity are present. The work presented is related to the author...

  11. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  12. SUPPORT CARD FOR THE FORWARD SCT MODULE

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, A

    2002-01-01

    Previously in the development and testing stage of ATLAS SCT Forward modules support cards have been used which interface the module to the DAQ by using only the Redundant inputs for the module configuration and the 'spying' of the ABCD Master chip(s) data. As module development has matured there is now a necessity to be able to test modules in the laboratory using also their Primary input/output data routes i.e. using the optical chips DORIC [1] and VDC [2] but without the need of optical fibres. A Forward Kapton Support Card, FKSC, has been developed so that both Primary and Redundant data routes can be used for module testing.

  13. Induction accelerator test module for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    1991-04-01

    An induction linac test module suitable for investigating the drive requirements and the longitudinal coupling impedance of a high-power ion induction linac has been constructed by the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) group at LBL. The induction linac heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as presently envisioned uses multiple parallel beams which are transported in separate focusing channels but accelerated together in the induction modules. The resulting induction modules consequently have large beam apertures-1--2 meters in diameter- and correspondingly large outside diameters. The module geometry is related to a low-frequency ''gap capacity'' and high-frequency structural resonances, which are affected by the magnetic core loading and the module pulser impedance. A description of the test module and preliminary results are presented. 3 figs

  14. Bactericidal effectiveness of modulated UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, H.L.; John, J.; Schmehl, M.K.; Dratch, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of pulsed modulated UV light waveforms for killing bacteria. Exposure of five strains of bacteria to the modulated information encoded in the light decreased the colony population from a confluent lawn to less than 20 colonies. However, approximately 2,000 colonies survived treatment with the same intensity and time of exposure to UV light lacking the modulated information

  15. Fast heat flux modulation at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Abdallah, P. Ben; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  16. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  17. Computing optimal interfacial structure of modulated phases

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Chu; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Pingwen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general framework of computing interfacial structures between two modulated phases. Specifically we propose to use a computational box consisting of two half spaces, each occupied by a modulated phase with given position and orientation. The boundary conditions and basis functions are chosen to be commensurate with the bulk structures. It is observed that the ordered nature of modulated structures stabilizes the interface, which enables us to obtain optimal interfacial structures...

  18. Generalized module extension Banach algebras: Derivations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let A and X be Banach algebras and let X be an algebraic Banach A-module. Then the ℓ-1direct sum A x X equipped with the multiplication (a; x)(b; y) = (ab; ay + xb + xy) (a; b ∈ A; x; y ∈ X) is a Banach algebra, denoted by A ⋈ X, which will be called "a generalized module extension Banach algebra". Module extension ...

  19. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  20. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  1. ATLAS SCT - Progress on the Silicon Modules

    CERN Multimedia

    Tyndel, M.

    The ATLAS SCT consists of 4088 silicon modules. Each module is made up of 4 silicon sensors with 1536 readout strips. Individual strips are connected to FE amplifiers, discriminators and pipelines on the module, i.e. there are 12 radiation hard ASICs, each containing 128 channels on the module. The sensors and the ASICs were developed for the ATLAS experiment and production is proceeding smoothly with over half the components delivered. The components of a module - 4 silicon sensors, a Cu/polyimide hybrid and pitch adaptor, and 12 ASICs - need to be carefully and precisely assembled onto a carbon and ceramic framework, which supports the module and removes the heat. Eleven production clusters are preparing to carry this out over the next two years. An important milestone for the barrel modules has been passed with the first cluster (KEK) now in production (~40 modules produced). A second cluster UK-B has qualified by producing five modules within specification (see below) and is about to start production. T...

  2. Frequency-Diversity Reception for Phase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio improved. System receives phase modulation transmitted simultaneously on different carrier frequencies. Used for carriers received through different antennas or through same antenna.

  3. PLC control of 50 MW klystron modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Lei; Liu Gongfa; Chen Liping; Lu Yeming; Hong Jun; Zhang Yi; Zhao Feng

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade project of the 50 MW klystron modulators of Hefei Light Source (HLS) was firstly introduced. PLC control system of modulators was employed to replace the old control and monitor system, which was based on relay logic circuit and manual operation method. the PLC system becomes a sub system of the new EPICS control system of HLS. Constant-current, switch-mode and high voltage power supplies were adopted to replace the old 50 Hz power supplies. The technology of modulators was improved and operation was more reliable. The design method, hardware and software of PLC control of modulators were described and the performance was presented. (authors)

  4. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  5. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  6. Millimeter Wave Modulators Using Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prather, Dennis W

    2008-01-01

    In this effort electro-optic modulators for millimeter wave sensing and imaging were developed and demonstrated via design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of multi layer quantum dot...

  7. SLAC modulator system improvements and reliability results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.

    1998-06-01

    In 1995, an improvement project was completed on the 244 klystron modulators in the linear accelerator. The modulator system has been previously described. This article offers project details and their resulting effect on modulator and component reliability. Prior to the project, the authors had collected four operating cycles (1991 through 1995) of MTTF data. In this discussion, the '91 data will be excluded since the modulators operated at 60 Hz. The five periods following the '91 run were reviewed due to the common repetition rate at 120 Hz

  8. Global model structures for ∗-modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We extend Schwede's work on the unstable global homotopy theory of orthogonal spaces and L-spaces to the category of ∗-modules (i.e., unstable S-modules). We prove a theorem which transports model structures and their properties from L-spaces to ∗-modules and show that the resulting global model...... structure for ∗-modules is monoidally Quillen equivalent to that of orthogonal spaces. As a consequence, there are induced Quillen equivalences between the associated model categories of monoids, which identify equivalent models for the global homotopy theory of A∞-spaces....

  9. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  10. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  11. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  12. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  13. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  14. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  15. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  16. Comparaison of Atlas Tilecal module

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov1, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D

    2002-01-01

    The high precision assembly of a large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research program in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate Survey&Control METROLOGY METHODs are an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE#8 (6m long, 22tons) which were obtained by LASER and by PHOTOGRAMMETRY methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within ±70mm. It means these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new generation engineering culture: high precision metrology when precision assembly of large scale massive objects.

  17. SSD with generalized phase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, J.

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) with standard frequency modulation (FM), although simple to implement, has the disadvantage that low spatial frequencies present in the spectrum of the target illumination are not smoothed as effectively as with a more general smoothing method (eg, induced spatial incoherence method). The reduced smoothing performance of standard FM-SSD can result in spectral power of the speckle noise at these low spatial frequencies as much as one order of magnitude larger than that achieved with a more general method. In fact, at small integration times FM-SSD has no smoothing effect at all for a broad band of low spatial frequencies. This effect may have important implications for both direct and indirect drive ICF

  18. Solar dynamic power module design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, Richard R.; Labus, Thomas L.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have shown that the use of solar dynamic (SD) power for the growth areas of the Space Station Freedom program will result in life cycle cost savings when compared to power supplied by photovoltaic sources. In the SD power module, a concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver which has integral thermal energy storage. A Power Conversion Unit (PCU) based on the closed Brayton cycle removes thermal energy from the receiver and converts that energy to electrical energy. Since the closed Brayton cycle is a single phase gas cycle, the conversion hardware (heat exchangers, turbine, compressor, etc.) can be designed for operation in low earth orbit, and tested with confidence in test facilities on earth before launch into space. The concentrator subassemblies will be aligned and the receiver/PCU/radiator combination completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling liquid on earth before launch to, and assembly on, orbit.

  19. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  20. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban culture can increasingly be understood as interface culture (Munster) in which urban design, cultural institutions and architecture increasingly operate as affective interfaces distributing and mediating human perception, consumption and social encounters. As noted by Amin and Thrift (2002......, Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...... environments as bodily and sensorial experiences. It asks what is mediated through the interface – whether the. It also asks, what is excluded when urban environments become affective interfaces in the global networked city. Whereas urban interface collect and distribute the bodily and sensible in relational...

  1. ALICE Time of Flight Module

    CERN Multimedia

    The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.

  2. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  3. Modulating wind power plant output using different frequency modulation components for damping grid oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method, controller, wind power plant, and computer program product are disclosed for operating a wind power plant comprising a plurality of wind turbines, the wind power plant producing a plant power output. The method comprises receiving a modulation request signal indicating a requested...... modulation of the plant power output, the requested modulation specifying a modulation frequency. The method further comprises generating a respective power reference signal for each of at least two wind turbines of the plurality of wind turbines selected to fulfill the requested modulation, Each generated...... power reference signal includes a respective modulation component corresponding to a portion of the requested modulation and having a frequency different than the modulation frequency....

  4. Significantly High Modulation Efficiency of Compact Graphene Modulator Based on Silicon Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haowen; Su, Zhaotang; Huang, Le; Wu, Zhennan; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Zhiping

    2018-01-17

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a significantly large modulation efficiency of a compact graphene modulator based on a silicon waveguide using the electro refractive effect of graphene. The modulation modes of electro-absorption and electro-refractive can be switched with different applied voltages. A high extinction ratio of 25 dB is achieved in the electro-absorption modulation mode with a driving voltage range of 0 V to 1 V. For electro-refractive modulation, the driving voltage ranges from 1 V to 3 V with a 185-pm spectrum shift. The modulation efficiency of 1.29 V · mm with a 40-μm interaction length is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the first reported graphene phase modulator. The realisation of phase and intensity modulation with graphene based on a silicon waveguide heralds its potential application in optical communication and optical interconnection systems.

  5. Control module and module for priority set-up for the CAMAC universal branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Control module of BKD-871 universal branch driver operates as a controller in the control crate. This module performs synchronous data transmission to (from) the computer and shapes time signals for A-type controllers. The following regimes of data block transmission may be organized with the help of the control module: address scanning regime; repeated reference regime; stop regime. A priority driving module is required for organization of simultaneous operation from several control sources

  6. XPM-induced degradation of multilevel phase modulated channel caused by neighboring NRZ modulated channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Schiellerup, G.; Peucheret, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty.......The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty....

  7. Finite Element calculations of heat transfer for Forward SCT ModulesPart I - the Outer Module

    CERN Document Server

    Blocki, J; Perrin, E

    2000-01-01

    A status report on the thermal performance of the baseline SCT forward modules is presented. Possible design changes of the outer module which lead to significant improvements of the thermal characteristics of the module are indicated, in the context of a 2-point cooling scheme.

  8. Spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns reveal frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the possibility that the human auditory system demonstrates frequency selectivity to spectro-temporal amplitude modulations. Threshold modulation depth for detecting sinusoidal spectro-temporal modulations was measured using a generalized masked threshold pattern paradigm with narrowband masker modulations. Four target spectro-temporal modulations were examined, differing in their temporal and spectral modulation frequencies: a temporal modulation of -8, 8, or 16 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 1 cycle/octave and a temporal modulation of 4 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 0.5 cycles/octave. The temporal center frequencies of the masker modulation ranged from 0.25 to 4 times the target temporal modulation. The spectral masker-modulation center-frequencies were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the target spectral modulation. For all target modulations, the pattern of average thresholds for the eight normal-hearing listeners was consistent with the hypothesis of a spectro-temporal modulation filter. Such a pattern of modulation-frequency sensitivity was predicted on the basis of psychoacoustical data for purely temporal amplitude modulations and purely spectral amplitude modulations. An analysis of separability indicates that, for the present data set, selectivity in the spectro-temporal modulation domain can be described by a combination of a purely spectral and a purely temporal modulation filter function.

  9. Modulating the level of components within plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, Steven Craig; Apuya, Nestor; Chiang, Karen; Doukhanina, Elena; Feldmann, Kenneth; Jankowski, Boris; Margolles-Clark, Emilio; Mumenthaler, Daniel; Okamuro, Jack; Park, Joon-Hyun; Van Fleet, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Ke

    2017-09-12

    Materials and Methods for identifying lignin regulatory region-regulatory protein associations are disclosed. Materials and methods for modulating lignin accumulation are also disclosed. In addition, methods and materials for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) the level of a component (e.g., protein, oil, lignin, carbon, a carotenoid, or a triterpenoid) in plants are disclosed.

  10. An abstract machine for module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Krl, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement from the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection.

  11. Quantification of Shading Tolerability for Photovoltaic Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziar, H.; Asaei, Behzad; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Isabella, O.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite several decades of research in the field of photovoltaic (PV) systems, shading tolerance has still not been properly addressed. PV modules are influenced by shading concerning many factors, such as number and configuration of cells in the module, electrical and thermal characteristics of

  12. Multicarrier Modulation Techniques for 5G Communications

    OpenAIRE

    QIANYU JIN

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on multicarrier modulation techniques for 5G wireless communications. We study different properties of current multicarrier modulation techniques and propose methodologies to improve them in order to meet the demands of 5G wireless, e.g., low out-of-band radiation, low latency, relaxed synchronization, and stable performance against phase noise with low complexity over a wireless channel.

  13. Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momtahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.

  14. Research: Designing interprofessional modules for undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... financial constraints, administrative support, logistical issues and resistance to change. The designing and implementing of new modules were intense and time consuming, and required commitment. The development of the modules was an excellent example of interprofessional teamwork that needs to be transferred to ...

  15. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. Modulations in the light of the firefly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The amplitude of the continuous train of triangular pulses is apparently altered in accordance with the instantaneous values of a hypothetical signal, which exhibits pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). In addition to sampling in amplitude, this scheme apparently provides sampling in time, representing pulse width modulation ...

  18. Typewriting Syllabus: Part II: Modules. 1976 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the second of a two-part set on typewriting and focuses on the nine modules of instruction. The nine modules are: (1) keyboard mastery and skill development, (2) basic typewriting competencies, (2a) personal use typewriting, (3) introduction to office typewriting I, (4) introduction to office typewriting II, (5) intermediate office…

  19. Orthonormal bases for α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    We construct an orthonormal basis for the family of bi-variate a-modulation spaces. The construction is based on local trigonometric bases, and the basis elements are closely related to so-called brushlets. As an application, we show that m-term nonlinear approximation with the system in an a......-modulation space can be completely characterized....

  20. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.