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Sample records for self-injurious behavior

  1. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  2. Self-injurious behavior in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P

    2000-08-01

    Recent reports have postulated the existence of two different types of self-injurious behavior: impulsive and compulsive. The aim of the present study is to analyze the dimensionality of self-injurious behavior and to study the link between self-injurious behavior and clinical features in anorexia nervosa. The study involved 236 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-reported questionnaires, such as the Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A principal component analysis was used to study the dimensionality of different types of self-injurious behavior, including purging. Our findings confirm the distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. The dimensions appear to be represented as a continuum in both the anorexia nervosa diagnostic subgroups. A third distinct dimension emerged that included self-induced vomiting and laxative/diuretics abuse. Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety significantly predict the presence of impulsive self-injury, whereas obsessionality and age predict compulsive self-injury. The coexistence of a positive score on both dimensions of self-injurious behavior was the strongest predictor of treatment dropout. The present study highlights the importance of self-injurious behavior; it should be given due consideration in future outcome studies on anorexia nervosa

  3. Clinical Evaluation of the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS).

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    Linscheid, Thomas R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (in which mild and brief contingent electric stimulation is delivered) was evaluated with five cases involving severe mental retardation and previously unmanageable self-injurious behavior. Findings indicated almost complete elimination of the self-injurious behavior with followup suggesting continuing…

  4. Self-injurious behavior as a habit and its treatment.

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    Orian, C

    1989-10-01

    The definition of self-injurious behavior applies to persons who hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation. The different aspects of self-injurious behavior and the theories explaining them are reviewed. For 5 years a young, intelligent woman had inflicted injuries upon herself with sharp instruments while ostensibly caring for her face and legs. The short-term hypnobehavioral treatment included keeping daily reports of her self-inflicted injuries and of her thoughts while executing them, finding alternative activities to replace her habit, and practicing self-hypnosis once a day. Increasing the level of understanding of her inner conflict and accenting ways of breaking the habit by means of positive autosuggestion proved very effective. The treatment was successful after 13 sessions.

  5. [Childhood traumatization, dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior in borderline personality disorder].

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    Merza, Katalin; Harmatta, János; Papp, Gábor; Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2017-05-01

    Childhood traumatization plays a significant role in the etiology of borderline personality disorder. Studies found a significant association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior. The aim of our study was to assess dissociation and nonsuicidal self-injury among borderline inpatients and to reveal the association between childhood traumatization, dissociation, and self-injurious behavior. The sample consisted of 80 borderline inpatients and 73 depressed control patients. Childhood traumatization, dissociation and self-injurious behavior were assessed by questionnaires. Borderline patients reported severe and multiplex childhood traumatization. Cumulative trauma score and sexual abuse were the strongest predictors of dissociation. Furthermore, we have found that cumulative trauma score and dissociation were highly predictive of self-injurious behavior. Our results suggest that self-injurious behavior and dissociation in borderline patients can be regarded as indicators of childhood traumatization. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 740-747.

  6. Self-Injurious Behavior: An Animal Model of an Autism Endophenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    alterations in specific DARPP-32-mediated signaling mechanisms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Autism , self-injurious behavior, neuroscience, dopamine , DARPP-32...Injurious Behavior: An Animal Model of an Autism Endophenotype Darragh Devine University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Autism , self...injurious behavior, neuroscience, dopamine , DARPP-32, stress, anxiety Abstract on next page. 75 dpdevine@ufl.edu REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…

  8. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

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    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  9. Progressing from Identification and Functional Analysis of Precursor Behavior to Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

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    Dracobly, Joseph D.; Smith, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This multiple-study experiment evaluated the utility of assessing and treating severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on the outcomes of a functional analysis of precursor behavior. In Study 1, a precursor to SIB was identified using descriptive assessment and conditional probability analyses. In Study 2, a functional analysis of precursor…

  10. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

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    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  11. Reducing Covert Self-Injurious Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement through a Variable Momentary DRO Procedure

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    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Covert self-injurious behavior (i.e., behavior that occurs in the absence of other people) can be difficult to treat. Traditional treatments typically have involved sophisticated methods of observation and often have employed positive punishment procedures. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a variable momentary differential…

  12. The Use of Massage Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Christopher; And Others

    The report documents the theoretical basis and application of massage therapy, with six students who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (SIB), in two studies. The first study investigated the relationship between physical and/or emotional stress and self-abusive behavior in five severely mentally impaired students. Subjects received two to three…

  13. Self-Esteem and Anger in Borderline Patients With Self-Injury Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla Maria; Horta, Maria Purificação

    2018-04-01

    Anger and low self-esteem characterize borderline individuals, yet little is known about their role and impact in the presence or absence of self-injury behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of anger and self-esteem in borderline patients and whether these variables distinguish these patients with and without self-injury. Patients were recruited from a psychiatric service and were evaluated for self-esteem and anger. Additionally, impulsivity and symptoms were assessed. Two groups were compared, one with self-injurious behavior (n = 18) and another one without it (n = 23). Those who injure themselves seem to have a lower self-esteem (p < 0.001), yet the strengthening of self-esteem seems to have different outcomes, according to the presence or absence of self-injury. Anger and self-esteem seem to influence the severity of diagnosis, but only in patients who self-injure. Anger and self-esteem may influence borderline patients differently according to the presence or absence of self-injury.

  14. Predicting impulsive self-injurious behavior in a sample of adult women.

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    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Different types of self-injury have been classified as reflecting impulsive and compulsive characteristics (article by Simeon and Favazza [Self-injurious Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment {pp 1-28}. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc, 2001]). The current research used a prospective design to evaluate whether there is a progression between these different types of self-injurious behaviors (SIB) over time. Support was found for a progression from compulsive SIB (including hair pulling, nail-biting, skin picking, scratching, and preventing wounds from healing) to impulsive SIB (including cutting, burning, carving, pin sticking, and punching) in a group of adult women (N = 106). Other factors hypothesized to be linked to this outcome were disordered eating, age, and personality facets of impulsivity (specifically, urgency and lack of perseverance). Of these variables, only urgency positively predicted impulsive SIB at the study's conclusion. These findings are discussed, limitations of the study are noted, and directions for future research are outlined.

  15. Case Study: Severe Self-Injurious Behavior in Comorbid Tourette's Disorder and OCD

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    Hood, Korey K.; Baptista-Neto, Lourival; Beasley, Pamela J.; Lobis, Robert; Pravdova, Iva

    2004-01-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of severe self-injurious behavior in a 16-year-old adolescent with Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment is described from initial presentation to the emergency department for severe self-inflicted oral lacerations through discharge from the inpatient psychiatric…

  16. Self-Injurious Behavior and Functional Analysis: Where Are the Descriptions of Participant Protections?

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    Weeden, Marc; Mahoney, Amanda; Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reporting of participant protections in studies involving functional analysis and self-injurious behavior and published from 1994 through 2008. Results indicated that session termination criteria were rarely reported and other specific participant safeguards were seldom described. The absence of such information in no way…

  17. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  18. Self-Injurious Behavior in Rett Syndrome: Interactions between Features of Rett Syndrome and Operant Conditioning.

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    Oliver, Chris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, interactions were examined between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Analysis suggested different functions for two forms of SIB: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. Features of Rett syndrome tended to maximize the…

  19. Self-Injurious Behavior and Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

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    Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…

  20. Mediators' Emotional Responses to Self-Injurious Behavior: An Experimental Study.

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    Mossman, Dominique A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Brown, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Sixty mediators from British schools for children with mental retardation watched one of five matched videos depicting no self-injury, self-injury maintained by positive reinforcement, self-injury maintained by negative reinforcement, and self-injury unrelated to social events. Self-injury maintained by negative reinforcement was associated with…

  1. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  2. On the relation between object manipulation and stereotypic self-injurious behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, J S; Iwata, B A; Kahng, S W

    1999-01-01

    Results from a number of studies have shown an inverse relationship between stereotypic behavior and object manipulation. The purposes of this study were to determine whether techniques similar to those used previously (prompting and reinforcement) would be effective in increasing object manipulation under both prompted and unprompted conditions, and to ascertain whether increases in object manipulation would result in decreases in stereotypic self-injurious behavior (SIB). Two individuals wi...

  3. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to...

  4. Death Anxiety and Pain Catastrophizing Among Male Inmates With Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Behavior: A Comparative Study.

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    Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Bogdan, Georgiana; Matei, Carmen

    2017-07-01

    Most of the studies concerning nonsuicidal self-injury behaviors of persons deprived of liberty were on female participants. This cross-sectional comparative study compared the levels of death anxiety, pain catastrophizing, dissociative experiences, and state-trait anger among male inmates with nonsuicidal self-injury behaviors and noninjuring controls. The results indicated high levels of death anxiety, dissociation, and pain catastrophizing in both groups of participants and the absence of significant differences between the groups. The implications of the results suggest the need of taking into consideration these variables in the behavior management plans used with inmates who engage in self-injurious behavior.

  5. Examining the role of sex in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors.

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    Fox, Kathryn R; Millner, Alexander J; Mukerji, Cora E; Nock, Matthew K

    2017-09-28

    Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), including nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide death exhibit substantial sex differences. Across most countries, men die by suicide more frequently than women; yet, women think about and attempt suicide more frequently than men. Research on sex differences in nonsuicidal self-injury is less developed; however, nonsuicidal self-injury is historically understood as a primarily female phenomenon. This review describes current research on sex differences across SITBs with a focus on factors that moderate these effects, such as age, race, geographic region, and time. Additionally, this review describes factors that may help to explain why sex differences across SITBs exist, including differences in culture, access to lethal suicide methods, rates of mental illness, and utilization of health care. The role of gender, and particularly non-binary gender, is also discussed. Current understanding of these sex differences is described with an eye toward future research on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  7. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  8. The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshawi NF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noha F Minshawi,1 Sarah Hurwitz,2 Jill C Fodstad,1 Sara Biebl,3 Danielle H Morriss,4 Christopher J McDougle51Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; 3Child and Adolescent Behavioral Health, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 5Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital and MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs. These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available.Keywords: self-injury, autism spectrum disorders, applied behavior analysis

  9. [Study on the detection rate and risk factors regarding non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in middle school students].

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    Yan, Jing; Zhu, Cui-zhen; Situ, Ming-jing; DU, Na; Huang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury in middle school students. 1312 middle school students of Pengzhou and Santai were selected to fill in a Risky Behavior Questionnaire for Adolescence (RBQ-A), Family Environment Scale (FES), Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Social Support Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) and self-administered questionnaire. In all the research subjects, 1288 were qualified for the study in April 2011 before the risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury were identified by logistic regression. In 1288 middle school students, 22.67% had a history of non-suicidal self-injury, with 22.70% in boys and 22.64% in girls. 63.36% of students had injured themselves through variously ways, more seen in boys (26.88%) than in girls (11.36%) who cut or burnt themselves. The scores of ASLEC and CES-D in non-suicidal self-injury group appeared higher than that in the control group and the score of SSSA was found higher in the control group. The main risk factors for non-suicidal self-injuries were family conflict, depressive emotion, negative life events and receiving less social support. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among middle school students in Pengzhou was high, which called for more attention.

  10. Social connectedness, stressful life events, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among young adults.

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    Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella

    2018-01-01

    Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Social Context on Social Interaction and Self-Injurious Behavior in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arron, Kate; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Sloneem, Jenny; Forman, Debbie; McClintock, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is reported to be associated with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and social avoidance. We used analog methodology to examine the effect of manipulating adult social contact on social communicative behaviors and SIB in 16 children with this syndrome. For 9 participants engagement behavior was related to levels of adult…

  12. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder.

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Relationship to Behavioral and Self-Rating Measures of Impulsivity and Self-Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Closkey, Michael S.; Look, Amy E.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Pajoumand, Golnaz; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using self-report measures has shown an association between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and impulsive tendencies. However, self-injurers have not been shown to be different from comparison groups on laboratory tasks putatively assessing impulsive behavior. One explanation for these contradictory findings is that…

  14. [Factors Associated With Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors in Patients With Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guarín, Maritza; Rodríguez Malagón, Nelcy; Gempeler Rueda, Juanita; Garzón, Daniel Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors (NSSI) have been described in patients with eating disorders (ED), and they have been associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis. To explore the presence of SA and NSSI in patients attending an outpatient ED program, as well as to evaluate the associated variables and the correlation between both types of behaviors. A total of 908 patients of both sexes attending the Equilibrio outpatient program in Bogotá were studied. The histories of SA and NSSI were systematically examined in the development of medical history by direct and structured questions to the patient, and then validated during interviews with the family. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as history of traumatic experiences, were also studied. Simple frequencies were calculated, and a bivariate analysis was performed between SA, NSSI, and the other variables of the study. Finally, two models of association were designed for the multivariate analysis, using variables of clinical importance and statistical significance. SA sometime in their lives was reported by 13% of the patients, and 26% of them reported NSSI. The variables associated with SA were bipolar disorder (OR: 3.86, 95% CI; 2.4-6.1), borderline personality, purgative subtype of ED, and self-injury. Sexual abuse was associated with NSSI (OR: 3.48, 95%CI; 2.2-5.4), as well as bipolar disorder, trichotillomania, and suicide attempt. SA and NSSI are frequent in patients with eating disorders with multiple comorbidities, increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation, and they should be explored and treated. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially Based Risk Factors of Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority College Students

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    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and…

  16. Non-Suicidal and Suicidal Self-Injurious Behavior among Flemish Adolescents : A Web-Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, I.; Claes, L.; Muehlenkamp, J.; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI) in a sample of 1,417 Flemish adolescents aged 12 to 18, as well as psychosocial differences between adolescents engaging in NSSI and adolescents engaging in SSI. Participants completed an

  17. The effects of nonsuicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors : A longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are

  18. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  19. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:23544113

  20. Stereotyped and self-injurious behavior in children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereotyped behavior is defined as rhythmically repeated movements constant in shape and amplitude. They are natural at certain levels of neuromuscular maturation in early age, yet in case of some developmental disorders they attain pathological forms, last significantly longer and hamper everyday adaptation including self-injurious behavior. Stereotypies are observed in case of various impairments like autism, mental retardation, blindness, deafness and in children in orphanage. The general point for all these impairments is the presence of some kind of deprivation: sensory or social. It is suggested that children with autism and mental retardation experience difficulties with development and coordination of visual, auditory and tactile-kinesthetic signals, and that is why they are exposed to a kind of deprivation similar to that of blind and deaf children. Pathogenesis of stereotyped behavior is often regarded as provoked by abnormal functioning ofdopamine-ergic and GABA-ergic neurons of the system: frontal cortex-thalamus-cerebellum, whose development takes several years of life and is extremely sensitive to impoverished environment.

  1. Positive Side Effects in the Treatment of SIB Using the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS): Implications for Operant and Biochemical Explanations of SIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Thomas R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The rate of self-injurious head hitting in an eight-year old with severe/profound mental retardation was reduced using contingent electric shock delivered via the Self Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System. An improved affective state and increased interaction with the environment were documented. Treatment gains were maintained at one-year…

  2. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Underlying Mechanisms of Methamphetamine-Induced Self-Injurious Behavior and Lethal Effects in Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2018-01-01

    Relatively high doses of psychostimulants induce neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. However the underlying neuronal mechanisms of SIB remains unclear. Dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers significantly attenuate methamphetamine-induced SIB. These findings indicate that activation of dopamine as well as NMDA receptors followed by radical formation and oxidative stress, especially when mediated by NOS activation, is associated with methamphetamine-induced SIB. On the other hand, an increase in the incidence of polydrug abuse is a major problem worldwide. Coadministered methamphetamine and morphine induced lethality in more than 80% in mice, accompanied by an increase in the number of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-immunoreactive cells in the heart, kidney and liver. The lethal effect and the increase in the incidence of rupture or PARP-immunoreactive cells induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with a phospholipase A2 inhibitor or a radical scavenger, or by cooling of body from 30 to 90 min after drug administration. These results suggest that free radicals play an important role in the increased lethality induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine. Therefore, free radical scavengers and cooling are beneficial for preventing death that is induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine. These findings may help us better understand for masochistic behavior, which is a clinical phenomenon on SIB, as well as polydrug-abuse-induced acute toxicity.

  4. Adolescent Admissions to Emergency Departments for Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Zanus

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe the incidence and the characteristics of Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors (SITBs, among adolescents aged 11-18 admitted, over a two year period, to all the Emergency Departments of a Region of North-eastern Italy through a comprehensive analysis of medical records. A two-step search was performed in the regional ED electronic database. First, we identified the cases that had been clearly diagnosed as SITBs by an Emergency Department physician. Secondly, suspect cases were detected through a keyword search of the database, and the medical records of these cases were hand screened to identify SITBs. The mean annual incidence rate of SITBs was 90 per 100,000 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Events were more frequent in females. Drug poisoning was the most frequently adopted method (54%. In 42% of cases a diagnosis of SITB was not explicitly reported by the physician. In 65% of cases adolescents were discharged within hours of admission. Only 9% of patients started a psychiatric assessment and treatment program during hospital stay. This research confirms the high incidence of SITBs among adolescents and highlights the difficulty in their proper diagnosis and management. Such difficulty is confirmed by the fact that only a few patients, even among those with a clear diagnosis, were sent for psychiatric assessment. Correct identification and management of SITB patients needs to be improved, since SITBs are an important public health problem in adolescence and one of the main risk factors for suicide.

  5. Self-injury and suicide behavior among young people with perceived parental alcohol problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Hawton, Keith; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-01-01

    parental alcohol problems and self-injury, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt among young people differed depending on the gender of the child and the parent. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. A total of 75,853 high school and vocational school students......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that young people who perceive their parents to have alcohol problems are more likely to self-injure, have suicide ideation, and to attempt suicide than young people without parental alcohol problems. We also tested whether the association between...... participated. Self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were outcomes and the main exposure variables were perceived parental alcohol problems, gender of the parent with alcohol problems, cohabitation with a parent with alcohol problems, and severity of the parents' alcohol problems. Young people...

  6. [Prevalence and functions of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in a sample of Spanish adolescents assessed in mental health outpatient departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Neira, Mónica; García-Nieto, Rebeca; de León-Martinez, Victoria; Pérez Fominaya, Margarita; Baca-García, Enrique; Carballo, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal and self-injurious behaviors in adolescents are a major public health concern. However, the prevalence of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in Spanish outpatient adolescents is unknown. A total of 267 adolescents between 11 and 18 year old were recruited from the Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatric Services, Jiménez Díaz Foundation (Madrid, Spain) from November 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. All participants were administered the Spanish version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Inventory, which is a structured interview that assesses the presence, frequency, and characteristics of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide gestures, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury. One-fifth (20.6%) of adolescents reported having had suicidal ideation at least once during their lifetime. Similarly, 2.2% reported suicide plans, 9.4% reported suicide gesture, 4.5% attempted suicide, and 21.7% reported non-suicidal self-injury, at least once during their lifetime. Of the whole sample, 47.6% of adolescents reported at least one of the studied thoughts or behaviors in their lifetime. Among them, 47.2% reported 2 or more of these thoughts or behaviors. Regarding the reported function of each type of thoughts and behaviors examined, most were performed for emotional regulation purposes, except in the case of suicide gestures (performed for the purposes of social reinforcement). The high prevalence and high comorbidity of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, together with the known risk of transition among them, underline the need of a systematic and routine assessment of these thoughts and behaviors in adolescents assessed in mental health departments. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  8. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  9. Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

  10. The influence of personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems on repetitive nonsuicidal self-injury in a school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Emotional regulation in aspect of action vs. state orientation, stress and self - injurious behavior among people with borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Rabska, Ewelina; Jaworska-Andryszewska, Paulina; Laso, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    In the bordeline personality disorder a large role ascribe to biopsychosocial factors. Studies have shown that more than 70% patients BPD reported experiencing traumatic events in childhood. The findings are confirming that making self-harming is a frequent symptom of bordeline disorder and 70-75% patients show at least one act of self-harming. Selfharming can be a reaction to maladaptive emotional regulation. Moreover a lowered tolerance level is characteristic of them to the stress and determined course learning dysfunctional patterns of behavior. The aim of this study is to determine the level of emotional regulation through the variable action vs state orientation and to investigate their relation to stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior. In study participated 45 persons with emotionally unstable borderline personality diagnosis. In the group was 33 women and 12 men in age 19-43. A Polish adaptation of standardized questionnaires was used to measure stress and action vs state orientation (SSI-K), self-injurious behavior (SHI) and suicidal tendencies (RFL-I). By patients with borderline personality disorder the level of action control, reasons for living and stress are predictors of selfharming behavior. The mediation analyze showed, that stress and reasons for living are mediators between action vs. state control and the level of self-harming behavior. A high level of stress correlates positively with self-harming and negatively with action control in patients with borderline personality disorder, and a high level of reasons for living correlates positively with action control and negatively with self-harming in people with BPD. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Injurious Behavior, Social Deficits, and Cooccurring Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Waters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that self-injurious behavior (SIB is related to social deficits and cooccurring problem behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 95 participants with ASD was assessed on presence and frequency of SIB (Behavior Problems Inventory, social deficits (the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters-II and cooccurring problem behaviors (ASD-Comorbidity-Child version. A model was created and tested to explain the relationship between these variables. Results showed that the model was acceptable in presenting the relationships between these variables. This information could be used to help predict which individuals are at risk of developing further cooccurring behavioral problems and determine risk markers for the development of social deficits.

  13. Relationships Between Self-Injurious Behaviors, Pain Reactivity, and β-Endorphin in Children and Adolescents With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Charrier, Annaëlle; Oriol, Cécile; Kermarrec, Solenn; Canitano, Roberto; Botbol, Michel; Coulon, Nathalie; Antoine, Corinne; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cohen, David; Haidar, Hazar; Trabado, Séverine; Carlier, Michèle; Bronsard, Guillaume; Mottron, Laurent

    Autism and certain associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and atypical pain reactivity have been hypothesized to result from excessive opioid activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between SIB, pain reactivity, and β-endorphin levels in autism. Study participants were recruited between 2007 and 2012 from day care centers and included 74 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism (according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CFTMEA) and intellectual disability. Behavioral pain reactivity and SIB were assessed in 3 observational situations (parents at home, 2 caregivers at day care center, a nurse and child psychiatrist during blood drawing) using validated quantitative and qualitative scales. Plasma β-endorphin concentrations were measured in 57 participants using 2 different immunoassay methods. A high proportion of individuals with autism displayed SIB (50.0% and 70.3% according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively). The most frequent types of SIB were head banging and hand biting. An absence or decrease of overall behavioral pain reactivity was observed in 68.6% and 34.2% of individuals with autism according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively. Those individuals with hyporeactivity to daily life accidental painful stimuli displayed higher rates of self-biting (P < .01, parental evaluation). No significant correlations were observed between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity assessed in any of the 3 observational situations. The absence of any observed relationships between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity and the conflicting results of prior opioid studies in autism tend to undermine support for the opioid theory of autism. New perspectives are discussed regarding the relationships found in this study between SIB and hyporeactivity to pain. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili O. Horváth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE’s Hungarian randomly selected high school sample (N = 995 was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample (N = 140 in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14–17 years completed the SEYLE project’s self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4% in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2% (Χ2(1 = 12.231, p< 0.001. D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.

  15. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Xin

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB, indirect SIB (ISIB, and suicide attempts (SAs. Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3% had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9% had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2% had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6% displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51. These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB.

  16. The Effects of Noncontingent Access to Single-versus Multiple-Stimulus Sets on Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Anders, Bonita M.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Neidert, Pamela L.

    2000-01-01

    The automatically reinforced self-injury of a girl (age 11) with autism was treated by providing noncontingent access to a single set of preferred toys during 30-minute sessions. Rotating toy sets after 10 minutes or providing access to multiple toy sets resulted in reductions that lasted the entire 30 minutes. (Contains four references.)…

  17. The mediating role of non-suicidal self-injury in the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior among inpatients receiving treatment for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L

    2014-08-15

    Several theories posit a direct role of impulsivity in suicidal behavior. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) argues that the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior is explained by the painful and/or provocative experiences (PPEs) often encountered by impulsive individuals. It thus seems plausible that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), itself associated with impulsivity, might account for the relationship between impulsivity and suicidal behavior. We examined data from 93 adult inpatients (54.8% male) seeking treatment for substance use disorders. Patients completed a structured interview assessing prior suicidal behavior and a series of self-report questionnaires examining impulsivity, NSSI, and psychopathology. Four impulsivity dimensions (negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance) were associated with lifetime number of suicide attempts and/or suicide potential. Furthermore, results supported our hypotheses, as all but one relation was better accounted for by NSSI and, in the one exception, the direct effect was non-significant. Findings are consistent with the IPTS and suggest that suicidal behavior may not be a direct manifestation of impulsivity, but facilitated through exposure to PPEs capable of altering an individual׳s relationship to pain and fear of death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Direct Comparison of Self-Injurious and Stereotyped Motor Behavior Between Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, John; Spofford, Lisa; Dimian, Adele; Tervo, Raymond; MacLean, William E; Symons, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotyped motor behavior (STY) of preschool-aged children with developmental delays (DD group) and their peers without developmental delays (TD group) using a standardized caregiver report scale. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised was completed by caregivers of children with developmental delays and their peers without developmental delays. Frequency of occurrence and severity ratings for SIB and STY were compared between groups. SIB and STY were reported more often and at a greater level of severity in the DD group. Older chronological age was associated with more severe STY in the DD group but not the TD group. Gender was not related to STY or SIB for either group. Differences in STY and SIB were evident between preschoolers with and without DD. Findings are discussed from developmental and behavioral psychology perspectives regarding the expression of repetitive behavior in developmentally at-risk pediatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder among incoming college students: Prevalence and associations with 12-month mental disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Glenn; Hasking, Penelope; Claes, Laurence; Mortier, Philippe; Auerbach, Randy P; Boyes, Mark; Cuijpers, Pim; Demyttenaere, Koen; Green, Jennifer G; Kessler, Ronald C; Nock, Matthew K; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2018-04-26

    Approximately one in five college students report a history of nonsuicidal self-injury. However, it is unclear how many students meet criteria for the recently proposed DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSI-D). In this study, we used full NSSI-D criteria to identify those students most in need of clinical care. Using data from the Leuven College Surveys (n = 4,565), we examined the 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 NSSI-D in a large and representative sample of incoming college students. We also explored the optimal frequency threshold as a function of interference in functioning due to NSSI, and examined comorbidity patterns with other 12-month mental disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, broad mania, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol dependence) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). Twelve-month NSSI-D prevalence was 0.8% and more common among females (1.1%) than males (0.4%). The proposed 5+ diagnostic threshold was confirmed as yielding highest discrimination between threshold and subthreshold cases in terms of distress or disability due to NSSI. A dose-response relationship was observed for NSSI recency-severity (i.e., 12-month NSSI-D, subthreshold 12-month NSSI-D, past NSSI, no history of NSSI) with number of 12-month mental disorders and STB. NSSI-D occurred without comorbid disorders for one in five individuals, and remained associated with severe role impairment when controlling for the number of comorbid disorders. These findings offer preliminary evidence that DSM-5 NSSI-D is uncommon among incoming college students, but may help to improve the deployment of targeted resource allocation to those most in need of services. More work examining the validity of NSSI-D is required. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. N-Acetylcysteine for Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior in Adolescents: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Westlund Schreiner, Melinda; Carstedt, Patricia; Marka, Nicholas; Nelson, Katharine; Miller, Michael J; Reigstad, Kristina; Westervelt, Ana; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Eberly, Lynn E

    2018-03-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is common in adolescents and young adults, and few evidence-based treatments are available for this significant problem. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutritional supplement that has been studied in some psychiatric disorders relevant to NSSI including mood and addictive disorders. This pilot study tested the use of NAC as a potential treatment for NSSI in youth. Thirty-five female adolescents and young adults with NSSI aged 13-21 years were enrolled in this study that had an open-label, single-arm study design. All participants were given oral NAC as follows: 600 mg twice daily (weeks 1-2), 1200 mg twice daily (weeks 3-4), and 1800 mg twice daily (weeks 5-8). Patients were seen every 2 weeks throughout the trial, at which time youth reported the frequency of NSSI episodes. Levels of depression, impulsivity, and global psychopathology were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90). About two-thirds of the enrolled female youth completed the trial (24/35). NAC was generally well tolerated in this sample. NAC treatment was associated with a significant decrease in NSSI frequency at visit 6 and visit 8 compared to baseline. We also found that depression scores and global psychopathology scores (but not impulsivity scores) decreased after NAC treatment. Decrease in NSSI was not correlated with decrease in BDI-II or SCL-90 scores, suggesting these might be independent effects. We provide preliminary evidence that NAC may have promise as a potential treatment option for adolescents with NSSI. The current results require follow-up with a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to confirm efficacy.

  1. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhaker, Christian; Böhme, Renate; Sixt, Barbara; Brück, Christiane; Schneider, Csilla; Schulz, Eberhard

    2011-01-28

    To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A) from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI). In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14.During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion dysregulation and depression from the beginning of therapy to the

  3. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A: a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI. Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion

  4. Non-suicidal self-injury in Mexican young adults: Prevalence, associations with suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders, and DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; González-Herrera, Irene; Castro-Silva, Everardo; Méndez, Enrique; Borges, Guilherme; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) may lead to scarring, infection, accidental death and psychological distress. Little is known about NSSI in the general population of young adults in developing countries like Mexico. The current study examined the prevalence of any NSSI and each type of NSSI, the prevalence of meeting DSM-5 proposed criteria, and finally the association of NSSI with socio-demographic variables, suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders. This study was conducted in a community sample of 1071 young adults between 19 and 26 years of age residents of Mexico City. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 18.56% with females having 87% greater odds. The 12-month prevalence was 3.19%. Only 0.22% of the total sample and 6.96% of those that self-injured in the past 12 months met full criteria proposed by DSM-5, in part due to the lack of reported impairment; 39.99% of those that self-injured reported impairment. Suicidal behavior commonly co-occurred with NSSI. All lifetime anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior and substance use disorders were associated with greater risk for lifetime NSSI whereas only 12-month depression and substance use disorder was associated with greater risk of 12-month NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of the study precludes conclusions of causality and directionality and the study excluded institutionalized and homeless young adults. NSSI is a concerning problem in young adults from Mexico City due to the important associations with all types of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Because many who self-injure do not perceive impairment, they are unlikely to seek treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Suicide Attempts and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors With Substance Use and Family Characteristics Among Children and Adolescents Seeking Treatment for Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendeger Doksat, Neslim; Zahmacioglu, Oguzhan; Ciftci Demirci, Arzu; Kocaman, Gizem Melissa; Erdogan, Ayten

    2017-04-16

    Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey. Participants were children and adolescents who were admitted to the Bakirkoy Trainee and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders in Istanbul between January 2011 and December 2013. Two thousand five hundred eighteen participants were included. Questionnaires were applied to all patients. The association of NSSI and HSA with substance use, family characteristics, and subject characteristics were analyzed. The prevalence of NSSI and HSA behaviors among substance using youth in our sample were 52% and 21% respectively. Cannabis and cocaine use was found to be a significant risk factor for HSA, and polysubstance use was associated with both NSSI and HSA. Parental separation/divorce, parental mental disorders, alcohol and drug use, and crime were the risk factors for HSA. A positive history of physical and sexual abuse increased the risk of HAS, and a history of neglect increased the risk of NSSI. Conclusions/importance: We suggest that results showing relationship between substance use and associated social features with NSSI and HSA may contribute to elaborating effective and targeted preventive and intervention programs for these high-risk youth groups in Turkey.

  6. Targeting emotion dysregulation in the treatment of self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L

    2007-11-01

    Clinically useful definitions of emotion regulation with respect to deliberate self-harm (referred to here as self-injury) focus on adaptive ways of responding to emotional distress rather than on the control of emotions or dampening of emotional arousal. According to one such definition, emotion regulation is a multifaceted construct involving a) the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions; b) ability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, and inhibit impulsive behaviors, when experiencing negative emotions; c) the flexible use of situationally appropriate strategies to modulate the intensity and/or duration of emotional responses rather than to eliminate emotions entirely; and d) willingness to experience negative emotions as part of pursuing meaningful activities in life (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). This article addresses the role of emotion dysregulation in self-injury and discusses two treatments for self-injury that explicitly focus on increasing emotion regulation. These treatments are based on the premise that the reduction of emotion dysregulation will decrease the need for maladaptive behaviors that function to regulate emotions, such as self-injury. A case illustration describing how one of these treatments (an acceptance-based, emotion regulation group therapy) is used to treat self-injury is provided.

  7. The scope of nonsuicidal self-injury on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Heath, Nancy L; St Denis, Jill M; Noble, Rick

    2011-03-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury, the deliberate destruction of one's body tissue (eg, self-cutting, burning) without suicidal intent, has consistent rates ranging from 14% to 24% among youth and young adults. With more youth using video-sharing Web sites (eg, YouTube), this study examined the accessibility and scope of nonsuicidal self-injury videos online. Using YouTube's search engine (and the following key words: "self-injury" and "self-harm"), the 50 most viewed character (ie, with a live individual) and noncharacter videos (100 total) were selected and examined across key quantitative and qualitative variables. The top 100 videos analyzed were viewed over 2 million times, and most (80%) were accessible to a general audience. Viewers rated the videos positively (M = 4.61; SD: 0.61 out of 5.0) and selected videos as a favorite over 12 000 times. The videos' tones were largely factual or educational (53%) or melancholic (51%). Explicit imagery of self-injury was common. Specifically, 90% of noncharacter videos had nonsuicidal self-injury photographs, whereas 28% of character videos had in-action nonsuicidal self-injury. For both, cutting was the most common method. Many videos (58%) do not warn about this content. The nature of nonsuicidal self-injury videos on YouTube may foster normalization of nonsuicidal self-injury and may reinforce the behavior through regular viewing of nonsuicidal self-injury-themed videos. Graphic videos showing nonsuicidal self-injury are frequently accessed and received positively by viewers. These videos largely provide nonsuicidal self-injury information and/or express a hopeless or melancholic message. Professionals working with youth and young adults who enact nonsuicidal self-injury need to be aware of the scope and nature of nonsuicidal self-injury on YouTube.

  8. Motivations for Self-Injury, Affect, and Impulsivity: A Comparison of Individuals with Current Self-Injury to Individuals with a History of Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are characterized by the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress (negative urgency), the tendency to act without thinking, and endorsement of both social and affect regulation motives for the behavior. However, very little research has identified characteristics that distinguish…

  9. Association of Adolescent Dimensional Borderline Personality Pathology with Past and Current Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Lifetime Suicidal Behavior: A Clinical Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Edanackaparampil, Manju; Schmidt, Johannes; Kirisgil, Melek; Fischer, Gloria; Wewetzer, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Resch, Franz

    Descriptive diagnoses of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) may detract from underlying dimensional borderline personality pathology (D-BPP). This study aimed to investigate D-BPP in adolescent inpatients with NSSI and SAs. A consecutive sample of 359 adolescent inpatients was assessed for current and past NSSI and life-time SAs. D-BPP and current mental health problems were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. D-BPP was significantly associated with both current (p BPP or current mental health problems. A multivariate model did not show any additional influence of current mental health problems over and above D-BPP in predicting NSSI and SAs. It can be hypothesized that D-BPP underlies adolescent self-harm and may persist even after its termination, promoting a higher burden of mental health problems. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    While awareness of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) appears to be increasing among school counselors, social workers, nurses, and others who work with youth, it remains one of the most difficult behaviors to encounter, with few professionals feeling well equipped to handle these situations. This introductory article aims to define NSSI, describe…

  11. A Long-Term Follow-Up of Treatment for Severe Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of a woman with severe mental retardation with the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS) resulted in significant reductions in SIB behavior which generalized to the natural environment and the brief follow-up sessions. (Author/DB)

  12. "Boy Crisis" or "Girl Risk"? The Gender Difference in Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior Among Middle-School Students in China and its Relationship to Gender Role Conflict and Violent Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Xin, Moye

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to test if there were gender differences in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors among Chinese middle-school students, and analyze the impact of gender role conflict and violent experiences on these behaviors among middle-school students of different genders. Based on the survey data from seven middle schools in Xi'an region of China, the gender difference in NSSI behaviors and its associated factors were analyzed in this study. There was no significant gender difference in NSSI behaviors among middle-school students; however, female middle-school students were more likely to experience gender role conflicts while male students were more likely to experience all kinds of violence earlier. Gender role conflicts and violent experiences can explain the prevalence of NSSI behaviors by gender, to some extent. The hypothesis on gender patterns of "boy crisis" or "girl risk" on NSSI prevalence was not verified; however, a "girl risk" for gender role conflicts and a "boy crisis" in violent experiences were found. The gender role conflicts were significantly associated with NSSI prevalence among middle-school students to some extent; however, this relationship was adjusted by variables of violent experiences. The different variables of violent experiences were the important predictors of NSSI prevalence among male and female middle-school students with specific contents varying across genders.

  13. The Role of Difficulty in Identifying and Describing Feelings in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behavior (NSSI): Associations With Perceived Attachment Quality, Stressful Life Events, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Rita; Zuffianò, Antonio; Spensieri, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Core alexithymic features, such as the difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, are associated with poor attachment styles and emotional trauma, which influence the capacity to regulate affect. Additionally, emotional regulation has been found to be the most commonly identified function associated with non-suicidal self-injury behavior (NSSI) in adolescents as they attempt to modulate strong emotions. However, few studies have examined the link between difficulty in identifying and describing feelings (core components of alexithymia), NSSI behaviors, quality of attachment, life stressors and suicidal ideation in healthy early adolescents. Consequently, this study aims to investigate these constructs and the relationship among them in a large non-clinical sample of adolescents. Methods: Seven hundred and nine middle school students (50.4% males), aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.6; SD = 1.06) were involved in this study. In order to investigate the variables considered in the study, the following measures were administered: the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory exploring non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children examining difficulty in identifying and describing feelings; the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment assessing the quality of parental and peer attachment; the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised outlining stressful/traumatic events and the Children's Depression Inventory evaluating suicidal ideation. Results: We found significantly positive relationships among difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, NSSI behaviors, stressful events, and suicidal ideation. Data indicated a significant negative association of difficulty in identifying and describing feelings with quality of attachment to parents and peers. Further findings highlighted that difficulty in identifying and describing feelings significantly mediated the effect of quality of attachment (parent and peer) on NSSI and suicidal ideation

  14. Overlapping Genetic and Environmental Influences on Nonsuicidal Self-injury and Suicidal Ideation : Different Outcomes, Same Etiology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, D.F.; Creemers, H.E.; Lynskey, M.T.; Madden, P.A.; Heath, A.C.; Statham, D.J.; Martin, N.G.; Verweij, C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury are very harmful behaviors and are associated with several psychiatric disorders. In the recently developed fifth edition of the DSM, NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder are for the first time introduced as conditions in their own

  15. Images of God used by self-injurious burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, D H; Springer, L S

    1999-08-01

    Suicide by burning and other forms of self-injurious behaviors which involve burning are sometimes considered to have religious overtones. The ritual death of widows upon their husband's funeral pyre is closely associated with Hindu beliefs. Buddhists have used self-immolation as a form of protest. The Judaeo-Christian traditions have imagery of fire as cleansing and purifying; there is also secular imagery associating fire with images of condemnation and evil. Previous studies have described religiosity as a common theme among survivors. The present study describes the ways in which persons who inflicted self-injurious behaviors through burning, including attempted suicide, imagine the Divinity and use religious language to give meaning to their experience.

  16. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  17. Self-injury in young people and the help-negation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne M; O'Gorman, John G

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-injurious behavior and intentions to seek help from professionals, family and friends, technology based support and from no-one. Participants were 679 young people aged 14-25 years drawn from a larger internet survey (N =1463) on the basis of their reported self-injury. A help-negation effect was found only in relation to intentions to seek help from family and friends. That is, a higher extent or severity of self-injury was independently associated with lower intentions to seek help from family and friends. This effect remained after controlling for psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Establishing avenues for early intervention and providing access to a range of potential avenues for help-seeking may assist young people to seek support in relation to self-injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of Hungarian adolescent outpatients suffering from self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, János; Dinya, Elek; Ferencz, Edit; Páli, Eszter; Nagy, Edit; Horváth, Agnes; Vados, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    In this pilot study (Study A), the authors administered the Hungarian standard version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the translated version of the Ottawa Self Injury Inventory (OSI) to students of 3 educational facilities in a county town. Fourteen to eighteen year old pupils were tested in order to measure the key symptoms of depression and the frequency and characteristics of self-injurious behaviour among this sample of the high school population. Twentysix youngsters were found to have had any form of self-injurious actions in their life-time. The paper presents descriptive data on the basis of statistics of symptom occurence. Although the depressive symptoms have an expected correlation with the self-injurious ideas,depression seems not to have the same relationships with actual self-harm action. In study B, the authors present descriptive statistics on the data of 48 female outpatients from the total pool of 72 adolescents aged 14 through to-18 years (average age 16.1 years) showing symptoms of self-injurious behavior according to the Ottawa Self Injury Inventory (OSI). All patients were recruited from a one-year clinical,representative sample of the "Pannonia" multicentre adolescent psychiatry survey. Ten point two percent of consecutively referred and 25.6% of treated adolescent patients had symptoms of self-injurious behavior over a one-year period in 4 Transdanubian Child Psychiatric Centers, which is more frequent than the expected rate. Referring to the clinical diagnoses of adolescents confirmed by M.I.N.I. Plus Diagnostic Interview, the authors estimate, that the majority of these young people suffered from episode(s) of present or past major depression, from whatever form of anxiety disorder and/or from suicidal behaviour. The study presents details of risk behavior including motivations, frequency of acts, ideas, afflicted body regions, emotional correlates, secondary obtained benefits , escalation of problem behavior and consequences in

  19. Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Background During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. Methods A systematic l...

  20. The Use of Guided Imagery as an Intervention in Addressing Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole; DeMarco, Carrie; Paylo, Matthew J.; Zoldan, Chelsey A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents guided imagery as an intervention that can be used to address clients' nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors. Guided imagery is a behavioral therapy technique that involves the use of positive thoughts or images to regulate negative emotional experiences, and it can be used to prevent and manage impulses to self-injure.…

  1. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  2. Peer Influence and Nonsuicidal Self Injury: Longitudinal Results in Community and Clinically-Referred Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…

  3. Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit

    2017-05-03

    During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. A systematic literature search was conducted on 31st December 2016 in five databases (PubMed, OVID Medline, OVID PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms (1. nonsuicidal self-injury, non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI, self-injurious behaviour, SIB, deliberate self-harm, DSH, self-injury; 2. externalizing disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder, CD, oppositional defiant disorder, OD, ODD). Finally 35 papers were included. Eleven different terms were found for describing self-injurious behaviours and 20 methods for measuring it. NSSI has the clearest definition. All the examined externalizing psychopathologies had strong associations with self-injurious behaviours according to: higher prevalence rates in externalizing groups than in control groups, higher externalizing scores on the externalizing scales of questionnaires, higher symptom severity in self-injurious groups. Eight studies investigated the relationship between suicide and self-injurious behaviours and found high overlap between the two phenomena and similar risk factors. Based on the current findings the association between externalizing psychopathology and self-injurious behaviours has been proven by the scientific literature. Similarly to other reviews on self-injurious behaviours the confusion in terminology and methodology was noticed. NSSI is suggested for use as a distinct term. Further studies should investigate the role of comorbid conditions in NSSI, especially when internalizing

  4. Measurement of perceived functions of non-suicidal self-injury for Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Choi Hong; Wu, Anise M S; Poon, Mary Man-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of validated assessment tools for motives of non-suicidal self-injury behaviors in the Chinese contexts, this study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (C-FASM). A total of 345 secondary school students (mean age = 11.41 years), who reported non-suicidal self-injury in the past year, voluntarily participated in the questionnaire survey. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a second-order model of 4 motivational factors. The overall scale scores had significant correlations with depression, anxiety, impulsiveness, self-esteem, social support, and suicidal ideation. The internal consistency of the scale was also satisfactory. The C-FASM is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing non-suicidal self-injury among nonclinical Chinese adolescents.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of non-suicidal self-injury and firesetting among school-based adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability for the development of high-risk or problem behaviors, with these behaviors often observed to co-occur among youth. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and firesetting are two distinct variants of problem behavior representing significant public health concerns. While existing research examining cooccurring NSSI and firesetting indicates that these behaviors may be functionally related, most of these studies have been conducted within adult cor...

  6. Cessation of Long-Term Naltrexone Therapy and Self-Injury: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This case study of a woman with profound mental retardation and a history of severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) found that the dramatic decrease in SIB following Naltrexone administration was maintained through placebo and no drug phases and at six-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of endogenous opioid system theories of SIB. (DB)

  7. A Case Report of Naltrexone Treatment of Self-Injury and Social Withdrawal in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Anne S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Naltrexone hydrochloride was administered to an autistic mentally retarded male, age 14, to investigate the endogenous opiate release theory of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Results yielded a marked decrease in SIB and increased social relatedness during two phases of drug treatment. SIB did not revert to original placebo levels during a second…

  8. Cannabis involvement and non-suicidal self-injury: A discordant twin approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Few, L.R.; Grant, J.D.; Nelson, E.C.; Trull, T.J.; Grucza, R.A.; K.K., Bucholz; Verweij, C.J.H.; Martin, N.G.; Statham, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Lynskey, M.T.; Agrawal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis use, particularly at an early age, has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, but minimal work has examined the association between cannabis use and lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aims to characterize the overlap between lifetime and early

  9. Cannabis involvement and nonsuicidal self-injury: A discordant twin approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Few, L.R.; Grant, J.D.; Nelson, E.C.; Trull, T.J.; Grucza, R.A.; Bucholz, K.K.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Martin, N.G.; Statham, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Lynskey, M.T.; Agrawal, A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use, particularly at an early age, has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, but minimal work has examined the association between cannabis use and lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aims to characterize the overlap between lifetime and early

  10. School Response to Self-Injury: Concerns of Mental Health Staff and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelada, Lauren; Hasking, Penelope; Melvin, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents poses a significant problem for schools, adolescents, and their families. However, appropriate guidelines for addressing NSSI, including when to disclose the behavior to parents, are currently lacking. The present study aimed to understand how school mental health staff and parents of secondary…

  11. Body Image as a Mediator of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…

  12. Self-injurious implicit attitudes among adolescent suicide attempters versus those engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Puzia, Megan E; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Wegbreit, Ezra; Kim, Kerri L; Nock, Matthew K; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is among the most important mental health issues affecting adolescents today despite much research on its detection and prevention. Beyond suicide attempts (SAs), clinicians are increasingly confronted with another, potentially related problem: non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)-defined as the deliberate destruction of body tissue without intent to die. NSSI may increase risk for making an SA by sevenfold, but many studies examining this link have involved youths engaging in both NSSI and SAs. Thus, there is a need to compare homogeneous groups of adolescents engaged in NSSI-only or SA-only, but not both, to advance what is known about each form of self-harm. The self-injurious implicit association task (SI-IAT) is a particularly important computerized behavioral task to study such adolescents because the SI-IAT provides objective behavioral data about problems for which people may lack insight or be motivated to conceal, such as SAs and NSSI. We evaluated implicit associations with cutting and death/suicide using the computerized SI-IAT in three mutually exclusive groups: (1) adolescents who made an SA but had never engaged in NSSI (n = 47); (2) adolescents who engaged in NSSI but had never made an SA (n = 46); and (3) typically developing control (TDC) adolescents without history of psychiatric problems (n = 43). Nonsuicidal self-injury participants had stronger identification with cutting versus no cutting than either SA or TDC participants. Contrary to our hypothesis, NSSI participants had stronger identification with suicide/death versus life than either SA or TDC participants. Strong implicit attitudes towards suicide/death among adolescents with NSSI without a prior SA suggest that clinicians should not dismiss NSSI as not serious. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanism by which youths engaged in NSSI acquire these stronger identifications and make a first-time SA to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies blocking this

  13. Self-injury, converting emotional distress into physical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bo; Rubæk, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Self-inflicted pain by cutting, hitting or burning oneself has become a common way to regulate emotions and to serve as coping strategy. 21.5-32% of adolescents in non-clinical populations have a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Non-suicidal self-injury has a momentarily relieving effect...

  14. Prevalence of self-injury in institutionalised retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N N

    1977-10-12

    Twenty-three percent of the inpatient population of a psychopaedic hospital in New Zealand were found to have engaged in self-injury during a six month observation period. Of the 50 male and 34 female patients studied, 62 exhibited single self-injury, and 22 multiple self-injury. Self-injury consisted of head banging, face slapping, skin picking, hair pulling, self-biting, regurgitation/vomiting, and excessive painful masturbation. Twenty-five percent of these patients indulged in forms of self-injury which was potentially seriously harmful to themselves if not immediately treated. The overall percentage of such patients in this hospital was found to be much higher than that reported elsewhere.

  15. Self-injury, converting emotional distress into physical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bo; Rubæk, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Self-inflicted pain by cutting, hitting or burning oneself has become a common way to regulate emotions and to serve as coping strategy. 21.5-32% of adolescents in non-clinical populations have a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Non-suicidal self-injury has a momentarily relieving effect and ...... and is an important predictor of suicidal behaviour; even superficial self-injury should be taken seriously. There is an urgent need for organized treatment programmes for young people who self-harm.......Self-inflicted pain by cutting, hitting or burning oneself has become a common way to regulate emotions and to serve as coping strategy. 21.5-32% of adolescents in non-clinical populations have a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Non-suicidal self-injury has a momentarily relieving effect...

  16. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andover Margaret S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  17. Risk-factor differences for nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in Mexican psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresán A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ana Fresán,1 Beatriz Camarena,2 Thelma Beatriz González-Castro,3 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate,4 Isela E Juárez-Rojop,5 Lilia López-Narváez,5 Alicia E González-Ramón,4 Yazmín Hernández-Díaz3 1Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, México City, 2Departamento de Genética Psiquiátrica, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, México City, 3División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Jalpa de Méndez, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Jalpa de Méndez, 4División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Comalcalco, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Comalcalco, 5Hospital General de Yajalón, Secretaría de Salud, Yajalón, Chiapas, México Background: The present study compared sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities with substance use, and impulsivity features in three groups of psychiatric patients – suicide attempters, nonsuicidal self-injury, and nonsuicidal without self-injury – to determine the predictive factors for nonsuicidal self-injury or suicide behavior.Patients and methods: Demographic features and self-reported substance use were assessed in 384 Mexican psychiatric patients. Impulsivity features were evaluated using the Plutchik Impulsivity Scale. Comparison analyses between groups were performed and a logistic regression model used to determine the factors associated with nonsuicidal with self-injury behavior and suicidal behavior.Results: Different predictive factors were observed for nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior. Females were more likely to present nonsuicidal self-injury behaviors (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.93; P=0.03. For suicide attempters, the factors associated were younger age (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85–0.93; P<0.001, less than 6 years of schooling (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.06–0.6; P=0.004, and higher impulsivity traits, such as self-control (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03

  18. Examining potential iatrogenic effects of viewing suicide and self-injury stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; Glenn, Jeffrey J; Deming, Charlene A; D'Angelo, Eugene J; Hooley, Jill M; Teachman, Bethany A; Nock, Matthew K

    2016-11-01

    The high-stakes nature of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) raises ethical questions and concerns. The authors examined the iatrogenic risk of recently developed behavioral measures such as the suicide or self-injury Implicit Association Tests (IATs), which include repeated and rapid presentation of SITB-related images (e.g., of cut skin) and words (e.g., death, suicide). The impact of these IATs was investigated across a series of 3 studies involving: adult web-based respondents (n = 3,304), undergraduate students (n = 100), and adolescent psychiatric inpatients (n = 89). There was minimal change in self-injurious or suicidal urges detected across all IAT studies. A slight mood decline was detected across the 3 samples, but was isolated to female research participants and 1 type of IAT that presented SITB-related images (vs. words only). Given the increasing use of novel SITB-relevant stimuli in behavioral and neurobiological studies, these findings may help researchers balance clinical sensitivity and clinical science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Association Between Masculinity and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan D; Kearns, Jaclyn C; Ledoux, Annie M; Addis, Michael E; Marx, Brian P

    2018-01-01

    Several known risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), such as negative emotionality and deficits in emotion skills, are also associated with masculinity. Researchers and clinicians suggest that masculine norms around emotional control and self-reliance may make men more likely to engage in self-harm. Masculinity has also been implicated as a potential risk factor for suicide and other self-damaging behaviors. However, the association between masculinity and NSSI has yet to be explored. In the current study, a sample of 912 emerging adults from two universities in the Northeastern United States completed a web-based questionnaire assessing adherence to masculine norms, engagement in NSSI, and known risk factors for NSSI (demographics and number of self-injurers known). Stronger adherence to masculine norms predicted chronic NSSI (five or more episodes throughout the life span) above and beyond other known risk factors. Adherence to masculine norms was related to methods of NSSI. Clinical implications are discussed, including discussions of masculine norms in treatment settings. Future research should examine what specific masculine norms are most closely linked to NSSI and other self-damaging behaviors.

  20. Aberrant pain perception in direct and indirect non-suicidal self-injury: an empirical test of Joiner's interpersonal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Germain, Sarah A; Hooley, Jill M

    2013-08-01

    Using a community sample (N=148) we examined pressure pain perception in 3 study groups--people who engaged in non-suicidal self-injury, people who engaged in indirect forms of self-injury, and non-self-injuring controls. In so doing we tested hypotheses derived from Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide. Consistent with previous studies and with Joiner's model, people who engaged in NSSI endured pain for significantly longer than non-self-injuring controls. Importantly, pain endurance in the Indirect self-injury group was comparable to that found in the NSSI group and significantly elevated relative to controls. This pattern of results suggests that abnormal pain perception may not be specific to forms of self-injury (e.g., NSSI) that involve immediate physical pain (e.g., cutting). Our findings further suggest that the concept of acquired capability for suicide might have relevance for both direct and indirect forms of self-injurious behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  2. #cutting: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Fischer, T; Goldwich, A D; Keller, F; Young, R; Plener, P L

    2018-01-01

    Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet. During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed. Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week. Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.

  3. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  4. The mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Findings from community and inpatient mental health settings in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Although bullying victimization has been linked to a number of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents, few studies have investigate the mechanism through which bullying victimization affect non-suicidal self-injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury and the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Data for this study came from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 1650 adolescents aged 12-18 years (M =14.56; SD =1.79; 54.2% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Of the 1650 adolescents studied, 611 representing 37% engaged in non-suicidal self-injury and 26.7% were victims of bullying. The effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury was partially mediated by depressive symptoms after adjusting for the effect of demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, social support, and mental health diagnoses. The contribution of bullying victimization and depression to non-suicidal self-injury adds to the case for the development of trauma-focused interventions in reducing the risk of non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-Injury in the De Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. N.; Pulman, Ruth M.

    1979-01-01

    Psychological treatment techniques for the control of self-injury in a 13-year-old male with de Lange syndrome (a rare disorder characterized by retarded mental and physical development) are presented. Techniques, which included mild punishment, time out, and differential reinforcement, produced a clinically significant control of self-injurious…

  6. Birth order: self-injurious and suicidal behaviour among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 2553 children and adolescents in a psychiatry clinic in Germany were assessed using a structured interview inventory that included history of self-injurious behaviour, suicidal intent and socially disruptive and threatening behaviour, and diverse socio-demographic variables (the basis documentation or 'Ba-Do'). Birth order was associated with both suicidal and self-injurious behaviour, middle children being most likely to exhibit such behaviour. Females were more than twice as likely to have self-injured than males. Comparisons of birth order groups within gender found no significant differences in suicidal behaviour between birth positions for males, however among females, middle children were much more likely to have attempted suicide. Conversely, there was no difference in self-injurious behaviour among birth positions in females, but among males, middle children were significantly more likely to have self-injured than firstborns, only children or lastborns. The number of siblings in the family was significantly correlated with both suicidal history (r = 0.12, p < 0.001) and self-injurious behaviour (r = 0.10, p < 0.001). The risk of suicidal behaviour was highest for those with four or more siblings.

  7. Untended Wounds: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; Trubanova, Andrea; White, Susan W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have examined non-suicidal self-injury in community and clinical samples, but there is no published research on non-suicidal self-injury in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This lack of research is surprising, since individuals with autism spectrum disorder have high rates of risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury,…

  8. A Psychometric Analysis of the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua Travis; Volk, Fred; Gearhart, Gabrielle L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study seeks to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory-Functions (OSI-F) for assessing nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), a condition for further study in the DSM-5. Participants: Participants included 345 students who indicated a history of self-injury in a university counseling center over six…

  9. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildhood maltreatment (CM has been associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors. However, the exact nature of the association between CM and NSSI is currently unclear. The present review aimed to systematically investigate the association between CM and NSSI in adolescence and early adulthood.MethodsA systematic search of four major electronic databases covering both medical and social science research (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and PsycINFO was conducted.ResultsOverall, 20 cross-sectional studies including a total of 22,517 individuals, 3 longitudinal follow-up studies including 1,728 individuals, and 3 retrospective studies including 62,089 individuals were selected. It appears that CM is a significant risk factor for both NSSI and suicide attempts. The increased vulnerability to NSSI seems to be related to experiences of CM, particularly sexual abuse. Gender differences were also found. Generally, when compared to males, females who experienced CM seem to be more vulnerable to presenting with NSSI and suicidal behaviors.ConclusionThere is a positive association between CM and NSSI. The importance of early detection and risk reduction of self-injurious behavior for adolescents is discussed.

  10. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Canepa, Giovanna; Adavastro, Giulia; Nebbia, Jacopo; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Erbuto, Denise; Pocai, Benedetta; Fiorillo, Andrea; Pompili, Maurizio; Flouri, Eirini; Amore, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. However, the exact nature of the association between CM and NSSI is currently unclear. The present review aimed to systematically investigate the association between CM and NSSI in adolescence and early adulthood. A systematic search of four major electronic databases covering both medical and social science research (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and PsycINFO) was conducted. Overall, 20 cross-sectional studies including a total of 22,517 individuals, 3 longitudinal follow-up studies including 1,728 individuals, and 3 retrospective studies including 62,089 individuals were selected. It appears that CM is a significant risk factor for both NSSI and suicide attempts. The increased vulnerability to NSSI seems to be related to experiences of CM, particularly sexual abuse. Gender differences were also found. Generally, when compared to males, females who experienced CM seem to be more vulnerable to presenting with NSSI and suicidal behaviors. There is a positive association between CM and NSSI. The importance of early detection and risk reduction of self-injurious behavior for adolescents is discussed.

  11. Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a sample of 373 high school students with a mean age of 15.04 (SD = 1.05). The sample was 48% female and the distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 35% Caucasian, 37.2% African-American, 16% Multi-ethnic, 9.2% Hispanic, and 2.3% Asian. The sample was divided into three groups: no history of self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI in addition to a suicide attempt. Differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, social support, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and disordered eating were explored. Results indicated significant differences between the three groups on all variables, with the no self-harm group reporting the lowest levels of risk factors and highest levels of protective factors. Further analyses were conducted to examine specific differences between the two self-harm groups. Adolescents in the NSSI group were found to have fewer depressive symptoms, lower suicidal ideation, and greater self-esteem and parental support than the group that also had attempted suicide. The clinical implications of assessing these specific psychosocial correlates for at-risk adolescents are discussed.

  12. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Sexual Orientation Moderate Lifetime Acts of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Jenkins, Abigail L; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-01-01

    Being non-heterosexual, particularly bisexual, is associated with high rates of engagement in NSSI amongst young adults. The goal of the present study was to determine if parenting practices, specifically parental monitoring, and sexual orientation moderate engagement with NSSI. Undergraduates (N = 1,353) completed a survey on sexual orientation, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts, and multiple aspects of perceived parental monitoring during high school. Moderation analyses revealed that most facets of parental monitoring were similarly negatively correlated with NSSI for both individuals whose sexual orientation where nearly, or entirely, gay and heterosexual youth. Youth who were neither exclusively heterosexual nor exclusively gay (mixed sexual orientation) reported the most NSSI acts, and no facet of parental monitoring predicted reduced NSSI acts for this group. While previous literature shows that many aspects of parental monitoring may be protective against engagement in health risk behaviors, the present study adds to these findings that similar aspects are negatively associated with self-injurious behavior for some, but not all, individuals. More research is needed to better understand the causes of increased NSSI for individuals with a mixed sexual orientation.

  13. #cutting: non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R.C.; Fischer, T.; Goldwich, A.D.; Keller, F.; Young, R.; Plener, P.L.

    2018-01-01

    Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet. During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. A...

  14. The Role of Negative Affect and Self-Concept Clarity in Predicting Self-Injurious Urges in Borderline Personality Disorder Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, J Wesley; Levy, Kenneth N; Johnson, Benjamin N; Kivity, Yogev; Ellison, William D; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J; Newman, Michelle G

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments. Outpatients diagnosed with either BPD (n = 36) or any anxiety disorder but no BPD (n = 18) completed surveys throughout the day over a 21-day period. Higher levels of momentary negative affect predicted greater subsequent urges to self-injure, but only when self-concept clarity was low (z = -3.60, p < .01). This effect did not differ between diagnostic groups. The results suggest that self-concept clarity has a protective effect against self-injurious urges in light of high negative affect, and that this effect may be transdiagnostic.

  15. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gómez-Expósito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD and suicide attempts (SA, BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI, and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: 122 female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD, BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD+NSSI or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD+SA. Results: The BSD+NSSI and BSD+SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD+SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD+SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e. BSD+NSSI, may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity.

  16. Intrapersonal and interpersonal functions of non suicidal self-injury: associations with emotional and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Chapman, Alexander L; Layden, Brianne K

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence (II), and interpersonal communication (IC)-were investigated to clarify why individuals use this behavior in the service of different purposes. Female participants (n = 162) with a history of NSSI completed online measures of self-injury, emotion regulation strategies and abilities, trait affectivity, social problem-solving styles, and interpersonal problems. ER functions were associated with more intense affectivity, expressive suppression, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. FG functions were associated with a lack of emotional clarity. Similar to ER functions, SP functions were associated with greater affective intensity and expressive suppression. II functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with domineering/controlling and intrusive/needy interpersonal styles. IC functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with a vindictive or self-centered interpersonal style. These findings highlight the specific affective traits, emotional and social skill deficits, and interpersonal styles that may render a person more likely to engage in NSSI to achieve specific goals. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Expósito, Alexandra; Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD) and suicide attempts (SA), BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: One hundred and twenty-two female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD), BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD + NSSI) or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD + SA). Results: The BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD + SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e., BSD + NSSI), may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity. PMID:27597836

  18. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI in a representative sample of the German population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Plener

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.

  19. Exploring the Reciprocal Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Negative Emotions and Relationship Problems in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Cross-Lag Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Fu, Kei

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), negative emotions and relationship problems in a community sample of 2,435 (57.6% females) Chinese adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing 12 NSSI behaviors, three negative emotions (depression, anxiety and tension), and relationship problems…

  20. A Preliminary Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Rose, Alyssa

    2016-08-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and increased probability of engaging in the behavior, but few have endeavored to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship. We drew on Social Cognitive Theory to argue that core cognitions, including NSSI outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies, moderate this relationship. We also explored whether knowledge about NSSI and attitudes toward the behavior played a role in this relationship. A sample of 389 university students (73.1 % female, M age = 20.90, SD = 2.36), completed online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Our findings support the application of Social Cognitive Theory to better understanding NSSI, with clear links between expectancies, self-efficacy and NSSI. Further, these cognitions moderated a number of exposure-NSSI relationships. Implications of these findings for theory, research and intervention are discussed.

  1. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Jessica; Martin, Graham

    2018-04-30

    A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male). We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE) than non-injurers ( t (254) = −3.24, p = 0.001), linear contrasts explaining 6% of between-groups variability ( F (2, 254) = 7.36, p = 0.001, η² = 0.06). Differences in EE between current and past self-injurers were not significant. Overall shame accounted for 33% of between-groups variance ( F (2, 252) = 61.99, p < 0.001, η² = 0.33), with linear contrasts indicating self-injurers experienced higher levels compared to non-injurers ( t (252) = −8.23, p < 0.001). Current self-injurers reported higher overall shame than past self-injurers ( t (252) = 6.78, p < 0.001). In further logistic regression, emotional involvement and overall shame were the only significant predictors of self-injury status. With every one-unit increase in emotional involvement, odds of currently engaging in self-injury decreased by a factor of 0.860. Conversely, a one-unit increase in overall shame was associated with an increase in the odds of being a current self-injurer by a factor of 1.05. The findings have important treatment implications for engaging key family members in intervention and prevention efforts.

  2. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male. We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE than non-injurers (t(254 = −3.24, p = 0.001, linear contrasts explaining 6% of between-groups variability (F(2, 254 = 7.36, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.06. Differences in EE between current and past self-injurers were not significant. Overall shame accounted for 33% of between-groups variance (F(2, 252 = 61.99, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.33, with linear contrasts indicating self-injurers experienced higher levels compared to non-injurers (t(252 = −8.23, p < 0.001. Current self-injurers reported higher overall shame than past self-injurers (t(252 = 6.78, p < 0.001. In further logistic regression, emotional involvement and overall shame were the only significant predictors of self-injury status. With every one-unit increase in emotional involvement, odds of currently engaging in self-injury decreased by a factor of 0.860. Conversely, a one-unit increase in overall shame was associated with an increase in the odds of being a current self-injurer by a factor of 1.05. The findings have important treatment implications for engaging key family members in intervention and prevention efforts.

  3. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  4. Self-Injurious Behaviour in Cornelia De Lange Syndrome: 2. Association with Environmental Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloneem, J.; Arron, K.; Hall, S. S.; Oliver, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour is commonly seen in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). However, there has been limited research into the aetiology of self-injury in CdLS and whether environmental factors influence the behaviour. Methods: We observed the self-injury of 27 individuals with CdLS and 17 participants who did not have CdLS matched…

  5. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEENAN, KATE; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; STEPP, STEPHANIE D.; WROBLEWSKI, KRISTEN

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13–14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist

  6. Functional Coping Dynamics and Experiential Avoidance in a Community Sample with No Self-Injury vs. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Only vs. Those with Both Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Nielsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although emotional avoidance may be a critical factor in the pathway from psychological distress to self-injury and/or suicidality, little is known about the relative importance of differing functional coping dynamics and experiential avoidance between people with self-injury histories of differing intent (e.g., Non-Suicidal Self-Injury only vs. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury plus Suicidal Behaviour; NSSI vs. NSSI + SB. A community-based survey (N = 313; female, 81%; ages 16–49 years, M = 19.78, SD = 3.48 explored self-reported experiential avoidance and functional coping dynamics in individuals with (i no self-injury history (controls; (ii a history of NSSI only; and (iii a history of NSSI + SB. Jonckheere-Terpstra trend tests indicated that avoidance coping was higher in the NSSI and NSSI + SB groups than in controls. Emotion regulation was higher in controls than those with a history of self-injury (NSSI and NSSI + SB. Approach and reappraisal coping demonstrated significant ordered effects such that control participants were higher in these coping dynamics than those with a history of NSSI only, who, in turn, were higher than those with a history of NSSI + SB (Control > NSSI > NSSI + SB. Endorsement of the reappraisal/denial facet of experiential avoidance was most pronounced in those with a history of NSSI + SB (Control < NSSI < NSSI + SB. No significant ordered effects were observed for other dimensions of experiential avoidance. Understanding how the endorsement of functional coping dynamics and which components of experiential avoidance vary between groups with differing self-injury intent histories has important implications for treatment planning.

  7. The Association Between Environmental Events and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.; Oliver, C.; Hall, S.; Arron, K.; Sloneem, J.; Petty, J.

    2005-01-01

    There has been limited empirical research into the environmental causes of self-injury in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The present study examined the variability of self-injurious behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome across environmental setting events. Additionally, the association between setting events and more specific environmental events…

  8. Self-Injurious Behaviour in Cornelia De Lange Syndrome: 1. Prevalence and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C.; Sloneem, J.; Hall, S.; Arron, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour is frequently identified as part of the behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We conducted a case-control study of the prevalence and phenomenology of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in CdLS. Methods: A total of 54 participants with CdLS were compared with 46 individuals who were comparable…

  9. Dating Violence and Self-Injury among Undergraduate College Students: Attitudes and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Wester, Kelly L.; Paladino, Derrick A.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based survey about dating violence and self-injury was completed by 1,777 undergraduates. A regression analysis tested if recent dating violence victimization and perpetration experiences predicted whether participants self-injured in the past 90 days, after controlling for demographic variables and attitudes toward self-injury and…

  10. Interpersonal processes and self-injury: a qualitative study using Bricolage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G; Warne, T

    2016-02-01

    Literature on self-injury has recognized the impact on the relationship between clients and staff. There is an absence of a detailed account of interpersonal processes surrounding self-injury. A Bricolage qualitative research approach was carried out in the United Kingdom that explored the interpersonal processes surrounding self-injury. Three pairs of clients and staff were interviewed about an incident of self-injury. The interviews were thematically analysed and then synthesized producing a deeper exploration of the relationship between the client and staff. An interpersonal trigger followed by anger and shame, resulted in self-injury to 'numb' these experiences. Self-injury is conceptualized as a safety behaviour to avoid shame and anger and then as a maintenance cycle that traps the client in a reinforcing and rejecting relationship. Staff interviewed were able to reflect with the clients and help them reframe these experiences. Mental Health Nurses can work with clients to understand their own interpersonal cycles of self-injury. They can then reflect on their own roles in this process and avoid reinforcing the clients' negative beliefs. WHAT THE STUDY ADDS TO INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE: This is the first international paper to explore the interconnection between the client and a professional helper in their lived experiences of self-injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Using Implicit and Explicit Measures to Predict Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Adolescent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; Augenstein, Tara M; Frost, Katherine H; Gallagher, Katie; D'Angelo, Eugene J; Nock, Matthew K

    2016-01-01

    To examine the use of implicit and explicit measures to predict adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) before, during, and after inpatient hospitalization. Participants were 123 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed measures at hospital admission and discharge. The implicit measure (Self-Injury Implicit Association Test [SI-IAT]) and one of the explicit measures pertained to the NSSI method of cutting. Patients were interviewed at multiple time points at which they reported whether they had engaged in NSSI before their hospital stay, during their hospital stay, and within 3 months after discharge. At baseline, SI-IAT scores differentiated past-year self-injurers and noninjurers (t121 = 4.02, p < .001, d = 0.73). These SI-IAT effects were stronger among patients who engaged in cutting (versus noncutting NSSI methods). Controlling for NSSI history and prospective risk factors, SI-IAT scores predicted patients' subsequent cutting behavior during their hospital stay (odds ratio (OR) = 8.19, CI = 1.56-42.98, p < .05). Patients' explicit self-report uniquely predicted hospital-based and postdischarge cutting, even after controlling for SI-IAT scores (ORs = 1.82-2.34, CIs = 1.25-3.87, p values <.01). Exploratory analyses revealed that in specific cases in which patients explicitly reported low likelihood of NSSI, SI-IAT scores still predicted hospital-based cutting. The SI-IAT is an implicit measure that is outcome-specific, a short-term predictor above and beyond NSSI history, and potentially helpful in cases in which patients at risk for NSSI explicitly report that they would not do so in the future. Ultimately, both implicit and explicit measures can help to predict future incidents of cutting among adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of parental psychopathology and personality in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A cross-sectional examination of non-suicidal self-injury, disordered eating, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.

  14. Ocular nonsuicidal self-injury in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comacchio, Francesco; Ricca, M; Martini, G; Cecchin, V; Zannin, Maria Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old male teen presented with unilateral episcleritis, unresponsive to topical and systemic corticosteroid therapy, without a history of ocular trauma or evidence for systemic diseases. The presence of foreign bodies in the conjunctival mucus of the hyperemic fornix has been noticed during one of the follow-up examinations. The toxicological analysis of conjunctival mucus revealed the presence of ethylene glycolmonomethyl ether and triethilene glicolebuthyl ether, used as solvents in nail polish removers and all-purpose cleaners. An unexpected etiology of chemical self-inflicted episcleritis was determined. The teen was admitted to a psychological assessment, after which a psychotherapeutic treatment was recommended. Episcleritis is characterized by the acute onset of ocular pain and redness, with a frequent recurrent and stressful course. Since it can be associated with life-threatening systemic vasculitides, a prompt, aggressive immunosuppressive therapy may be considered, both for the ocular inflammation and for the underlying systemic condition. Rarely episcleritis does not improve despite topical and systemic therapy, administered in a stepladder way. The reported teenager case needed a complex multidisciplinary approach to achieve the correct diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary treatments. In the case of recognized "nonsuicidal self-injury," a psychological evaluation is strongly recommended, to identify and address underlying neuropsychiatric problems.

  15. Mobile Apps for Self-Injury: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Aaron M; Lewis, Stephen P

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research points to the salience of the Internet and mobile material among individuals who self-injure. However, to date, no research has investigated the mobile apps related to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Such information would clarify which apps may be useful for those who self-injure while highlighting whether app-related content warrants improvement. The current study examined the content and usability of NSSI apps available on the two largest app-related platforms (Google Play and iTunes). Using content analysis, apps were examined regarding their content (e.g., presence of NSSI myths and types of coping strategies) as well as usability (e.g., app performance). Results indicate that NSSI apps have varied content, with few developed by, or affiliated with, a trusted source (e.g., university). NSSI apps tend to not propagate NSSI myths that vary with respect to the quality of coping strategies offered. They also tend to be rated favorably in terms of their usability. Overall, the present findings add to the NSSI literature and highlight several implications and avenues for future work, which are discussed.

  16. Nonsuicidal self-injury in an ethnically diverse college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Arble, Eamonn; Boutros, Nashaat; Chugani, Diane; Barnett, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Self-report data pertaining to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI; e.g., cutting) were collected from 5,691 undergraduates at a Midwestern urban university. Consistent with the small literature on NSSI among college students, 12.8% of the sample indicated having engaged in NSSI at least once (3.4% in the past year). Women and younger students were at slightly higher risk. Important ethnic differences were found, as Caucasians and individuals self-identifying as Multiracial were at especially high risk for a history of NSSI, whereas Arab Americans and African Americans had particularly low rates. Further, links between NSSI and religion were found, such that participants with stronger self-reported religious convictions had the lowest rates of NSSI. Those who self-described as Atheist, Agnostic, or Nonbeliever were several times more likely to have engaged in NSSI (31.3%), while Muslims (7.4%) and Baptists (6.3%) had relatively low rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that ethnic differences in NSSI could not be accounted for by religious differences. Processes that may explain the associations between NSSI and ethnic affiliation and religion are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Mathias, Charles W; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Prevette, Kristen N; Dawes, Michael A; Hatzis, Erin S; Palmes, Guy; Nouvion, Sylvain O

    2009-08-30

    This study examined clinical characteristics and laboratory-measured impulsive behavior of adolescents engaging in either non-suicidal self-injury with (NSSI+SA; n=25) or without (NSSI-Only; n=31) suicide attempts. We hypothesized that adolescent with NSSI+SI would exhibit more severe clinical symptoms and higher levels of behavioral impulsivity compared to adolescents with NSSI-Only. Adolescents were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital unit and the two groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychopathology, self-reported clinical ratings, methods of non-suicidal self-injury, and two laboratory impulsivity measures. Primary evaluations were conducted during psychiatric hospitalization, and a subset of those tested during hospitalization was retested 4-6 weeks after discharge. During hospitalization, NSSI+SA patients reported worse depression, hopelessness, and impulsivity on standard clinical measures, and demonstrated elevated impulsivity on a reward-directed laboratory measure compared to NSSI-Only patients. In the follow-up analyses, depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and laboratory impulsivity were improved for both groups, but the NSSI+SA group still exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and impulsivity than the NSSI-Only group. Risk assessments for adolescents with NSSI+SA should include consideration not only of the severity of clinical symptoms but of the current level impulsivity as well.

  18. The current status of suicide and self-injury in eating disorders: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Kostro, Katrina; Lerman, Jessica B; Attia, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review recent literature on suicide and self-injury in eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Among psychiatric diagnoses, EDs are associated with increased mortality rates, even when specialized treatment is available. Of the mortalities that are reported in individuals with EDs, suicide is among the most commonly reported causes of death. Additionally, suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious ...

  19. Inviting pain? Pain, dualism and embodiment in narratives of self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Amy

    2013-06-01

    The role of pain in the practice of self-injury is not straightforward. Existing accounts suggest that self-injury does not cause 'physical' pain, however self-injury is also said to alleviate 'emotional' pain by inflicting 'physical' pain. This article explores these tensions using sociological theories regarding the socio-cultural and subjective nature of pain. Analysis derives from in-depth, life-story interviews carried out in the UK with people who had self-injured. Findings contribute to on-going debates within social science regarding the nature of pain. Participants' narratives about pain and self-injury both drew on and challenged dualistic models of embodiment. I suggest that self-injury offers a unique case on which to extend existing theoretical work, which has tended to focus on pain as an unwanted and uninvited entity. In contrast, accounts of self-injury can feature pain as a central aspect of the practice, voluntarily invited into lived experience. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differences between non-suicidal self injury and suicide attempt in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sugai; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Cuizhen; Situ, Minging; Du, Na; Fu, Xueyin; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Self-harm behaviors are predominant health risks among adolescents. This study aimed to elucidate the lifetime prevalence and differences in social psychological factors between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) among Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from 2131 middle school students with a mean age of 13.92 (SD 1.63) years (49.1% girls). Participants were asked to self-report NSSI and SA over their lifetime. Post hoc tests pairwise comparisons and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate differences and similarities between subjects with NSSI and attempted suicide. The prevalence of lifetime NSSI and SA endorsed by the participants were 23.2% and 3.2%, respectively, and the co-occurrence of these two behaviors (NSSI+SA) was reported to 2.3%. Boys were comparable with girls in the prevalence rate of NSSI, but not in the rate of SA. It revealed that single-child was not the risk factor for self-harm behavior in Mainland China, but lower higher family cohesion and adaptability. Factors that distinguished the NSSI+SA group from the NSSI only group were female gender, lower grade, impulsivity, health risk behaviors and family cohesion. Being female gender, single-parent family, depressive symptoms and impulsivity were factors differentiating attempted suicide from NSSI. Our findings suggest that Chinese adolescents engaging both in NSSI and SA had severe suicidal attempts and were different from those who engaged in NSSI alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. The roles of social stress and decision-making in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heather T; Andover, Margaret S; Armey, Michael F

    2015-10-30

    Research suggests that individuals with a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) do not have difficulty generating alternatives to social problems but choose more negative solutions, suggesting a deficit in decision-making. However, studies report no significant differences in risky decision-making on a performance-based task among individuals with and without NSSI histories. A limitation of these studies is that decision-making was only assessed at baseline. As individuals with a history of NSSI typically self-injure when experiencing negative emotions, decision-making ability may become impaired specifically in the presence of these emotions. The aim of the current study was to investigate decision-making ability among individuals with and without NSSI histories both at baseline and following a distressing social exclusion task. We compared individuals with (n=48) and without (n=72) NSSI histories on the Iowa Gambling Task, a behavioral measure of risky decision-making, before and after exclusion or inclusion on the Cyberball task. Results indicated no significant group differences in performance regardless of condition. When participants were grouped by racial/ethnic minority status, results indicated that non-Hispanic White individuals with a history of NSSI exhibited deterioration in risky decision-making ability following social exclusion. Potential explanations for these findings and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief report: emotion regulation and coping as moderators in the relationship between personality and self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope A; Coric, Sarah J; Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Thompson, Holly Knox; Frost, Aaron D J

    2010-10-01

    Self-injury without conscious suicidal intent is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon particularly among adolescent populations. This pilot study examined the extent and correlates of self-injurious behaviour in a school population sample of 393 adolescents (aged 13-18 years) using a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether personality was related to self-injury and whether this relationship was moderated by emotion regulation or coping strategies. Few personality and coping variables were directly related to self-injury after controlling for age and psychopathology. However the relationship between personality and self-injury was moderated by coping skills and emotion regulation. We suggest future research explore these relationships in order to determine the role of coping skills and emotional regulation training in prevention of self-injury.

  4. A Double-Edged Sword: A Review of Benefits and Risks of Online Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Seko, Yukari

    2016-03-01

    This review aimed to synthesize current evidence on the perceived benefits and risks of online activity pertinent to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). A systematic literature search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles, which yielded a total of 27 articles published between 2005 and 2015. Following this, a thematic analysis was employed to identify perceived benefits and risks of online NSSI activity. Our thematic analysis identified 4 potential benefits (mitigation of social isolation, recovery encouragement, emotional self-disclosure, curbing NSSI urges) and 3 potential risks (NSSI reinforcement, triggering NSSI urges, stigmatization of NSSI) associated with online NSSI activities. Given the double-edged effect of online NSSI activities, clinicians may benefit from incorporating clients' online NSSI activity in the context of NSSI assessment and treatment. Future research ought to directly examine the link between online NSSI activity and NSSI behavior to better understand the nature of these benefits and risks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Examining the scope and patterns of deliberate self-injurious cutting content in popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Elizabeth M; Chou, Tommy; Golik, Alejandra; Cornacchio, Danielle; Sanchez, Amanda L; DeSerisy, Mariah; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Social networking services (SNS) have rapidly become a central platform for adolescents' social interactions and media consumption patterns. The present study examined a representative sample of publicly accessible content related to deliberate self-injurious cutting across three SNS platforms: Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Data collection simulated searches for publicly available deliberate self-injury content on Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Over a six-month period at randomly generated time points, data were obtained by searching "#cutting" on each SNS platform and collecting the first 10 posts generated. Independent evaluators coded posts for presence of the following: (a) graphic content, (b) negative self-evaluations, (c) references to mental health terms, (d) discouragement of deliberate self-injury, and (e) recovery-oriented resources. Differences across platforms were examined. Data collection yielded a sample of 1,155 public posts (770 of which were related to mental health). Roughly 60% of sampled posts depicted graphic content, almost half included negative self-evaluations, only 9.5% discouraged self-injury, and Instagram posts displayed the greatest proportion of graphic content and negative self-evaluations, whereas Twitter exhibited the smallest proportion of each. Findings characterize the graphic nature of online SNS deliberate self-injury content and the relative absence of SNS-posted resources for populations seeking out deliberate self-injurious cutting content. Mental health professionals must recognize the rapidly changing landscape of adolescent media consumption, influences, and social interaction as they may pertain to self-harm patterns. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Deliberate self-injury functions and their clinical correlates among adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between clinical variables (the severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards the body, dissociation, number and type of traumatic events) and deliberate self-injury functions. Moreover, we investigated whether the of group self-mutilating adolescents is internally diverse in terms of how important individual functions of self-mutilation are, and whether the subgroups singled out by these functions differ between each other in terms of clinical variables. The Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury was used. Characterizations of examined individuals and other research tools are included in our previous article (year, issue, pages). Associated with negative feelings towards the body are the functions of self-injuries (anti-dissociation, self-punishment) that can be described as interpersonal. High levels of depression symptoms (self-depreciation included) are mainly associated with the self-injury functions: self-punishment, anti-dissociation, establishing interpersonal boundaries. Affect regulation becomes more important as a function of self-inflicted injuries in cases of biological dysregulation and intense dissociative symptoms. The adolescents psychiatric inpatients are internally diverse in terms of dominant functions of self-injuries, which can be categorized into intra- and interpersonal. Intrapersonal functions dominate when an individual experiences severe depression, dissociative symptoms, and negative feelings towards the body. In cases of moderate intensity of depression, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body, both intrapersonal and interpersonal functions of self-mutilation are similarly important. Further research is required to explain the lowest severity of depression symptoms, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body co-occurs with no awareness of self-injuries functions.

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury in trans people: associations with psychological symptoms, victimization, interpersonal functioning, and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma; Thurston, Megan; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NSSI in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of transsexualism (according to International Classification of Disease-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, the Experiences of Transphobia Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared with trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared with trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared with those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared with trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male, and reporting more psychological symptoms. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support need to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior

  8. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  9. Cannabis Involvement and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Discordant Twin Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Grant, Julia D; Nelson, Elliot C; Trull, Timothy J; Grucza, Richard A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Verweij, Karin J H; Martin, Nicholas G; Statham, Dixie J; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Lynskey, Michael T; Agrawal, Arpana

    2016-11-01

    Cannabis use, particularly at an early age, has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, but minimal work has examined the association between cannabis use and lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aims to characterize the overlap between lifetime and early cannabis use and NSSI and to examine genetic and environmental mechanisms of this association. Adult male and female twins from the Australian Twin Registry (N = 9,583) were used to examine the odds of NSSI associated with lifetime cannabis use and early cannabis use (i.e., accounting for the age at onset of cannabis use and NSSI. Lifetime cannabis use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.84, 95% CI [2.23, 3.61]) and early cannabis use were associated with increased odds of NSSI (OR = 2.15, 95% CI [1.75, 2.65]), and this association remained when accounting for covariates. The association was only significant, however, in MZ twin pairs discordant for early cannabis use (OR = 3.20, 95% CI [1.17, 8.73]). Replication analyses accounting for the temporal ordering of cannabis use and NSSI yielded similar findings of nominal significance. Results suggest that NSSI is associated with cannabis involvement via differing mechanisms. For lifetime cannabis use, the lack of association in discordant pairs suggests the role of shared genes and family environment. However, in addition to such shared familial influences, person-specific and putatively causal factors contribute to the relationship between early cannabis use and NSSI. Therefore, delaying the onset of cannabis use may reduce exposure to influences that exacerbate vulnerabilities to NSSI.

  10. Multi-modal neuroimaging of adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: Amygdala functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund Schreiner, Melinda; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Mueller, Bryon A; Eberly, Lynn E; Reigstad, Kristina M; Carstedt, Patricia A; Thomas, Kathleen M; Hunt, Ruskin H; Lim, Kelvin O; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2017-10-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant mental health problem among adolescents. Research is needed to clarify the neurobiology of NSSI and identify candidate neurobiological targets for interventions. Based on prior research implicating heightened negative affect and amygdala hyperactivity in NSSI, we pursued a systems approach to characterize amygdala functional connectivity networks during rest (resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC)]) and a task (task functional connectivity [TFC]) in adolescents with NSSI. We examined amygdala networks in female adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls (n = 45) using resting-state fMRI and a negative emotion face-matching fMRI task designed to activate the amygdala. Connectivity analyses included amygdala RSFC, amygdala TFC, and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) between amygdala connectivity and task conditions. Compared to healthy controls, adolescents with NSSI showed atypical amygdala-frontal connectivity during rest and task; greater amygdala RSFC in supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal anterior cingulate; and differential amygdala-occipital connectivity between rest and task. After correcting for depression symptoms, amygdala-SMA RSFC abnormalities, among others, remained significant. This study's limitations include its cross-sectional design and its absence of a psychiatric control group. Using a multi-modal approach, we identified widespread amygdala circuitry anomalies in adolescents with NSSI. While deficits in amygdala-frontal connectivity (driven by depression symptoms) replicates prior work in depression, hyperconnectivity between amygdala and SMA (independent of depression symptoms) has not been previously reported. This circuit may represent an important mechanism underlying the link between negative affect and habitual behaviors. These abnormalities may represent intervention targets for adolescents with NSSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Website for Educators Addressing How to Understand, Recognize, and Respond to Student Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-injury (SI) is defined as the act of deliberately destroying one's own body tissue without suicidal intent in a way that is not widely socially acceptable and is not as a result of mental retardation, autism, or other developmental delays. The review of the self-injury literature focused on the definition, prevalence, and other basic aspects…

  12. The Association of Genetic Predisposition to Depressive Symptoms with Non-suicidal and Suicidal Self-Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, Dominique F; Renteria, Miguel E; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Medland, Sarah E; Few, Lauren R; Gordon, Scott D; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant W; Trull, Timothy J; Heath, Andrew C; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J. H.

    Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of

  13. The association of genetic predisposition to depressive symptoms with non-suicidal and suicidal self-injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, D.F.; Renteria, M.E.; Abdellaoui, A.; Medland, S.E.; Few, L.R.; Gordon, S.D.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Trull, T.J.; Heath, A.C.; Statham, D.J.; Martin, N.G.; Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, K.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of

  14. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney DeCamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchhas suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behaviormay help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. METHODS: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors – significantly differed based on gender and orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts.

  15. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by

  16. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  17. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  18. The Role of Self-Injury in the Organisation of Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, C. A.; Kemp, A. S.; Mabini, C.; Pincus, D.; Magnusson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injuring acts are among the most dramatic behaviours exhibited by human beings. There is no known single cause and there is no universally agreed upon treatment. Sophisticated sequential and temporal analysis of behaviour has provided alternative descriptions of self-injury that provide new insights into its initiation and…

  19. Self-Injurious Behaviour, Non-Interventionism and Practitioners' Needs: Implications for Training and Managerial Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinas, Konstantinos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to critically analyse the literature concerning the factors that lead to non-interventionism towards self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in the field of intellectual disability and to make recommendations for the development of practice. It emerges that the limited behaviour analytic skills of practitioners impede the…

  20. Parents' Role in Early Adolescent Self-Injury: An Application of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A. Ann; Heath, Nancy L.; Rogers, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We applied self-determination theory to examine a model whereby perceived parental autonomy support directly and indirectly affects nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through difficulties in emotion regulation. Method: 639 participants (53% female) with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD 0.51) completed the How I Deal with Stress Questionnaire…

  1. Recognizing the Signs: What School Mental Health Professionals Can Do about Suicide and Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In the everyday bustle of high school life, a student can have wounds--physical or emotional--that often go unnoticed. A lot of issues affect adolescents of all backgrounds. Two particularly serious issues among U.S. high school students are suicide and self-injury. This article discusses what school mental health professionals can do about…

  2. Immigration, Suicidal Ideation and Deliberate Self-Injury in the Boston Youth Survey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Azrael, Deborah; Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Molnar, Beth E.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and immigration-related correlates of deliberate self-injury (DSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) were estimated in a sample of Boston public high school students in 2006. Compared with U.S.-born youth, immigrant youth were not at increased risk for DSI or SI, even if they had experienced discrimination due to their ancestry. By…

  3. Safety First: The Role of Trust and School Safety in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rick Nelson; Sornberger, Michael J.; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.; McLouth, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become very prominent among adolescents in middle and high school settings. However, little research has evaluated the role of the school environment in the behaviour. This study examined whether indices of school trust and perceived safety were predictive of NSSI behaviour. Results indicate that these variables…

  4. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  5. Self-Injury, Help-Seeking, and the Internet: Informing Online Service Provision for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne; Rando, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of young people are seeking help online for self-injury, relatively little is known about their online help-seeking preferences. To investigate the perspectives of young people who self-injure regarding online services, with the aim of informing online service delivery. A mixed-methods exploratory analysis regarding the perspectives of a subsample of young people who reported a history of self-injury and responded to questions regarding preferences for future online help-seeking (N = 457). The sample was identified as part of a larger study (N = 1,463) exploring self-injury and help-seeking. Seven themes emerged in relation to preferences for future online help-seeking: information, guidance, reduced isolation, online culture, facilitation of help-seeking, access, and privacy. Direct contact with a professional via instant messaging was the most highly endorsed form of online support. Young people expressed clear preferences regarding online services for self-injury, supporting the importance of consumer consultation in development of online services.

  6. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  7. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, J.C.; Aaron, R.V.; Arthur, M.S.; Shorkey, S.P.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect

  8. Self-Efficacy Pathways between Relational Aggression and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Trevor J.; Peterson, Christina Hamme; Kearney, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The authors recruited college students (N = 648) and investigated relationships among academic and social self-efficacy, relational aggression from parents and peers, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Results indicated that both types of self-efficacy were related inversely to NSSI. Academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between…

  9. Non-suicidal self-injury among children with hearing loss and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Bushra; Tariq, Amina; Rafi, Zeeshan

    2017-10-01

    To find the prevalence and to identify the predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among school-going children.. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan, from September 2015 to October 2016, and comprised children with intellectual disability and hearing loss. Participants were recruited from schools for special children located in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Gujrat. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used. Of the 325 children, 178(50.4%) had intellectual disability and 175(49.6%) had hearing loss. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was higher in children with intellectual disability 48(27%) compared to their counterparts with hearing loss 3(2%). Neural network, when administered on whole data set, indicated type of disability 0.474(100%), education/training 0.99(20.9%) and access of counselling 0.114(24%) as important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury in both groups. On the other hand, the degree of disability (hearing loss 0.42[100%]; intellectual disability 0.32[100%]), education/ training (hearing loss 0.18[43%]; intellectual disability 0.27[84.5%]) and access of counselling (hearing loss 0.175[41.8%]; intellectual disability 0.256[78.7%]) were important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among the participants, when neural network was run on the split files on the basis of disability. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among children with intellectual disability was higher as compared to those with hearing loss.

  10. Self-injurious behaviour in autistic children: a neuro-developmental theory of social and environmental isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Darragh P

    2014-03-01

    Self-injurious behaviour is not one of the three core symptoms that define autism. However, children on the autism spectrum appear to be particularly vulnerable. Afflicted children typically slap their faces, punch or bang their heads, and bite or pinch themselves. These behaviours can be extremely destructive, and they interfere with normal social and educational activities. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that confer vulnerability in children with autism have not been adequately described. This review explores behavioural and neurobiological characteristics of children with autism that may be relevant for an increased understanding of their vulnerability for self-injurious behaviour. Behavioural characteristics that are co-morbid for self-injurious behaviour in children with autism are examined. In addition, the contributions of social and environmental deprivation in self-injurious institutionalized orphans, isolated rhesus macaques, and additional animal models are reviewed. There is extensive evidence that social and environmental deprivation promotes self-injurious behaviour in both humans (including children with autism) and animal models. Moreover, there are multiple lines of convergent neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical data that draw parallels between self-injurious children with autism and environmentally deprived humans and animals. A hypothesis is presented that describes how the core symptoms of autism make these children particularly vulnerable for self-injurious behaviour. Relevant neurodevelopmental pathology is described in cortical, limbic, and basal ganglia brain regions, and additional research is suggested.

  11. Peer sexual harassment and deliberate self-injury: longitudinal cross-lag investigations in Canada and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K; Faaborg-Andersen, Pernille; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C; Stattin, Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Although the receipt of peer sexual harassment in schools has been linked to deliberate self-injury, the direction of association over time has not been tested. Two longitudinal studies examined whether receipt of peer sexual harassment within schools predicts engagement in deliberate self-injury or vice versa. Differences between boys and girls were also tested. Surveys were conducted in two countries, Canada and Sweden. Measures of sexual harassment and deliberate self-injury were administered yearly in classrooms. Two waves of data were collected in the Canadian study (N = 161, 59.6% girls, mean age = 13.82 years); three waves of data were collected in Sweden (N = 513, 47% girls, mean age = 13.23 years). In the Canadian study, deliberate self-injury predicted subsequent peer sexual harassment; the converse relationship was not significant. No significant gender differences were found. Across the three waves of the Swedish study, peer sexual harassment predicted self-injury from T1 to T2, and self-injury predicted peer sexual harassment from T2 to T3. However, self-injury did not mediate peer sexual harassment at T1 and T3. Tests of gender differences revealed self-injury predicted sexual harassment from T2 to T3 among Swedish girls but not boys. Adolescents who deliberately self-injure may be vulnerable to sexual harassment by peers at school. Cultural norms may have a role in whether this process applies primarily to girls or to both genders. Sexual harassment by peers may also increase self-injury, but this is not subsequently linked to increases in receipt of sexual harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological interventions for self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Fareez; Gormez, Aynur; Varghese, Susan

    2013-04-30

    Self-injurious behaviour among people with intellectual disability is relatively common and often persistent. Self-injurious behaviour continues to present a challenge to clinicians. It remains poorly understood and difficult to ameliorate despite advances in neurobiology and psychological therapies. There is a strong need for a better evidence base in prescribing and monitoring of drugs in this population, especially since none of the drugs are actually licensed for self-injurious behaviour. To determine clinical effectiveness of pharmacological interventions in management of self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. We searched the following databases on 19 February 2012: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science and Humanities, ZETOC and WorldCat. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP and the reference lists of included trials. We included randomised controlled trials that examined drug interventions versus placebo for self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in adults with intellectual disability. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each trial using a data extraction form. We present a narrative summary of the results is presented. We did not consider meta-analysis was appropriate due to differences in study designs, differences between interventions and heterogeneous outcome measures. We found five double-blind placebo-controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria. These trials assessed effectiveness and safety of drugs in a total of 50 people with intellectual disability demonstrating SIB. Four trials compared the effects of naltrexone versus placebo and one trial compared clomipramine versus placebo.One of the naltrexone versus placebo trials reported that naltrexone had clinically significant effects (≥ 33% reduction) on the daily

  13. How Do People Stop Non-Suicidal Self-Injury? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummé, Tess Alexandra; Mildred, Helen; Knight, Tess

    2017-07-03

    The current paper reviews extant quantitative and qualitative literature into how Non-Suicidal Self-Injury cessation occurs, and individuals' experiences of stopping. Specific search criteria utilizing a PRISMA format were used across 5 databases, which resulted in 454 papers being identified. After utilizing exclusion criteria and then review, nine of the 454 papers identified were retained for extensive synthesis and critique. Results from 8 of the identified papers indicated that both intra and inter personal factors can influence self-injury cessation. These include: family support, self-esteem, emotional regulation, and professional help. Only 1 paper articulated a cessation process, describing it as a procedural event of developing interpersonal strength, then implementing alternative coping strategies. Limitations and implications of the studies are reported, concluding that further research is warranted to inform effective prevention and treatment strategies to ameliorate this growing public health concern.

  14. Pain perception in self-injurious patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M J; Roth, S D; Lerman, A; Kakuma, T; Harrison, K; Shindledecker, R D; Hull, J; Mattis, S

    1992-09-15

    Pain ratings during the cold pressor test were significantly lower in female inpatients with borderline personality disorder who report that they do not experience pain during self-injury (BPD-NP group, n = 11), compared with similar patients who report that they do experience pain during self-injury (BPD-P group, n = 11), and normal female subjects (n = 6). Pain ratings were not significantly different in the BPD-P and normal control groups. Self-report ratings of depression, anger, anxiety, and confusion were significantly lower, and ratings of vigor significantly higher following the cold pressor test in the BPD-NP group, but not in the BPD-P group. Only anxiety was significantly lower in the normal control group following the cold pressor test. The implications and limitations of these preliminary findings are discussed.

  15. Adolescents, families and schools: A triangulated approach to understanding nonsuicidal self-injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kelada, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the direct and intentional destruction of body tissue without the intention to end one’s life and is typically engaged in to regulate emotion. Family factors may contribute to understanding why NSSI onsets in adolescence and provide a means by which NSSI prevention and intervention can occur. The relationship between NSSI and family functioning is dynamic; poor family functioning can be an antecedent to NSSI, and in turn, NSSI can impact ...

  16. Non-suicidal self-injuries in a sample of Mexican university students

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Silva, Everardo; Benjet, Corina; Juárez García, Francisco; Jurado Cárdenas, Samuel; Lucio Gómez-Maqueo, María Emilia; Valencia Cruz, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI) are a worldwide health problem that affects principally young people, and can impact negatively the mental and physical health of those that self-injure. Objective To examine the frequency of NSSI in 564 undergraduate students (132 male, 432 female) from Mexico City and the association of NSSI with depressive symptoms, anxiety, impulsivity, self-efficacy, and emotion regulation. Method A convenience sample of 564 undergraduate student...

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury (Nssi in adolescent inpatients: assessing personality features and attitude toward death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara Mauro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years, reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST. Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm, covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the

  18. Motivation for and use of social networking sites: Comparisons among college students with and without histories of non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Stephanie M; Swenson, Lance P; Batejan, Kristen L

    2017-07-01

    This research examines potential differences in social network use and motivation for social network use by non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) status. 367 (73% women; M age = 20.60) college students were recruited in November-December 2011. A random sample of 2,500 students was accessed through a university registrar to recruit students interested in an online survey assessing NSSI and various health-related behaviors. Social network use and motivations for social networks did not differ by NSSI status. Results suggest that it is not patterns of use or motivation to use social networks that could lead to concern about online behavior (i.e., behavior increasing risk of future NSSI) among those with NSSI history. Rather, future preventive and intervention efforts should address the NSSI-related content that is available online, since this is unregulated, often explicit, and commonly includes "pro-NSSI" content that may be problematic and increase risk among vulnerable individuals.

  19. Expectancies for Social Support and Negative Mood Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Self-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Tresno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is common among young people. A majority of individuals who injure themselves do so to alleviate negative affect, as most self-injurers report difficulties with mood regulation. Trauma in childhood is an important risk factor that may cause individuals to develop poor interpersonal relations and impaired emotion-regulation, leading to the use of non-adaptive coping strategies such as NSSI. This study examined factors contributing to self-injury, focusing on the link from childhood maltreatment, through mood regulation expectancies and expectancies for social support (father, mother, and friends, to self-injury. Understanding how these variables relate to NSSI is crucial for early identification of individuals at risk of NSSI. Participants were 377 Japanese university students. Lifetime prevalence of self-injury was 20% among the sample. Results showed childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor that increases the risk for NSSI. However, expectancies for social support and mood regulation seem to be potential protective factors. Mood regulation expectancies mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injury. In addition, expectancies for social support were indirectly linked with NSSI through negative mood regulation expectancies. It appears that perceived support from father and friends increases one's confidence in regulating difficult emotions, which in turn reduces risk for NSSI. Results suggest that strong expectancies for social support, especially from friends, increase one's confidence in regulating emotion, which contributes as a protective factor against self-injury.

  20. Brief report: the association between non-suicidal self-injury, self-concept and acquaintance with self-injurious peers in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Houben, Adinda; Vandereycken, Walter; Bijttebier, Patricia; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    The current study investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), self-concept and acquaintance with NSSI peers in a sample of 150 high school students (60% female) with a mean age of 15.56 (SD=2.00) years. Analyses showed that students with NSSI rated themselves lower on academic intelligence, physical attractiveness, social skills and emotional stability than their non-NSSI peers. The self-injurers also had more friends who engaged in NSSI, and having more NSSI acquaintances was negatively related to self-esteem. It could be that adolescents with lower self-esteem are more attracted to self-injuring peers, or that adolescents with low self-esteem are more vulnerable to copy NSSI to deal with their problems or to gain a certain identity in their peer group. Future studies must test these possible NSSI pathways.

  1. The role of interpersonal conflict and perceived social support in nonsuicidal self-injury in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Cobb, Rebecca J; Gratz, Kim L; Chapman, Alexander L

    2016-05-01

    Although accumulating microlongitudinal research has examined emotion regulatory models of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), few studies have examined how interpersonal contingencies influence daily NSSI behavior. Participants with repeated NSSI (N = 60) provided daily ratings of perceived social support, interpersonal conflict, and NSSI urges and behaviors for 14 days. Consistent with interpersonal models of NSSI, we hypothesized that participants would be more likely to engage in NSSI on days when they experienced high levels of interpersonal conflict, that NSSI acts that were revealed to others would be followed by desirable interpersonal changes (i.e., greater support, less conflict), and that these interpersonal changes would, in turn, predict stronger NSSI urges and more frequent NSSI behavior. Consistent with hypotheses, daily conflict was associated with stronger same-day NSSI urges and greater likelihood of NSSI acts. Perceived support increased following NSSI acts that had been revealed to others, but not unrevealed NSSI acts. This perceived support was, in turn, associated with a stronger NSSI urges and greater likelihood of engaging in NSSI on the following day. Moreover, participants whose NSSI was revealed to others engaged in more total NSSI acts during the diary period than those whose NSSI was not revealed to others. Inconsistent with hypotheses, interpersonal conflict did not decrease following NSSI, regardless of whether or not these acts were revealed to others. Together, these results provide preliminary support for interpersonal reinforcement models of NSSI and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area to include interpersonal contingencies that may influence this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety

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    Cristina Giner-Bartolome

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  3. Association of aggression and non-suicidal self injury: a school-based sample of adolescents.

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    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. METHODS: This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants' emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in 'minor NSSI', 11.9% in 'moderate/severe NSSI'. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI'. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI' in those who had poor emotional management ability. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents.

  4. The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Injurious Behaviours in Individuals with Prader Willi Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

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    Lauren J. Rice

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group. Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.

  5. The Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory: Evaluation of an assessment measure of nonsuicidal self-injury in an inpatient sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mary K; Levesque, Christine; Preyde, Michèle; Vanderkooy, John; Cloutier, Paula F

    2015-01-01

    The Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory (OSI) is a self-report measure that offers a comprehensive assessment of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), including measurement of its functions and addictive features. In a preliminary investigation of self injuring college students who completed the OSI, exploratory analysis revealed four function factors (Internal Emotion Regulation, Social Influence, External Emotion Regulation and Sensation Seeking) and a single Addictive Features factor. Rates of NSSI are particularly high in inpatient psychiatry youth. The OSI can assistin both standardizing assessment regarding functions and potential addictive features and aid case formulation leading to informed treatment planning. This report will describe a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the OSI on youth hospitalized in a psychiatric unit in southwestern Ontario. Demographic and self-report data were collected from all youth consecutively admitted to an adolescent in-patient unit who provided consent or assent. The mean age of the sample was 15.71 years (SD = 1.5) and 76 (81 %) were female. The CFA proved the same four function factors relevant, as in the previous study on college students (χ (2)(183) = 231.98, p = .008; χ (2)/df = 1.27; CFI = .91; RMSEA = .05). The model yielded significant correlations between factors (rs = .44-.90, p  .05). The factor structure of the Addictive Features function was also confirmed (χ (2)(14) = 21.96, p > .05; χ (2)/df = 1.57; CFI = .96; RMSEA = .08). All the items had significant path estimates (.52 to .80). Cronbach's alpha for the Addictive Features scale was .84 with a mean score of 16.22 (SD = 6.90). Higher Addictive Features scores were related to more frequent NSSI (r = .48, p OSI as a valid and reliable assessment tool in adolescents, in this case in a clinical setting, where results can inform case conceptualization and treatment planning.

  6. Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Licence, Lucy; Richards, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    This review summarises the recent trends in research in the field of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. New data on incidence, persistence and severity add to studies of prevalence to indicate the large scale of the clinical need. A number of person characteristics have been repeatedly identified in prevalence and cohort studies that: can be considered as risk markers (e.g. stereotyped behaviour, autism spectrum disorder) and indicate possible causal mechanisms (e.g. sleep disorder, anxiety). Studies have started to integrate traditional operant learning paradigms with known person characteristics and reviews and meta-analyses of applied behaviour analytic procedures can now inform practice. Despite these positive developments interventions and appropriate support falls far short of the required need. Expansions in applied research are warranted to develop and evaluate innovative service delivery models that can translate knowledge of risk markers and operant learning paradigms into widespread, low cost routine clinical practice. Alongside this, further pure research is needed to elucidate the direction of causality of implicated risk factors, in order to understand and intervene more effectively in self-injury.

  7. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Non-Disclosure: The Example of Self-Injury

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    Jo Borrill PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to investigate non-disclosure are hampered by the very aspect being examined, namely an unwillingness to disclose non-disclosure. Although qualitative interviews may be considered to be an appropriate method for in-depth exploration of personal experiences, a lack of anonymity and the desire to conform to what is perceived to be socially acceptable limit its application in sensitive research. The current study, using a qualitative approach, addresses non-disclosure in the context of non-suicidal self-injury. Twenty-five young adults from diverse cultural backgrounds were interviewed in depth about their perceptions of self-injury, without the researchers asking directly whether the participants had ever self-harmed. Two techniques were used to enhance discussion within the qualitative interview: participants were invited to (a discuss three hypothetical scenarios and (b explore alternative interpretations of statistical data on patterns of self-harm. Key themes emerged regarding disclosure, gender issues, and culturally shaped concerns about the consequences of disclosure. The contributions of each element of the interview to understanding participants' perceptions are highlighted and alternative methodological approaches for examining disclosure are discussed.

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury within the school context: Multilevel analysis of teachers' support and peer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, N; Ben Shabat, S; Elia, R; Fellner, N; Rehavi, M; Rubin, S E; Segal, N; Shoval, G

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents have focused primarily on individual characteristics (e.g., depressive symptoms) and background factors (e.g., parental relationship), whereas less emphasis has been given to the role of school-related factors in NSSI. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between teachers' support, peer climate, and NSSI within the school context. The sample consisted of 594 high school students nested within 27 regular classes (54.4% boys; mean age 14.96, SD=1.33 years). The students were evaluated for NSSI behaviors, perception of teacher support, peer climate, relationships with mothers, and depressive symptoms using validated scales. The primary analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age. The main findings indicated that teacher support was positively associated with NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=6.15, 95% CI=2.05-18.5) but negatively associated at the student-level (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49-0.89). There was a trend toward an association between positive peer climate and NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.18-1.05), while negative peer climate was associated with NSSI at the student-level (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.00-1.87). School-related factors are associated with NSSI behaviors among students. Teachers and educators should focus on both individual-level and classroom-level perceptions of school context. Students who feel supported by their teachers and who are exposed to a positive peer climate are less likely to engage in NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.

  10. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  11. Explicit and inferred motives for nonsuicidal self-injurious acts and urges in borderline and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Avigal; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Gadassi, Reuma; Berenson, Kathy; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a perplexing phenomenon that may have differing motives. The present study used experience sampling methods (ESM) which inquired explicitly about the motives for NSSI, but also enabled a temporal examination of the antecedents/consequences of NSSI; these allow us to infer other motives which were not explicitly endorsed. Adults (n = 152, aged 18-65) with borderline personality disorder (BPD), avoidant personality disorder (APD), or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined 5 classes of explicit motives for engaging in NSSI, finding support primarily for internally directed rather than interpersonally directed ones. We then used multilevel regression to examine changes in affect, cognition, and behavior surrounding moments of NSSI acts/urges compared with control moments (i.e., without NSSI). We examined changes in 5 scales of inferred motives, designed to correspond to the 5 classes of explicit motives. The results highlight differing motives for NSSI among individuals with BPD and APD, with some similarities (mostly in the explicit motives) and some differences (mostly in the inferred motives) between the disorders. Despite their infrequent explicit endorsement, fluctuations in interpersonally oriented scales were found surrounding NSSI acts/urges. This highlights the need to continue attending to interpersonal aspects of NSSI in research and in clinical practice. Additionally, NSSI urges, like acts, were followed by decline in affective/interpersonal distress (although in a delayed manner). Thus, interventions that build distress tolerance and enhance awareness for affective changes, and for antecedent/consequence patterns in NSSI, could help individuals resist the urge to self-injure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury in Singapore adolescents: Implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Augustine Chin Yeow; Liang, Wilfred Zhijian

    2017-08-01

    The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and DSM-IV-TR diagnoses were examined in a sample of thirty ethnic adolescents followed up in a local child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Singapore. The most commonly endorsed function of NSSI on the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation scale was Automatic Negative Reinforcement (A-NR) and the least being Social Negative Reinforcement (S-NR). Participants were more likely to be diagnosed as having Major Depression Disorder. Depressed adolescents did not differ from non-depressed counterparts in their endorsement of social reinforcement functions. The results suggest that specific psychosocial interventions may help address both automatic and social functions of NSSI in Singapore adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Creative Edge: Exploring Motivations for Creating Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Content Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Yukari; Kidd, Sean A; Wiljer, David; McKenzie, Kwame J

    2015-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in user-generated online content featuring Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), including photography, digital video, poems, blogging, and drawings. Although the increasing visibility of NSSI content has evoked public concern over potential health risks, little research has investigated why people are drawn to create and publish such content. This article reports the findings from a qualitative analysis of online interviews with 17 individuals who produce NSSI content. A thematic analysis of participants' narratives identified two prominent motives: self-oriented motivation (to express self and creativity, to reflect on NSSI experience, to mitigate self-destructive urges) and social motivation (to support similar others, to seek out peers, to raise social awareness). Participants also reported a double-edged impact of NSSI content both as a trigger and a deterrent to NSSI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; DeBeer, Bryann B; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2016-09-30

    The present study examined the association between history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and history of suicide attempts (SA) among 292 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, half of whom carried a lifetime diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with hypotheses, veterans who reported a history of NSSI were significantly more likely to report a history of SA than veterans without a history of NSSI. In addition, logistic regression demonstrated that NSSI remained a significant predictor of SA even after a wide range of covariates (i.e., combat exposure, traumatic brain injury, PTSD, depression, alcohol dependence) were considered. Taken together, these findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans should include NSSI history as part of their standard risk assessment battery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Psychotherapeutic approaches to non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washburn Jason J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among adolescents is gaining increasing attention in both clinical and scientific arenas. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI is estimated to vary between 7.5% to 8% for preadolescents, increasing to between 12% and 23% for adolescents. Despite the prevalence and the increasing interest in NSSI, few psychotherapeutic treatments have been designed specifically for NSSI, and no treatments have been evaluated specifically for the treatment of NSSI among adolescents. Consequently, child and adolescent clinicians are left with little evidence-based guidance for treating this challenging population. To provide some guidance, evaluations of treatments for adults with NSSI and for adolescents with related conditions, such as deliberate self-harm and borderline personality disorder, are reviewed. Clinical guidelines and resources are also discussed to assist with the gaps in the knowledge base for treatment of NSSI among adolescents.

  17. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury-Does social support make a difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (pself-esteem......Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make....... The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than...

  18. Self injury of extremities leading to amputation while handling local bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Self injury while making material which has a tendency to blast is dangerous- whether it is fire cracker or local bomb. Some villagers living nearby forest make bomb to scare wild animals to protect their pet animals. A 22-year old girl while making this kind of local bomb, got injured badly. The injury was sustained while making bomb in a sitting position with face down as it is evident form type of injury. There was lacerated injury of both hands leading to amputation of both hands above wrists. Lacerated injury was present on medial sides of both thighs and gun powder marks on face. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-Concept Clarity and Emotion Dysregulation in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Mary K; Pepper, Carolyn M

    2016-12-01

    Recent research has linked identity instability with engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; Claes, Luyckx, & Bijttebier, 2014; Claes et al., 2015). This study examined the relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC), an index of identity stability, and NSSI in a sample of 147 college students, using a cross-sectional survey design. The relationship between SCC and emotion dysregulation in NSSI severity was also examined. SCC was significantly negatively associated with NSSI engagement, as well as NSSI frequency and versatility, above negative affect or age. SCC fully accounted for the variance originally explained by emotion dysregulation in NSSI versatility. NSSI frequency was not significantly predicted by emotion regulation, but self-concept clarity reached marginal significance. These findings provide preliminary support for identity instability as a contributing factor to a relationship between emotion dysregulation and NSSI severity. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Risk Factors for Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Trans Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Claes, Laurence; Witcomb, Gemma L; Marshall, Ellen; Bouman, Walter Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has reported high levels of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans populations and younger age has been identified as a risk factor. To explore the prevalence of NSSI in a large group of young trans people and to identify risk factors for this group. Sociodemographic variables and measurements of NSSI (Self-Injury Questionnaire), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), victimization (Experiences of Transphobia Scale), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Two hundred sixty-eight young people attending a national gender clinic completed questionnaires assessing presence and frequency of NSSI and levels of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems, self-esteem, social support, transphobia, and information on hormone treatment. A lifetime presence of NSSI was identified in 46.3% of patients and 28.73% reported currently engaging in NSSI (within at least the past few months). Analyses showed that those with a lifetime presence of NSSI had significantly greater general psychopathology, lower self-esteem, had suffered more transphobia, and experienced greater interpersonal problems than those without NSSI. Findings were similar when comparing current with non-current NSSI. Overall, natal male patients reported less social support than natal female patients, but current NSSI was more common in natal female patients. Regression analyses confirmed that natal female gender and greater general psychopathology predicted current and lifetime NSSI. Further analyses confirmed that general psychopathology itself could be predicted by transphobic experiences, low self-esteem, and interpersonal problems, but not by the use of cross-sex hormones. These findings confirm that NSSI is common in trans youth and emphasize the need for interventions that decrease transphobia, increase social

  1. A prospective study of the influence of the UPPS model of impulsivity on the co-occurrence of bulimic symptoms and non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) often report co-morbid symptoms of non suicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study examined the influence of (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, sensation seeking, and negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing negative affect) on these two behavior patterns. We hypothesized that negative urgency influences vulnerability to multiple maladaptive behavior patterns, thus influencing the co-occurrence of NSSI and BN symptoms. 489 young adult women completed baseline assessments, and 209 completed an eight month follow-up assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of four personality pathways to impulsive behavior simultaneously on both behaviors at baseline, and the incremental predictive utility of traits on both behaviors at eight month follow up. Additionally, we examined the influence of NSSI at baseline on symptoms of BN at follow up, and symptoms of BN at baseline on NSSI at follow up. Negative urgency accounted for significant variance in NSSI and eating pathology. Baseline (lack of) perseverance contributed significantly to binge eating frequency at follow-up, when accounting for baseline symptoms. NSSI at baseline was associated with increased purging at follow-up. Individual differences in impulsivity appear to influence both NSSI and eating pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spirituality/Religiosity, Life Satisfaction, and Life Meaning as Protective Factors for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Whitlock, Janis; Mease, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may protect or insulate people from engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). College students (N = 14,385) from 8 universities participated in a web-based survey. Results of bivariate correlations and multiple regression revealed that spirituality/religiosity, life satisfaction, and life…

  3. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  4. A Multiple Mediational Test of the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Cassarly, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study…

  5. Nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among sexual minority youth in Ireland during their emerging adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emmet; Coughlan, Helen; Clarke, Mary; Kelleher, Ian; Lynch, Fionnuala; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether or not sexual minority youth constitute an at-risk group for nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts during their emerging adult years. Using data from the Challenging Times Study, a population-based study of psychopathology and suicide in Ireland, analyses were conducted to test the associations between sexual minority status and the odds of any lifetime experience of nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts among Irish youth aged 19-24 years. Sexual minority youth had 6.6-fold (95% CI 1.7-24.7) increased risk of nonsuicidal self-injury, a 5.0-fold (95% CI 1.3-18.3) increased risk of suicidal ideation, a 7.7-fold (95% CI 1.8-32.0) increased risk of suicide intent and a 6.8-fold (95% CI 1.6-27.6) increased risk of a suicide attempt during their lifetime compared to their heterosexual peers. This study shows that emerging adulthood is a period of risk for suicide and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviour among sexual minority youth. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Borderline Personality Symptoms Differentiate Non-Suicidal and Suicidal Self-Injury in Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Ertelt, Troy W.; Miller, Alec L.; Claes, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little research on how specific borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms relate to suicide attempts or suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) within adolescent populations, which is important to know given the recent proposal of an NSSI disorder. Even less well known is whether specific BPD symptoms distinguish NSSI…

  7. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  8. The prevalence of Non-suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among high school students in relation to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kądziela-Olech, Halina; Zak, Gabriel; Kalinowska, Barbara; Wągrocka, Anna; Perestret, Grzegorz; Bielawski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The undertaken research aimed at determining the frequency of deliberate self-injurious behaviour (D-SIB) among the students of secondary schools and also the analysis of the frequency of repeated Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) occurrences in accordance with DSM-5 criteria in reference to the age and sex in the studied population. The data was collected via survey method according to the questionnaire prepared in compliance with the criteria DSM-5 and Self-Harm Inventory. The study included randomly selected students: 1193 boys and 1027 girls in Bialystok aged 12 and 19 (average age ± SD:16.8 ± 1.65). Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the application Statistica 10.0 PL, StatSoft. These results indicate that D-SIB and NSSI affect both sexes. In the studied group 8.3 % of students engage in deliberate self-injurious behaviour. The percentage of NSSI was 4.8% (6.3% in the group of boys, 3.2 % among girls; p(Chi2)=0.01). Self-cutting was most common among 15-year-old pupils ((D-SIB:14.75%; NNSI:8.1%). The majority of respondents (82% of girls and 74% of boys) revealed that as a result of self-injury behaviour they experience relief. Conducting further research in the area of NSSI seems to be crucial due to chronicity and prevalence as well as the fact that numerous repeated self-injuries bringing relief or causing positive state of mind might indicate a mechanism similar to an addiction syndrome in adolescence.

  9. Picturesque Wounds: A Multimodal Analysis of Self-Injury Photographs on Flickr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Seko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of Web 2.0 technologies has drastically extended the realm of self-expression, to the extent that personal and potentially controversial photographs are widely shared with public viewers. This study examined user-generated photographs of self-injury (SI uploaded on a popular photo-sharing site Flickr.com, to explore how the photo uploaders represent their wounded bodies, whether there are any emergent discursive and visual conventions that (redefine "photographs of SI," and whether these emergent conventions affirm or resist dominant cultural discourses of SI. 516 photographs of SI uploaded by 146 Flickr members were analyzed using methods of visual content analysis and discourse analysis. The findings indicate that while dominant discourses largely determine the shaping of SI photographs, some uploaders subversively frame their wounds as a narrative of resilience, thereby transforming their wounds into an authentic source of self-expression. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302229

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, childhood adversity and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Corinna; Heyer, Anne; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Völker, Julia Madeleine; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Whereas childhood adversity (CA) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been suggested to play a major role in the etiology of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), no study has thus far investigated both its associations and interactions with adolescent NSSI. We investigated CA (antipathy, neglect, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse) and indices of HPA axis activity (salivary and hair cortisol) in a clinical sample of 26 adolescents engaging in NSSI and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). We used standardized interviews for the assessment of CA (CECA), NSSI (SITBI-G), and axis I diagnoses (MINI-KID). Salivary cortisol sampling was surveyed using a monitoring system and instructed via telephone calls. Adolescents engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly higher cortisol awakening responses compared to HC. No differences were found with respect to the diurnal slope or hair cortisol. In the presence of CA, healthy adolescents showed flatted diurnal cortisol slopes while those engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly steeper ones. Our findings indicate that adolescents engaging in NSSI may exhibit a stronger cortisol awakening response, potentially in expectation of strain. However, elevated cortisol levels may not be maintained throughout the day, especially among adolescents with a history of CA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury in eating disordered patients: a test of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Peat, Christine M; Vandereycken, Walter

    2011-06-30

    A theoretical model explaining the high co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disordered populations as resulting from childhood traumatic experiences, low self-esteem, psychopathology, dissociation, and body dissatisfaction was previously proposed but not empirically tested. The current study empirically evaluated the fit of this proposed model within a sample of 422 young adult females (mean age=21.60; S.D.=6.27) consecutively admitted to an inpatient treatment unit for eating disorders. Participants completed a packet of questionnaires within a week of admission. Structural equation modeling procedures showed the model provided a good fit to the data, accounting for 15% of the variance in NSSI. Childhood trauma appears to have an indirect relationship to NSSI that is likely to be expressed via relationships to low self-esteem, psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, and dissociation. It appears that dissociation and body dissatisfaction may be particularly salient factors to consider in both understanding and treating NSSI within an eating disordered population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the relationship between non suicidal self-injury and borderline personality traits in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Daniel; Torrubia, Rafael; Soto, Àngel; Ribas, Joan; Soler, Joaquim; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Marco-Pallarés, Josep

    2017-10-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent during late adolescence and young adulthood. There is some evidence of a link between NSSI and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), but little is known about the association between BPD traits and the various functions that maintain NSSI. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association between borderline personality traits and NSSI functions in a sample of college students. We also compared NSSI functions in college students who engaged in NSSI to those in an age-matched sample of BPD patients. This study included a total of 238 college students and 36 BPD patients. Participants were asked to complete a number of clinical measures. In the non-clinical sample, BPD features were more pronounced in the presence of NSSI, and we observed a differential relationship between NSSI functions and psychopathological BPD-traits. The NSSI clinical variables most strongly associated with BPD were frequency, variety of methods and severity, but not age of onset. Our results provide new information on the relationship between BPD and NSSI in young adults, and could be used to improve the early detection of vulnerable BPD-individuals and in planning NSSI treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Social exposure and emotion dysregulation: Main effects in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Porter, Andrew C; Heiman, Ellen R; Cole, David A

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relation of interpersonal and media exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 340 university students in the southeastern United States (73.5% female, M age = 19.38 years, SD = 1.15). We also assessed interactions and main effects of each exposure and emotion dysregulation in relation to NSSI, testing the social learning hypothesis of NSSI. Most participants endorsed medium to high levels of exposure to NSSI via media sources. More than one-third of participants were somewhat or very familiar with someone who engaged in NSSI. Almost half reported occasional or frequent conversations about NSSI. Both exposure forms were significantly related to NSSI history. However, hurdle regression analyses revealed that interpersonal exposure and emotion dysregulation, but not media exposure, were significantly associated with NSSI history and frequency. We did not find evidence for an emotion dysregulation-by-interpersonal-exposure interaction. We discuss implications for theoretical models of NSSI, limitations, and future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Parents' role in early adolescent self-injury: An application of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A Ann; Heath, Nancy L; Rogers, Maria

    2017-06-01

    We applied self-determination theory to examine a model whereby perceived parental autonomy support directly and indirectly affects nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through difficulties in emotion regulation. 639 participants (53% female) with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD = 0.51) completed the How I Deal with Stress Questionnaire as a screener for NSSI, the Perceptions of Parents Scale, and the Difficulties in emotion Regulation Scale. Participants who indicated having ever hurt themselves on purpose without the intent to die (n = 116, 66% female) were classified in the NSSI lifetime group. A mediation analysis with bootstrapping procedure revealed that adolescents who reported their parents as being less supportive of their need for autonomy were more likely to have engaged in NSSI. Further, this relationship was partially mediated by emotion regulation. Adolescents who do not perceive autonomy support from their parents, have more difficulties regulating their emotions, and may turn to NSSI as a means to cope. Clinical implications of the findings suggest involving the family, and specifically, targeting parental autonomy support may be beneficial when working with young adolescents who self-injure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Indirect Self-Harm among Danish High School Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Bo; la Cour, Peter; Skandsen, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and indirect self-harm are prevalent among adolescents, but it is rare to see them described as related topics. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the frequencies of NSSI and indirect self-harm...... (e.g., eating problems, alcohol and drug use) and how this may be influenced by gender. Method: Questionnaires about NSSI (e.g., cutting, burning, scratching, hitting oneself) and indirect self-harm were distri­buted to high school students in theCopenhagen area (N = 5650; response rate 53%; females...... 60.8%). Results: A total of 21.5% of the survey respondents had engaged in NSSI (lifetime prevalence), and 16.2% had practiced NSSI within the previous year. Gender differences in NSSI methods were identified. A total of 53.9% of the students had engaged in one or more types of indirect self-harm...

  17. [The function of music in the context of non-suicidal self injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Thomas; Brüggemann-Etchart, Annika; Badorrek-Hinkelmann, Anna; Romer, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Music and non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) are both of extraordinary importance for adolescents with respect to expressing emotions, and demonstrating protest. Nevertheless, little is known about the interrelation between these phenomena, in particular about the function of music in the context of NSSI. The aim of our study was to investigate the connections between music and auto-aggressive behaviour and suicidality in adolescents. We developed a specific questionnaire for this purpose, which was used together with a self-reporting depression inventory in 40 subjects in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. We enrolled inpatients between 13 and 18 years who had presented with NSSI and/or suicidality during the last three months. Music proved to be very important to the patients and seemed to have an emotionally elevating function. Moreover, music was in some cases an integral part of the NSSI-scenario, but also was used to inhibit autoaggressive tendencies. In a qualitative analysis, it could be demonstrated that music and lyrics are associated with affect regulation, anti-dissociation and interpersonal influence. Music seems to fulfil similar self-regulatory functions as have been described for NSSI and can thus be considered, as a substitute to have a protective effect. There were no indications that specific music preferences are directly linked to NSSI or suicidality.

  18. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in U.S. Veterans Seeking Help for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, Patrick S.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dedert, Eric A.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hair, Lauren P.; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veter...

  19. Testing the Relations Between Impulsivity-Related Traits, Suicidality, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Test of the Incremental Validity of the UPPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains—alone and in interaction—when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI. PMID:21833346

  20. Testing the relations between impulsivity-related traits, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury: a test of the incremental validity of the UPPS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Miller, Drew J; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2011-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains--alone and in interaction--when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI.

  1. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-esteem and non-suicidal self-injury in adulthood: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Rebecca L; Slater, Hayley; Jomar, Khowla; Mitzman, Susan; Taylor, Peter James

    2017-10-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a self-destructive act that represents a considerable burden on the individual and society. Low self-esteem may be a psychological variable that is related to NSSI. However, little is known about the nature of this relationship in adulthood. This systematic review therefore aimed to provide a synthesis of the available literature on the relationship between self-esteem and NSSI. Articles were independently identified and risk of bias assessed by two reviewers searching PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) a mean sample age of eighteen years or over (2) full manuscripts available in English (3) assessment of NSSI (4) assessment(s) of self-esteem. A narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. A random-effects meta-analysis of differences in self-esteem between NSSI and non-NSSI groups was also undertaken. Seventeen studies were identified and indicated a significant negative relationship between self-esteem and NSSI. The meta-analysis indicated lower self-esteem in those with experiences of NSSI versus those without, d = 0.59 - 1.17. Results suggested that although low self-esteem and NSSI are related in both clinical and non-clinical populations, there are a number of factors which also influence this relationship. The absence of longitudinal research is a major limitation of this literature. It will be important for clinicians to consider the impact of self-esteem in those seeking support for NSSI. Further research should undertake longitudinal research to better understand the self-esteem and NSSI relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Emotion Dysregulation, and Non-suicidal Self-Injury Engagement in Young Adults: An Application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A Ann; Heath, Nancy L; Mills, Devin J

    2016-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health concern that affects young adults at alarming rates. The present study examines the role of satisfaction of self-determination theory's three basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in young adults' NSSI engagement. University students who reported ever having engaged in NSSI (n = 40, 85 % female; Mage = 20.10, SD = 1.66) reported significantly lower levels of the satisfaction of all three needs, as well as more difficulties with all aspects of emotion regulation (non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulty engaging in goal directed behavior, impulse control, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity), compared to students with no history of NSSI (n = 46, 91 % female; Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.37). Results of a logistic regression analysis revealed that need satisfaction added to the prediction of NSSI group membership after controlling for the effects of emotion regulation. Satisfaction of the need for competence and limited access to emotion regulation strategies accounted for significant variance in NSSI in the final model. The findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a useful framework under which to conceptualize NSSI and that the need for competence may be particularly salient for University students.

  4. The Role of Basic Need Satisfaction in the Onset, Maintenance, and Cessation of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: An Application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A Ann; Heath, Nancy L; Mills, Devin J

    2017-07-03

    The present study applied self-determination theory to examine the onset, maintenance, and cessation of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and NSSI status. Participants were classified into the NSSI Maintain (n = 30), NSSI Start (n = 44), NSSI Stop (n = 21), or Control (n = 98) groups based on NSSI status over 2 time points within a 12-month period. Repeated measures multiple analysis of variance was employed. Satisfaction of the need for competence decreased over time in all adolescents. Adolescents who maintained NSSI behavior reported significantly lower levels of need satisfaction compared to adolescents reporting no history of NSSI engagement, and adolescents who began NSSI over the course of the study reported significantly lower levels of need satisfaction compared to those reporting no history of NSSI engagement. The findings suggest that need satisfaction varies as a function of NSSI status.

  5. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  6. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  7. The Association of Genetic Predisposition to Depressive Symptoms with Non-suicidal and Suicidal Self-Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Dominique F; Renteria, Miguel E; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Medland, Sarah E; Few, Lauren R; Gordon, Scott D; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant; Trull, Timothy J; Heath, Andrew C; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H

    2017-01-01

    Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of depressive symptoms with lifetime NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of 6237 Australian adult twins and their family members (3740 females, mean age = 42.4 years). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms significantly predicted suicidal ideation, and some predictive ability was found for suicide attempts; the polygenic risk scores explained a significant amount of variance in suicidal ideation (lowest p = 0.008, explained variance ranging from 0.10 to 0.16 %) and, less consistently, in suicide attempts (lowest p = 0.04, explained variance ranging from 0.12 to 0.23 %). Polygenic risk scores did not significantly predict NSSI. Results highlight that individuals genetically predisposed to depression are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation/behaviour, whereas we found no evidence that this is also the case for NSSI.

  8. From traumatic events and dissociation to body image and depression symptoms - in search of self-destruction syndrome in adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze relationships between the variables: severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards one's own body, dissociation, the number and type of traumatic life events experienced by adolescents who engage in deliberate self-injury and are psychiatrically hospitalized. We examined 60 patients aged 13-17 (M = 15.48, SD = 1.19). More than a half (55%) were diagnosed with a mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, 23.5% with depressive behavior disorders, 10% were diagnosed a depressive episode. The research tools: a socio-demographic survey; original Feelings Towards the Body Questionnaire created on the basis of Tomkiewicz's description; Kovacs's CDI; Scharfetter's Ego-Psychopathology questionnaire. The examined individuals have negative feelings toward their bodies, more than half of them experience severe depression symptoms. There are links between traumatic events, dissociation, body image and the severity of depression symptoms. The strongest links were found: between dissociation vis-a-vis the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body; and between the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body. Two thirds of the examined individuals attempted suicide. Various forms of direct self-destructive behaviors very often occur simultaneously. It also provokes reflection about the conditions under which self-inflicted injury does (or does not) prevent suicide attempts. Self-mutilation along with the interaction between clinical variables may form a self-destruction syndrome in various mental disorders and contribute to clinical pictures of these disorders, this should be taken into account in diagnosing and treatment of adolescents.

  9. DBS in the baso-lateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behaviourA case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eSturm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We treated a thirteen year old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB and severe Kanner’s autism with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral, the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimulation of the baso-lateral part proved effective in improving SIB and core symptoms of the autism spectrum in the emotional, social and even cognitive domains over a follow up of now 24 months. These results, which have been gained for the first time in a patient, support hypotheses, according to which the amygdala may be pivotal in the pathogeneses of autism and point to the special relevance of the baso-lateral part.

  10. 'Then I just showed her my arms . . .' Bodily sensations in moments of alienation related to self-injurious behaviour. A hermeneutic phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppmann, S; Schröck, R; Schnepp, W; Büscher, A

    2007-09-01

    People committing self-injurious behaviour are often perceived as difficult patients; confronted with unhelpful reactions from nurses, the patients find themselves left alone in their distress. A connection between self-injurious behaviour and feelings of alienation is suggested in the literature. Alienation is described as a state in which the self is perceived as strange, machinelike and not in contact with its emotional and physical needs. On one hand, complex neuro-biological processes are seen as responsible for this; on the other hand, alienation is seen as a means of self-protection when one is exposed to a threatening or traumatic situation. Nursing interventions focus on the nurse-patient relationship and on the handling of self-injuries, but they tend to ignore the client's previous experience. Proceeding from the assumption that patients committing self-injurious behaviour are the experts on their own harm, the purpose of the present study is to get insight into their 'lived experience' and to contribute to the understanding of this vulnerable group. Adopting a hermeneutic phenomenological research perspective, methods of participant observation and qualitative interviewing were chosen to generate data. The database consists of 99 observational sequences, five interviews and a set of email texts written by a self-injuring woman. A thematic analysis as described by Van Manen was done. The main findings are that alienation is experienced in several stages, that nurses can detect early signs of an impending loss of control, and that self-injurious behaviour is an effective strategy to end a painful experience of alienation. Self-injurious behaviour is appropriately understood as a form of 'self-care'.

  11. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI.MethodsUsing fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: “Cyberball” was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (Mage = 15.4; SD = 1.9, 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (Mage = 23.3; SD = 4.1, as well as 15 healthy adolescents (Mage = 14.5; SD = 1.7, and 16 healthy adults (Mage = 23.2; SD = 4.4.ResultsBehavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula.DiscussionWhile neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  12. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Neff, Dominik; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI. Using fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: "Cyberball") was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (M age  = 15.4; SD = 1.9), 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (M age  = 23.3; SD = 4.1), as well as 15 healthy adolescents (M age  = 14.5; SD = 1.7), and 16 healthy adults (M age  = 23.2; SD = 4.4). Behavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula. While neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  13. The Acquired Capability for Lethal Self Injury: Case Studies of Plath’s The Bell Jar and Eugenides’ The Virgin Suicides

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    Sepideh Jafari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal theory developed by Joiner (2005 is based on the assumption that people die by suicide because they can-acquired capability-and because they want to- desire of suicide.  Desire to die arises from two specific psychological states: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness.  The obtained ability of committing suicidal thoughts referred to the second segment of the approach consists of some specific factors, i.e., the person must be capable of doing some lethal activities courageously to put an end to the life; therefore, they present a fearless attitude towards death.  Another factor is endurance to face self-injuries pain acquired from the long painful experiences or probably stimulating and motivating situations.  In this paper, the researchers intended to present a Joinerian reading of Sylvia Plath’s only novel, the Bell Jar, and one of Jeffrey Eugenides’ prominent works, the Virgin Suicides.  In fact, this qualitative study would analyze the two selected novels (i.e., the Bell Jar and the Virgin Suicides by the use of the acquired capability for suicide to find out why one takes his/her life by his/her own hands.  Based on the findings, Loneliness, social isolation, and thwarted effectiveness can be the mental states that have inflicted an acute pain on the heroines, a pain that makes them ready to die by suicides.  Suicidal ideation and witnessing other’s suicidal behaviors, habituates the heroines to the concept of death and suicide.

  14. Association of Self-reported Impulsivity to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Suicidality, and Mortality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaarela, Lauri; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Riipinen, Pirkko

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the association of self-reported impulsivity to nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicides in a clinical sample of 508 Finnish adolescents (aged 12-17) treated in psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime interview was used to gather information on psychiatric disorders, impulsivity, and suicidality of the adolescents. Mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death register. In adolescent girls, impulsivity was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and attempts and completed suicides in adolescent boys. Of adolescent boys with impulsivity, 10.4% had died by suicide during the follow-up time. For preventive purposes, health care professionals are encouraged asked adolescents targeted questions about impulsivity and to consider the associated risk of suicidality identified in this study.

  15. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  16. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorders: prevalence, forms, functions, and body image correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, Jos H; Cañabate, Montse

    2018-04-12

    More than one third of patients with eating disorders report NSSI. Moreover, negative attitudes and feelings toward the body, body dissatisfaction, and body image disturbances have been linked to NSSI in community and clinical samples. However, there is a lack of studies exploring NSSI frequency and functions and the specific relationship between multidimensional body image dimensions and NSSI in eating disorder patients. First, we explored the frequency, types, and functions of NSSI in a sample of 226 Spanish female participants with eating disorders (ED). Second, we explored differences in NSSI and body image depending on the ED restrictive-purgative subtype; and third, we explored differences in body dissatisfaction, body image orientation, and body investment in eating disorder patients without NSSI (n = 144), with NSSI in their lifetime (n = 19), and (b) with NSSI in the previous year (n = 63). Of the overall sample, 37.1% (n = 89) had a history of self-injury during their lifetime, and 27.1% (n = 65) had self-injured in the previous year. Among the types of ongoing NSSI, the most frequent were banging (64.6%) and cutting (56.9%). Restrictive vs purgative patients differed on NSSI lifetime, Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Body Protection and Feelings and Attitudes toward the Body. Moreover, significant differences were found on Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Positive Feelings and Attitudes towards the Body, Body Protection, and Comfort with physical contact, between participants without a history of self-injury and both NSSI groups. Body dissatisfaction and body investment have been found to be variables related to NSSI. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of working on body image in ED patients to reduce the frequency of NSSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectories of suicide ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents in mainland China : Peer predictors, joint development, and risk for suicide attempts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Prinstein, M.J.; Abela, J.R.Z.; Gibb, B.E.; Barrocas, A.L.; Hankin, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study expanded knowledge about the development of suicide ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents by investigating (a) peer experiences as predictors of trajectories of suicide ideation and NSSI, (b) the joint development of suicide ideation and NSSI, and (c)

  18. Motivation for and Use of Social Networking Sites: Comparisons among College Students with and without Histories of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Stephanie M.; Swenson, Lance P.; Batejan, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This research examines potential differences in social network use and motivation for social network use by non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) status. Participants: 367 (73% women; M[subscript age] = 20.60) college students were recruited in November-December 2011. Methods: A random sample of 2,500 students was accessed through a…

  19. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  20. Cook Counseling Center provides education, support when students turn to self injury

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    It's an emerging concern on college campuses across the nation. It's a deliberate and repetitive act that may be found in individuals who struggle with self esteem issues or who find it difficult to express their thoughts and feelings to others. And the behavior can manifest itself in anyone, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or socio economic status.

  1. Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Font-Roura, Josep; Gine, Climent; Matson, Johnny L.; Cifre, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  3. The Effects of Developmental Quotient and Diagnostic Criteria on Challenging Behaviors in Toddlers with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Beighley, Jennifer S.; Rojahn, Johannes; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that individuals with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and those with greater symptom severity within these diagnoses, show higher rates of aggressive/destructive behavior, stereotypic behavior, and self-injurious behavior. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, toddlers at-risk for a…

  4. Positive Family Intervention for Severe Challenging Behavior I: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Hieneman, Meme; Clarke, Shelley; Wang, Mo; Rinaldi, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury,…

  5. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  6. Cognitive vulnerability to depression, rumination, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation: multiple pathways to self-injurious thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannette M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-08-01

    In order to advance the detection and prevention of suicide, recent research has focused on predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior such as negative cognitive styles, dysfunctional attitudes, hopelessness, and rumination. In this study the relationships among these risk factors in the context of the Attention Mediated Hopelessness (AMH) theory of depression are examined. One hundred and twenty-seven undergraduates in the Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project were followed for 2.5 years. The CVD project followed initially nondepressed freshmen, at either high or low cognitive risk for depression, in order to predict onsets and recurrences of depressive disorders. The presence and duration of suicidal ideation were predicted prospectively by rumination and hopelessness, and hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between rumination and ideation and fully mediated the association between rumination and duration of suicidality. Further, rumination mediated the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and suicidal ideation.

  7. The Role of Distal Minority Stress and Internalized Transnegativity in Suicidal Ideation and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Bryan, Amanda E B; George, William H

    Transgender people are at elevated risk for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation compared to the general population. Transgender (trans) refers to a diverse group of people who experience incongruence between their gender identity and sex assigned at birth. The present study is guided by the minority stress model and the psychological mediation framework, which postulate that sexual minority groups experience elevated stress as a result of anti-minority prejudice, contributing to negative mental health outcomes. This study utilized these theories to investigate the role of internalized transnegativity-internalization of negative societal attitudes about one's trans identity-in the relationships of distal trans stress to suicidal ideation and NSSI. A U.S. national sample of trans adults (N = 237) completed a battery of online measures. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare models with mediation and moderation effects. Results suggested that internalized transnegativity acts as both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between distal trans stress and suicidal ideation. Log likelihood comparisons suggested moderation models had the superior fit for these data. Results suggest that clinical interventions should directly target individuals' internalized transnegativity as well as societal-level transnegativity.

  8. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury--Does social support make a difference? An epidemiological investigation of a Danish national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane; Vammen, Katrine Schjødt

    2015-06-01

    Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make a difference? A national representative sample of 4,718 persons born in 1984 were selected for an interview about their childhood, maltreatment, serious life events and social support in order to test if social support during childhood is a statistical mediator between childhood disadvantages and NSSI. The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (pself-esteem indicates the importance of treating adolescents who are engaged in NSSI with respect and dignity when they are treated in the health care system. Results further imply that increasing social support may reduce the likelihood of NSSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.

  10. Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Elbogen, Eric B; Dedert, Eric A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hair, Lauren P; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans who reported a recent history of engaging in cutting, hitting, or burning themselves were significantly more likely to report making violent threats and engaging in violent acts, including the use of a knife or gun, in the past year than veterans without NSSI. NSSI was uniquely associated with interpersonal violence after controlling for a variety of dispositional, historical, contextual, and clinical risk factors for violence, including age, race, socio-economic status, marital status, employment status, combat exposure, alcohol misuse, depression, PTSD symptom severity, and reported difficulty controlling violence. These findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans with PTSD should review NSSI history when conducting a risk assessment of violence. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The mediating role of coping strategy in the association between family functioning and nonsuicidal self-injury among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yaxuan; Lin, Min-Pei; Liu, Yin-Han; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Hu, Wei-Hsuan; Xu, Sian; You, Jianing

    2018-01-22

    Nock's (2009) integrated theoretical model suggests that both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors contribute to the development of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Based on this model, the present study examined the roles of family functioning and coping strategy in predicting NSSI, as well as the mediating effect of coping strategy in the relationship between family functioning and NSSI. Gender differences on the associations of these variables were also examined. A sample of 1,989 secondary school students (52.0% females) in Taiwan was assessed by self-report measures of perceived family functioning, coping strategy, and NSSI. Results showed that both family functioning and avoidance/emotion-focused coping strategy predicted NSSI. Additionally, the association between family functioning and NSSI was mediated by avoidance/emotion-focused coping strategy. Gender differences were not found on the associations among these study variables. These data provided evidences that the Nock's (2009) integrated theoretical model may help to explain how coping strategy mediates the effect of family functioning on NSSI. The implications of the findings for future research and intervention were discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina In-Albon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls. Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity.

  13. An investigation of non-suicidal self-injury and coping styles in undergraduates%大学生非自杀性自伤行为和应对方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔慧芬; 陈瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大学生非自杀性自伤行为以及应对方式的特征.方法 使用应对方式问卷和自编非自杀性自伤行为问卷,对当地某高校480名一年级大学生进行问卷调查.结果 466名大一学生完成调查,12.2%(57名)报告既往曾有过自伤,其中67%多次自伤(≥2次);最常见的心理动机是缓解不良情绪.与无自伤组相比,自伤组自责、幻想因子得分高(P <0.05,P<0.01),解决问题、求助、合理化因子得分低(P<0.05,P<0.01);自伤组女生的自责因子得分比男生高(P<0.05).结论 非自杀性自伤行为在大学生中发生率较高,具有故意性、反复性、自我隐蔽、损伤程度轻等特征,与自杀行为有本质区别.自伤学生以消极应对方式为主,通过自伤行为来缓解心理应激或冲突.%Objective To explore the characteristics of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and the coping styles in university students. Methods A total of 480 freshmen in one university in Nanjing were assessed with self-designed NSSI questionnaire and Coping Style Scale ( CSS). Results A total of 466 students completed the survey. Prevalence of NSSI was 12.2% (57 cases) , and 67% of the students had multiple NSSI (more than 2 times). The most common motivation was to relieve negative feelings. Scores of self-blame and fantasy in NSSI students were significandy higher than those in non-NSSI students (P <0. 05 and 0. 01 respectively). Scores of problem-resolving, help - seeking and rationalization in NSSI students were significantly lower than those in non-NSSI students (P <0. 05). Score of self-blame in females with NSSI was significantly higher than that in males with NSSI ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Non-suicidal self-injury behavior is common in undergraduates. It is featured with intentional injury, taking place repeatedly, taking place secretly and mild degree of injury, which has essential distinction with suicidal behavior. Subjects with non-suicidal self-injury

  14. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Ideation in Relation to Eating and General Psychopathology Among College-Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eichen, Dawn M.; Kass, Andrea E.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Gibbs, Elise; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation are potent risk factors for suicide and are associated with general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology. Limited research has examined the effects of combined NSSI+suicidal ideation thus concurrent examination is needed to understand potential differential effects on psychopathology. College-aged women (N=508) completed self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation, general psychopathology, and eating disorder-specific psychopat...

  15. Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment Scale in participants with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J H; Cañabate, M; García-Alandete, J; Llorca, G; Real-López, M; Beltrán, M; Pérez, S

    2018-01-01

    The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ 2 (246)  = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test-10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Direct and indirect forms of childhood maltreatment and nonsuicidal self-injury among clinically-referred children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armiento, Jenna; Hamza, Chloe A; Stewart, Shannon L; Leschied, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Although exposure to direct forms of childhood maltreatment is among the most widely studied risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), research on NSSI has largely overlooked the role of exposure to indirect forms of child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined associations among both direct and indirect forms of child maltreatment and NSSI among clinically-referred children and youth. Data was collected using the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Assessment (ChYMH) at ten mental health agencies. The ChYMH is a comprehensive standardized clinical assessment tool completed by trained assessors using multiple sources. The study included a convenience sample of 747 children and youth (68% male) between ages 8-18 with complex mental health histories referred for inpatient or outpatient care in Ontario, Canada. Univariate chi-square analyses indicated positive associations with NSSI and both direct (i.e., physical, sexual) and indirect child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing domestic violence). In a binary multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for participant age and sex, only exposure to indirect child maltreatment emerged as multivariate predictor of NSSI. The sample was limited to only 10 mental health agencies and only consenting parents/guardians referred to mental health services suggesting the study may not be generalizable to all clinical samples. The present study provides evidence that witnessing domestic violence in childhood is an important risk factor for NSSI. Clinical relevance includes implications for clinicians to develop targeted intervention and prevention strategies for NSSI for children who have witnessed domestic violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury, youth, and the Internet: What mental health professionals need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI content and related e-communication have proliferated on the Internet in recent years. Research indicates that many youth who self-injure go online to connect with others who self-injure and view others’ NSSI experiences and share their own through text and videos platforms. Although there are benefits to this behaviour in terms of receiving peer support, these activities can introduce these young people to risks, such as NSSI reinforcement through the sharing of stories and strategies, as well as, risks for triggering of NSSI urges. Due to the nature of these risks mental health professionals need to know about these risks and how to effectively assess adolescents’ online activity in order to adequately monitor the effects of the purported benefits and risks associated with NSSI content. This article offers research informed clinical guidelines for the assessment, intervention, and monitoring of online NSSI activities. To help bridge the gap between youth culture and mental health culture, these essentials include descriptions of Community, Social Networking, and Video/Photo Sharing websites and the terms associated with these websites. Assessment of these behaviours can be facilitated by a basic Functional Assessment approach that is further informed using specific recommended online questions tailored to NSSI online and an assessment of the frequency, duration, and time of day of the online activities. Intervention in this area should initially assess readiness for change and use motivational interviewing to encourage substitution of healthier online activities for the activities that may currently foster harm.

  18. Digital comparison of healthy young adults and borderline patients engaged in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroehmer, Rachel; Edel, Marc A; Pott, Steffi; Juckel, Georg; Haussleiter, Ida S

    2015-01-01

    It still remains unclear whether non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in young adult populations represents an actual symptom leading to psychiatric illness, constitutes a disorder itself or is rather a cultural peer influence. The purpose of this web-based qualitative cross-sectional study was to characterize NSSI (type of injury, frequency, tools, body parts, circumstances) in 50 patients with borderline personality disorder (NSSI + BPD) in direct comparison with 50 age and gender matched non-clinical young adults (NSSI - BPD), all of them currently or previously engaged in NSSI. Self-harming participants completed an open-access, anonymous 75-items questionnaire including the temperament questionnaire briefTEMPS-M. The mean age of NSSI onset was 20.56 ± 6.36 (NSSI + BPD) and 17.5 ± 9.28 years (NSSI - BPD), respectively (p = 0.261). NSSI - BPD participants (1) rarely sought out medical treatment (p < 0.001) and differed significantly from BPD patients; They (2) reported more often fear and disappointment as feelings preceding their self-harm (p < 0.001 each); (3) cut themselves in more locations (p = 0.005) and (4) in rather hidden areas (lower limb, proximal) (p = 0.002); (5) had lower depressive temperament scores (p = 0.007); and (6) scored generally fewer character traits "at risk" (p = 0.043) with a lower total score (p = 0.018). NSSI tended to onset slightly earlier in life and in different shape when BPD was absent. Our findings support current approaches of early NSSI recognition and identification of risk profiles. Further prospective studies, which have to be sufficiently large and longitudinal, are needed and of great importance.

  19. Non-suicidal Self-injury in Different Eating Disorder Types: Relevance of Personality Traits and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Steiger, Howard; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Israel, Mimi; Granero, Roser; Agüera, Zaida; Castro, Rita; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    The study explored lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in female and male individuals with eating disorders (ED) and compared ED symptoms, general psychopathology and personality traits across individuals with and without a history of NSSI. The incremental discriminative capacity of gender on the manifestation of lifetime NSSI was also studied. A total sample of 1649 consecutively admitted ED patients (1515 women and 134 men) participated in the current study [339 ED + NSSI (ED with NSSI) and 1310 ED - NSSI (ED without NSSI)]. Specific self-report measures were included and other clinical and psychopathological indices. The observed lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 20.6% (20.9% in women and 17.2% in men). NSSI was not associated with ED type or gender. However, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more impulsive behaviour, substance-abuse disorders and additional impulse-control disorders, were younger and had more previous treatments. Age was shown to affect the presentation of NSSI. Additionally, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more severe ED and general psychopathological symptoms and had more dysfunctional personality traits when compared with ED - NSSI. ED + NSSI was found to be positively associated with harm avoidance and self-transcendence but negatively with reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness. Thus, the variables with stronger capacity to identify the presence of ED + NSSI were younger age, harm avoidance, self-directedness and self-transcendence. A lack of association between sex and ED subtype with the presence of NSSI was observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Non-suicidal self-injury and life stress: A systematic meta-analysis and theoretical elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Cheek, Shayna M.; Nestor, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable growth of interest in the study of life stress and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current article presents a systematic review of the empirical literature on this association. In addition to providing a comprehensive meta-analysis, the current article includes a qualitative review of the findings for which there were too few cases (i.e., life stress and NSSI was found (pooled OR = 1.81 [95% CI = 1.49–2.21]). After an adjustment was made for publication bias, the estimated effect size was smaller but still significant (pooled OR = 1.33 [95% CI = 1.08–1.63]). This relation was moderated by sample type, NSSI measure type, and length of period covered by the NSSI measure. The empirical literature is characterized by several methodological limitations, particularly the frequent use of cross-sectional analyses involving temporal overlap between assessments of life stress and NSSI, leaving unclear the precise nature of the relation between these two phenomena (e.g., whether life stress may be a cause, concomitant, or consequence of NSSI). Theoretically informed research utilizing multi-wave designs, assessing life stress and NSSI over relatively brief intervals, and featuring interview-based assessments of these constructs holds promise for advancing our understanding of their relation. The current review concludes with a theoretical elaboration of the association between NSSI and life stress, with the aim of providing a conceptual framework to guide future study in this area. PMID:27267345

  1. Characterizing Interpersonal Difficulties Among Young Adults Who Engage in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Using a Daily Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Wakefield, Matthew A; Gratz, Kim L; Chapman, Alexander L

    2017-05-01

    Compared to people who have never engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), people with a history of NSSI report multiple interpersonal problems. Theories propose that these interpersonal difficulties play a role in prompting and maintaining NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of most studies in this area limits our understanding of how day-to-day interpersonal experiences relate to the global interpersonal impairments observed among individuals with NSSI, and vice versa. This study compared young adults with (n=60) and without (n=56) recent, repeated NSSI on baseline and daily measures of interpersonal functioning during a 14-day daily diary study. Groups differed in baseline social anxiety, excessive reassurance seeking, and use of support seeking relative to other coping strategies, but did not differ in self-perceived interpersonal competence. In terms of day-to-day functioning, participants with (vs. without) NSSI had significantly less contact with their families and friends, perceived less support following interactions with friends, and were less likely to seek support to cope, regardless of level of negative affect. With the exception of contact with family members, these group differences in daily interpersonal functioning were accounted for by baseline levels of social anxiety and use of support seeking. Contrary to expectations, participants with NSSI had more frequent contact with their romantic partners, did not differ in perceptions of support in romantic relationships, and did not report more intense negative affect following negative interpersonal interactions. This study provides a novel test of recent interpersonal theories of NSSI using daily reports. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  3. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  4. Dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dena A; Miller, Alec L

    2011-04-01

    Although research to date on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for adolescents has its limitations, growing evidence suggests that DBT is a promising treatment for adolescents with a range of problematic behaviors, including but not limited to suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. This article introduces dialectical behavior therapy's theoretical underpinnings, describes its adaptation for suicidal adolescents, and provides a brief review of the empirical literature evaluating DBT with adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt: prevalence and predictors in a sample of youth offenders in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Spink, Alisa; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of suicide attempts (SA), suicidal ideation (SI), and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) within a sample of community-based youth offenders (M age = 15.33 years) engaging with a Youth Offending Team (YOT). Findings revealed the highest prevalence rates for NSSI (20.6%), followed by SI (12.7%), and SA (5.9%). SA and SI were significantly correlated with trauma exposure, self-esteem, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). NSSI f...

  6. Non-suicidal self-injury as a predictor of active and passive suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Morissette, Sandra B; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Silvia, Paul J; Calhoun, Patrick C; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-06-30

    The present study examined the association between lifetime non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and current suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. NSSI was positively associated with passive, active, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation at the bivariate level. NSSI remained a predictor of active, OR=5.15, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation, OR=7.01, when other risk factors were considered. These findings suggest that NSSI may be a particularly useful marker of active suicidal ideation among veterans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Does It Matter Who Participates in Our Studies?: A Caution when Interpreting the Research on Positive Behavioral Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Rost, Nichole

    2005-01-01

    Research on the treatment of challenging behaviors such as aggression, tantrums, and self-injury expanded significantly over the past two decades. However, despite of the rather impressive numbers of studies, it is still uncertain whether positive behavioral support (PBS) is effective with everyone. To be able to tell family members and…

  8. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  10. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  11. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  12. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  13. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  14. The primatologist as a behavioral engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L

    2017-01-01

    The field of primate behavior management has had only limited success in preventing and treating abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypy and self-injury, in captive non-human primates (NHP). In contrast, applied behavior analysts have had great success in treating similar topographies of behavior in human clinical settings. By adapting and adopting the behavioral principles and methodologies commonly used by applied behavior analysts, primatologists may be able to develop more effective ways to analyze, reduce, and prevent these aberrant behaviors in NHP. This article reviews studies that have used behavior analytic techniques to successfully address problem behaviors in NHP. Additionally, relevant literature from the field of applied behavior analysis is reviewed to illustrate how adopting a theoretical framework that emphasizes the determination of the underlying operant functions of behavior could lead to new behavioral technologies and advance the field of captive primate management. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22500, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Teachers' Interpersonal Style and Its Relationship to Emotions, Causal Attributions, and Type of Challenging Behaviors Displayed by Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Pavlidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' interpersonal style is a new field of research in the study of students with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors in school context. In the present study, we investigate emotions and causal attributions of three basic types of challenging behaviors: aggression, stereotypy, and self-injury, in relation to teachers'…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  17. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  18. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the UPPS-P Impulsivity Facets in Eating Disorders and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Claes

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI and the UPPS-P impulsivity facets in eating disorder patients and healthy controls. The prevalence of NSSI in eating disorder (ED patients ranged from 17% in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R patients to 43% in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN. In healthy controls (HC, the prevalence of NSSI was 19%. Eating disorder patients from the binge eating/purging type showed significantly more NSSI compared to restrictive ED and HC participants. Binge-eating/purging ED patients also scored significantly higher on Negative/Positive Urgency, Lack of Premeditation and Lack of Perseverance compared to HC and restrictive ED patients. Comparable findings were found between ED patients and HC with and without NSSI; ED patients and HC with NSSI scored significantly higher in four of the five UPPS-P dimensions compared to participants without NSSI; Sensation Seeking was the exception. Finally, the presence of NSSI in HC/ED patients was particularly predicted by low levels of Perseverance. Therefore, the treatment of ED patients with NSSI certainly needs to focus on the training of effortful control.

  20. Recent research on aetiology, development and phenomenology of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, F; Biswas, A B

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural interventions conceptualise self-injurious behaviour (SIB) as developing from early repetitive behaviours through acquisition of homeostatic functions in regulating stimulation and subsequent shaping into SIB through socially mediated or automatic operant reinforcement. Despite high success rates, such interventions rarely completely eliminate SIB, and overall effectiveness has not increased since the 1960s. Research (excluding studies of single genetic syndromes) on the early development, functional properties and phenomenology of SIB in persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) published from 1999 to 2010 inclusive is reviewed. Despite evidence to support the operant shaping hypothesis, in some cases tissue-damaging SIB, especially head-banging, emerges at a similar or younger age than stereotyped behaviours or 'proto-SIB', often associated with tantrums following frustrative non-reward and/or abrupt situational transitions. Many young children show undifferentiated patterns of responding in functional analyses of SIB, and SIB is associated with aggression and impulsivity as well as with repetitive behaviour. One dynamic in the development of SIB may be Pavlovian conditioning of aggression, originally elicited by aversive events or frustrative non-reward, to stimuli associated with such situations. Integration into operant technology of interventions based on Pavlovian principles such as graduated exposure (with or without counterconditioning) to aversive stimuli may enhance the effectiveness of behavioural interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Methods Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. Results There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p  0.1. The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p  0.1 among middle school students. Conclusions Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  2. Effects of suppression and acceptance of sadness on the urge for non-suicidal self-injury and self-punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Dorn, Christina; Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-12-30

    The present study wanted to test the course of the urge for non-suicidal self-injury (UNSSI) and the urge for self-punishment (USP) when suppressing or accepting upcoming emotions in response to a sadness-inducing film clip in female participants with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Thirty-six women with BPD were allocated either to a condition in which they were asked to engage in expressive suppression or acceptance while watching a sadness-inducing film clip. Ratings of UNSSI, USP, and positive and negative emotions were assessed prior to the clip (baseline), immediately after it (t1) and after a 5min waiting period (t2), during which participants viewed landscape pictures. Additionally, physiological measures were obtained. Main results revealed a significant increase in UNSSI from baseline to t2 in the acceptance, but not in the suppression group. Furthermore, USP scores significantly increased from baseline to t2 in the acceptance, but not in the suppression condition. However, there was no differential impact on the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch depending on strategy. The results are in line with recent literature showing that expressive suppression in BPD may also have an adaptive function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Parents and Peers Related Loneliness, and Attitude Towards Aloneness in Flemish Adolescents: An Empirical Note

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    Amarendra Gandhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Loneliness and attitude towards aloneness have been shown to be associated to depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents and they may also increase the vulnerability to Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between lifetime prevalence and functions of NSSI, parent- and peer-related loneliness, and attitude towards aloneness (positive and negative. Data regarding NSSI, loneliness, and attitude towards aloneness were collected from a sample of 401 high school students from three different high schools located in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was found to be 16.5%. Females reported a higher lifetime prevalence of NSSI than males. Higher mean scores for parent-, peer-related loneliness, and positive attitude (i.e., affinity towards aloneness was observed in adolescents with lifetime NSSI as compared to adolescents without a history of NSSI. Finally, a positive correlation between self-related (i.e., automatic functions of NSSI and parent- and peer-related loneliness and a positive attitude towards aloneness was also observed.

  4. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

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    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorder: associations with identity formation above and beyond anxiety and depression.

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    Claes, Laurence; Luyckx, Koen; Bijttebier, Patricia; Turner, Brianna; Ghandi, Amarendra; Smets, Jos; Norre, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Verheyen, Els; Goris, Yvienne; Hoksbergen, Ingrid; Schoevaerts, Katrien

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and problems in identity formation among patients with eating disorder (ED). NSSI is highly prevalent in ED, and problems with identity formation are characteristic of both NSSI and ED. Few studies, however, have investigated identity formation in patients with ED with and without NSSI while taking into account comorbid psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). Therefore, we investigated the relationships between NSSI characteristics, identity confusion/synthesis, and anxiety/depression in 99 female patients with ED by means of self-report questionnaires. The results showed that 58.6% of the patients with ED engaged in at least one type of NSSI (most frequently cutting), with no significant differences in rates of NSSI or identity problems among ED subtypes. Presence, versatility and automatic negative reinforcement functions of NSSI were each significantly and positively related to identity confusion and negatively related to identity synthesis. Even after controlling for age, anxiety, and depression, lack of identity synthesis remained a significant predictor of NSSI in patients with ED. Given that NSSI may constitute an effort to deal with identity confusion/synthesis in patients with ED, therapists should take this developmental task into account while treating patients with ED with NSSI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Cross-sectional and temporal association between non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation in young adults: The explanatory roles of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness

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    Chu, Carol; Rogers, Megan L.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a strong predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts. Consistent with the interpersonal theory of suicide, preliminary evidence suggests that NSSI is associated with higher levels of perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB). However, no study to date has examined the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between NSSI, TB, PB, and suicidal ideation (SI). To fill this gap, this study examined the mediating role of TB and PB in the relationship between NSSI and SI at baseline and follow-up. Young adults (N=49) with and without histories of NSSI completed self-report measures of TB, PB, and SI at three time points over two months. NSSI history was associated with higher levels of PB, TB, and SI at all time points. TB and PB significantly accounted for the relationship between NSSI history and SI at baseline. However, the relationship between NSSI history and SI at follow-up was mediated by PB, not TB. Findings provide evidence for the roles of TB and PB in the relationship between NSSI and SI, and partial support for the interpersonal theory of suicide. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27835855

  7. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

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    Yang, Xueyan; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-28

    A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p gender difference among clinical samples (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.41, 1.89], p > 0.1). The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p gender difference in NSSI prevalence in the Hong Kong areas being greater than in rural areas. No gender difference in NSSI prevalence was found in urban areas (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = [0.84, 1.22], p > 0.1) among middle school students. Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation in relation to eating and general psychopathology among college-age women.

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    Eichen, Dawn M; Kass, Andrea E; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Gibbs, Elise; Trockel, Mickey; Barr Taylor, C; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation are potent risk factors for suicide and are associated with general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology. Limited research has examined the effects of combined NSSI+suicidal ideation thus concurrent examination is needed to understand potential differential effects on psychopathology. College-aged women (N=508) completed self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation, general psychopathology, and Eating Disorder-specific psychopathology. MANOVAs determined whether the NSSI/SI status groups differed on general and eating disorder pathology measures as a set. Significant MANOVAs were followed up with univariate ANOVAs and posthoc tests. Thirteen women endorsed NSSI+Suicidal Ideation, 70 endorsed NSSI-only, 25 endorsed Suicidal Ideation-only, and 400 endorsed no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. Both general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology differed across groups. NSSI+Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Ideation-only groups typically endorsed higher general psychopathology than the no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only groups. Regarding eating disorder pathology, the NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was more pathological than no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only, except on the weight concerns scale, where NSSI+Suicidal Ideation only differed from no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. The NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was only greater than Suicidal Ideation-only on measures of depression and eating concern. Results highlight the importance of screening for both NSSI and suicidal ideation, especially for individuals with eating disorder symptoms. Likewise, screening for eating disorder pathology may be beneficial for individuals presenting with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and nonsuicidal self-injury in a clinical sample of adolescents: the role of comorbidities and gender.

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    Balázs, Judit; Győri, Dóra; Horváth, Lili Olga; Mészáros, Gergely; Szentiványi, Dóra

    2018-02-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) with special focus on the role of comorbidities and gender in a clinical sample of adolescents with both a dimensional and a categorical approach to psychopathology. Using a structured interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid and a self-rated questionnaire, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, the authors examined 202 inpatient adolescents (aged: 13-18 years) in the Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital and Outpatient Clinic, Budapest, Hungary. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test and mediator model were used. Fifty-two adolescents met full criteria for ADHD and a further 77 showed symptoms of ADHD at the subthreshold level. From the 52 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, 35 (67.30%) had NSSI, of whom there were significantly more girls than boys, boys: n = 10 (28.60%), girls: n = 25 (71.40%) ((χ 2 (1) = 10.643 p sex. Significant mediators were the symptoms of affective and psychotic disorders and suicidality in both sexes and the symptoms of alcohol abuse/dependence disorders in girls. ADHD symptoms are associated with an increased risk of NSSI in adolescents, especially in the case of girls. Our findings suggest that clinicians should routinely screen for the symptoms of ADHD and comorbidity, with a special focus on the symptoms of affective disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence psychotic symptoms to prevent NSSI.

  10. Relationships between the frequency and severity of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in youth with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, Holly E; Hulbert, Carol; Cotton, Susan M; Betts, Jennifer; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-07-18

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a recognized indicator of suicide risk. Yet, the ubiquity of this behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD) limits its utility as a predictor of risk. Consequently, this study aimed to elucidate the relationship between other features of NSSI, including frequency and severity, and suicide attempts. Participants included 107 youth (15 to 25 year olds) with BPD who were assessed for BPD severity, depressive symptoms, 12-month frequency of NSSI and suicide attempts, as well as the levels of treatment sought following each self-harm event. Three-quarters (75.7%) of youth with BPD reported NSSI and two-thirds (66.4%) reported a suicide attempt over the previous 12 months. The frequency of NSSI over the previous 12 months did not show a linear or quadratic relationship with the number of suicide attempts when adjusting for severity of depression, impulsivity and interpersonal problems. NSSI severity was not associated with more frequent suicide attempts. Only impulsivity and depression were uniquely predictive of suicide attempt frequency. A relative increase in the frequency and severity of NSSI occurred in the months prior to a suicide attempt. The prevalence of NSSI and suicide attempts among youth presenting for their first treatment of BPD appear to be perilously high, considerably higher than rates reported by adults with BPD. Findings suggest that clinicians should give more weight to average levels of impulsivity and depression, rather than the absolute frequency and severity of NSSI, when assessing for risk of suicide attempts. Notwithstanding this, a relative increase in the frequency and severity of NSSI appears to be predictive of a forthcoming suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can vary. Some forms may include: carving scratching branding marking picking, and pulling skin and hair burning/ ... difficulty talking about their feelings may show their emotional tension, physical discomfort, pain and low self-esteem ...

  12. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  13. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  14. Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray, Angela M; Brown, Milton Z; Gallop, Robert J; Heard, Heidi L; Korslund, Kathryn E; Tutek, Darren A; Reynolds, Sarah K; Lindenboim, Noam

    2006-07-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a treatment for suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder with well-documented efficacy. To evaluate the hypothesis that unique aspects of DBT are more efficacious compared with treatment offered by non-behavioral psychotherapy experts. One-year randomized controlled trial, plus 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. University outpatient clinic and community practice. One hundred one clinically referred women with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting DSM-IV criteria, matched to condition on age, suicide attempt history, negative prognostic indication, and number of lifetime intentional self-injuries and psychiatric hospitalizations. One year of DBT or 1 year of community treatment by experts (developed to maximize internal validity by controlling for therapist sex, availability, expertise, allegiance, training and experience, consultation availability, and institutional prestige). Trimester assessments of suicidal behaviors, emergency services use, and general psychological functioning. Measures were selected based on previous outcome studies of DBT. Outcome variables were evaluated by blinded assessors. Dialectical behavior therapy was associated with better outcomes in the intent-to-treat analysis than community treatment by experts in most target areas during the 2-year treatment and follow-up period. Subjects receiving DBT were half as likely to make a suicide attempt (hazard ratio, 2.66; P = .005), required less hospitalization for suicide ideation (F(1,92) = 7.3; P = .004), and had lower medical risk (F(1,50) = 3.2; P = .04) across all suicide attempts and self-injurious acts combined. Subjects receiving DBT were less likely to drop out of treatment (hazard ratio, 3.2; P Dialectical behavior therapy appears to be uniquely effective in reducing suicide attempts.

  15. [Dialectical-behavioral outpatient therapy for adolescents with impulsive and self-harming behavior].

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    Maffezzoni, Marco; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-11-01

    A slightly modified version of the Dialectical-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) for impulsive and self-injurious adolescents has been implemented in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service in Zurich, Switzerland, since 2005. This DBT-A comprises individual therapy, skills training, and a single parent meeting over a 6-month period. This article reports on the translation of this approach into clinical practice and presents an evaluation based on the clinical quality of control assessments. Participants of the treatment program were 43 female adolescents aged 14 to 19 living in the Zurich area and showing impulsive and self-injurious behavior and problems regulating their emotions and relationships. Each skill group contained 4-6 adolescents. Our mostly positive experiences with this approach were supplemented by evaluation data from a quality control group based on self- and parent-report of a total of 19 participants. There is convincing evidence that DBT-A leads to reductions in both general and specific psychopathology.

  16. Impulsive behaviors in female patients with eating disorders in a university hospital in northern Taiwan

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    Kuei-Yu Liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.

  17. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

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    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.

  18. Treating PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder: development and preliminary evaluation of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Korslund, Kathryn E; Foa, Edna B; Linehan, Marsha M

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on the development and pilot testing of a protocol based on Prolonged Exposure (PE) that can be added to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to treat PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD, PTSD, and recent and/or imminent serious intentional self-injury (n = 13) received one year of DBT with the DBT PE Protocol, plus three months of follow-up assessment. The treatment was associated with significant reductions in PTSD, with the majority of patients no longer meeting criteria for PTSD at post-treatment (71.4% of DBT PE Protocol completers, 60.0% of the intent-to-treat sample). A minority of patients (27.3%) engaged in intentional self-injury during the study. Improvements were also found for suicidal ideation, dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and social adjustment. There was no evidence that the DBT PE Protocol led to exacerbations of intentional self-injury urges or behaviors, PTSD, treatment dropout, or crisis service use. Overall, the results indicate that this integrated BPD and PTSD treatment is feasible to implement within one year of treatment, highly acceptable to patients and therapists, safe to administer, and shows promise as an effective intervention for PTSD in this complex and high-risk patient population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome in dialectical behavior therapy versus nonbehavioral psychotherapy by experts for borderline personality disorder.

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    Bedics, Jamie D; Atkins, David C; Harned, Melanie S; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore facets of the client- and therapist-rated therapeutic alliance as predictors of suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injury, depression, and introject during the course of 2 psychosocial treatments for borderline personality disorder. A total of 101 women meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder participated in a randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus community treatment by experts. Clients and therapists rated the therapeutic alliance at 4 time points during 1 year of treatment. Multilevel models showed no significant differences in client ratings of the alliance by treatment condition. DBT therapists reported greater working strategy consensus early in treatment and an overall greater alliance during treatment. Client ratings of commitment and working capacity were associated with fewer suicide attempts in DBT. Client ratings of commitment were also associated with reduced nonsuicidal self-injury in DBT only. Therapist ratings of the alliance were predictive of reduced suicide attempts in both treatments. Therapist ratings of the alliance in community treatment by experts were predictive of increased nonsuicidal self-injury. Client and therapist ratings of the alliance were not significantly associated with changes in depression or introject across both treatments. The study supported theoretically predicted relationships between facets of the therapeutic alliance in DBT and suicidal behavior. Results are discussed in the context of recommendations for developing the therapeutic alliance in DBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Nem doente, nem vítima: o atendimento às "lesões autoprovocadas" nas emergências Neither ill, nor victim: the self-injury in the emergency care

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    Rosana Machin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as concepções e práticas de profissionais de saúde relativas aos casos de "lesões autoprovocadas". Problematiza-se o hiato existente entre sua formação profissional baseada no modelo biomédico e suas práticas de trabalho, nas quais estão presentes dimensões não contempladas pela biomedicina. A referência empírica da pesquisa é um hospital público de emergências na cidade de São Paulo. O estudo de natureza qualitativa foi desenvolvido por meio de observação dos atendimentos, consulta a prontuários médicos e entrevistas com profissionais de saúde. A questão que emerge diz respeito ao modelo de inteligibilidade da doença, baseado no corpo como lócus privilegiado do cuidado, e a doença como um evento de caráter fortuito ou acidental. Contrariamente, as situações de lesões autoprovocadas (tentativas de suicídio, abuso de drogas e álcool são abordadas como eventos carregados de intencionalidade, resultantes de uma escolha, de uma opção, o que acarreta a não identificação de seus autores como doentes ou vítimas a demandar cuidados.This paper shows concepts and practices of health professionals regarding cases of self-injury. It is problematized the existent gap between professionals training based in the biomedical model and practices, in which are presented dimension not considered for biomedicine. The empiric reference is a public emergency hospital in the city of São Paulo. The qualitative nature study was developed by observing attendances, consults to medical records and interviews with health professionals. The underlying question is related to intelligibility model of the illness, based in the body as a privileged locus of care, and illness as accidental event. Contradictively, self-injury situations (suicide attempts, drug and alcohol abuse are analyzed as intentionally events, consequence of a choice, implicating no identification of their authors as patients or victims of care.

  1. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder.

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    McMain, Shelley F; Links, Paul S; Gnam, William H; Guimond, Tim; Cardish, Robert J; Korman, Lorne; Streiner, David L

    2009-12-01

    The authors sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy compared with general psychiatric management, including a combination of psychodynamically informed therapy and symptom-targeted medication management derived from specific recommendations in APA guidelines for borderline personality disorder. This was a single-blind trial in which 180 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who had at least two suicidal or nonsuicidal self-injurious episodes in the past 5 years were randomly assigned to receive 1 year of dialectical behavior therapy or general psychiatric management. The primary outcome measures, assessed at baseline and every 4 months over the treatment period, were frequency and severity of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm episodes. Both groups showed improvement on the majority of clinical outcome measures after 1 year of treatment, including significant reductions in the frequency and severity of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious episodes and significant improvements in most secondary clinical outcomes. Both groups had a reduction in general health care utilization, including emergency visits and psychiatric hospital days, as well as significant improvements in borderline personality disorder symptoms, symptom distress, depression, anger, and interpersonal functioning. No significant differences across any outcomes were found between groups. These results suggest that individuals with borderline personality disorder benefited equally from dialectical behavior therapy and a well-specified treatment delivered by psychiatrists with expertise in the treatment of borderline personality disorder.

  3. Cognitive and behavioral heterogeneity in genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.L. Pegoraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns.

  4. Self-Injury Groups on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kendra D.; Mandrusiak, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the interactions within 4 Facebook groups devoted to supporting people who self-injure. Content analysis was used to analyze posts made to the group during the 3-month period of the study to explore the nature of interactions and the frequency of themes. High prevalence themes included responses to verbal abuse against…

  5. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-injury x Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family and school connectedness iii ... Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking to teens about suicide does not make them want to kill themselves. ...

  6. Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intractable Challenging Behaviors Associated With Symptoms of Catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajith, Sreedharan Geetha; Liew, Siew Fai; Tor, Phern Chern

    2017-03-01

    There are several reports of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the context of catatonic symptoms. We describe response to ECT in two adults with ASD and intellectual disability with intractable aggression and self-injurious behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms who had not responded to standard interventions. Unilateral ECT at a frequency of 3 times a week was given followed by weekly maintenance ECT. Patients' catatonic symptoms included episodes of agitation and echophenomena. Electroconvulsive therapy resulted in significant improvement in their behavior problems but 1 patient relapsed when the ECT was discontinued or frequency of treatment reduced. The second patient required 2 courses of ECT before improvement which was maintained on weekly ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy could be a potentially beneficial intervention in patients with ASD and severe challenging behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms including agitated or excited forms of catatonia.

  7. Sibling Death after Being Thrown from Window by Brother with Autism: Defenestration, an Emerging High-Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window. Shared similarities of all defenestration cases indicate a pattern of high-risk behavior threatening the survival of minors. We recommend precautions against this high-risk behavior in children with ASD.

  8. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in inpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jill Myerow; Woodward, Eva N; Susmaras, Teresa; Pantalone, David W

    2012-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for outpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, the utility of DBT strategies for inpatients with the disorder is unclear. This review summarizes and synthesizes findings from trials of DBT in inpatient settings. Multiple research databases were searched for articles published through June 2011 that reported on any implementation of DBT in an inpatient setting to address symptoms related to borderline personality disorder, including suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Eleven studies that reported pre- and posttreatment symptoms related to borderline personality disorder were evaluated. Studies indicated that many variations of standard DBT have been used in inpatient settings, including approaches that do not include phone consultation, that include group therapy only, and that vary in treatment duration (from two weeks to three months). Most studies reported reductions in suicidal ideation, self-injurious behaviors, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, whereas results for reducing anger and violent behaviors were mixed. Follow-up data indicated that symptom reduction was often maintained between one and 21 months posttreatment. On the basis of the evidence, the authors identify essential components of an inpatient DBT package and discuss its potential function as an "intensive orientation" to outpatient DBT services. There is considerable variation in the configuration and duration of DBT implementation for inpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, findings suggest that DBT may be effective in reducing symptoms related to borderline personality disorder in inpatient settings. Future research should standardize and systematically test inpatient DBT. (Psychiatric Services 63:881-888, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100311).

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of integrating PTSD treatment into Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for women with borderline personality disorder, PTSD, and intentional self-injury. Participants were randomized to DBT (n=9) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol (n=17) and assessed at 4-month intervals during the treatment year and 3-months post-treatment. Treatment expectancies, satisfaction, and completion did not differ by condition. In DBT+DBT PE, the DBT PE protocol was feasible to implement for a majority of treatment completers. Compared to DBT, DBT+DBT PE led to larger and more stable improvements in PTSD and doubled the remission rate among treatment completers (80% vs. 40%). Patients who completed the DBT PE protocol were 2.4 times less likely to attempt suicide and 1.5 times less likely to self-injure than those in DBT. Among treatment completers, moderate to large effect sizes favored DBT+DBT PE for dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and global functioning. DBT with the DBT PE protocol is feasible, acceptable, and safe to administer, and may lead to larger improvements in PTSD, intentional self-injury, and other outcomes than DBT alone. The findings require replication in a larger sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Sören; Kröger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychSpider, Medline). We excluded studies in which patients with diagnoses other than BPD were treated, the treatment did not comprise all components specified in the DBT manual or in the suggestions for inpatient DBT programs, patients failed to be diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the intervention group comprised fewer than 10 patients. Using a mixed-effect hierarchical modeling approach, we calculated global effect sizes and effect sizes for suicidal and self-injurious behaviors. Calculations of postintervention global effect sizes were based on 16 studies. Of these, 8 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 8 were neither randomized nor controlled (nRCT). The dropout rate was 27.3% pre- to posttreatment. A moderate global effect and a moderate effect size for suicidal and self-injurious behaviors were found, when including a moderator for RCTs with borderline-specific treatments. There was no evidence for the influence of other moderators (e.g., quality of studies, setting, duration of intervention). A small impairment was shown from posttreatment to follow-up, including 5 RCTs only. Future research should compare DBT with other active borderline-specific treatments that have also demonstrated their efficacy using several long-term follow-up assessment points. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Violência durante o sono Violent behavior during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Poyares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Casos de comportamento violento (CV durante o sono são relatados na literatura. A incidência de comportamento violento durante o sono não é muito conhecida. Um estudo epidemiológico mostra que cerca de 2% da população geral apresentava comportamento violento dormindo e eram predominantemente homens. Neste artigo, os autores descrevem aspectos clínicos e médico-legais envolvidos na investigação do comportamento violento. O comportamento violento se refere a ferimentos auto-infligidos ou infligidos a um terceiro durante o sono. Ocorre, muito freqüentemente, seguindo um despertar parcial no contexto de um transtorno de despertar (parassonias. Os transtornos do sono predominantes diagnosticados são: transtorno de comportamento REM e sonambulismo. O comportamento violento poderia ser precipitado pelo estresse, uso de álcool e drogas, privação do sono ou febre.Cases of violent behavior during sleep have been reported in the literature. However, the incidence of violent behavior during sleep is not known. One epidemiological study showed that approximately 2% of the general population, predominantly males, presented violent behavior while asleep. In the present study, the authors describe clinical and medico-legal aspects involved in violent behavior investigation. Violent behavior refers to self-injury or injury to another during sleep. It happens most frequently following partial awakening in the context of arousal disorders (parasomnias. The most frequently diagnosed sleep disorders are REM behavior disorder and somnambulism. Violent behavior might be precipitated by stress, use of alcohol or drugs, sleep deprivation or fever.

  12. The addictive model of self-harming (non-suicidal and suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario eBlasco-Fontecilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  13. The Addictive Model of Self-Harming (Non-suicidal and Suicidal) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Fernández-Fernández, Roberto; Colino, Laura; Fajardo, Lourdes; Perteguer-Barrio, Rosa; de Leon, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, Internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse). Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors. This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches in PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and "major repeaters." Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts) represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as "addictions," and the putative mechanisms underlying them. Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual's self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  14. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Following Re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Crailsheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.

  15. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome display profound neurodevelopmental behavioral deficiencies and exhibit food-related behaviors equivalent to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Barton, Laura V; Mullegama, Sureni V; Wills, Rachel D; Foster, Rebecca H; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-12-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, sleep disturbances, early onset obesity and vast behavioral deficits. We used the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 to categorize the frequency and severity of behavioral abnormalities in a SMS cohort relative to individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous etiology. Self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behavioral scores indicated that both frequency and severity were significantly higher among individuals with SMS relative to those with intellectual disability. Next, we categorized food behaviors in our SMS cohort across age using the Food Related Problems Questionnaire (FRPQ) and found that problems began to occur in SMS children as early as 5-11 years old, but children 12-18 years old and adults manifested the most severe problems. Furthermore, we evaluated the similarities of SMS adult food-related behaviors to those with intellectual disability and found that SMS adults had more severe behavioral problems. Many neurodevelopmental disorders exhibit syndromic obesity including SMS. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder with syndromic obesity and has a well-established management and treatment plan. Using the FRPQ we found that SMS adults had similar scores relative to PWS adults. Both syndromes manifest weight gain early in development, and the FRPQ scores highlight specific areas in which behavioral similarities exist, including preoccupation with food, impaired satiety, and negative behavioral responses. SMS food-related behavior treatment paradigms are not as refined as PWS, suggesting that current PWS treatments for prevention of obesity may be beneficial for individuals with SMS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dialectical behavior therapy skills use as a mediator and outcome of treatment for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Rizvi, Shireen L; Linehan, Marsha M

    2010-09-01

    A central component of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is the teaching of specific behavioral skills with the aim of helping individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) replace maladaptive behaviors with skillful behavior. Although existing evidence indirectly supports this proposed mechanism of action, no study to date has directly tested it. Therefore, we examined the skills use of 108 women with BPD participating in one of three randomized control trials throughout one year of treatment and four months of follow-up. Using a hierarchical linear modeling approach we found that although all participants reported using some DBT skills before treatment started, participants treated with DBT reported using three times more skills at the end of treatment than participants treated with a control treatment. Significant mediation effects also indicated that DBT skills use fully mediated the decrease in suicide attempts and depression and the increase in control of anger over time. DBT skills use also partially mediated the decrease of nonsuicidal self-injury over time. Anger suppression and expression were not mediated. This study is the first to clearly support the skills deficit model for BPD by indicating that increasing skills use is a mechanism of change for suicidal behavior, depression, and anger control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  19. Dialectical behavior therapy compared with general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder: clinical outcomes and functioning over a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMain, Shelley F; Guimond, Tim; Streiner, David L; Cardish, Robert J; Links, Paul S

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted a 2-year prospective naturalistic follow-up study to evaluate posttreatment clinical outcomes in outpatients who were randomly selected to receive 1 year of either dialectical behavior therapy or general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed by blind raters 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. The clinical effectiveness of treatment was assessed on measures of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors, health care utilization, general symptom distress, depression, anger, quality of life, social adjustment, borderline psychopathology, and diagnostic status. The authors conducted between-group comparisons using generalized estimating equation, mixed-effects models, or chi-square statistics, depending on the distribution and nature of the data. Both treatment groups showed similar and statistically significant improvements on the majority of outcomes 2 years after discharge. The original effects of treatment did not diminish for any outcome domain, including suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors. Further improvements were seen on measures of depression, interpersonal functioning, and anger. However, even though two-thirds of the participants achieved diagnostic remission and significant increases in quality of life, 53% were neither employed nor in school, and 39% were receiving psychiatric disability support after 36 months. One year of either dialectical behavior therapy or general psychiatric management was associated with long-lasting positive effects across a broad range of outcomes. Despite the benefits of these specific treatments, one important finding that replicates previous research is that participants continued to exhibit high levels of functional impairment. The effectiveness of adjunctive rehabilitation strategies to improve general functioning deserves additional study.

  20. Self-mutilating behavior in patients with dissociative disorders: the role of innate hypnotic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrinc, Servet; Semiz, Umit B; Basoglu, Cengiz; Cetin, Mesut; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Algul, Ayhan; Ates, Alpay

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between self-mutilation and dissociative disorders (DD) has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relationship and investigated whether this commonality is associated with innate hypnotic capacity. Fifty patients diagnosed with DD and 50 control subjects with major depression were assessed by using a self-mutilation questionnaire, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Traumatic Experiences Checklist, and the Eye-Roll Sign for their self-mutilating behaviors, dissociative symptoms, early trauma, and innate hypnotic capacity, respectively. We have found that 82% of the present sample of patients with DD injured themselves. They had higher scores on trauma, dissociation and eye-roll measurements than controls. In addition, DD patients with self-mutilation were more likely to have high scores of trauma, dissociation and eye-roll than those without self-mutilation. Innate hypnotic capacity was a strong predictor of self-mutilating behavior in DD patients. This study strongly supports the assumption that patients with DD are at high risk for self-mutilating behavior and points to the necessity of routine screening for self-mutilating behavior as well as the hypnotic capacity which may constitute a high risk for self-injury in this patient group.

  1. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  2. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  3. On the potential for iatrogenic effects of psychiatric crisis services: The example of dialectical behavior therapy for adult women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Trevor N; Shaver, Jennifer A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2018-02-01

    Although previous research has suggested that people with a history of using psychiatric crisis services are at higher risk for suicide, it is unclear whether this link is attributable to individual risk factors or iatrogenic effects of service utilization. We examined this question by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a treatment for highly suicidal individuals in which patients took advantage of crisis services less than those in the comparison condition. We hypothesized that crisis-service utilization during a treatment year, rather than pretreatment indicators of suicide risk, would be associated with higher suicide risk after treatment, and that DBT's treatment effects would be partially attributable to this association. Participants were 101 women (Mage = 29.3, 87% Caucasian) with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) criteria for borderline personality disorder. We examined relationships between suicidal ideation (using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire; Linehan, 1981), number of suicide attempts (using the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview; Linehan, Comtois, Brown, Heard, & Wagner, 2006), and number of psychiatric inpatient admissions and psychiatric emergency-room (ER) visits (using the Treatment History Interview; Linehan & Heard, 1987) from the years prior to, during, and following treatment. Treatment-year psychiatric ER visits were the sole predictor of the number of follow-up year suicide attempts. Treatment condition and pretreatment inpatient admissions predicted treatment-year psychiatric ER visits. Finally, there was evidence that DBT resulted in fewer suicide attempts at follow-up, in part because getting DBT led to fewer psychiatric ER visits. In this population and context, data suggest that crisis-service utilization conveys risk for suicide. DBT may

  4. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  5. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment...

  6. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  7. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  8. Olanzapine plus dialectical behavior therapy for women with high irritability who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; McDavid, Joshua D; Brown, Milton Z; Sayrs, Jennifer H R; Gallop, Robert J

    2008-06-01

    This double-blind study examined whether olanzapine augments the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in reducing anger and hostility in borderline personality disorder patients. Twenty-four women with borderline personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and high levels of irritability and anger received 6 months of DBT. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either low-dose olanzapine or placebo and were assessed with standardized measures in a double-blind manner. The study was conducted from September 2000 to December 2002. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that both treatment conditions resulted in significant improvement in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-inflicted injury (p borderline personality disorder. Effect sizes were moderate to large, with the small sample size likely limiting the ability to detect significant results. Overall, there were large and consistent reductions in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-injury for both groups of subjects receiving DBT.

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. The Representation of Self Injury and Suicide on Emo Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With this in mind, this baseline study aimed to determine the portrayal of suicide and self-harm on social networking sites by analysing the representation of these behaviours among emo teenagers on the popular social networking site Facebook. A content analysis of two emo groups revealed a glorification, normalisation ...

  11. The Representation of Self Injury and Suicide on Emo Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blamed both social networking and the teenage emo subculture for romanticising suicide and encouraging and ... music, dress and lifestyle broadly celebrating the unbottling of angst) have increased the incidence of ... Despite this, little research has been done to determine social media's effects on positive perceptions of ...

  12. Development and psychometric properties of the health-risk behavior inventory for Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengcheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of research investigating adolescent risk behaviors in China, however, a comprehensive measure that evaluates the full spectrum of relevant risk behaviors is lacking. In order to address this important gap, the current study sought to develop and validate a comprehensive tool: the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA. Methods Adolescents, ages 14–19 years (n = 6,633, were recruited from high schools across 10 cities in mainland China. In addition, a clinical sample, which included 326 adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for Conduct Disorder, was used to evaluate predictive validity of the HBICA. Psychometric properties including internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity were analyzed. Results Based upon item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, we retained 33 items, and 5 factors explained 51.75% of the total variance: Suicide and Self-Injurious Behaviors (SS, Aggression and Violence (AV, Rule Breaking (RB, Substance Use (SU, and Unprotected Sex (US. Cronbach’s alphas were good, from 0.77 (RB to 0.86 (US for boys, and from 0.74 (SD to 0.83(SS for girls. The 8 weeks test–retest reliabilities were moderate, ranged from 0.66 (AV to 0.76 (SD. External validities was strong, with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 was 0.35 (p p p d = 0.79 – 2.96. Conclusions These results provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Health-Risk Behavior Inventory for Chinese Adolescents (HBICA as a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate assessment instrument for risk behaviors in Chinese adolescents.

  13. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  14. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  15. Behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  16. Do serum BDNF levels vary in self-harm behavior among adolescents and are they correlated with traumatic experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurma, Canem; Varol Tas, Fatma; Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Demirci, Ferhat; Akan, Pınar; Eyuboglu, Damla; Guvenir, Taner

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group). The control group (healthy control group) consisted of 35 healthy adolescents with no psychiatric disorders or self-harm behaviors. The adolescents were asked to fill in the Inventory of Statements About Self Injury (ISAS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). For BDNF measurement, blood samples were taken from the cases and controls. The serum BDNF level of self-harming adolescents who used the self-cutting method was significantly lower than that of other groups, and serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in the emotional neglect and abuse severity of self-harming adolescents during childhood. In our study, serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in emotional abuse in self-harming adolescents. This finding may indicate that neuroplasticity can be affected by a negative emotional environment during the early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: results from a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). We recruited participants 12-18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation for

  18. [An investigation on self-harm episodes and their relationship with suicidal psychology and behaviors in 2713 college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-Yu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the episodes and influencing factors on self-harm and to explore the relationship between self-harm episodes and suicidal psychology and behaviors in college students. Four universities were selected using cluster sampling method in Anqing city and Chaohu city. Totally, 2713 college students completed this survey. Data were analyzed by Pearson Chi-square and logistic regression. In the last six months, rates of highly lethal self-harm, less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage, self-injury without visible tissue damage, self-harmful behaviors with latency damage, other self-harmful behaviors with menticide were 1.9%, 5.5%, 15.3%, 21.2% and 17.0% respectively. The total rate of self-harm was 31.3%. 73.1% of the students with self harmful experiences had the above mentioned behaviors more than 3 times in the last six months. The top 3 reasons for taking self-harm actions were: having learning problems (43.1%), failed love affairs (25.0%) and having conflicts with others (23.9%). There were different influencing factors among different kinds of self-harm episodes. Depression was the risk factor of self-harm. The higher score of having high self-esteem was the protective factor of all kinds of self-harm actions except highly lethal ones. Higher score of difficulties in identifying feelings was one of the risk factors. The rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors in students with self-harm were significantly higher than those in students without those behaviors. Result from linear χ(2) test indicated that the graveness of tissue damage of self-harm was higher along with the rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors (P self-esteem was the protective factor related to most of the self-harm cases.

  19. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  1. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  2. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  3. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  4. Treatment differences in the therapeutic relationship and introject during a 2-year randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus non-behavioral psychotherapy experts for borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D.; Atkins, David C.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of the therapeutic relationship and introject during the course of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Method Women meeting DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 101) were randomized to receive DBT or community treatment by experts. The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB; Benjamin, 1974) was used to measure both the therapeutic relationship and introject. Results Using hierarchical linear modeling, DBT patients reported the development of a more positive introject including significantly greater self-affirmation, self-love, self-protection, and less self-attack during the course of treatment and one-year follow-up relative to community treatment by experts. The therapeutic relationship did not have an independent effect on intrapsychic or symptomatic outcome but did interact with treatment. DBT patients who perceived their therapist as affirming and protecting reported less frequent occurrences of non-suicidal self-injury. Conclusions The study showed positive intrapsychic change during DBT while emphasizing the importance of affirmation and control in the therapeutic relationship. Results are discussed in the context of understanding the mechanisms of change in DBT. PMID:22061867

  5. Dialectical behavior therapy for clients with binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice Y; Matthews, Lauren; Allen, Charese; Kuo, Janice R; Linehan, Marsha Marie

    2008-09-01

    This treatment development study provides summary data for standard Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with minimal adaptation for 8 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) (5) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (3) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). DBT involved 6 months of weekly skills group, individual DBT, therapist consultation team meeting, and 24-hour telephone coaching. Assessments were conducted at pre-, post-treatment, and 6-months follow-up and utilized standardized clinical interviews including the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE), Personality Disorders Exam, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. From pre- to post-treatment, effect sizes for objective binge eating, total EDE scores and global adjustment were large and for number of non-eating disorder axis I disorders and for suicidal behavior and self-injury were medium. From pre- to 6-months follow-up, effect sizes were large for all these outcomes. This provides promising pilot data for larger studies utilizing DBT for BED or BN and BPD. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  8. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  9. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David S

    2017-01-01

    Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior according to the C-SSRS in a European cohort of Huntington's disease gene expansion carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Erik; Vrijmoeth, Eslie M; Giltay, Erik J; Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, G

    2018-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers are at an increased risk of suicide, but so far, no studies have investigated the full spectrum of suicidality, including suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior and self-injurious behavior. We included 1451 HD gene expansion carriers (age 48.4 years (SD 14.0), 54.8% female) of the REGISTRY study of the European Huntington's Disease Network. Lifetime suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were assessed with the Columbia-Suicidal Severity Rating Scale. Motor symptoms and disease stage were assessed using subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, and depressed mood and irritability were assessed by the Problem Behaviors Assessment. Lifetime passive suicidal ideation was reported by 21.2%. Participants in stage II showed the highest prevalence rate of suicidal ideation, while participants in stage IV/V showed the highest prevalence of suicidal behavior. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 6.5% of the HD gene expansion carriers. In multivariate regression analyses, both suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were associated with a depressed mood, and to a lesser extend to irritability. Results may have been affected by denial or recall bias and no conclusions can be made about the temporal and causal relationships with depressed mood and irritability because of the cross-sectional analyses. Given the high prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior in all stages of HD, it is important to screen HD gene expansion carriers for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior on a regular basis in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Internet Addiction, Suicidality and Non-Suicidal Self-Harming Behavior - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbüchel, Toni Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Külpmann, Ina; Kehyayan, Aram; Dieris-Hirche, Jan; Te Wildt, Bert Theodor

    2017-11-23

    Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality. After deduction of multiple items, 2334 articles remained. They were filtered per inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified studies that examined the relationship between IA, NSSI and suicidality, which were assessed by validated psychometric instruments. This allowed a total of 15 studies to be included. Results The relationship between IA and suicidality was examined in 10 studies, four studies examined the relationship of IA, suicidality, and NSSI, and one study exclusively focused on IA and NSSHB. All studies showed higher prevalence for NSSI and respectively suicidality of the subjects with an IA compared to subjects without IA, with point prevalence varying considerably between 1.6-18.7%. Discussion The results of the included publications suggest that Internet dependency is associated with an increased rate of non-suicidal self-harming behavior and increased suicidality, with suicidal ideation being more closely related to IA than suicidal actions. In order to develop a better understanding of causal relationships between IA, NSSI and suicidality, further longitudinal studies are required. Conclusion  Against the background of the presented studies NSSHB and suicidality need to be explicitly addressed within the assessment and treatment of IA patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  13. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  14. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and career prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-10-15

    Women protective service workers die by suicide at a higher rate than women workers in other occupational groups. However, no study has examined rates and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters, despite the potential for these data to inform suicide screening, prevention, and intervention initiatives. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare pre-career and career rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and identify their sociodemographic and occupational correlates among women firefighters. Data were obtained from 313 current U.S. women firefighters who completed a web-based survey (mean age = 37.30y, SD = 9.70y, 92.7% White). Pre-career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) were found to be 28.4%, 10.2%, 5.8%, and 11.2%, respectively. Career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and NSSI were found to be 37.7%, 10.9%, 3.5%, and 9.3%, respectively. Pre-career rates of suicide ideation (OR = 4.760, 95% CI = 2.820-8.034, p harassment) are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain-mediated affect regulation is reduced after dialectical behavior therapy in borderline personality disorder: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-05-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, but self-injurious behavior appears to have an emotion-regulating effect. We investigated whether pain-mediated affect regulation can be altered at the neural level by residential Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), providing adaptive emotion regulation techniques. Likewise, we investigated whether pain thresholds or the appraisal of pain change after psychotherapy. We investigated 28 patients with BPD undergoing DBT (self-referral), 15 patients with treatment as usual and 23 healthy control subjects at two time points 12 weeks apart. We conducted an fMRI experiment eliciting negative emotions with picture stimuli and induced heat pain to investigate the role of pain in emotion regulation. Additionally, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds.At first measurement, patients with BPD showed amygdala deactivation in response to painful stimulation, as well as altered connectivity between left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These effects were reduced after DBT, as compared with patients with treatment as usual. Pain thresholds did not differ between the patient groups. We replicated the role of pain as a means of affect regulation in BPD, indicated by increased amygdala coupling. For the first time, we could demonstrate that pain-mediated affect regulation can be changed by DBT. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Treatment differences in the therapeutic relationship and introject during a 2-year randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D; Atkins, David C; Comtois, Katherine A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2012-02-01

    The present study explored the role of the therapeutic relationship and introject during the course of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Women meeting DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 101) were randomized to receive DBT or community treatment by experts. The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (Benjamin, 1974) was used to measure both the therapeutic relationship and introject. Relative to community treatment by experts, DBT participants reported the development of a more positive introject, including significantly greater self-affirmation, self-love, self-protection, and less self-attack, during the course of treatment and 1-year follow-up. The therapeutic relationship did not have an independent effect on intrapsychic or symptomatic outcome but did interact with treatment. DBT participants who perceived their therapist as affirming and protecting reported less frequent occurrences of nonsuicidal self-injury. The study showed positive intrapsychic change during DBT and emphasized the importance of affirmation and control in the therapeutic relationship. Results are discussed in the context of understanding the mechanisms of change in DBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Zachowania ryzykowne młodzieży = Risky behaviors of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Baranowska

    2016-06-01

          Streszczenie W artykule została podjęta problematyka zachowań ryzykownych przejawianych przez współczesną młodzież. Autorka tekstu dokonała zwięzłej charakterystyki najczęściej występujących wśród młodych ludzi zachowań problemowych, takich jak: palenie papierosów, nadużywanie alkoholu, narkotyków i dopalaczy; ryzykowna aktywność seksualna; okaleczanie własnego ciała (autoagresja; nadmierne opalanie się. Następnie, odwołując się do teorii czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących, koncepcji resilience, modelu ekologicznego Bronfenbrennera oraz Teorii Zachowań Problemowych, zwróciła uwagę na czynniki, które intensyfikują prawdopodobieństwo występowania zachowań ryzykownych u adolescentów oraz na czynniki, które wzmacniają ogólny potencjał zdrowotny człowieka i tym samym jego odporność na działanie tych pierwszych. Opracowanie kończy ilustracja zadań, jakie stoją przed osobami prowadzącymi działania profilaktyczne, w związku z rozpowszechnianiem się wśród nastolatków zachowań problemowych.   Słowa klucze: zachowanie ryzykowne, adolescenci, czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące, profilaktyka.   Summary The article touches upon risky behaviors manifested by contemporary teenagers. The article characterizes the most frequent types of risky behaviors among young people, such as: smoking cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and designer drugs abuse, risky sexual contacts, self-mutilation (self-injury and excessive sunbathing. The author also appeals to the theory of risk and protective factors, notion of resilience, ecologic model of Bronfenbrenner, and the theory of problem behavior in order to point out to the factors which intensify the probability of risky behaviors of adolescents as well as the factors which enhance the overall health potential of a person and thus his resistance to such factors. The research ends with a list of tasks that people responsible for preventive actions are facing due to the

  18. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  19. Differential effects of the ascorbyl and tocopheryl derivative on the methamphetamine-induced toxic behavior and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinobu; Mori, Tomohisa; Kanazawa, Hideko; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2007-01-01

    A previous study showed that high doses of methamphetamine induce self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. Furthermore, the combination of methamphetamine and morphine increased lethality in mice. We recently surmised that the rise in SIB and mortality induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine may be related to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine whether an antioxidant could inhibit SIB or mortality directly induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine. The SIB induced by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine was abolished by the administration of Na L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS: 300 mg/kg), but not Na DL-α-tocopheryl phosphate (TPNa: 200 mg/kg). In contrast, APS (300 mg/kg) and TPNa (200 mg/kg) each significantly attenuated the lethality induced by methamphetamine and morphine. The present study showed that the signal intensity of superoxide adduct was increased by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine in the heart and lungs, and methamphetamine plus morphine tended to increase superoxide adduct in all of the tissues measured by ESR spin trap methods. Adduct signal induced in brain by methamphetamine administration increased in significance, but in mouse administrated methamphetamine plus morphine. There are differential effects of administration of methamphetamine and coadministration of methamphetamine plus morphine on adduct signal. These results suggest that APS and TPNa are effective for reducing methamphetamine-induced toxicity and/or toxicological behavior. While APS and TPNa each affected methamphetamine- and/or morphine-induced toxicology and/or toxicological behavior, indicating that both drugs have antioxidative effects, their effects differed

  20. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  1. Treating co-occurring Axis I disorders in recurrently suicidal women with borderline personality disorder: a 2-year randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus community treatment by experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Chapman, Alexander L; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T; Murray, Angela; Comtois, Katherine A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was more efficacious than treatment by nonbehavioral psychotherapy experts in reducing co-occurring Axis I disorders among suicidal individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Women with BPD and recent and repeated suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior (n = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 year of DBT or community treatment by experts (CTBE), plus 1 year of follow-up assessment. For substance dependence disorders (SDD), DBT patients were more likely to achieve full remission, spent more time in partial remission, spent less time meeting full criteria, and reported more drug- and alcohol-abstinent days than did CTBE patients. These findings suggest that improvements in co-occurring SDD among suicidal BPD patients are specific to DBT and cannot be attributed to general factors associated with nonbehavioral expert psychotherapy. Further, group differences in SDD remission were not explained by either psychotropic medication usage or changes in BPD criterion behaviors. DBT and CTBE did not significantly differ in the reduction of anxiety disorders, eating disorders, or major depressive disorder.

  2. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  3. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  4. Dysregulated behaviors in bulimia nervosa: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara Freire Brito César; Martins, C.; Brandão, Isabel; Torres, António Roma; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often related to self-control difficulties and to dysregulated behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of self-injurious behaviour, suicide attempts, and other dysregulated behaviours in BN, using two control groups (a healthy group and a general psychiatric group), and also to examine the association between these behaviours and alleged sexual abuse in BN.Method: Women (N = 233) aged between 13 and 38 years old were evaluated using a semi-st...

  5. Cognitive and behavioral heterogeneity in genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.L. Pegoraro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. Results: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. Conclusion: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. Resumo: Objetivo: investigar o perfil cognitivo e comportamental, sintomas e transtornos psiquiátricos em crianças com três diferentes síndromes genéticas, com antecedentes socioculturais e socioeconômicos semelhantes. Métodos: trinta e quatro

  6. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) applied to college students: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Maclane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M

    2012-12-01

    College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a moderator. The intent-to-treat (ITT) sample included 63 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years who were suicidal at baseline, reported at least 1 lifetime nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) act or suicide attempt, and met 3 or more borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnostic criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to DBT (n = 31) or an optimized treatment-as-usual (O-TAU) control condition (n = 32). Treatment was provided by trainees, supervised by experts in both treatments. Both treatments lasted 7-12 months and included both individual and group components. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, and 18 months (follow-up). Mixed effects analyses (ITT sample) revealed that DBT, compared with the control condition, showed significantly greater decreases in suicidality, depression, number of NSSI events (if participant had self-injured), BPD criteria, and psychotropic medication use and significantly greater improvements in social adjustment. Most of these treatment effects were observed at follow-up. No treatment differences were found for treatment dropout. Moderation analyses showed that DBT was particularly effective for suicidal students who were lower functioning at pretreatment. DBT is an effective treatment for suicidal, multiproblem college students. Future research should examine the implementation of DBT in CCCs in a stepped care approach.

  7. Problem music and self-harming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2006-10-01

    Academics and protest groups have claimed that "problem music" (hard rock, hip hop/rap, & punk) causes self-injurious thoughts/behaviors among fans. In this study we investigated whether the relationship is mediated by self-esteem, delinquency, and conservatism; and whether first exposure to problem music preceded self-injurious thoughts. A liking for problem music was associated with four of the five self-injurious measures, although these significant relationships were weakened (into nonsignificance in the case of two self-injurious measures) when the mediating variables were included. Listening to problem music did not precede self-injurious thoughts. Problem music is associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, but this relationship is mediated by other factors and the former does not seem to cause the latter.

  8. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  9. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  10. Duty to Warn and Protect against Self-Destructive Behaviors and Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Craigen, Laurie M.; Knight, Jasmine; Healey, Amanda; Sikes, April

    2009-01-01

    Professional school counselors are likely to work with students who are experiencing mental health issues including self-injury, eating disorders, depression and suicidality, as well as those associated with dating violence and bullying. This paper discusses two key areas school counselors are encouraged to reflect upon in determining if there is…

  11. Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with the Use of Aversives in the Public Schools: The SIBIS Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob-Timm, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Explores four types of intervention available in treating self-injurious behavior (SIB). One effective, although controversial, treatment in reducing SIB involves use of Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS), a device which delivers a mild electric shock following a blow to the head. Reviews and explains the ethical and legal issues…

  12. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  13. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  14. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  15. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  16. Behavioral Assessment: Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Chrisman

    1980-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)

  17. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  18. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  19. Predictive models for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Spanish University students: rationale and methods of the UNIVERSAL (University & mental health) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Maria Jesús; Castellví, Pere; Almenara, José; Lagares, Carolina; Roca, Miquel; Sesé, Albert; Piqueras, José Antonio; Soto-Sanz, Victoria; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; Echeburúa, Enrique; Gabilondo, Andrea; Cebrià, Ana Isabel; Miranda-Mendizábal, Andrea; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Auerbach, Randy P; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi

    2016-05-04

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young people. While suicide prevention is considered a research and intervention priority, longitudinal data is needed to identify risk and protective factors associate with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Here we describe the UNIVERSAL (University and Mental Health) project which aims are to: (1) test prevalence and 36-month incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors; and (2) identify relevant risk and protective factors associated with the incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among university students in Spain. An ongoing multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study of first year university students in 5 Spanish universities. Students will be assessed annually during a 36 month follow-up. The surveys will be administered through an online, secure web-based platform. A clinical reappraisal will be completed among a subsample of respondents. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be assess with the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI) and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Risk and protective factors will include: mental disorders, measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and Screening Scales (CIDI-SC), and the Epi-Q Screening Survey (EPI-Q-SS), socio-demographic variables, self-perceived health status, health behaviors, well-being, substance use disorders, service use and treatment. The UNIVERSAL project is part of the International College Surveys initiative, which is a core project within the World Mental Health consortium. Lifetime and the 12-month prevalence will be calculated for suicide ideation, plans and attempts. Cumulative incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and mental disorders will be measured using the actuarial method. Risk and protective factors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be analyzed by Cox proportional hazard models. The study will provide valid, innovative and useful data for developing

  20. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  1. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  2. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...

  3. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  4. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  5. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  6. Bad Behavior: Improving Reproducibility in Behavior Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Cheng, Xinyi; Altieri, Stefanie C; Yang, Hongyan

    2018-01-24

    Systems neuroscience research is increasingly possible through the use of integrated molecular and circuit-level analyses. These studies depend on the use of animal models and, in many cases, molecular and circuit-level analyses. Associated with genetic, pharmacologic, epigenetic, and other types of environmental manipulations. We illustrate typical pitfalls resulting from poor validation of behavior tests. We describe experimental designs and enumerate controls needed to improve reproducibility in investigating and reporting of behavioral phenotypes.

  7. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  8. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  10. About Teleological Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  11. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  13. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  14. Agenda of behavioral toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B

    1978-01-01

    The author describes behavioral toxicology as a new discipline and contrasts it to the fields of physics and pharmacology. Several questions are raised and discussed concerning the field of behavioral toxicology. Some of these questions are: (1) how is an adverse behavioral effect recognized; (2) how can the non-specific be specified; (3) are standardized test batteries feasible. The problem of chronic intake is discussed as well as drawing information from other related disciplines such as neurochemistry, neuropathology and neurophysiology. The author concludes with several statements concerning new directions in the discipline of behavioral toxicology.

  15. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  16. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  17. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies.

  18. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  19. Nascent Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  20. Safety Behaviors and Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Helgadottir, Fjola; Menzies, Ross; Heard, Rob; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a…

  1. Anger and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Janne; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.

    2014-01-01

    Anger is often primarily portrayed as a negative emotion that motivates antagonistic, aggressive, punitive, or hostile behavior. We propose that this portrayal is too one-sided. A review of the literature on behavioral consequences of anger reveals evidence for the positive and even prosocial

  2. [Fibromyalgia: behavioral medicine interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Holtz, M C; van der Meer, B; Krohn-Grimberghe, B

    2007-10-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia as a chronic disease is still unexplained. This article gives an overview of the newest treatment methods of behavioral medicine of the fibromyalgia syndrome with regard to the state of research of etiology and diagnosis of this disease. Methods such as operant conditioning, cognitive-behavioral approaches, patient education and relaxation methods are discussed.

  3. Symbiotic Optimization of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    SYMBIOTIC OPTIMIZATION OF BEHAVIOR UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON MAY 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYMBIOTIC OPTIMIZATION OF BEHAVIOR 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-1-0304 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  5. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  6. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  7. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This

  8. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  9. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly ...

  10. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported......-Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior-thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)....

  11. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  12. Socialization of prosocial behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok, Rianne; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2018-01-01

     = 162), moderated mediation was tested for the relation between parental sensitivity and child prosocial behavior via brain volume, in boys and girls. Both maternal and paternal sensitivity were repeatedly observed between 1 and 4 years of age. Brain volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging......-by-brain interaction was found, illustrating that daughters of sensitive parents were more prosocial and that less prosocial behavior was reported for girls with a larger total brain volume. Child gender significantly moderated the indirect effect of parental sensitivity on prosocial behavior via total brain volume...

  13. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  14. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  15. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  16. Suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviours in adolescent and adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Tomas, Irene Alvarez; Temes, Christina M; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Zanarini, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence data on self-mutilation and suicide attempts for adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) are currently not available. The purpose of this paper was to determine the frequency and methods of two forms of physically self-destructive acts (i.e. self-mutilation and suicide attempts) reported by adolescent borderline inpatients in one of the largest samples to date and to compare these results with a similarly diagnosed and assessed group of adult borderline inpatients. A total of 104 adolescent inpatients with BPD and 290 adult inpatients with BPD were interviewed about their lifetime history of physically self-destructive acts. The overall rates of self-mutilation (about 90%) and suicide attempts (about 75%) were similar during index admission for both adolescent and adult borderline patients. However, adolescents reported significantly higher rates of extreme levels of lifetime self-mutilation (e.g. >25 and >50 episodes) and cutting in particular, as compared with adult BPD. In contrast, borderline adults were significantly more likely to report a history of numerous (five or more) suicide attempts than adolescents with BPD. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts among adolescent borderline patients are prevalent and serious. Taken together, these results suggest that extreme levels of self-mutilation distinguish adolescent BPD from adults with BPD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wale, Jaywant; Yadav, Pankaj K; Garg, Shairy

    2010-01-01

    Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature

  18. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wale Jaywant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature.

  19. Suicide and self-injury among children and youth with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Resnick, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Chronic conditions may be associated with suicide risk. This study aimed to specify the extent to which youth chronic conditions are at risk for suicidality and self-harm. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in 10- to 19-year-olds with and without chronic physical and/or mental health conditions. Independent of race, socioeconomic status, absent parent, special education status, substance use, and emotional distress, youth with co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions (n = 4099) had significantly higher odds of self-harm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [99% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-2.8), suicidal ideation (OR: 2.5 [99% CI: 2.3-2.8), and suicide attempts (OR: 3.5 [99% CI: 3.1-3.9]) than healthy peers (n = 106,967), as did those with chronic mental conditions alone (n = 8752). Youth with chronic physical conditions alone (n = 12,554) were at slightly elevated risk for all 3 outcomes. Findings were similar among male and female youth, with a risk gradient by grade. Chronic physical conditions are associated with a slightly elevated risk for self-harm, suicidal thinking, and attempted suicide; chronic mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for all 3 outcomes. Co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation that is similar to the risk in chronic mental conditions and with an attempted suicide risk in excess of that predicted by the chronic mental health conditions alone. Preventive interventions for these youth should be developed and evaluated.

  20. Analysis of relation between tattooing and deliberate self-injury in agroup ofpersons presenting both qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jasek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of body art (or body decoration has its cultural roots and origins, associated with regional beliefs and rit‑ uals, and is met on all the continents. Can a tattoo – when approached in the understanding of risk behaviour – be regarded as one of autoaggression forms, being a substitute for the purposeful act of self‑harm? An evaluation of tattooing as a substitute for purposeful self‑harm. An analysis of correlations between tattooing and self‑harming in a group of subjects presenting both features. A self‑answer questionnaire, used as a study tool, included a self‑harm and a tattooing section. Questions in the former part had their counterparts in the latter part, what facilitated a compar‑ ative analysis. A study group included 79 subjects with tattoo. Out of that group, tattooed subjects with, at least, one purposeful self‑harm episode in history were isolated, with 56% of females and 44% of males. The analysis was carried out on the percent of subjects from the study group, who reported their sensations, following purposeful self‑harm and tattooing. Differences were observed, regarding the feeling of relief, satisfaction, guilt and impulsiveness in the undertak‑ en actions among the subjects with both features. Tattooing is a risk behaviour and coexists with other risk behaviours, such as risk drinking. Subjects with more than one self‑harm episode in history, presented – beside tattoo – also more invasive forms of body art, e.g., scarification. Even if the obtained results did not attain statistical significance (for the low number of subjects in the study group, we may conclude – although with some caution – about a dissimilar per‑ ception of the roles, played by tattoo and self‑harm in life of those with both features. A thesis may then be implied that tattoo does not fulfil the same function as self‑harm in subjects with both features.

  1. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  2. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  3. Emotions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...

  4. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow......Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...

  5. Behavioral based safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Michael Raj, I.

    2009-01-01

    Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

  6. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child ..... be cured in the hospital which the TBA can cure like 'iru inu'. ... with a rural nurse) Rural Indian mothers were also.

  7. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... religion, or social mores. They might include very aggressive or destructive behavior, overt racism or prejudice, stealing, truancy, smoking or substance abuse, school failure, or an intense sibling rivalry. Your ...

  8. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  9. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  10. Behavioral Neurophysiology of Ethanol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janak, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    .... Alcohol consumption by humans can be modeled in the rat using operant behavioral procedures in which an arbitrary response, such as a lever press, is reinforced by the presentation of small amounts...

  11. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  13. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  14. Incentives and Prosocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2005-01-01

    We develop a theory of prosocial behavior that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. Rewards or punishments (whether material or image-related) create doubt about the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ?overjustification effect? can induce a partial or even net crowding out of prosocial behavior by extrinsic incentives. We also identify the settings that are conducive to multiple social norms and, mor...

  15. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  16. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  17. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  18. HIV behavioral research online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.

  19. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  1. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  2. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  3. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  4. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  5. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  6. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e......WOB and generate hypotheses about how consumers influence each other by means of behavior in online social environments. We present a conceptual framework for categorizing eWOB, and propose a novel research design for a randomized controlled field experiment. Specifically, the ongoing experiment aims to analyze...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service....

  7. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  8. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of media on behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schieser, Hans

    2013-01-01

    How far do Media (Television, Video Games, Publications) influence the behavior of young people? The increasing occurrence of violent behavior (e.g. amuck shootings) suggest a negative influence upon the minds and behavior of youth. Psychologists point to the effects of propaganda, the fallacy of "behaviorism" and the facts of experience with addiction (e.g. pornography) and physical effects on the brain.

  10. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb

    2013-01-01

    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  11. Behavioral Tolerance to Anticholinergic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-20

    Medicine , 47, 137-141. 7. Kurtz, P.J. (1977) Behavioral and biochemical effects of the carbamate insecticide, mobam. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior...tolerance to marihuana in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1, 73-76. 43 40. Olson, J. and Carder, B. (1974) Behavioral tolerance to... marihuana as a function of amount of prior training. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2, 243-247. 41. Sidman, M. (1960) Tactics of Scientific

  12. Behavioral management of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...

  13. Epartners supporting behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,

  14. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  15. Neuroticism and proxemic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Julio, S; Duffy, K

    1977-08-01

    The relationship between proxemic behavior and neuroticism was examined. 50 male and 43 female subjects individually self-selected seats in a classroom where they were administered the Eysenck Personality Inventory by one of four experimenters (two male, two female). A significant relationship was found between proxemic distance and both neuroticism and experimenter's sex.

  16. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  17. Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hurt yourself or someone else, you report sexual abuse of a child, or you report abuse or neglect of someone in a vulnerable population. Seek treatment right away Seek immediate ... uncontrolled sexual behavior You have other problems with impulse control, ...

  18. Prosocial behavior and gender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Espinosa, M. P.; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, April/Article Number 88 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender * prosocial behavior * treatment effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2015

  19. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  20. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Amirullah

    2017-01-01

    Hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti tentang organizational citizenship behavior menunjukkan bahwa perilaku sangat penting bagi efektifitas organisasi. Namun masih sedikit penjelasan teoritis tentang bagaimana perilaku tersebut memberikan kontribusi dalam meningkatkan fungsi organisasi. Nahapiet dan Ghoshal (1998) menyatakan bahwa social capital dari perusahaan merupakan sumber keunggulan organisasi yang sangat vital (organizational advantage). Berdasarkan hasil kajian me...

  3. Measuring Neurotic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  4. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...

  5. Prosocial behavior and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  6. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  7. Promoting Adolescents' Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Yael; Fleischman, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Saying a kind word to a classmate, acknowledging other students' feelings, sharing books and advice, defending a victim of bullying--these are just a few of the prosocial behaviors that can enhance students' social and academic lives at school. Because children do not develop social values in a vacuum, educators, policymakers, and researchers are…

  8. Behavior Disorders and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers, designed to identify factors contributing to behavior problems, is reported from the Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis; the Minnesota Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Minneapolis; and the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

  9. Improving Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pamela; Gilbert, Janice T.

    This report describes a program for improving the behavior of seventh and eighth grade students with learning disabilities in a self-contained classroom setting. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students demonstrated a lack of problem-solving skills, showed a low frustration tolerance, and exhibited poor self-concepts. Two major…

  10. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, R.F.; Buengeler, C.; Griffin, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  11. Married Women's Retirement Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Pozzebon; Olivia S. Mitchell

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we examine the economic and family determinants of married women's retirement behavior. A model of wives' retirement decisions is developed and tested empirically using data on working married women. Estimated response parameters are compared to those obtained previously for male workers. Our findings are directly relevant to policy questions regarding pension and Social Security reform.

  12. Behavioral decisions and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model unifies seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in light of our

  13. Behavioral Decisions and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model uni es seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in the light of

  14. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  15. Does Information Change Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.

  16. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that seems sexual to an adult is not sexual to children. They think about it as play. Sex education should start at home at an early age. References Bushnell P and Lucas L. Questions and Answers About Sex. KidsHealth. ... Sexual Behavior in Children: What's Normal? http://www.mayoclinic. ...

  17. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  18. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  19. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  20. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  1. Behaviorism, Private Events, and the Molar View of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective–objective or inner–outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms. PMID:22532740

  2. Metacognition in addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Wells, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  4. Radiation behavior of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Raymond, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    High energy neutron irradiations have been performed on Nb 3 Sn superconductors to assess their behavior in a fusion reactor environment. Irradiations were performed at 4.2 K and property measurements were made without warming the samples. The critical current I/sub c/ increased with irradiation to a level about 50% above the unirradiated value at the highest fluences reached in our experiments. These results are compared with the results of other low temperature irradiations of Nb 3 Sn

  5. Corruption and firm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  6. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  7. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  8. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  9. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  10. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  11. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  12. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  13. Facebook and Social Contagion of Mental Health Disorders Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon J. Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-suicidal self-injury is growing in popularity among young people. Studies suggest that the phenomenon of social contagion may be to blame. This study explored the influence of the popular social media site, Facebook, on mental health, non-suicidal self-injury, and suicidal behavior in college students. A total of 244 undergraduate students participated in this study. Results found that Facebook can increase personal anxiety and depression, but it is more likely to increase happiness and good mood. However, for some individuals Facebook can lead to more self-injurious behavior, such as cutting.

  14. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  15. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  16. Habit and Behavioral Intentions as Predictors of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Dan; Triandis, Harry C; Adamopoulos, John

    1978-12-01

    This research assessed the relative impact of habit and behavioral intentions in predicting classroom teacher behavior, using a model proposed by Triandis. Responses from a behavioral differential, as well as two hours of classroom observations, were taken on 77 male and female black and white junior high school teachers. The classroom observation technique (STOIC) obtained the frequencies of emitted behaviors (both verbal and nonverbal), categorized by race and sex of the target child. Results indicated that habit was a more potent predictor of classroom behavior than intentions. However, a post-hoc analysis supported the notion that intentions become important when the habit component can be suppressed.

  17. Nurses' Spirituality Improves Caring Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abu; Nursalam; Adriani, Merryana; Kusnanto; Qomariah, Siti Nur; Hidayati, Laily; Pratiwi, Ika Nur; Ni'mah, Lailatun

    2017-01-01

    Caring is a behavior of giving holistic assistance to individuals. In fact, this important behavior still has not routinely performed in current nursing practice. Personality and sipirituality are important factors in forming one's caring behavior. Spirituality is a passion or impulse to perform noble action. The objective of this study was to…

  18. Behavior Plan, Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  19. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  20. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The