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Sample records for self-imaging talbot effect

  1. Nonlinear Talbot Effect and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhening

    2018-03-01

    Talbot effect, a lenless self-imaging phenomenon, was first discovered in 1836 by H.F. Talbot. The conventional Talbott effect has been studied for over a hundred years. Recently, the rapid development of optical superlattices has brought a great breakthrough in Talbot effect research. A nonlinear self-imaging phenomenon was found in the periodically poled LiTaO3 (PPLT) crystals. [1][2][3] This nonlinear Talbot effect has applications not only in optics but also in many other fields. For example, the phenomenon is realized by frequency-doubled beams, which offers people a new way to enhance the spatial resolution of the self-images of periodic objects. And by observing the self-image of the second harmonic (SH) field on the sample surface, people can detect the domain structure in the crystal without damaging the sample. Throughout this review paper, an overview of nonlinear Talbot effect and two applications of this phenomenon is presented. Breakthroughs like achieving a super-focused spot and realizing an acousto-optic tunable SH Talbot illuminator will be introduced as well.

  2. Diffraction-Induced Bidimensional Talbot Self-Imaging with Full Independent Period Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Romero Cortés, Luis; Deville, Antonin; Seghilani, Mohamed; Azaña, José

    2017-03-01

    We predict, formulate, and observe experimentally a generalized version of the Talbot effect that allows one to create diffraction-induced self-images of a periodic two-dimensional (2D) waveform with arbitrary control of the image spatial periods. Through the proposed scheme, the periods of the output self-image are multiples of the input ones by any desired integer or fractional factor, and they can be controlled independently across each of the two wave dimensions. The concept involves conditioning the phase profile of the input periodic wave before free-space diffraction. The wave energy is fundamentally preserved through the self-imaging process, enabling, for instance, the possibility of the passive amplification of the periodic patterns in the wave by a purely diffractive effect, without the use of any active gain.

  3. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Talbot self-imaging phenomenon under Bessel beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rijuparna; Chowdhury, Subhajit Dutta; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our theoretical studies on the phenomenon of self-imaging of periodic object under the illumination of zero-order Bessel beam. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the self-images are visible only after the walk-off distance of the Bessel beam used. It is also observed that the self-images bend around the optical axis of the setup. Besides, the present study justifies the importance of the conditions stipulated by Montgomery.

  5. Super Talbot effect in indefinite metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wangshi; Huang, Xiaoyue; Lu, Zhaolin

    2011-08-01

    The Talbot effect (or the self-imaging effect) can be observed for a periodic object with a pitch larger than the diffraction limit of an imaging system, where the paraxial approximation is applied. In this paper, we show that the super Talbot effect can be achieved in an indefinite metamaterial even when the period is much smaller than the diffraction limit in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations, where the paraxial approximation is not applied. This is attributed to the evanescent waves, which carry the information about subwavelength features of the object, can be converted into propagating waves and then conveyed to far field by the metamaterial, where the permittivity in the propagation direction is negative while the transverse ones are positive. The indefinite metamaterial can be approximated by a system of thin, alternating multilayer metal and insulator (MMI) stack. As long as the loss of the metamaterial is small enough, deep subwavelength image size can be obtained in the super Talbot effect.

  6. Automated collimation testing by determining the statistical correlation coefficient of Talbot self-images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Santosh; Dhanotia, Jitendra; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple, fast, and accurate technique for detection of collimation position of an optical beam using the self-imaging phenomenon and correlation analysis. Herrera-Fernandez et al. [J. Opt.18, 075608 (2016)JOOPDB0150-536X10.1088/2040-8978/18/7/075608] proposed an experimental arrangement for collimation testing by comparing the period of two different self-images produced by a single diffraction grating. Following their approach, we propose a testing procedure based on correlation coefficient (CC) for efficient detection of variation in the size and fringe width of the Talbot self-images and thereby the collimation position. When the beam is collimated, the physical properties of the self-images of the grating, such as its size and fringe width, do not vary from one Talbot plane to the other and are identical; the CC is maximum in such a situation. For the de-collimated position, the size and fringe width of the self-images vary, and correspondingly the CC decreases. Hence, the magnitude of CC is a measure of degree of collimation. Using the method, we could set the collimation position to a resolution of 1 μm, which relates to ±0.25   μ    radians in terms of collimation angle (for testing a collimating lens of diameter 46 mm and focal length 300 mm). In contrast to most collimation techniques reported to date, the proposed technique does not require a translation/rotation of the grating, use of complicated phase evaluation algorithms, or an intricate method for determination of period of the grating or its self-images. The technique is fully automated and provides high resolution and precision.

  7. The Talbot effect in a metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, H.; Hasan, M.; Hall, T. J.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of anisotropy and spatial dispersion of a metamaterial on the Talbot effect may be engineered in principle. This has profound implications for applications of the Talbot effect such as the design of a multimode interference coupler (MMI). The paper describes how a metamaterial can suppress the modal phase error which otherwise limits the scaling of MMI port dimension. A binary multilayer dielectric material described by the Kronig-Penney model is shown to provide a close approximation to the required dispersion relation. Results of simulations of a multi-slotted waveguide MMI engineered to provide a polarising beam splitter function are given as an example of the method.

  8. Measurement of the temperature Gradient in air using Talbot effect and Moire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoly, M.T.; Rasouli, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we have exploited the self-imaging or Talbot effect and Moire technique to measure the temperature distribution in the air enclosed between two paral led plates of different temperatures. This study shows that for the plates width of 60 cm a change of 1 d egC in 1 cm can be easily detected

  9. Talbot effect of the defective grating in deep Fresnel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shuyun; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yuwei

    2015-02-01

    Talbot effect of the grating with different defect is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The defects of grating include the loss of the diffraction unit, the dislocation of the diffraction unit and the modulation of the unit separation. The exact diffraction distributions of three kinds of defective gratings are obtained according to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The calculation results show the image of the missing or dislocating unit appears at the Talbot distance (as mentioned in K. Patorski Prog. Opt., 27, 1989, pp.1-108). This is the so-called self-repair ability of grating imaging. In addition, some more phenomena are discovered. The loss or the dislocation of diffraction unit causes the diffraction distortion within a certain radial angle. The regular modulation of unit separation changes the original diffraction, but the new periodicity of the diffraction distribution rebuilds. The self-imaging of grating with smaller random modulation still keeps the partial self-repair ability, and yet this characteristic depends on the modulation degree of defective grating. These diffraction phenomena of the defective gratings are explained by use of the diffraction theory of grating. The practical experiment is also performed and the experimental results confirm the theoretic predictions.

  10. A robust tool for photon source geometry measurements using the fractional Talbot effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovric, G.; Oberta, Peter; Mohacsi, I.; Stampanoni, M.; Mokso, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2014), s. 2745-2760 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hard X-rays * X-ray imaging * Talbot and self-imaging effects * synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/search2.cfm?reissue=J&journalList=4&fullrecord=oberta&basicsearch=Go

  11. Two-dimensional linear and nonlinear Talbot effect from rogue waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Petrović, Milan S; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-03-01

    We introduce two-dimensional (2D) linear and nonlinear Talbot effects. They are produced by propagating periodic 2D diffraction patterns and can be visualized as 3D stacks of Talbot carpets. The nonlinear Talbot effect originates from 2D rogue waves and forms in a bulk 3D nonlinear medium. The recurrences of an input rogue wave are observed at the Talbot length and at the half-Talbot length, with a π phase shift; no other recurrences are observed. Differing from the nonlinear Talbot effect, the linear effect displays the usual fractional Talbot images as well. We also find that the smaller the period of incident rogue waves, the shorter the Talbot length. Increasing the beam intensity increases the Talbot length, but above a threshold this leads to a catastrophic self-focusing phenomenon which destroys the effect. We also find that the Talbot recurrence can be viewed as a self-Fourier transform of the initial periodic beam that is automatically performed during propagation. In particular, linear Talbot effect can be viewed as a fractional self-Fourier transform, whereas the nonlinear Talbot effect can be viewed as the regular self-Fourier transform. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the rogue-wave initial condition is sufficient but not necessary for the observation of the effect. It may also be observed from other periodic inputs, provided they are set on a finite background. The 2D effect may find utility in the production of 3D photonic crystals.

  12. Temporal Talbot effect in propagation of attosecond electron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varro, S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The rapid development in extreme strong-field and extreme short-pulse laser physics provide us with many potentials to explore the dynamics of fundamental processes taking place in light-matter interactions and in propagation of electromagnetic or matter waves. The present paper discusses the propagation of above-threshold electron waves generated by (not necessary ultra-short) strong laser fields. Recently we have shown that - in analogy with the formation of attosecond light pulses by interference of high-order harmonics - the wave components of photoelectrons are naturally assembled in attosecond spikes, through the Fourier synthesis of these de Broglie waves. We would like to emphasize that the proposed scheme does not presupposes an a priori ultrashort excitation. Owing to the inherent dispersion of electron waves even in vacuum, the clean attosecond structure (emanating perpendicularly from a metal target surface) is gradually spoiled due to destructive interference. Fortunately the collapsed fine structure recovers itself at certain distances from the source within well-defined 'revival layers'. This is a temporal analogon of the optical Talbot effect representing the self-imaging of a grating, which is illuminated by stationary plane waves, in the near field. The 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' introduced in ref. 3 have been found merely on the basis of some attosecond layers turned out to show certain regularities. In the meantime we have derived approximate analytic formulae for the propagation characteristics, with the help of which we can keep track of the locations of the 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' on a larger scale. We shall report on these semiclassical results, and also discuss their possible connection with the recently found entropy remnants in multiphoton Compton scattering by electronic wave packets. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific

  13. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  14. X-ray Talbot interferometry with capillary plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    An X-ray Talbot interferometer consisting of two capillary plates, which were used as X-ray amplitude gratings, was evaluated for X-ray phase imaging. A theoretical aspect of capillary X-ray Talbot interferometry is presented with a preliminary operation result using synchrotron radiation. A two-dimensional X-ray Talbot effect, or self-imaging effect, which was the basis of Talbot interferometry, was observed with the capillary plate, and moire images formed by the X-ray Talbot interferometer exhibited contrasts corresponding to the differential phase shift caused by phase objects placed in front of the interferometer. Finally, the possibility of quantitative phase measurement with a fringe scanning technique is discussed. (author)

  15. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography based on the fractional Talbot effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Leon, Lluis; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesus; Tajahuerce, Enrique [GROC-UJI, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Araiza-E, Maria [Laboratorio de Procesamiento Digital de Senales, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Javidi, Bahram [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, CT 06269-2157 (United States); Andres, Pedro, E-mail: enrique.tajahuerce@uji.e [Departament d' Optica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    A method for recording on-axis single-shot digital holograms based on the self-imaging phenomenon is reported. A simple binary two-dimensional periodic amplitude is used to codify the reference beam in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, generating a periodic three-step phase distribution with uniform irradiance over the sensor plane by fractional Talbot effect. An image sensor records only one shot of the interference between the light field scattered by the object and the codified parallel reference beam. Images of the object are digitally reconstructed from the digital hologram through the numerical evaluation of the Fresnel diffraction integral. This scheme provides an efficient way to perform dynamic phase-shifting interferometric techniques to determine the amplitude and phase of the object light field. Unlike other parallel phase-shifting techniques, neither complex pixelated polarization devices nor special phase diffractive elements are required. Experimental results confirm the feasibility and flexibility of our method.

  16. Fractional averaging of repetitive waveforms induced by self-imaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Cortés, Luis; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José

    2015-10-01

    We report the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of averaging of stochastic events with an equivalent result of calculating the arithmetic mean (or sum) of a rational number of realizations of the process under test, not necessarily limited to an integer record of realizations, as discrete statistical theory dictates. This concept is enabled by a passive amplification process, induced by self-imaging (Talbot) effects. In the specific implementation reported here, a combined spectral-temporal Talbot operation is shown to achieve undistorted, lossless repetition-rate division of a periodic train of noisy waveforms by a rational factor, leading to local amplification, and the associated averaging process, by the fractional rate-division factor.

  17. A dispersion-balanced Discrete Fourier Transform of repetitive pulse sequences using temporal Talbot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a processor based on the concatenation of two fractional temporal Talbot dispersive lines with balanced dispersion to perform the DFT of a repetitive electrical sequence, for its use as a controlled source of optical pulse sequences. The electrical sequence is used to impart the amplitude and phase of a coherent train of optical pulses by use of a modulator placed between the two Talbot lines. The proposal has been built on a representation of the action of fractional Talbot effect on repetitive pulse sequences and a comparison with related results and proposals. It is shown that the proposed system is reconfigurable within a few repetition periods, has the same processing rate as the input optical pulse train, and requires the same technical complexity in terms of dispersion and pulse width as the standard, passive pulse-repetition rate multipliers based on fractional Talbot effect.

  18. Self-Focusing and the Talbot Effect in Conformal Transformation Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Chen, Huanyang; Liu, Hui; Xu, Lin; Sheng, Chong; Zhu, Shining

    2017-07-21

    Transformation optics has been used to propose various novel optical devices. With the help of metamaterials, several intriguing designs, such as invisibility cloaks, have been implemented. However, as the basic units should be much smaller than the working wavelengths to achieve the effective material parameters, and the sizes of devices should be much larger than the wavelengths of illumination to work within the light-ray approximation, it is a big challenge to implement an experimental system that works simultaneously for both geometric optics and wave optics. In this Letter, by using a gradient-index microstructured optical waveguide, we realize a device of conformal transformation optics (CTO) and demonstrate its self-focusing property for geometry optics and the Talbot effect for wave optics. In addition, the Talbot effect in such a system has a potential application to transfer digital information without diffraction. Our findings demonstrate the photon controlling ability of CTO in a feasible experiment system.

  19. Self-Focusing and the Talbot Effect in Conformal Transformation Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Chen, Huanyang; Liu, Hui; Xu, Lin; Sheng, Chong; Zhu, Shining

    2017-07-01

    Transformation optics has been used to propose various novel optical devices. With the help of metamaterials, several intriguing designs, such as invisibility cloaks, have been implemented. However, as the basic units should be much smaller than the working wavelengths to achieve the effective material parameters, and the sizes of devices should be much larger than the wavelengths of illumination to work within the light-ray approximation, it is a big challenge to implement an experimental system that works simultaneously for both geometric optics and wave optics. In this Letter, by using a gradient-index microstructured optical waveguide, we realize a device of conformal transformation optics (CTO) and demonstrate its self-focusing property for geometry optics and the Talbot effect for wave optics. In addition, the Talbot effect in such a system has a potential application to transfer digital information without diffraction. Our findings demonstrate the photon controlling ability of CTO in a feasible experiment system.

  20. Measurement of the modulation transfer function of a charge-coupled device array by the combination of the self-imaging effect and slanted edge method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sedigheh; Madanipour, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, by a combination of the self-imaging effect for Ronchi gratings and the standard slanted edge modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method for CCD cameras, the MTF of the CCD array without optics is measured. For this purpose, a Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He-Ne laser. A self-image of the grating appears without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. The lines of the self-image of the grating are used as a slanted edge array. This method has all the advantages of the slanted edge method, and also since the array of the edge is ready, the total area of the CCD can be tested. The measured MTF is related to the CCD array without optics.

  1. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Wenxiang, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Xi, Yan, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Wang, Ge, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu [Biomedical Imaging Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  2. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Xi, Yan; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  3. Pulse repetition rate multiplication by Talbot effect in a coaxial fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Nikhil; Saxena, Geetika Jain; Anand, Jyoti; Sharma, Enakshi K.

    2018-03-01

    We use a coaxial fiber, which is a cylindrical coupled waveguide structure consisting of two concentric cores, the inner rod and an outer ring core as a first order dispersive media to achieve temporal Talbot effect for pulse repetition rate multiplication (PRRM) in high bit rate optical fiber communication. It is observed that for an input Gaussian pulse train with pulse width, 2τ0=1ps at a repetition rate of 40 Gbps (repetition period, T=25ps), an output repetition rate of 640 Gbps can be achieved without significant distortion at a length of 40.92 m.

  4. Study on talbot pattern for grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Oh, Oh Sung; Lee, Seung Wook [Dept. of School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Yul [Neutron Instrument Division, Korea Atomic Energy Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    One of properties which X-ray and Neutron can be applied nondestructive test is penetration into the object with interaction leads to decrease in intensity. X-ray interaction with the matter caused by electrons, Neutron caused by atoms. They share applications in nondestructive test area because of their similarities of interaction mechanism. Grating interferometer is the one of applications produces phase contrast image and dark field image. It is defined by Talbot interferometer and Talbot-Lau interferometer according to Talbot effect and Talbot-Lau effect respectively. Talbot interferometer works with coherence beam like X-ray, and Talbot-Lau has an effect with incoherence beam like Neutron. It is important to expect the interference in grating interferometer compared normal nondestructive system. In this paper, simulation works are conducted according to Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer in case of X-ray and Neutron. Variation of interference intensity with X-ray and Neutron based on wave theory is constructed and calculate elements consist the system. Additionally, Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometer is simulated in different kinds of conditions.

  5. Young women's genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W

    2017-12-01

    Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.

  6. Effect of Major Depression on the Self-Image of Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Veijo; Laukkanen, Eila; Peiponen, Sirkka; Lehtonen, Johannes; Viinamaki, Heimo

    2001-01-01

    Studied the specific impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the self-image of adolescent boys and girls seeking outpatient treatment. Compared 68 adolescents with MDD and 39 with no psychiatric illness. Self-image among MDD patients was in general poorer than in the comparison group. The effect of MDD was more negative for girls than boys,…

  7. The grating projection system: a laser light pattern projection technique for long distance illumination based on the Talbot effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagner, J L; Jones, A R

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the Talbot effect, a grating projection system was designed. Periodic patterns were produced from a projection of a diffraction grating illuminated by a spherical wave of monochromatic coherent light. The diffracted light was collimated by a lens, the focal distance of which was at the centre of the incident spherical wave. Experiments demonstrated that the diffracted orders were also spherical waves centred on the same transverse plane as the incident light. The periodic illumination observed at different locations along the optic axis was proven to be the result of interference between the diffracted orders. It was demonstrated that this system could be used to measure velocities up to 20 m s -1 of particles crossing the fringes at distances up to 3 m

  8. Talbot Carpet Simulation for X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngju; Oh, Ohsung; Jeong, Hanseong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul; Moon, Myungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, Talbot carpet simulator has been developed to visualize the X-ray grating interference patterns in grating interferometer. We have simulated X-ray interference for a variety of simulations and demonstrated a few examples in this summary. Grating interferometer produces interference of X-ray called Talbot pattern with gratings manufactured in micro scale. Talbot pattern is self-images of phase grating which develops interference as beam splitter that is one of gratings consisted of interferometer. As the other gratings, there are source grating makes coherence and analyze grating is used to analyze interference onto detector. Talbot carpet has been studied as the beam behavior which is distinguished with common X-ray imaging systems. It is helpful to understand grating interferometer and possible to expect beams' oscillation for designing theoretically. We confirm pattern has periodicity produced by interference after pi and pi/2 phase grating and changes in the perpendicular direction to entrance face according to phase objects.

  9. Self-imaging effect of TM modes in photonic crystal multimode waveguides only exhibiting band gaps for TE modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tianbao; Jiang Xiaoqing; Yang Jianyi; Zhou Haifeng; Liao Qinghua; Wang Minghua

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents the properties of transverse-magnetic (TM) modes in multimode photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs), which only exhibit photonic band gaps for transverse-electric (TE) modes. A good equivalent model is applied to analysis the designed structures on the basis of multimode interference effect and self-imaging principle. The performance shows that the TM modes can also be propagated with high efficiency, and resemble index-guided modes owing to the combination of total internal reflection (TIR) and distribution Bragg reflection. It provides a novel way to realize the components for both TM and TE polarizations by combining PBG and TIR effect in PCWs. As one of potential applications, polarization-insensitive power splitter based on the proposed structures can be designed

  10. Using the Talbot_Lau_interferometer_parameters Spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Talbot-Lau interferometers allow incoherent X-ray sources to be used for phase contrast imaging. A spreadsheet for exploring the parameter space of Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometers has been assembled. This spreadsheet allows the user to examine the consequences of choosing phase grating pitch, source energy, and source location on the overall geometry of a Talbot or Talbot-Lau X-ray interferometer. For the X-ray energies required to penetrate scanned luggage the spacing between gratings is large enough that the mechanical tolerances for amplitude grating positioning are unlikely to be met.

  11. WDM compatible and electrically tunable SPE-OCDMA system based on the temporal self-imaging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainta, S; Amaya, W; Erro, M J; Garde, M J; Sales, S; Muriel, M A

    2011-02-01

    A coding/decoding setup for a spectral phase encoding optical code-division multiple access (SPE-OCDMA) system has been developed. The proposal is based on the temporal self-imaging effect and the use of an easily tunable electro-optic phase modulator to achieve line-by-line coding of the transmitted signal, thus assuring compatibility with WDM techniques. Modulation of the code is performed at the same rate as the data, avoiding the use of high-bandwidth electro-optic modulators. As proof of concept of the technique, experimental results are presented for a back-to-back coder/decoder setup transmitting a 10 GHz unmodulated optical pulse train within an 80 GHz optical window and using 8-chip Hadamard codes.

  12. Symbolic Purchase in Sports Marketing: The Effect of Perceived Quality and Self-image Congruity on Intention to Purchase; A Field Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    FETTAHLIOĞLU, Seçil; EREN, Arif Selim; FETTAHLIOĞLU, Ömer Okan; BİLGİNER, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Modern life urges people to meet their needs for communication faster and more effective than ever. As a result of this fact people spend more and more time in front of the computer and other means of communication. Thus, mankind moves less and the need to keep fit becomes more important. So, people involve much more in sports facilities and this means consumption of sports equipment and other tools of sports marketing. The present study aims to investigate the effect of self-image congruity ...

  13. A job-related self-image enhancement programme

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. This research focuses on self-concept improvement for adults. A self-image enhancement programme has been developed and its impact tested with regard to shortand medium term developments. Various training approaches have been compared to establish whether massed or spaced sessions training is more effective, and whether individual follow-up after the programme is of advantage. Self-image enhancement is seen as central to a person's functioning and psychological well-being....

  14. Disclosure of domain structure in cubic CaxZr1-xO2-x, 0x15 ≤ x ≤ 0x20, by Talbot image enhancement of high-resolution electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossell, H.J.; Wilson, I.J.; Sellar, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscope images have been recorded of several cystalline samples of calcia-stabilized zirconia (Ca-CSZ) and of the fluorite-related superstructure phase φ 1 (CaZr 4 O 9 ). The contrast of the CSZ images has been enhanced markedly by the light-optical Talbot self-imaging technique. Is is demonstrated that the CSZ crystals contain a coherent dispersion of microdomains approximately 30 A in diameter, and that the structure of the microdomains is that of φ 1 . (orig.)

  15. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  16. Family Perceptions of Adolescent Self-Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Daniel; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Relationships between adolescents' self-image and perceptions of these adolescents held by their parents indicated that parents accurately perceive their adolescent children's self-image. Results further showed that mother-father agreement is associated with positive adolescent attitudes toward family and vocational/educational goals. (Author/PN)

  17. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  18. Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutman, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beck, Thomas J [Quantum Medical Metrics, 1450 South Rolling Road, Baltimore, MD 21227 (United States); Carrino, John A [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Bingham, Clifton O, E-mail: stutman@pha.jhu.edu [Divisions of Rheumatology and Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    A high-resolution radiographic method for soft tissues in the small joints of the hand would aid in the study and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), which often attacks these joints. Of particular interest would be imaging with <100 {mu}m resolution the joint cartilage, whose integrity is a main indicator of disease. Differential phase-contrast (DPC) or refraction-based x-ray imaging with Talbot grating interferometers could provide such a method, since it enhances soft tissue contrast and can be implemented with conventional x-ray tubes. A numerical joint phantom was first developed to assess the angular sensitivity and spectrum needed for a hand DPC system. The model predicts that, due to quite similar refraction indexes for joint soft tissues, the refraction effects are very small, requiring high angular resolution. To compare our model to experiment we built a high-resolution bench-top interferometer using 10 {mu}m period gratings, a W anode tube and a CCD-based detector. Imaging experiments on animal cartilage and on a human finger support the model predictions. For instance, the estimated difference between the index of refraction of cartilage and water is of only several percent at {approx}25 keV mean energy, comparable to that between the linear attenuation coefficients. The potential advantage of DPC imaging thus comes mainly from the edge enhancement at the soft tissue interfaces. Experiments using a cadaveric human finger are also qualitatively consistent with the joint model, showing that refraction contrast is dominated by tendon embedded in muscle, with the cartilage layer difficult to observe in our conditions. Nevertheless, the model predicts that a DPC radiographic system for the small hand joints of the hand could be feasible using a low energy quasi-monochromatic source, such as a K-edge filtered Rh or Mo tube, in conjunction with a {approx}2 m long 'symmetric' interferometer operated in a high Talbot order.

  19. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  20. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  1. Relationship between anger regulation and self-image inelderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Bereza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The picture of elderly people, narrowly understood, tends to be quite explicitly associated, namely as either embittered, grumpy, tyrannizing their family and friends, emotionally unstable or active, gentle and kind. Meanwhile, like in the case of people from younger age groups, the typology of elderly people is slightly more varied, including their way of regulating experienced emotions. The aim of the article was the search for the specificity of anger regulation and the connection between the techniques of anger regulation and self-image in elderly people. Based on Bentovim’s theory, emotion regulation was understood as modulating, modifying, focusing and controlling intense excitement and experienced tension. Material and methods:The sample group consisted of 31 men (study group and 39 women (control group above 64 years of age. The study procedure had a questionnaire form and involved completing psychological tests by subjects, including Self-Expression and Control Scale – SECS (T. van Elderen et al. and the Adjective Check List – ACL (H.G. Gough, A.B. Heilbrun. Results: The groups differed significantly in terms of anger regulation and self-image. There are links between different ways of anger regulation and the real self-image. Conclusions: The way of anger regulation is significant for the self-image experienced by elderly people, while a constructive expression of anger and the effective control of this process give a chance for the optimization of the quality of life of elderly people.

  2. Spherical aberration compensation method for long focal-length measurement based on Talbot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie; Luo, Jia

    2017-08-01

    Large-aperture and long focal-length lens is widely used in high energy laser system. The method based on Talbot interferometry is a reliable method to measure the focal length of such elements. By employing divergent beam and two gratings of different periods, this method could realize full-aperture measurement, higher accuracy and better repeatability. However, it does not take into account the spherical aberration of the measured lens resulting in the moiré fringes bending, which will introduce measurement error. Furthermore, in long-focal measurement with divergent beam, this error is an important factor affecting the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new spherical aberration compensation method, which could significantly reduce the measurement error. Characterized by central-symmetric scanning window, the proposed method is based on the relationship between spherical aberration and the lens aperture. Angle data of moiré fringes in each scanning window is retrieved by Fourier analysis and statistically fitted to estimate a globally optimum value for spherical-aberration-free focal length calculation. Simulation and experiment have been carried out. Compared to the previous work, the proposed method is able to reduce the relative measurement error by 50%. The effect of scanning window size and shift step length on the results is also discussed.

  3. Analysis of the modal behavior of an antiguide diode laser array with Talbot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, P.D.; van Eijk, Pieter D.; Reglat, Muriel; Vassilief, Georges; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Driessen, A.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    An analysis of the filtering of the array modes in a resonant optical waveguide (ROW) array of antiguides by a diffractive spatial filter (a Talbot filter) is presented. A dispersion relation is derived for the array modes, allowing the calculation of the field distribution. The filtering is

  4. Development of an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer for fast density profile measurements of dense plasmas generated by beam-target interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dan [National Security Technol., LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berninger, M; Meidinger, A; Stutman, Dan; Valdivia, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    For the first time an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer is being developed that will use a flash tube source and fast detector for dynamic density gradient measurements. In Talbot-Lau moire deflectometry, an x-ray grating makes an image of itself on a second grating (the Talbot effect) to produce a moire pattern on a detector. The test object is placed between these gratings, with variations in index of refraction changing the pattern. A third grating in front of an incoherent x-ray source produces an array of coherent sources. With a 150 kV x-ray flash tube as the source, the gratings are placed in a glancing angle setup for performance at ~60 keV. The detector is a gated CCD with a fast scintillator for x-ray conversion. This diagnostic, designed for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, measures the density profile of dense plasma plumes ejected from beam-target interactions. DARHT has two high-current, pulsed, inductive linear electron accelerators with bremsstrahlung targets at the end of each beam line to create 2-D radiographic images of hydrodynamic tests. One multi-pulse accelerator has up to four beam pulses striking the same target within 2 μs. Computer simulations that model target evolution and ejected material between pulses are used to design these targets for optimal radiographic performance; the x-ray deflectometer will directly measure density gradients in the ejected plumes and provide the first experimental constraints to these models. During the first year, currently underway, the diagnostic systems are being designed. In year two, the flash tube and fast detector will be deployed at DARHT for radiographic imaging while the deflectometer is built and tested on the bench with a continuous source. Finally, in year three, the fast deflectometer will be installed on DARHT and density measurements will be performed.

  5. An extension of the talbot-ogden hydrology model to an affine multi-dimensional moisture content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Deng, Li; Douglas, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The Talbot-Ogden hydrology model provides a fast mass conservative method to compute infiltration in unsaturated soils. As a replacement for a model based on Richards equation, it separates the groundwater movement into infiltration

  6. Self-image and ethnic identification in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, E

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-image and ethnic identification among 3 South African groups. Participants included random samples of 347 Afrikaans-speaking Whites, 113 English-speaking Whites, and 466 Blacks in urban Gauteng. Positive and negative self-image were extracted using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). Afrikaans-speaking Whites had the most positive self-image and Blacks the most negative self-image. A positive self-image was correlated with stronger ethnic identification among Afrikaans-speaking Whites. The opposite was true for Blacks. This relationship was insignificant among English-speaking Whites. Ambivalence toward ingroup identity was persistently correlated with self-image for all groups.

  7. Perceived self-image in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Bonilla Carrasco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn about the experiences of adolescents diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis. Method: Integrative review of the literature published within a specified time frame. Results: For both sexes, the predominant clinical symptom of this condition appears to be the negative effect that the deformity exerts on perceived self-image. Quantitative studies used numerical scores to assess perceptions of body image but did not analyse emotional aspects. Patients treated surgically were found to have a better self-image than patients treated with a brace. Quality of life was improved by a reduction in the magnitude of the curve. Conclusion: Spinal deformity exerts a psychological effect on adolescent girls.

  8. [Perceived self-image in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: an integrative review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Isabel Bonilla; Ruiz, Maria Carmen Solano

    2014-08-01

    To learn about the experiences of adolescents diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis. Integrative review of the literature published within a specified time frame. For both sexes, the predominant clinical symptom of this condition appears to be the negative effect that the deformity exerts on perceived self-image. Quantitative studies used numerical scores to assess perceptions of body image but did not analyse emotional aspects. Patients treated surgically were found to have a better self-image than patients treated with a brace. Quality of life was improved by a reduction in the magnitude of the curve. Spinal deformity exerts a psychological effect on adolescent girls.

  9. The Self-Image of Physically Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Ostrov, Eric

    1982-01-01

    Physically abused and nonabused adolescents from similar backgrounds were compared via the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Abused adolescents were shown to feel worse in family relations, emotional stability, psychopathology, impulse control, coping skills, and overall self-image. Implications for the professional's treatment of abused children…

  10. Gender and Age Variations in the Self-Image of Jamaican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Muenchen, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender significantly influenced morals, while age differences affected six other dimensions. Some results contradicted past research. (RJM)

  11. Using Personal Construct Theory to Explore Self-Image with Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Butler, Richard; Hare, Dougal Julian; Green, David

    2011-01-01

    A young person's construct of self can be fundamental to their psychological well being (Glick 1999; Emler 2001). However limited research has been conducted in the United Kingdom to explore self-image with adolescents with learning disabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the effective use of personal construct theory with children…

  12. Acoustic multimode interference and self-imaging phenomena realized in multimodal phononic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua

    2015-01-01

    We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented. (paper)

  13. Coherent addition of high power broad-area laser diodes with a compact VBG V-shaped external Talbot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Braiman, Yehuda

    2018-05-01

    We introduced a compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity for phase locking of high power broad-area laser diodes. The length of compact cavity is ∼25 mm. Near diffraction-limit coherent addition of 10 broad-area laser diodes indicated that high quality phase locking was achieved. We measured the near-field emission mode of each individual broad-area laser diode with different feedback, such as a volume Bragg grating and a high reflection mirror. We found out that the best result of phase locking broad-area laser diodes was achieved by the compact V-shaped external Talbot cavity with volume Bragg grating feedback.

  14. Phase Locking of Laser Diode Array by Using an Off-Axis External Talbot Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhou-Ping; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Que Li-Zhi; Zhu Yun; Ji Zhi-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Phase locking of a laser diode array is demonstrated experimentally by using an off-axis external Talbot cavity with a feedback plane mirror. Due to good spatial mode discrimination, the cavity does not need a spatial filter. By employing the cavity, a clear and stable far-field interference pattern can be observed when the driver current is less than 14 A. In addition, the spectral line width can be reduced to 0.8 nm. The slope efficiency of the phase-locked laser diode array is about 0.62 W/A. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. The religious-spiritual self-image and behaviours among adolescent street children in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhizha, Samson

    2015-02-01

    The present study sought to explore the relationship between street childhood and adolescent religious-spiritual self-image. In Zimbabwe, there has been a rise in street children population in the urban centres. The current study investigated whether adolescent street children live and work in an eco-developmentally risky context for the development of positive religious-spiritual self-image. This rise in street children population has been in the context of a socio-politico-economic crisis, which was marked by record inflation rates and the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The research objectives were to investigate the nature of religious-spiritual self-image for street-living adolescent children, and to determine the effects of self-image on the behaviour of street-living adolescent children. A psycho-ethnographic research design was employed in this study. This involved collection of data for a sustained period in the context within which the participants live. The participants were 16 street-living adolescent children aged between 12 and 18 years and six key informants all in Harare in Zimbabwe. A total of 22 participants took part in this study. Snowballing was used to recruit key informant interviewees, while purposive sampling was used to recruit participants for focus group discussions, in-depth interview, and participant and non-participant observations. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and participant and non-participant observations were the data collection methods. Thematic content analysis was used for analysing the data. This thematic content analytic method helped to identify themes on the religious-spiritual self-image that emerged from the data. Data analysis revealed that the adolescent street children's religious-spiritual self-image is largely negative. Most street-living adolescent children believed that they were controlled and influenced by evil spirits and that their relatives were casting bad spells on them

  16. Towards simultaneous Talbot bands based optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel J; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-05-01

    We report a Talbot bands-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of producing longitudinal B-scan OCT images and en-face scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images of the human retina in-vivo. The OCT channel employs a broadband optical source and a spectrometer. A gap is created between the sample and reference beams while on their way towards the spectrometer's dispersive element to create Talbot bands. The spatial separation of the two beams facilitates collection by an SLO channel of optical power originating exclusively from the retina, deprived from any contribution from the reference beam. Three different modes of operation are presented, constrained by the minimum integration time of the camera used in the spectrometer and by the galvo-scanners' scanning rate: (i) a simultaneous acquisition mode over the two channels, useful for small size imaging, that conserves the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between them; (ii) a hybrid sequential mode, where the system switches itself between the two regimes and (iii) a sequential "on-demand" mode, where the system can be used in either OCT or SLO regimes for as long as required. The two sequential modes present varying degrees of trade-off between pixel-to-pixel correspondence and independent full control of parameters within each channel. Images of the optic nerve and fovea regions obtained in the simultaneous (i) and in the hybrid sequential mode (ii) are presented.

  17. Are Compassionate and Self-Image Goals Comparable across Cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncewicz Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether compassionate goals to support others and self-image goals to maintain and defend desired self-images: 1 are equivalent constructs across three cultures (U.S., Japan, Poland; 2 overlap with interdependent self-construal; and 3 predict relationships and growth measures similarly in each country. We re-analyzed data from American (n = 130 and Japanese (n = 203 students, reported in Niiya et al. (2013, along with new data from Poland (n = 246. Single and multiple group confirmatory analyses showed that the two-factor structure holds across the three cultures. Interdependence correlated with compassionate and self-image goals only in Japan. In all three samples, compassionate goals correlated with non-zero-sum belief, feeling close, growth-seeking, self-compassion, and learning from failures, whereas self-image goals correlated with defensive responses to conflicts and validation-seeking. Our results suggest that compassionate and self-image goals may serve similar functions in relationships and growth across cultures.

  18. Talbot's method for the numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: an implementation for personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratt, T.J.

    1989-05-01

    Safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal require efficient computer models for the important processes. The present paper is based on an efficient computational technique which can be used to solve a wide variety of safety assessment models. It involves the numerical inversion of analytical solutions to the Laplace-transformed differential equations using a method proposed by Talbot. This method has been implemented on a personal computer in a user-friendly manner. The steps required to implement a particular transform and run the program are outlined. Four examples are described which illustrate the flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the program. The improvements in computational efficiency described in this paper have application to the probabilistic safety assessment codes ESCORT and MASCOT which are currently under development. Also, it is hoped that the present work will form the basis of software for personal computers which could be used to demonstrate safety assessment procedures to a wide audience. (author)

  19. High-speed X-ray phase tomography with Talbot interferometer and fringe scanning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibayashi, Shunsuke; Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    High-speed X-ray phase tomography based on the Fourier-transform method has been demonstrated with an X-ray Talbot interferometer using white synchrotron radiation. We report the experimental results of high-speed X-ray phase tomography with fringe-scanning method instead of Fourier-transform method to improve spatial resolution without a considerable increase of scan time. To apply fringe-scanning method to high speed tomography, we tested a scan that is a synchronous combination of one-way continuous movements of the sample rotation and the grating displacement. When this scanning method was combined with X-ray phase tomography, we were able to obtain a scan time of 5 s. A comparison of the image quality derived with the conventional approach and with the proposed approach using the fringe-scanning method showed that the latter had better spatial resolution.

  20. X-ray phase scanning setup for non-destructive testing using Talbot-Lau interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, S.; Nonoguchi, M.; Kato, K.; Kageyama, M.; Koike, T.; Kuribayashi, M.; Momose, A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray grating interferometry has a great potential for X-ray phase imaging over conventional X-ray absorption imaging which does not provide significant contrast for weakly absorbing objects and soft biological tissues. X-ray Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometers which are composed of transmission gratings and measure the differential X-ray phase shifts have gained popularity because they operate with polychromatic beams. In X-ray radiography, especially for nondestructive testing in industrial applications, the feasibility of continuous sample scanning is not yet completely revealed. A scanning setup is frequently advantageous when compared to a direct 2D static image acquisition in terms of field of view, exposure time, illuminating radiation, etc. This paper demonstrates an efficient scanning setup for grating-based Xray phase imaging using laboratory-based X-ray source. An apparatus consisting of an X-ray source that emits X-rays vertically, optical gratings and a photon-counting detector was used with which continuously moving objects across the field of view as that of conveyor belt system can be imaged. The imaging performance of phase scanner was tested by scanning a long continuous moving sample at a speed of 5 mm/s and absorption, differential-phase and visibility images were generated by processing non-uniform moire movie with our specially designed phase measurement algorithm. A brief discussion on the feasibility of phase scanner with scanning setup approach including X-ray phase imaging performance is reported. The successful results suggest a breakthrough for scanning objects those are moving continuously on conveyor belt system non-destructively using the scheme of X-ray phase imaging.

  1. A preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype for x-ray dark-field imaging of human-sized objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, C; Bartl, P; Leghissa, M; Ritschl, L; Sutter, S M; Weber, T; Zeidler, J; Freudenberger, J; Mertelmeier, T; Radicke, M; Michel, T; Anton, G; Meinel, F G; Baehr, A; Auweter, S; Bondesson, D; Gaass, T; Dinkel, J; Reiser, M; Hellbach, K

    2018-03-26

    Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry provides information about the scattering and refractive properties of an object - in addition to the object's attenuation features. Until recently, this method was ineligible for imaging human-sized objects as it is challenging to adapt Talbot-Lau interferometers (TLIs) to the relevant x-ray energy ranges. In this work, we present a preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype capable of imaging human-sized objects with proper image quality at clinically acceptable dose levels. The TLI is designed to match a setup of clinical relevance as closely as possible. The system provides a scan range of 120 × 30 cm 2 by using a scanning beam geometry. Its ultimate load is 100 kg. High aspect ratios and fine grid periods of the gratings ensure a reasonable setup length and clinically relevant image quality. The system is installed in a university hospital and is, therefore, exposed to the external influences of a clinical environment. To demonstrate the system's capabilities, a full-body scan of a euthanized pig was performed. In addition, freshly excised porcine lungs with an extrinsically provoked pneumothorax were mounted into a human thorax phantom and examined with the prototype. Both examination sequences resulted in clinically relevant image quality - even in the case of a skin entrance air kerma of only 0.3 mGy which is in the range of human thoracic imaging. The presented case of a pneumothorax and a reader study showed that the prototype's dark-field images provide added value for pulmonary diagnosis. We demonstrated that a dedicated design of a Talbot-Lau interferometer can be applied to medical imaging by constructing a preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype. We experienced that the system is feasible for imaging human-sized objects and the phase-stepping approach is suitable for clinical practice. Hence, we conclude that Talbot-Lau x-ray imaging has potential for clinical use and enhances the diagnostic power of medical x-ray imaging.

  2. Self-imaging in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Guota, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    The structure and main properties of coherent and partially coherent optical fields that are self-reproducible under propagation through a first-order optical system are investigated. A phase space description of self-imaging in first-order optical systems is presented. The Wigner distribution

  3. Business accomplishments, gender and entrepreneurial self-image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid); L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on Bem’s psychological theory of self-perception, this paper presents and tests a model that examines the impact of business accomplishments and gender on entrepreneurial self-image and explores the definition of entrepreneurship according to Vesper’s Entrepreneurial Typology.

  4. Attachment Styles and Self-Image in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu; Tuzun, Zeynep; Pehlivanturk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Gokler, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the attachment styles and the relation of these styles to the self-image in Turkish adolescents. The study included 378 adolescents (196 females and 182 males) from high schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) who were administered Relationship Scale Questionnaires and Offer Self-Image…

  5. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  6. Does Self-Image Matter? Client's Self-Image, Behaviour and Evaluation of a Career Counselling Session: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedin, Gunnar; Armelius, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study addresses differences in self-image as a client characteristic in career counselling by using the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (Benjamin, L., "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," 64(6), 1203-1212, 1996; Benjamin, L., "Journal of Personality Assessment," 66(2), 248-266, 1996) and an adaptation…

  7. An extension of the talbot-ogden hydrology model to an affine multi-dimensional moisture content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2013-09-01

    The Talbot-Ogden hydrology model provides a fast mass conservative method to compute infiltration in unsaturated soils. As a replacement for a model based on Richards equation, it separates the groundwater movement into infiltration and redistribution for every time step. The typical feature making this method fast is the discretization of the moisture content domain rather than the spatial one. The Talbot-Ogden model rapidly determines how well ground water and aquifers are recharged only. Hence, it differs from models based on advanced reservoir modeling that are uniformly far more expensive computationally since they determine where the water moves in space instead, a completely different and more complex problem.According to the pore-size distribution curve for many soils, this paper extends the one dimensional moisture content domain into a two dimensional one by keeping the vertical spatial axis. The proposed extension can describe any pore-size or porosity distribution as an important soil feature. Based on this extension, infiltration and redistribution are restudied. The unconditional conservation of mass in the Talbot-Ogden model is inherited in this extended model. A numerical example is given for the extended model.

  8. A Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): Reliability and Validity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anne C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA), an adaptation of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), designed to measure aspects of self-image among young adolescents, was administered to two groups of sixth graders. The development of the SIQYA is described and reliability and validity results are presented. (EGS)

  9. A Comparison of the Self-Image of Talented Teenagers with a Normal Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Samuel; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1989-01-01

    Self-images of 76 male/101 female adolescents talented in mathematics, science, music, athletics, or art were compared to those of 112 male/106 female average teenagers, using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents. Talented adolescents had self-images generally similar to their average peers. Implications for the development of talent…

  10. High precision locating control system based on VCM for Talbot lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lixin; Deng, Qian; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the high precision and efficiency requirements of Z-direction locating in Talbot lithography, a control system based on Voice Coil Motor (VCM) was designed. In this paper, we built a math model of VCM and its moving characteristic was analyzed. A double-closed loop control strategy including position loop and current loop were accomplished. The current loop was implemented by driver, in order to achieve the rapid follow of the system current. The position loop was completed by the digital signal processor (DSP) and the position feedback was achieved by high precision linear scales. Feed forward control and position feedback Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) control were applied in order to compensate for dynamic lag and improve the response speed of the system. And the high precision and efficiency of the system were verified by simulation and experiments. The results demonstrated that the performance of Z-direction gantry was obviously improved, having high precision, quick responses, strong real-time and easily to expend for higher precision.

  11. Morfologia externa de Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. I. Cabeça e apêndices (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae External morphology of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. I. Cabeça e apêndices (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manuel Saraiva Bizarro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the morphology of the head of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914 (Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae adults from both sexes is presented. The material was obtained at the city's plant nursery "Horto Florestal de Curitiba", Paraná, Brazil; mainly by rearing eggs and larvae collected there on Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae. When possible, all the results obtained were compared with those already available in the literature concerning external morphology studies pertinent to other Nymphalidae subfamilies (Brassolinae, Morphinae and Danainae.

  12. The second-order differential phase contrast and its retrieval for imaging with x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yi; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The x-ray differential phase contrast imaging implemented with the Talbot interferometry has recently been reported to be capable of providing tomographic images corresponding to attenuation-contrast, phase-contrast, and dark-field contrast, simultaneously, from a single set of projection data. The authors believe that, along with small-angle x-ray scattering, the second-order phase derivative Φ ″ s (x) plays a role in the generation of dark-field contrast. In this paper, the authors derive the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by the second-order phase derivative to the dark-field contrast (namely, second-order differential phase contrast) and validate them via computer simulation study. By proposing a practical retrieval method, the authors investigate the potential of second-order differential phase contrast imaging for extensive applications. Methods: The theoretical derivation starts at assuming that the refractive index decrement of an object can be decomposed into δ=δ s +δ f , where δ f corresponds to the object's fine structures and manifests itself in the dark-field contrast via small-angle scattering. Based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory, the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by δ s , which corresponds to the object's smooth structures, to the dark-field contrast are derived. Through computer simulation with specially designed numerical phantoms, an x-ray differential phase contrast imaging system implemented with the Talbot interferometry is utilized to evaluate and validate the derived formulae. The same imaging system is also utilized to evaluate and verify the capability of the proposed method to retrieve the second-order differential phase contrast for imaging, as well as its robustness over the dimension of detector cell and the number of steps in grating shifting. Results: Both analytic formulae and computer simulations show that, in addition to small-angle scattering, the

  13. Exercise activity and self-image/self-esteem in nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Takase Gonçalves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the effects on the self-image/self-esteem of institutionalized elderly people of a program of systematic physical exercises. The elderly people that participated in this study live at SEOVE (the nursing home studied in Florianópolis, Brazil. They were divided into two groups, an experimental group (n = 15 and a control group (n = 12 and underwent a pre-test. The experimental group followed a program of physical exercise with a frequency of 3 60-minute sessions per week for a period of 5 months. At the end of this period a post-test was applied to both groups. The Steglich (1978 questionnaire was used to evaluate the self-image/self-esteem. Differences were observed between pre-test and post-test data for the experimental and control groups’ self-image/self-esteem. After exposure to the program of systematic physical exercise, nursing home residents exhibited signifi cant differences in self-esteem between the experimental group and the self-image control group. RESUMO O estudo teve como objetivo verifi car os efeitos da implementação de um programa de exercício físicos sistemáticos sobre a auto-imagem e auto-estima em idosos nstitucionalizados. A amostra foi constituída por idosas da Sociedade Espirita Obreiros da Vida Eterna-SEOVE, em Florianópolis, SC, sendo dividida em dois grupos: experimental (n=15 e controle (n=12. Foi aplicado um pré teste para ambos os grupos. A autoimagem e auto-estima foi determinada por meio da aplicação do questionário proposto por Steglich (1978. O grupo experimental foi submetido a um programa de exercício físico durante cinco meses (70 sessões com três sessões semanais de 60 min. Após o programa foi aplicado o pós teste para ambos os grupos. Como resultado verifi cou-se correlação positiva moderada (r=0,48 entre a diferença do pré e pós-teste da autoimagem e auto-estima no grupo experimental sobre o controle. Considerando o exposto, o programa de exercício f

  14. [Generation changes of Polish adolescents self-image (cohorts 1987 versus 2001)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Renata; Badura-Madej, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    AIM. To compare the self-image of adolescents over fifteen years in Poland (1987 versus 2001). METHODS. Participants were 1752 school students aged 16 to 17 years randomly selected from high school in Kraków (university town). Self-image was measured by the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. MANOVA, ANOVAs and CFA were applied as statistical methods. RESULTS. Between 1987 and 2001 self-image changes toward a more positive self perceptions in 2001. Boys described themselves better on most scales. Girls score better on vocational and educational goals and superior adjustment. CONCLUSIONS. Self-image changes over time. It is influenced by macrosocial conditions. The research confirms the 5-factor model of self-image structure of the questionnaire and its intergenerational and inter-cultural stability.

  15. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiru?u, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was u...

  16. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMER VALUES AND SELF-IMAGE CONGRUITY ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR-BASED CRM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Loh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the key dimensions of customer value (functional value, emotional value, social value, and perceived sacrifice and self-image congruity on customer-behavior based CRM performance. The study also attempts to investigate on the effect of key dimensions of customer value and self-image congruity on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The research model for this study was adopts an integrated framework from a previous study, and adds new element into it. This study has chosen to examine the framework in the retail industry, specifically hypermarket in Malaysia, where the adoption of CRM tools is increasing incrementally. The study target on the Generation Y who believed will be the future driver of retail industry. The findings show that perceived sacrifice appears to be a critical customer perceived value in influencing the customer behavior-based CRM performance and customer satisfaction. This study show that brand loyalty would directly influence the customer behavior-based CRM performance. Perceived sacrifice and brand loyalty should be focused when trying to improve the performance of CRM.

  17. A New Application of Dynamic Data Driven System in the Talbot-Ogden Model for Groundwater Infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.; Ogden, Fred L.

    2012-01-01

    The TalbotOgden model is a mass conservative method to simulate flow of a wetting liquid in variably-saturated porous media. The principal feature of this model is the discretization of the moisture content domain into bins. This paper gives an analysis of the relationship between the number of bins and the computed flux. Under the circumstances of discrete bins and discontinuous wetting fronts, we show that fluxes increase with the number of bins. We then apply this analysis to the continuous case and get an upper bound of the difference of infiltration rates when the number of bins tends to infinity. We also extend this model by creating a two dimensional moisture content domain so that there exists a probability distribution of the moisture content for different soil systems. With these theoretical and experimental results and using a Dynamic Data Driven Application System (DDDAS), sensors can be put in soils to detect the infiltration fluxes, which are important to compute the proper number of bins for a specific soil system and predict fluxes. Using this feedback control loop, the extended TalbotOgden model can be made more efficient for estimating infiltration into soils.

  18. Distribution of unresolvable anisotropic microstructures revealed in visibility-contrast images using x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Kawabata, Katsuyuki; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Takashi; Momose, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    X-ray Talbot interferometry has been widely used as a technique for x-ray phase imaging and tomography. We propose a method using this interferometry for mapping distribution of parameters characterizing anisotropic microstructures, which are typically of the order of μm in size and cannot be resolved by the imaging system, in a sample. The method uses reduction in fringe visibility, which is caused by such unresolvable microstructures, in moire images obtained using an interferometer. We applied the method to a chloroprene rubber sponge sample, which exhibited uniaxial anisotropy of reduced visibility. We measured the dependencies of reduced visibility on both the Talbot order and the orientation of the sample and obtained maps of three parameters and their anisotropies that characterize the unresolvable anisotropic microstructures in the sample. The maps indicated that the anisotropy of the sample's visibility contrast mainly originated from the anisotropy of the microstructure elements' average size. Our method directly provides structural information on unresolvable microstructures in real space, which is only accessible through the ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering measurements in reciprocal space, and is expected to be broadly applied to material, biological, and medical sciences.

  19. A New Application of Dynamic Data Driven System in the Talbot-Ogden Model for Groundwater Infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2012-06-02

    The TalbotOgden model is a mass conservative method to simulate flow of a wetting liquid in variably-saturated porous media. The principal feature of this model is the discretization of the moisture content domain into bins. This paper gives an analysis of the relationship between the number of bins and the computed flux. Under the circumstances of discrete bins and discontinuous wetting fronts, we show that fluxes increase with the number of bins. We then apply this analysis to the continuous case and get an upper bound of the difference of infiltration rates when the number of bins tends to infinity. We also extend this model by creating a two dimensional moisture content domain so that there exists a probability distribution of the moisture content for different soil systems. With these theoretical and experimental results and using a Dynamic Data Driven Application System (DDDAS), sensors can be put in soils to detect the infiltration fluxes, which are important to compute the proper number of bins for a specific soil system and predict fluxes. Using this feedback control loop, the extended TalbotOgden model can be made more efficient for estimating infiltration into soils.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Image in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Baytan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With increasing survival rates in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, the long-term side effects of treatment have become important. Our aim was to investigate health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and self-image among ALL survivors. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed with ALL and their siblings were enrolled. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM were used for collecting data. ANOVA tests were used to determine if there were any significant differences between groups. Results: ALL survivors had higher depression, more anxiety symptoms, lower quality of life, and more negative self-image when compared to their siblings. Conclusion: Continuous diagnostic and interventional mental health services might be necessary for possible emotional side effects of treatment during and after the treatment. Rehabilitation and followup programs should be implemented for children during and after treatment for ALL.

  1. Self-Image and Parental Attachment among Late Adolescents in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Griffiths, Joann; Grossman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of ethnicity, parental education, gender, and parental attachment to multiple dimensions of self-image among 285 (161 female and 124 male) late adolescent Belizean students. Student ratings of self-image were unrelated to paternal education and student ethnicity. For maternal education, ethnic identity was…

  2. Identifying and Assessing Self-Images in Drawings by Delinquent Adolescents (in 2 Parts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley; Ellison, JoAnne

    1995-01-01

    Examines assumption that art therapists can objectively identify self-images in drawings by troubled adolescents without talking to these youth. Findings suggest that discussion, though preferable, is not required for identifying self-images. Analysis of adolescents' drawings indicates that structured art assessment can be useful in evaluating…

  3. The role of high-involvement work practices and professional self-image in nursing recruits' turnover: A three-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chênevert, Denis; Jourdain, Geneviève; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The retention of young graduate nurses has become a major management challenge among hospitals in Western countries, which is amplified in a context of aging of populations and an increasing demand for services from patients. Moreover, as it has been reported that 50% of experienced nurses do not recommend a career in nursing, it is likely that retention problems occur not only at the level of the organization, but also at the level of the nursing profession. Although research has identified some predictors of nurse turnover, it is unclear which factors influence nurses' turnover from the organization and from the profession and how these factors interrelate with one another over time. The present study extends previous research on nurse turnover by looking at the combined effects of nurses' pre-entry expectations, perceived high-involvement work practices, and professional self-image, on intended and actual turnover from the organization and the profession. A prospective, longitudinal study of a sample of 160 graduated nurses affiliated with the Quebec Nurses' Association, Canada, was conducted. Participants were surveyed at three points in time, spread over a 3-year period. Graduated nurses' pre-entry expectations and professional self-image were surveyed at graduation (Time 1), while perceived high-involvement work practices, professional self-image, and intention to leave the organization and the profession were captured six months following nurses' entry into the labor market (Time 2). Finally, participants were surveyed with respect to organizational and professional turnover three years after the Time 2 survey (Time 3). Structural equations modeling was used to examine the structure of the measures and the relationships among the constructs. Although pre-entry expectations had no effect, perceived high-involvement work practices were positively related to Time 2, professional self-image (controlling for pre-entry professional self-image). Moreover, high

  4. Morfologia externa de Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae. III. Abdome e apêndices External morphology of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. III. Abdomen and appendages (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manuel Saraiva Bizarro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the abdominal external morphology of both sexes of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914 is presented. The material for this research was obtained at the city's plant nursery "Horto Florestal de Curitiba", Paraná, Brazil; mainly by rearing eggs and larvae collected on Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae. When possible, the results obtained were compared with those already available in the literature concerning other Nymphalidae subfamilies morphology (Brassolinae, Morphinae and Danainae; the most striking feature being the asymmetrical valvae of the male and the length and faint sclerotinization of the third abdominal sternite in both sexes. A resume containing the main morphological differences to other nymphalid subfamillies, found throughout this research concerning head, thorax and abdome, is presented.

  5. How do nurses in palliative care perceive the concept of self-image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Margareth; Thomé, Bibbi

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research indicates that serious illness and impending death influence the individual's self-image. Few studies define what self-image means. Thus it seems to be urgent to explore how nurses in palliative care perceive the concept of self-image, to get a deeper insight into the concept's applicability in palliative care. To explore how nurses in palliative care perceive the concept of self-image. Qualitative descriptive design. In-depth interviews with 17 nurses in palliative care were analysed using phenomenography. The study gained ethical approval. The concept of self-image was perceived as both a familiar and an unfamiliar concept. Four categories of description with a gradually increasing complexity were distinguished: Identity, Self-assessment, Social function and Self-knowledge. They represent the collective understanding of the concept and are illustrated in a 'self-image map'. The identity-category emerged as the most comprehensive one and includes the understanding of 'Who I am' in a multidimensional way. The collective understanding of the concept of self-image include multi-dimensional aspects which not always were evident for the individual nurse. Thus, the concept of self-image needs to be more verbalised and reflected on if nurses are to be comfortable with it and adopt it in their caring context. The 'self-image map' can be used in this reflection to expand the understanding of the concept. If the multi-dimensional aspects of the concept self-image could be explored there are improved possibilities to make identity-promoting strategies visible and support person-centred care. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm-3 in a low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.

  7. Self-image and value orientations of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-image or self-consciousness comprises thoughts, feelings, evaluations and predictions about oneself and one's own behavior. Subject of the research is the linkage between self-conceptualization of adolescents and their value orientations. The aim is to determine whether there exists a correlation between locus of control and general self-esteem as elements of self-conceptualisation, on the one side, and value orientations of adolescents on the other. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the locus of control scale by Bezinović and Savčić were used for studying the components of self-conceptualisation. Values were operationalised using the desirability of certain goals in life and preference of different lifestyles. Research was conducted on the sample of 176 grammar school pupils aged 15 to 18. The findings indicate that adolescents who are characterized by the external locus of control accept hedonist, activist, social and cognitive lifestyle in a larger degree. Self-esteem is positively correlated with the aspiration towards becoming rich, and negatively with the desire for acquiring knowledge, care about others and activist way of living. The finding that the young of higher self-esteem are not oriented towards education, helping others and advocating for common good, can be ascribed to insufficient appreciation of these values in the environment they live in. The obtained findings point out to the need to reaffirm and encourage these values in youth, as well as to pay more attention to value education of pupils in school.

  8. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordello, Maria Co; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha r = 0.862, p self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication.

  9. The syndrome of burnout, self-image, and anxiety with grammar school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Slivar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with certain characteristics of the teenagers experiencing burnout and the influence of some dimensions of self image and anxiety on the burnout dimensions. The research investigated the relation between anxiety, dimensions of self image and the burnout syndrome. The research data were obtained through the use of the modified MBI - "The Maslach Burnout Inventory", Spielbergs' questionnaire of trait anxiety and Offer Self-Imagination Questionnaire. The research comprised 1868 students aged between 15 and 19 6.7 percent of them turned out to have suffered a strong burnout. The results of the research proved that the burnout syndrome appears in several different levels of intensity also among adolescents attending secondary school (gymnasia programme. True multivariate research the two basic hypotheses were confirmed: the adolescents with some negative self image areas are more likely to suffer burnout and that there is the certain dimensions of self image influence certain dimensions of burnout.

  10. Education for a positive self-image in a contemporary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA SIMEL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In today's world characterized by changed systems of values and materialism, pedagogy should emphasize education for a positive self-image, especially in the contemporary school, whose educational goals are freedom, independence and individuality. This theoretical analysis provides a review of research on the importance and relationship of a positive self-image with other factors, such as social skills and academic achievement. Simultaneously, the methods and procedures by which teachers can foster a student's positive self-image are displayed. Although the degree of positive self-thinking is for the most part formed in interaction with other people, it is extremely important to raise students' awareness about their own internal strengths as well as their possibility of choice. The education of a positive self-image can be considered a part of "positive pedagogy" or "positive education" which focuses on traditional skills and happiness, but also joy - fervor that accompanies being (Fromm, 2004, p. 130.

  11. Self-imaging of partially coherent light in graded-index media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Sergey A

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate that partially coherent light beams of arbitrary intensity and spectral degree of coherence profiles can self-image in linear graded-index media. The results can be applicable to imaging with noisy spatial or temporal light sources.

  12. Perbedaan Self-Image Remaja Laki-Laki dan Perempuan Penderita Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Fauziah Nami

    2016-01-01

    The research aims to find out the differences self-images on adolescent boy’s Acne Vulgaris patient and on adolescent girl’s. Self-image is the mental picture of an individual about his physical appearance Jersild (1963). Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammation of the follicle polisebasea characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, and cysts in predilection areas, such as the face, shoulders, chest, and back. The population of the research is senior students in Medan who have Acne Vulgaris...

  13. Self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in connection with social factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dolar Borštnar, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis is to analyse common self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in mental development and social factors that influence its formation. We used questionnaire as an instrument with which we investigated the following fields: self -contentment, social and intellectual status, anxiety, popularity and physical appearance. We have also analysed the connection between recognized general and academic self-image and reached educational achievement at th...

  14. Self-image profile in children and adolescents with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and the quality of life in their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Vahdet; Forbes, Fiona C M

    2015-01-01

    We explored the impact of clinical response to treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents on the subsequent changes in their self-image profile, the quality of life of their parents, and its effect on socio-demographic variables. Conners Rating Scales for Parents (CPRS-R) and for Teachers (CTRS-R) completed at the time of entry to the service were repeated to measure clinical response to treatment; the Self-image Profiles for Children (SIP-C) and Adolescents (SIP-A), the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire and postcode data were used to evaluate other domains. Data was collected for 53 boys (84%) and 10 girls (16%) with current mean age 11.5 years. Four-fifths (51/63) received pharmacological treatment and all parents were offered group parent training program. The only subscale in CPRS-R to show significance was the ADHD Index. The CTRS-R demonstrated statistically significant improvement (p Self-image Profile, children reported themselves as more Kind (p Self-image Profile of children and adolescents, but its impact on the QoL in parents was limited. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Self-image and eating disorder symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén Mantilla, Emma; Bergsten, Katja; Birgegård, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are psychiatric disorders of multifactorial origin, predominantly appearing in adolescence. Negative self-image is identified as risk factor, but the association between self-image and ED in adolescents or sex differences regarding such associations remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between specific self-image aspects and ED symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents, including sex differences. Participants included 855 ED patients (girls=813, boys=42) and 482 normal adolescents (girls=238, boys=244), 13-15 years. Stepwise regression demonstrated strong associations between self-image and ED in normal adolescents (girls: R(2)=.31, boys: R(2)=.08), and stronger associations in patients (girls: R(2)=.64, boys: R(2)=.69). Qualitative sex differences were observed in patients. Connections between specific self-image aspects and ED have implications for clinical management of ED. The strong link between self-image variables and ED symptoms in normal girls, but not boys, is discussed in terms of the continuity-discontinuity hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [The alcoholic's self-image: a comparative study between men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, C; Gay, M-C; Romo, L; Joffre, S

    2004-01-01

    Self-image is a central problem in alcoholism. Most theories about the relationships between the self-image of alcoholics and their behaviour have been derived from -clinical observations rather than empirical research. Most observations have pointed out that alcoholics are prone to underevaluation of themselves and that low self-image is the basis of much of the problem drinker's behaviour. All the research on self-image has concluded that alcoholics have a lower self-image than non-alcoholics. Some empirical research has been conducted on the self-image of alcoholics; it has, however, been carried out only a few times, restricted to small samples, and concerned with a limited number of aspects of self-image. Moreover, most of these studies are not recent, and it seems that this area of research is not well covered. Even though the hypothesis of a bad self-image in alcoholics was validated by various older studies, the representation of alcoholism has since changed. Because of this evolution, the ways in which the disease has been viewed have changed. One can question to what extent changes in society can influence the self-image of alcoholics. This question seems all the more pertinent for alcoholic women, given the evolution of the female condition since the Seventies. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the self-image of alcoholics and non-alcoholics, and to compare the self-image of male and female alcoholics. Our hypotheses are that: 1) the self-image of an alcoholic is more negative than that of a non-alcoholic, and that: 2) female alcoholics have a more negative self-image than male alcoholics. Two groups of 30 subjects each were made up: a group of alcoholics recruited in an alcohol-dependency unit and a group of non-alcoholics recruited in a public place. The comparison of socio-demographic data between the alcoholic group and the control group does not show a significant difference except for age and level of schooling. The average age of the

  17. Source apportionment of PM{sub 10} utilising Automatic Cartridge Collection Unit (ACCU) and TEOM systems in Neath Port Talbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, M.J.; Hollingsworth, P. [Neath Port Talbot Borough Council, Neath Port Talbot (United Kingdom); Stone, I.M.; Merefield, J.R. [Exeter Univ., Earth Resources Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    The background to this study is the review and assessment of air quality as required by Part IV of the Environment Act 1995. A detailed emissions inventory indicated that there might be a significant problem with PM{sub 10} in the Taibach/Margam area of Port Talbot. This was confirmed by continuous monitoring data from the Automatic Urban Network site in the area at Groeswen hospital. These data, when coupled with wind direction data, enabled the production of pollution roses that showed that the highest average PM{sub 10} levels occurred when the wind was blowing towards the residential area from a large significant local source in the west and south-west, i.e. a steel works. The Council is carrying out a stage 3 assessment of PM{sub 10} in this area with a high probability that an Air Quality Management Action Area (AQMA) will need to be declared. It has therefore become clear, that in order to be able to proceed sensibly to an action plan and attempt to meet Air Quality Objectives, identification of the contribution of PM{sub 10} from specific sources would be required. Initial fingerprinting studies were carried out in partnership with Exeter university and, at an early stage, an Air Quality Management Working Group was formed with the works and the Environment Agency to enable constructive dialogue to take place. (Author)

  18. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.O. Lordello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ, and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Result The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001, but the sexual domain scored lower than expected ( r = 0.65. The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. Conclusions The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication.

  19. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  20. Hard-x-ray phase-imaging microscopy using the self-imaging phenomenon of a transmission grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a hard-x-ray imaging microscope consisting of a lens, a sample, and a transmission grating. After the theoretical framework of self-imaging phenomenon by the grating in the system is presented, equations for the electric field on the image plane are derived for ideal and real lenses and an equation for the intensity on the image plane for partially coherent illumination is derived. The equations are simple and similar to those applying to a projection microscope consisting of a transmission grating except that there is no defocusing effect, regardless of whether the grating is in front of or behind the lens. This means that x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be done without the defocusing effect. It is also shown that, by resolving the self-image on the image plane, high-sensitive x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be attained without degradation in the spatial resolution due to diffraction by the grating. Experimental results obtained using partially coherent illumination from a synchrotron x-ray source confirm that hard-x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be quantitatively performed with high sensitivity and without the spatial resolution degradation.

  1. Self-image resilience and dissonance: the role of affirmational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C M; Spencer, S J; Lynch, M

    1993-06-01

    It was predicted that high self-esteem Ss (HSEs) would rationalize an esteem-threatening decision less than low self-esteem Ss (LSEs), because HSEs presumably had more favorable self-concepts with which to affirm, and thus repair, their overall sense of self-integrity. This prediction was supported in 2 experiments within the "free-choice" dissonance paradigm--one that manipulated self-esteem through personality feedback and the other that varied it through selection of HSEs and LSEs, but only when Ss were made to focus on their self-concepts. A 3rd experiment countered an alternative explanation of the results in terms of mood effects that may have accompanied the experimental manipulations. The results were discussed in terms of the following: (a) their support for a resources theory of individual differences in resilience to self-image threats--an extension of self-affirmation theory, (b) their implications for self-esteem functioning, and (c) their implications for the continuing debate over self-enhancement versus self-consistency motivation.

  2. Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, Clare J; Holmes, Emily A; Murphy, Susannah E; Ellis, Judi A

    2015-05-01

    Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Huellas de luz. El arte y los experimentos de William Henry Fox Talbot (cat. exp.), Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia/Aldeasa, 2001, 391 p., ill. coul., chronol., 41,75 E.

    OpenAIRE

    Roubert, Paul-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Cet ouvrage est le catalogue de la version espagnole de l'exposition marquant le bicentenaire de la naissance de W. H. Fox Talbot qui s'était tenue à Bradford au printemps 2001 puis au Museo Nacional Reina Sofia de Madrid à l'été suivant. Quelque peu éclipsé par la sortie contemporaine de l'imposant ouvrage de Larry J. Schaaf, The Photographic Art of William Henry Fox Talbot, ce catalogue constitue pourtant une excellente introduction à l'oeuvre photographique complexe et multiple de T...

  4. Relation between self-image score of SRS-22 with deformity measures in female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, Y P; Yu, B; Zhang, J G; Shen, J X; Qiu, G X; Li, Y

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a pathology which affects the individual's functioning in the widely understood physical, psychic, and social aspects. More attention should be paid to patients' perception of self-image when evaluating the spine deformity. The present retrospective study evaluated the associations between the deformity measures and self-image score as determined by the SRS-22 questionnaire in Chinese female AIS patients. The self-image score correlates significantly with deformity measures. The location of main curve apex and the number of curve could affect the self-image score. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 202 female patients, collected data on patient's age, body mass index, radiographic and physical measures and self-image score of SRS-22 questionnaire. According to the location of main curve apex and the number of curve, the patients were divided to different subgroups. Correlations between deformity measures and self-image score of different groups were evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. The self-image score correlated negatively with the main Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), and razor hump height. There is no significant difference of self-image score between thoracic curve (TC) and thoracolumbar curve (TL/LC) subgroups. And the self-image scores of one-curve, two-curve and three-curve subgroups are similar. For Chinese female AIS patients in our study, self-image was found to correlate negatively with the main Cobb angle, AVT and razor hump height. And the location of scoliosis apex and the number of curve are not influencing factors of self-image perception. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. All Female Education: Self Image and Academic Success of Fourth through Eighth Grade Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Erin J.

    This study examines how young women in single sex institutions perceive their educational experience in four categories: academics, resources, participation, and self-image. When investigating whether there are advantages in all female education, it is important to consider student perceptions within these all female schools. This study was…

  6. The Idealized Self-Image and the Development of Learned Resourcefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Dorothy J.

    Behavior therapy is by no means simplistic and mechanistic. It is possible to expand the horizons of behavior therapy to include such concepts as cognition and awareness without resorting to mentalistic or Freudian speculation. A new technique, the Idealized Self-Image (ISI) has been devised for the enhancement of self-esteem and learned…

  7. [Drug users' quality of life, self-esteem and self-image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Camila da; Meyer, Carolina; Souza, Gabriel Renaldo de; Ramos, Manoella de Oliveira; Souza, Melissa de Carvalho; Monte, Fernanda Guidarini; Guimarães, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo; Parcias, Sílvia Rosane

    2013-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the quality of life, self-esteem and self-image among drug users of São José Institute in São José in the State of Santa Catarina. The accessibility sample was comprised of 100 male patients with a mean age of 43.0 ± 10.7, who had studied for a mean period of 8.4 ± 3.7 years. 48% of them were married and had been hospitalized or treated for a minimum period of seven days. When the participants were not hospitalized they lived with wives and children (23%), were married (48%), employed (72%), were part of income level B (58%), had done something they regret in their lives (57%) and perceived their health as good (57%). Regarding quality of life, the highest scores were found in the environmental domain (65%) and the lowest scores were in the psychological domain (58%). All patients were taking medication and had low self-esteem and self-image (77% and 96% respectively). The absence of interference of the quality of life on self-esteem and self-image of the drug users was observed by means of logistic regression. Positive quality of life did not interfere in changes in low self-esteem and self-image of drug users.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The MGSIS-I is a useful instrument to assess genital self-image in Iranian men, a concept that has been associated with sexual function. Further investigation is needed to identify the applicability of the scale in other cultures or populations.

  9. The Self-Image of Adolescents: A Study of Four Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, D.; And Others

    The Offer Self Image Questionnaire measures adolescent personality and adjustment from a psychodynamic perspective. It has been used by many investigators who administered the test to a large variety of teenage populations, and has significantly differentiated between normal, delinquent and disturbed populations; males and females; younger and…

  10. Substance Use and Its Relationship to Family Functioning and Self-Image in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Merrill, Vincent; Akagha, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between substance use, family functioning, and self-image among four ethnic adolescent groups. Three thousand three hundred and fifteen 8th and 9th grade students were recruited from 10 schools in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding their alcohol and marijuana use, along…

  11. Construct Validity of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem, Depression, and Ego Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Aalberg, Veikko; Vuorinen, Risto

    2005-01-01

    Construct validity of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was studied in a sample of 194 normal Finnish adolescents from 14 to 16 years of age. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the hierarchical structure of adolescents' self-image with 5 lower-order factors loading on a single higher-order factor. Lower-order factors were…

  12. Assessing the Internal Consistency of the Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): A Nigerian Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Alfred A.

    Noting the lack of self-concept research in nonwestern cultures and the need to determine if a western measure of self-image is embedded in the same network of constructs in another culture, this study examined the appropriateness of using the Self Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA) with Nigerian students. Participating in the study…

  13. Self-image of the Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Shalini G; Pai, Mamatha Shivananda; George, Linu Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the self-image of the patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) by using a mixed method research. Subjects and Methods: A mixed method approach and triangulation design was used with the aim of assessing the self-image of the patients with HNCs. Data was gathered by using self-administered self-image scale and structured interview. Nested sampling technique was adopted. Sample size for quantitative approach was 54 and data saturation was achieved with seven subjects for qualitative approach. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained. Results: The results of the study showed that 30 (56%) subjects had positive self-image and 24 (44%) had negative self-image. There was a moderate positive correlation between body image and integrity (r = 0.430, P = 0.001), weak positive correlation between body image and self-esteem (r = 0.270, P = 0.049), and no correlation between self-esteem and integrity (r = 0.203, P = 0.141). The participants also scored maximum (24/24) in the areas of body image and self-esteem. Similar findings were also observed in the phenomenological approach. The themes evolved were immaterial of outer appearance and desire of good health to all. Conclusion: The illness is long-term and impacts the individual 24 h a day. Understanding patients’ self-concept and living experiences of patients with HNC is important for the health care professionals to improve the care. PMID:27559264

  14. Self-image of the patients with head and neck cancer: A mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini G Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the self-image of the patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs by using a mixed method research. Subjects and Methods: A mixed method approach and triangulation design was used with the aim of assessing the self-image of the patients with HNCs. Data was gathered by using self-administered self-image scale and structured interview. Nested sampling technique was adopted. Sample size for quantitative approach was 54 and data saturation was achieved with seven subjects for qualitative approach. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained. Results: The results of the study showed that 30 (56% subjects had positive self-image and 24 (44% had negative self-image. There was a moderate positive correlation between body image and integrity (r = 0.430, P = 0.001, weak positive correlation between body image and self-esteem (r = 0.270, P = 0.049, and no correlation between self-esteem and integrity (r = 0.203, P = 0.141. The participants also scored maximum (24/24 in the areas of body image and self-esteem. Similar findings were also observed in the phenomenological approach. The themes evolved were "immaterial of outer appearance" and "desire of good health to all." Conclusion: The illness is long-term and impacts the individual 24 h a day. Understanding patients′ self-concept and living experiences of patients with HNC is important for the health care professionals to improve the care.

  15. [Self-images and perceptions of other professions among students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy and their importance for interprofessional cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Altmeppen, Sandra; Unger, Angelika

    2010-07-01

    Interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to provide effective and high quality treatment for clients of the health care system. Interaction between professional groups depends on how their members perceive their self-image and the image of other professions. Within the framework of the project "Quality in the education of health-professionals" a qualitative study with 23 nurses, 24 physiotherapists and 15 occupational therapists in the second or third year of training was conducted. Participants were asked to report their self-image and the image of the other two professions. A qualitative content analysis according to Mayring was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged that allowed describing the self image and the image of the other professions: roles of the respective health professions, relation of the health professionals to their clients, attributes that typically characterized members of a particular profession, and relationship between the health professions. Latent conflicts between professional groups became apparent. Contradicting perceptions are due to subjective bias in favour of the own professional group. Interdisciplinary collaboration requires a new culture of co-operation.

  16. Study of adolescents’ multifactorial self-image components based on their own self-characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath, Zsofia Iren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important questions of human existence and development – Who am I? What am I like? – concerned every thinking human in all cultural-historical ages. These questions remain timely even in our rapidly changing postmodern society.The goal of our research is the examination of adolescents’ self-characterization, the outlining of the self-image components age characteristics, the establishment of differences resulting from their environment. Our examination is part of the 2005/2006 school year evaluation (Pletl, 2011 regarding Transylvanian students’ composition skills. In the present research we have analyzed a total of 1602 self-characterization of Transylvanian Hungarian students. Results show that fifth grade students have dichotomous thinking that becomes more sophisticated by the time they get into the eighth grade. Eighth grade students referred significantly more often to the categories Emotions, Satisfaction, Social attitudes, School achievement, Special interests and mentioned more personality traits. In the comparison by location, more similarities and fewer differences were outlined. However, urban students referred significantly more often to emotions and satisfaction, while rural students mentioned more frequently characteristics like good-hearted and diligent. The study also outlined two major deficiencies. No significant difference was found between the two grades in naming abilities, and referring to Science and Language. We strongly believe that school should be more than simply a place for traditional teaching; effective education and personal development should spread to new areas like the development of self-reflective thinking, the shaping of personal competence and the operation of Career and Vocational Counseling.

  17. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treger, Bartosz; Matusiak, Feliks; Pilecki, Maciej; Rogoż, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents attending upper secondary school. The Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ-40 and the Offer Self Image Questionnaire were used in the study. Results showed no differences, in the maturity levels of the defence mechanisms, between the two groups. Subjects from the clinical group had a significantly lower self-image of themselves than subjects from the control group.. In both groups, the use of mature defence mechanisms was accompanied by a positive self-image, while the use of less mature defence mechanisms was associated with a lower self-image. Comparison of the groups revealed different relationships between the aspects of self-image and used defence mechanisms, in particular the mechanism of projection. Number of significant correlations was greater in the clinical group. In the context of lower self-image, the study revealed the importance of such defence mechanisms as projection, acting out, somatization or schizoid fantasies. The obtained results seem to confirm a hypothesis that the assessment of the maturity of defence mechanisms in the period of adolescence is less clear and clinically useful.

  18. Images of the Self and Self-Esteem: Do Positive Self-Images Improve Self-Esteem in Social Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia

    2012-01-01

    Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697

  19. From dust to treasure: building a proper self-image through astronomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoying

    2015-08-01

    Self-image is how we perceive ourselves. It is the impression built up over time from how we see ourselves and how the others see ourselves. As a teacher in a small college in China since 2013, I have found that most of my undergraduate students’ self-image is not “so healthy”, even some of them “de-valuate” themselves. After I got my PhD degree in astronomy, I have taught the astronomy introduction course in my college for three semesters. Since last semester, I decide not only to aim to warm up my students’ enthusiasm for astronomy, but also to try to help them build a proper self-image through astronomical teaching. In the course, solar system, planet formation, habitable planet, life on the planet are first few lectures to make students understand what a low probability that a habitable planet supporting life is formed. In a following lecture: from dust to treasure, I illustrate how precious each of us on earth, which are results of several billion years of evolution. At the same time, psychological survey and discussion are carried out during the course, helping students better understand themselves. Students are divided into groups to finish assignments via discussion and team work. In the final exam, each group present what they have learnt in a 10-15 min show, such as drama, musical, debate, crosstalk, dance etc.. I will present the structure of my course, the technique I use to teach, the most recent results of a survey of students’ self-image, and the students’ thought of the course in this meeting.

  20. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Shephard, R J; Siefen, R G

    2002-11-01

    Although there are a vast array of studies which have demonstrated the psychological and physical health benefits of regular aerobic exercise for adults, few studies have focussed on children and adolescents. The current study examined associations between the extent of participation in endurance sport, and self-report data on self-image, physical and psychological health and overall lifestyle in a large representative sample of German high-school students. Almost 1000 German adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were administered a comprehensive series of questionnaires aimed at assessing anxiety-depression, trait addiction, smoking and drinking behaviour, physical ill-health reports, and self-perception of self-image, parental acceptance and educational attainment. Regular practice of endurance exercise was related to a more favourable self-image. There was a strong association between participation in sports and the type of personality that tends to be resistant to drug and alcohol addiction. Physical exercise was further significantly related to scores for physical and psychological well-being. Adolescents who engaged regularly in physical activity were characterised by lower anxiety-depression scores, and displayed much less social behavioural inhibition than their less active counterparts. It is likely that discussion of recreational or exercise involvement may provide a useful point of entry for facilitating dialogue among adolescents about concerns relating to body image and self-esteem. In terms of psychotherapeutic applications, physical activity has many additional rewards for adolescents. It is probable that by promoting physical fitness, increased physical performance, lessening body mass and promoting a more favourable body shape and structure, exercise will provide more positive social feedback and recognition from peer groups, and this will subsequently lead to improvement in an individual's self-image.

  1. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamäki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psycholo...

  2. Psychological Impact of Virtual Reality Gaming on the Formation of Self-Image in Early School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhomova V.G.,

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates the problem of interaction between a modern primary school-aged child and the field of virtual reality gaming and, in particular, the impact of virtual reality on the formation of self-image. Our study enabled us to explore the differences in the self-image in active and non-active players of roleplaying video games. The outcomes proved that there are certain changes in the self-image of active players related to their self-identification with characters of computer g...

  3. Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants' Experiences in Academic Laboratories and Development of a Teaching Self-image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Todd Adam

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a prominent role in chemistry laboratory instruction at research based universities. They teach almost all undergraduate chemistry laboratory courses. However, their role in laboratory instruction has often been overlooked in educational research. Interest in chemistry GTAs has been placed on training and their perceived expectations, but less attention has been paid to their experiences or their potential benefits from teaching. This work was designed to investigate GTAs' experiences in and benefits from laboratory instructional environments. This dissertation includes three related studies on GTAs' experiences teaching in general chemistry laboratories. Qualitative methods were used for each study. First, phenomenological analysis was used to explore GTAs' experiences in an expository laboratory program. Post-teaching interviews were the primary data source. GTAs experiences were described in three dimensions: doing, knowing, and transferring. Gains available to GTAs revolved around general teaching skills. However, no gains specifically related to scientific development were found in this laboratory format. Case-study methods were used to explore and illustrate ways GTAs develop a GTA self-image---the way they see themselves as instructors. Two general chemistry laboratory programs that represent two very different instructional frameworks were chosen for the context of this study. The first program used a cooperative project-based approach. The second program used weekly, verification-type activities. End of the semester interviews were collected and served as the primary data source. A follow-up case study of a new cohort of GTAs in the cooperative problem-based laboratory was undertaken to investigate changes in GTAs' self-images over the course of one semester. Pre-semester and post-semester interviews served as the primary data source. Findings suggest that GTAs' construction of their self-image is shaped through the

  4. Clothing style preference of working women related to self- image/clothing-image congruity and public self-consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Ok

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend knowledge concerning the influence of self-image congruity and public self-consciousness on clothing behavior from the symbolic consumption perspective. Thus, relationships among the three major constructs, public self-consciousness (PSC), self-image/clothing-image congruity (actual self-congruity, ASC and ideal social-congruity, ISSC) and clothing-style preference (CSP), were examined. The five objectives that guided the study were ...

  5. Volume Bragg grating external cavities for the passive phase locking of high-brightness diode laser arrays: theoretical and experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paboeuf, David; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    We describe the theoretical modeling of the external-cavity operation of a phase-locked array of diode lasers in two configurations, the self-imaging cavity based on the Talbot effect and the angular-filtering cavity. Complex filtering functions, such as the transmission or reflection of a volume...

  6. Adult self-image and well-being after testicular cancer: The role of agency and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sean J; Hoyt, Michael A

    2018-08-01

    Cancer during young adulthood can limit the extent to which one adopts an adult self-image. However, the relationship of adult self-image to cancer-related adjustment remains unexplored. The current study examines relationships of adult self-image and social/emotional well-being and job-related problems in young testicular cancer survivors. Factors thought to facilitate future-oriented goals (i.e. agency and meaning) are examined as intermediary processes. Testicular cancer survivors (N = 171) between the ages of 18 and 29 completed questionnaire measures of adult self-image, agency, sense of meaning and indicators of adjustment. Social and emotional well-being were measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General. Job problems were assessed using the EORTC's testicular cancer supplement (EORTC QLQ-TC26). Path model results revealed direct associations of survivors' adult self-image with social (β = .20, p image and well-being indicators. Finally, the relationship between adult self-image and job problems was only significant for those who were employed or in school (β = -.19, p image might be useful in identifying risk for poor adjustment. Interventions that target agency and meaning might facilitate developmental goals.

  7. Distortion of self-image: risk factor for obesity in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-image is important in the behaviour and lifestyle of children and adolescents. Analysing the self-image they have and the factors that might influence their distortion, can be used to prevent problems of obesity and anorexia. The main objective of present publication was to analyse the risk factors that may contribute to self-image distortion.Material and Methods: A descriptive survey study was conducted among 659 children and adolescents in two social classes (low and medium-high, measuring height and weight, calculating BMI percentile for age and gender. Body image and self-perception were registered.Results: The percentage of overweight-obesity is higher in scholars (41.8% boys, 28.7% girls than in adolescents (30.1% and 22.2% respectively, with no difference between socioeconomic classes. The multinomial logistic regression analysis gives a risk of believing thinner higher (p=0.000 among boys OR=2.9(95%CI:1.43-3.37, school (p=0.000 OR=2.42(95%CI:1.56-3.76 and much lower (p=0.000 between normally nourished OR=0.08(95%CI:0.05-0.13, with no differences according to socioeconomic status. The risk of believing fatter is lower (p=0.000 between boys OR=0.28(95%CI:0.14-0.57, school(p=0.072 OR=0.54(95%CI:0.27-1.6, and much higher among underweight (p=0.000 OR=9x108 (95% CI:4x108-19x108.Conclusions: Are risk factors of believing thinner: males, being in a group of schoolchildren and overweight-obesity. Conversely, are risk factors of believing fatter: females, teen and above all, be thin.  

  8. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamäki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

    2006-12-29

    Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among severely disordered suicidal adolescent inpatients. There were no

  9. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laukkanen Eila

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16 and with no suicidality (n = 39 Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Results Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. Conclusion These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among

  10. Brand Image as a Function of Self-Image and Self-Brand Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rares MOCANU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how brand image relates to self-image and how brand consumption contributes to the construction of self. Most of the research on brand image refers to brand attitudes. Day (1970 considers attitudes "a central integrating feature” in marketing theory and advertising evaluation. Gardner (1985, p.197 studied differences in brand attitudes as they relate to advertisements, finding attitude toward an advertisement affects attitude toward the advertised brand as much under a brand evaluation set as under a non-brand evaluation set. The present study goes beyond Gardner's research to show why such attitudes exist as they relate to brand consumption and self-image. Erickson and Johansson (1985 also investigated product evaluations, with an analysis of surveyed beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding fashion brands. They concluded that price is not a significant determinant of overall attitude. This study inquires whether brand attitudes and beliefs correlate with purchase behavior in the form of self-brand connection.

  11. Self-image and self-esteem in African-American preteen girls: implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, W M; Millor, G K; Thompson, H; Braxter, B

    1998-01-01

    Current research suggests that pubertal development is occurring earlier in African-American preteen girls in response to familial contextual factors, which may make them vulnerable to low self-image and self-esteem dissatisfaction. This lowering in self-image and self-esteem may contribute to the early initiation of sexual behaviors, putting these girls at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. These potential risks place these girls in need of prepubertal health promotion, yet preadolescents are not frequently a focus of nursing care delivery except when summer camp and back-to-school physicals are performed. This article presents an in-depth overview of selected literature on self-esteem, discusses findings on self-image and self-esteem from a pilot study on pubertal influences on accelerated sexual behavior, and proposes health promotion strategies for pre- and peripubertal girls to promote positive mental health outcomes. More focused attention is needed on health promotion targeting the developmental transition health needs of prepubertal girls. Targeted health promotion activities may foster healthier pre- and peripubertal girls' perceptions of the meaning of their pubertal physical changes and stronger self-image and self-esteem. The goal of these health promotion activities should be to foster continuity of positive self-image and self-esteem among preteen girls, which is essential to prevent initiation of premature-for-age risk of problem behavior, such as early coitus.

  12. Preliminary study of ECE imaging concept for W7-X, using the Talbot effect in rectangular waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel; Plaum, Burkhard; Kasparek, Walter; Hirth, Thomas [IGVP, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Hirsch, Matthias [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For spatially resolved measurements of Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) in W7-X, an imaging antenna based on a corrugated rectangular waveguide can be used. The imaging characteristics of the antenna allow a simultaneous operation at multiple angles and frequencies. As a result it is possible to localize a set of points inside the plasma, where the ECE can be measured without the need of mobile components facing the plasma.

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Burri, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index > 1.00 vs root mean

  14. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Psychological Impact of Virtual Reality Gaming on the Formation of Self-Image in Early School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakhomova V.G.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of interaction between a modern primary school-aged child and the field of virtual reality gaming and, in particular, the impact of virtual reality on the formation of self-image. Our study enabled us to explore the differences in the self-image in active and non-active players of roleplaying video games. The outcomes proved that there are certain changes in the self-image of active players related to their self-identification with characters of computer games according to their individual psychological features, whereas for children who engage in non-role-playing games such identification is not common. It was found that non-active children players generally have positive selfacceptance and do not suffer from feelings of anxiety and abandonment; active players, on the opposite, often demonstrate inadequate self-esteem, anxiety and a tendency to self-actualise in virtual reality gaming.

  16. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent. The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, including 44 suicide attempters (without extreme aggressive behaviour towards others, 46 girls using violence against others (without extreme self-destructive behaviour and 77 girls exhibiting no destructive behaviour. The following research methods were applied: the Adjective Checklist (ACL (versions “What am I like?” and “What would I like to be?”, and the Sentence Completion Test. Results The girls showing extreme destructive behaviour, particularly self-destructive behaviour, were found to have a more negative self-image, a lower level of consistency of the self-image, lower self-esteem and a higher level of inner conflict than the control group. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine predictors of extreme self-destructive or aggressive behaviours. Escalated inner conflicts within the attitude towards oneself appear to be the most important predictor of suicidal behaviour in adolescent girls, whereas self-perception based on strength seems to be the most significant predictor of violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Conclusions The research showed that destructive behaviour among adolescents is a multidimensional phenomenon. The statistical model presented in the study has been proved to have a high value. The results can help in successful prevention and therapy of destructive behaviours in adolescents.

  17. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Images of Science Teaching in Constructivism Science Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Youngmi; Kang, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it investigates the self-images of science teaching held by early childhood pre-service teachers who took constructivism early childhood science education courses. Second, it analyzes what aspects of those courses influenced these images. The participants were eight pre-service teachers who took these…

  18. What is the influence of self-image and perceived parenting role expectations on adolescent fathers' perceived role performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones

    2000-05-01

    Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure.

  19. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  20. 1x3 beam splitter based on self-imaging phenomena in air-slab photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ming; Kristensen, Martin; Malureanu, Radu

    A 1 x 3 beam splitter using multi-mode interference based on self-imaging is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally in PhCWs. The total transmission of the 1 x 3 splitter is almost equal to the corresponding length of W1 PhCW. The input power is distributed equally between the output ports...

  1. Academic Achievement and the Self-Image of Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus Type-1 And Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkolahti, Ritva; Ilonen, Tuula

    2005-01-01

    A total of 69 adolescents, 21 with diabetes mellitus type-1 (DM), 24 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 24 controls matched for sex, age, social background, and living environment, were compared by means of their school grades and the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. The ages of the children at the time of the diagnosis of the disease and its…

  2. Individual Differences in the Self-Image of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: The Roles of Severity, Time of Diagnosis, and Parental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Dorit; Stone, C. Addison

    1991-01-01

    This study found that 49 adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) scored lower than 49 normally achieving peers on a self-image questionnaire. Later-diagnosed adolescents with LD scored higher than early diagnosed adolescents. LD severity was not related to self-image. Moderate relationships were found between parents' perceptions and…

  3. Self- image as a performer in perception of the steroid “beneficiaries”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mroczkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess differences between the current and former users of anabolic steroids (AS and the control subjects in the following cognitive processes describing one’s self-image as a performer: 1 conviction about exerting control over one’s own achievements, and 2 self-protective interpretation of the achievement. Two inquiry techniques were used: 1 the “Delta” questionnaire for estimation of the feeling of internal-external control; 2 the I-E Scale for estimation of the attributive patterns of success and failure. Three groups of male subjects were examined: bodybuilders currently on steroids (+ +, bodybuilders – former AS users (+ –, and control athletes (– –. The obtained results allow to draw two conclusions. Firstly, compared to the current and/or former AS users, the subjects with no AS experience (controls demonstrated a significantly stronger sense of being a performer, exerting the internal control. Secondly, the differences in the individual feeling of being a performer were expressed in the ways in which the subjects interpreted causes of the achieved results by means of the so-called attributive patterns: the subjects with no AS experience exhibited a more beneficial and self-protective pattern of the attribution of failure than did the former and/or current AS users.

  4. Near-self-imaging cavity for three-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers using silicon microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Torres, F A; Ma, Yubo; Zhao, C; Ju, L; Blair, D G; Chao, S; Roch-Jeune, I; Flaminio, R; Michel, C; Liu, K-Y

    2014-02-10

    Three-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers (OAPAs), in which a pair of photon modes are strongly coupled to an acoustic mode, provide a general platform for investigating self-cooling, parametric instability and very sensitive transducers. Their realization requires an optical cavity with tunable transverse modes and a high quality-factor mirror resonator. This paper presents the design of a table-top OAPA based on a near-self-imaging cavity design, using a silicon torsional microresonator. The design achieves a tuning coefficient for the optical mode spacing of 2.46  MHz/mm. This allows tuning of the mode spacing between amplification and self-cooling regimes of the OAPA device. Based on demonstrated resonator parameters (frequencies ∼400  kHz and quality-factors ∼7.5×10(5) we predict that the OAPA can achieve parametric instability with 1.6 μW of input power and mode cooling by a factor of 1.9×10(4) with 30 mW of input power.

  5. Why acting environmentally-friendly feels good: Exploring the role of self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie A Venhoeven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental quality (e.g. spending one’s money on people rather than products also tend to make us feel good. We propose that the moral nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself may elicit positive emotions as well, because engaging in this behavior can signal one is an environmentally-friendly and thus a good person. Our results show that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can indeed affect how people see themselves: participants saw themselves as being more environmentally-friendly when they engaged in more environmentally-friendly behavior (Study 1. Furthermore, environmentally-friendly behavior resulted in a more positive self-image, more strongly when it was voluntarily engaged in, compared to when it was driven by situational constraints (Study 2. In turn, the more environmentally-friendly (Study 1 and positive (Study 2 people saw themselves, the better they felt about acting environmentally-friendly. Together, these results suggest that the specific self-signal that ensues from engaging in environmentally-friendly behavior can explain why environmentally-friendly actions may elicit a good feeling.

  6. Self-image and perception of mother and father in psychotic and borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelius, K; Granberg

    2000-02-01

    Psychotic and borderline patients rated their self-image and their perception of their mother and father using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior model (SASB). The borderline patients had more negative images of themselves and their parents, especially their fathers, than did the psychotic patients and the normal subjects, while the psychotic patients' ratings did not differ much from those of the normal subjects. The self-image was related to the images of both parents for borderline patients and normal subjects, while for the psychotic patients only the image of the mother was important for the self-image. In addition, the psychotic patients did not differentiate between the poles of control and autonomy in the introjected self-image. It was concluded that borderline patients are characterized by negative attachment, while psychotic patients are characterized by poor separation from the mother and poor differentiation between autonomy and control. The paper also discusses how this may influence the patients' relations to others. Psychotische und Borderline Patienten beurteilten ihr Selbstbild und ihre Wahrnehmung von Mutter und Vater mit Hilfe der strukturalen Analyse sozialen Verhaltens (SASB). Die Borderline Patienten hattten negativere Selbstbilder und Elternbilder (speziell Vaterbilder) als die psychotischen Patienten und gesunde Personen. Die Beurteilungen der psychotischen Patienten unterschieden sich dagegen nicht besonders von jenen Gesunder. Das Selbstbild stand in Beziehung zu beiden Elternbildern bei den Borderline Patienten und den Gesunden, während bei den psychotischen Patienten nur das Mutterbild für das Selbstbild bedeutsam war. Außerdem konnte bei den psychotischen Patienten nicht zwischen den Polen der Kontrolle und Autonomie bzgl. der introjizierten Selbstbilder differenziert werden. Aus den Ergebnissen wird gefolgert, dass Borderline Patienten durch eine negative Bindung charackterisiert sind, psychotische Patienten dagegen durch

  7. The Moral Self-Image Scale: Measuring and Understanding the Malleability of the Moral Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Leliveld, Marijke C; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Recent ethical decision-making models suggest that individuals' own view of their morality is malleable rather than static, responding to their (im)moral actions and reflections about the world around them. Yet no construct currently exists to represent the malleable state of a person's moral self-image (MSI). In this investigation, we define this construct, as well as develop a scale to measure it. Across five studies, we show that feedback about the moral self alters an individual's MSI as measured by our scale. We also find that the MSI is related to, but distinct from, related constructs, including moral identity, self-esteem, and moral disengagement. In Study 1, we administered the MSI scale and several other relevant scales to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we examine the relationship between the MSI and one's ought versus ideal self. In Studies 3 and 4, we find that one's MSI is affected in the predicted directions by manipulated feedback about the moral self, including feedback related to social comparisons of moral behavior (Study 3) and feedback relative to one's own moral ideal (Study 4). Lastly, Study 5 provides evidence that the recall of one's moral or immoral behavior alters people's MSI in the predicted directions. Taken together, these studies suggest that the MSI is malleable and responds to individuals' moral and immoral actions in the outside world. As such, the MSI is an important variable to consider in the study of moral and immoral behavior.

  8. [Adaptation of self-image level and defense mechanisms in elderly patients with complicated stoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivas, Miriam Karina; Moreno-Pérez, Norma Elvira; Vega-Macías, Héctor Daniel; Jiménez-González, María de Jesús; Navarro-Elías, María de Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Ostomy patients face a number of problems that impact negatively on their personal welfare. The aim of this research is determine the nature and intensity of the relationship between the level of self-concept adaptive mode and the consistent use of coping strategies of older adults with a stoma. Quantitative, correlational and transversal. VIVEROS 03 and CAPS surveys were applied in 3 hospitals in the City of Durango, México. The study included 90 older adults with an intestinal elimination stoma with complications. Kendall's Tau-b coefficient was the non-parametric test used to measure this association. Most older adults analyzed (61.3 < % < 79.9) are not completely adapted to the condition of living with an intestinal stoma. There is also a moderate positive correlation (0,569) between the level of adaptation of the older adults with a stoma and the conscious use of coping strategies. The presence of an intestinal stoma represents a physical and psychological health problem that is reflected in the level of adaptation of the self-image. Elderly people with a stoma use only a small part of defense mechanisms as part of coping process. This limits their ability to face the adversities related to their condition, potentially causing major health complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Four aspects of self-image close to death at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Carlander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Living close to death means an inevitable confrontation with one's own existential limitation. In this article, we argue that everyday life close to death embodies an identity work in progress. We used a narrative approach and a holistic-content reading to analyze 12 interviews conducted with three persons close to death. By illuminating the unique stories and identifying patterns among the participants’ narratives, we found four themes exemplifying important aspects of the identity work related to everyday life close to death. Two of the themes, named “Inside and outside of me” and “Searching for togetherness,” represented the core of the self-image and were framed by the other themes, “My place in space” and “My death and my time.” Our findings elucidate the way the individual stories moved between the past, the present, and the future. This study challenges the idea that everyday life close to impending death primarily means limitations. The findings show that the search for meaning, new knowledge, and community can form a part of a conscious and ongoing identity work close to death.

  10. Four aspects of self-image close to death at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlander, Ida; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Sahlberg-Blom, Eva; Hellström, Ingrid; Sandberg, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Living close to death means an inevitable confrontation with one's own existential limitation. In this article, we argue that everyday life close to death embodies an identity work in progress. We used a narrative approach and a holistic-content reading to analyze 12 interviews conducted with three persons close to death. By illuminating the unique stories and identifying patterns among the participants’ narratives, we found four themes exemplifying important aspects of the identity work related to everyday life close to death. Two of the themes, named “Inside and outside of me” and “Searching for togetherness,” represented the core of the self-image and were framed by the other themes, “My place in space” and “My death and my time.” Our findings elucidate the way the individual stories moved between the past, the present, and the future. This study challenges the idea that everyday life close to impending death primarily means limitations. The findings show that the search for meaning, new knowledge, and community can form a part of a conscious and ongoing identity work close to death. PMID:21526139

  11. “SELLING” SELF-IMAGE IN THE ERA OF NEW MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulli Nasrullah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise of citizen journalism gives the public an opportunity for producing news which has been previously controlled by the mass media institutions. In this case, the citizen acts not only a news consumer, but also as a news producer and consumer at the same time (prosumer. Based on these phenomena, this research tries to see how citizens carry out commodification. Analyses of computer-mediated communication with the media of Kompasiana reveal that space for citizen journalism has become a medium for self commodification in accordance with their target or values they want to achieve. The results of this research also show that the citizens used the media in order to gain personal motives such as to get material benefits or to build a self-image. In the level of media space, the facilities provided by Kompasiana like a description of profile and comment column can be used for prosumer activity. It is possible for the audience to employ this facility to promote the products or the users themselves as products. Based on research questions and findings in the field, some conclusions can be drawn. First, the presence of media citizen journalism no longer positions the audience as a passive audience entity, affected only by information produced by the media industry. Second, the audience is involved as a subject who gives information in citizen journalism for private interest such as for practical economic activity.

  12. The evolving professional nursing self-image of students in baccalaureate programs: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisen, Koen; De Busser, Tinne; Kayaert, Annelore; Abraham, Ivo; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the professional self-image of practicing nurses in Belgium and its association with various professional decisions, however there is limited knowledge about the professional self-image of nurses-to-be. Despite prior research on nursing students' perceptions of nursing or their self-esteem, students' professional image, defined as "the way students perceive themselves in their clinical practice environment and their anticipated work environment", has not been described nor compared to that of practicing nurses. To describe the professional nursing self-image among students in their final year of baccalaureate education. Cross-sectional survey. Nine geographically spread baccalaureate programs in the Flemish region of Belgium. 427 evaluable students from 455 recruited from 663 potential. Data collected in each school during regular hours using an adapted version of the BELIMAGE (Belgian professional self-image instrument for hospital nurses) including questions on personal demographics, education and competence, nursing care, team and practice environment. Voluntary participation with returned questionnaire deemed informed consent. Respondents identified several curricular components as contributing to their perceived competence. They also identified several skills deemed important to professional nursing, however did not feel competent in all of these. Important nursing care aspects included individualizing patient care, detecting care problems and potential complications, and promoting patient well-being; within a care environment with open interdisciplinary communication, where care problems could be discussed with nursing colleagues, where one cares for the same patient regularly, and led by a team leader with vision. Society's view of nursing was generally more negative than students'. Most students planned on working in nursing after their studies and many had thought about additional education at some point. Most were proud of

  13. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Treger; Feliks Matusiak; Maciej Pilecki; Monika Rogoż

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Methods Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents a...

  14. The Moral Self-Image Scale: Measuring and Understanding the Malleability of the Moral Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eJordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent ethical decision-making models suggest that individuals’ own view of their morality is malleable rather than static, responding to their (immoral actions and reflections about the world around them. Yet no construct currently exists to represent the malleable state of a person’s moral self-image (MSI. In this investigation, we define this construct, as well as develop a scale to measure it. Across five studies, we show that feedback about the moral self alters an individual’s MSI as measured by our scale. We also find that MSI is related to, but distinct from, related constructs, including moral identity, self-esteem, and moral disengagement. In Study 1, we administered the MSI scale and several other relevant scales to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 2, we examine the relationship between the MSI and one’s ought versus ideal self. In Studies 3 and 4, we find that one’s MSI is affected in the predicted directions by manipulated feedback about the moral self, including feedback related to social comparisons of moral behavior (Study 3 and feedback relative to one’s own moral ideal (Study 4. Lastly, Study 5 provides evidence that the recall of one’s moral or immoral behavior alters people’s MSI in the predicted directions. Taken together, these studies suggest that the MSI is malleable and responds to individuals’ moral and immoral actions in the outside world. As such, the MSI is an important variable to consider in the study of moral and immoral behavior.

  15. Overweight, Thinness, Body Self-Image and Eating Strategies of 2,121 Italian Teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guarino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the prevalence rate of overweight and thinness in a population of teens living in two different areas of Italy and explores the body self-image perception and unhealthy eating behaviours and strategies to lose weight. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2,121 teenage students (1,084 males; 1,037 females. Results showed that teen females and males build and perceive their body images in very different ways. Most of the overall sample perceived their weight as normal, while a relevant 31.6% defined themselves as overweight and another 4.4% as heavily overweight. Analysis based on BMI (calculated through self-referred weight and height showed that only 9.2% of our sample could be considered overweight and 1,7% obese. Most of female teen students (485 out of 1,037 were trying to lose weight, demonstrating that strategies to lose weight were undertaken also by girls perceiving themsleves as normal in relation to body weight; 46.8% girls were using strategies to lose weight compared with 21.9% boys. These strategies included very problematic behaviours like self-induced vomiting (3.3% F vs. 1.7% M and dieting pills (2.8% F vs. 1.5% M undertaken along with more usual thinning strategies like dieting and exercising. Girls were more prone than boys to exercise as a way to lose weight (41% vs. 31.7%. This study showed that there is a deep gap between actual weight and perceived body-image and weight. This study is one of the first of this kind in Italy and calls for primary prevention and health education programs aimed at improving teen body-image as a strategy to reduce the eating disorder epidemics spreading among young people.

  16. Self-image and Missions of Universities: An Empirical Analysis of Japanese University Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Murasawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As universities in Japan gain institutional autonomy in managing internal organizations, independent of governmental control as a result of deregulation and decentralizing reforms, it is becoming increasingly important that the executives and administrators of each institution demonstrate clear and strategic vision and ideas to external stakeholders, in order to maintain financially robust operations and attractiveness of their institutions. This paper considers whether and how the self-image, mission, and vision of universities are perceived and internalized by the management of Japanese universities and empirically examines the determinants of shaping such individual perceptions. The result of our descriptive analysis indicates that the recent government policy to internationalize domestic universities has not shown much progress in the view of university executives in Japan. An increasing emphasis on the roles of serving local needs in research and teaching is rather pursued by these universities. Individual perceptions among Japanese university executives with regard to the missions and functional roles to be played by their institutions are influenced by managerial rank as well as the field of their academic training. A multiple regression analysis reveals that the economy of scale brought out by an expanded undergraduate student enrollment gradually slows down and decelerate executive perceptions, with regard to establishing a globally recognized status in research and teaching. Moreover, Japanese universities with a small proportion of graduate student enrollment, likely opted out from competitions for gaining a greater respect in the global community of higher education between 2005 and 2012. Finally, the management in universities granted with the same amount of external research funds in both studied years responded more passively in 2012 than did in 2005 on the self-assessment of whether having established a status as a global

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the FGSIS-I, and a gynecological exam behavior questionnaire. Good to excellent internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity were found. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both provided a two-factor structure for the FGSIS-I. The validity of the FGSIS-I in predicting gynecological exam behavior of college women was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The final model accounted for 33% of the variance in gynecological exam behavior (p reliable instrument to assess female genital self-image in Iranian women.

  18. Water gymnastics program for elderly: motivation, self-steam and self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lima de Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated self-esteem and self-image of older adults and its relationship with motivational factors of entering and staying in water exercise program (WEP. The sample was composed by 60 elderly subjects - 53 females and 7 males ( = 69.5 years of age, SD=5,9 yrs, participants of WEP at GETI (Study Group on Elderly at the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC. A questionnaire of self-esteem and selfimage for elders, developed by Steglich (1978, was applied in form of interview. The statistical procedures included descriptives and non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at p RESUMO Esta pesquisa verificou a auto-estima e a auto-imagem e a sua relação com os fatores motivacionais de ingresso e de permanência dos idosos em um programa de hidroginástica. A amostra foi constituída por 60 idosos, 53 do sexo feminino e 7 do sexo masculino, com = 69,5 anos de idade (SD=5,9 participantes do programa de hidroginástica do Grupo de Estudos da Terceira Idade (GETI da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC. O instrumento foi um questionário de auto-estima e auto-imagem para idosos, desenvolvido por Steglich (1978, aplicado em forma de entrevista individual. O tratamento estatístico foi descritivo e com testes não-paramétricos. O nível de significância de p<0.05. A maioria dos idosos foi considerado idoso jovem (81,6%, casado e/ou viúvo (43,3%, do sexo feminino (88,3%, participa do programa de 3 a 4 anos (40%, e pratica outra atividade física (78,3% como a caminhada (56,7%. O principal motivo de ingresso no programa foi para melhorar a saúde física e mental e de permanência neste foi o gosto pela atividade física no meio líquido e a sensação de bem-estar. O grupo apresentou elevada auto-estima e auto-imagem. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os motivos de permanência no programa e a auto-imagem corporal (p=0,008. O programa de hidroginástica trata-se de um meio para melhoria

  19. 1x3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Min; Malureanu, Radu; Krüger, Asger Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on inspiration from multi-mode interference self-imaging and theoretical FDTD simulations, a 1x3 beam splitter was designed, fabricated and characterized. Measurements show that for TE-polarized incident light the power is distributed equally between the output ports within 1dB in the range...... from 1541nm to 1552nm, and the total transmission of the 1x3 splitter is equal to the corresponding length of a single-line-defect PhCW within the measurement uncertainty....

  20. The impact of emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and self-image on romantic communication over MySpace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingwen; Urista, Mark A; Gundrum, Duane

    2008-10-01

    A study based on a survey of 240 individual MySpace users found that low self-esteem encourages young adults to engage in romantic communication (such as having intimate communication with the opposite sex and looking for romantic partners) while higher emotional intelligence discourages such activity. The results also suggested that those who have higher self-image, such as thinking themselves attractive and happy with their appearance, tend to engage in romantic communication. Limitations of the study and suggestion for future study are discussed.

  1. PARENTAL ROLE AND NARCISSICM IN CONSTRUCTING SELF-IMAGE IN JOICE CAROL OATES’S SHORT STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustin Sartika

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available POLA ASUH DAN NARSISME DALAM MENGKONSTRUKSI GAMBARAN DIRI DI CERITA JOICE CAROL OATES Abstract This research attempts to find the parental role and narcissism in constructing self-image in Where Are You Going Where Have You Been by Joice Carol Oates. This research was qualitative. By using object relation theory, this research finds that less attachment and abandonment leads to depression. To avoid further rejection, self can split to different personalities. Unpleasant experience during maturing process produces low self-esteem. Narcissism works to soothe the anxiety on developing the self-image. Keywords: abandonment, depression, split personality Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan pola asuh orang tua dan narsisme dalam membangun gambaran diri dalam Where Are You Going Where Have You Been karya Joice Carol Oates. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Dengan menggunakan teori hubungan objek, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kurangnya kedekatan dan rasa penolakan memunculkan depresi. Untuk mencegah penolakan lebih lanjut, diri dapat terbagi menjadi karakter yang berbeda-beda. Pengalaman pendewasaan yang tidak menyenangkan dapat menyebabkan anak memiliki rasa penghargaan diri yang rendah. Narsisme bekerja untuk meredakan kegelisahan dalam mengembangkan diri. Kata kunci: penolakan, depresi, karakter ganda

  2. Coherence revivals in two-photon frequency combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Company, Victor; Lancis, Jesus; Lajunen, Hanna; Friberg, Ari T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe and theoretically analyze the self-imaging Talbot effect of entangled photon pairs in the time domain. Rich phenomena are observed in coherence propagation along dispersive media of mode-locked two-photon states with frequency entanglement exhibiting a comblike correlation function. Our results can be used to remotely transfer frequency standards through optical fiber networks with two-photon light, avoiding the requirement of dispersion compensation.

  3. ORTHOIMAGERY, TALBOT COUNTY, MD USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  4. OurTube / David Talbot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talbot, David

    2009-01-01

    USA California Ülikooli töötajate Abram Stern'i ja Michael Dale'i poolt 2005. a. algatatud USA kongressis peetud kõnede videoremiksidest ja nende poolt loodud veebisaidist Metavid.org. Ka YouTube keskkonnast ja wikipedia katsetustest muuta oma keskkond multimeedialisemaks

  5. The self-image with The test of the Person: quantitative and qualitative study in students of pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Cid Rodríguez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of a work of research on the study of the Self-Image in a sample of drawing realized by pupils of pedagogy, to who are they the test has managed the affair projective graphic the: Test of the Person. This investigation departs from the theoretical and practical premise of de perceptive psychology and projective, and we are described up to the current importance by the historical bibliographical tour of the instrument in profile of personality. The aim has been to evaluate and to interpret the quiet drawing of human figure, to reach ultimately to elaborate a global profile of the students, based on the hypothesis of theoretical convergence of the description of the graphical forms and the functioning psychodynamic of the personality of the examined ones.

  6. The relationship between women's body satisfaction and self-image across the life span: the role of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jessica; Tiggemann, Marika

    2003-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-image across the life span. A sample of 106 women between the ages of 20 and 65 years completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, body importance, cognitive control over the body, self-concept, and self-esteem. The authors found that body dissatisfaction and body importance did not differ among the groups of women who were younger, middle aged, and older. Although body dissatisfaction was related to self-concept and self-esteem for the entire sample, the strength of that relationship reduced with increasing age and increasing perceptions of cognitive control. The authors concluded that the cognitive strategies of women who were older protect their self-concept and self-esteem from the influence of body dissatisfaction.

  7. Do the SRS-22 self-image and mental health domain scores reflect the degree of asymmetry of the back in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, James; Gardner, Adrian; Berryman, Fiona; Pynsent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are becoming increasingly recognised in the management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS2) surface topography is a validated tool to assess AIS. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate strong correlations between AIS and patient-reported outcomes highlighting the need for additional objective surface parameters to define the deformities associated with AIS. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) outcome questionnaire reflects the degree of measurable external asymmetry of the back in AIS and thus is a measure of patient outcome for external appearance. A total of 102 pre-operative AIS patients were identified retrospectively. Objective parameters were measured using ISIS2 surface topography. The associations between these parameters and the self-image and mental health domains of the SRS-22 questionnaire were investigated using correlation coefficients. All correlations between the parameters of asymmetry and SRS-22 self-image score were of weak strength. Similarly, all correlations between the parameters of asymmetry and SRS-22 mental health score were of weak strength. The SRS-22 mental health and self-image domains correlate poorly with external measures of deformity. This demonstrates that the assessment of mental health and self-image by the SRS-22 has little to do with external torso shape. Whilst the SRS-22 assesses the patient as a whole, it provides little information about objective measures of deformity over which a surgeon has control.

  8. Alien or alike? How the perceived similarity between the typical science teacher and a student's self-image correlates with choosing science at school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, U.; Taconis, R.

    2011-01-01

    By applying the self-to-prototype matching theory to students’ academic choices, this study links the unpopularity of science in many industrialized countries with the perceived gap between typical persons representing science (e.g. physics teachers) on the one hand and students’ self-image on the

  9. Association of sociodemographic and clinical factors with the self-image and self-esteem of individuals with intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Salomé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic factors and correlate them to the self-image and self-esteem. Methods: A study conducted at Ostomy Pole of PousoAlegre. The data were collected between December 2012 and May 2013. This was a non-probabilistic, by convenience, sample. For data collection, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale were used. For statistical analysis, chi-squared test, Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman correlation were used. Levels of significance of 5% (p ≤ 0.05 were considered. Results: Participants had a mean score of 10.81 in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP. Regarding Body Investment Scale results, the mean total score was 38.79; the mean in the domain of body image was 7.74, and for personal touch, 21.31. When comparing data related to the stoma and sociodemographic profiles with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP and Body Investment Scale, we realize that all patients demonstrated a decrease in self-esteem and self-image. Individuals were over 60 years old, male, retired, married and were not participants in support group/association. With regard to the characteristics of the stoma, those permanent colostomized had as causes of stoma implementation inflammatory disease and neoplasia; stomata measured between 20 and 40 mm; these people used two-piece devices. People who have not been notified that would be subjected to the stoma and in whom no demarcation was done showed worsening in self-esteem and self-image in relation to other features related to injury and sociodemographic data. Conclusion: Patients who participated in this study had low self-image and self-esteem in all characteristics of the stoma and in sociodemographic data, meaning that these individuals had negative feelings about their own bodies. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos e correlacioná-los à autoimagem e autoestima. Métodos: Estudo realizado no Polo

  10. Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Rui; Jiang Xiaoqing; Yang Jianyi; Wang Minghua

    2002-01-01

    Propagation constant errors (PCEs) of guided modes in regions of multimode interference in optical networks were analyzed. Results show that a graded-index waveguide can effectively decrease the PCEs. An example based on an exponential function is presented. Numerical results show that addition of a graded-index waveguide greatly improves device performance in this structure

  11. Transformation of light double cones in the human retina: the origin of trichromatism, of 4D-spatiotemporal vision, and of patchwise 4D Fourier transformation in Talbot imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1997-09-01

    The interpretation of the 'inverted' retina of primates as an 'optoretina' (a light cones transforming diffractive cellular 3D-phase grating) integrates the functional, structural, and oscillatory aspects of a cortical layer. It is therefore relevant to consider prenatal developments as a basis of the macro- and micro-geometry of the inner eye. This geometry becomes relevant for the postnatal trichromatic synchrony organization (TSO) as well as the adaptive levels of human vision. It is shown that the functional performances, the trichromatism in photopic vision, the monocular spatiotemporal 3D- and 4D-motion detection, as well as the Fourier optical image transformation with extraction of invariances all become possible. To transform light cones into reciprocal gratings especially the spectral phase conditions in the eikonal of the geometrical optical imaging before the retinal 3D-grating become relevant first, then in the von Laue resp. reciprocal von Laue equation for 3D-grating optics inside the grating and finally in the periodicity of Talbot-2/Fresnel-planes in the near-field behind the grating. It is becoming possible to technically realize -- at least in some specific aspects -- such a cortical optoretina sensor element with its typical hexagonal-concentric structure which leads to these visual functions.

  12. Self-image perception of 171 children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate from 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Delgado, Sergio V; Livingstone, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) are among the most common congenital deformities of the head and neck. They are associated with many problems, physical and psychological. We describe 171 children and adolescents with CL/CP from 22 countries who were asked to draw their faces in a self-image perception drawing 2 hours before surgery to repair their deformities. The aim of the study was to explore whether children and adolescents with CL and CP perceived themselves as deformed when given the opportunity to draw their faces before surgery to repair their deformities. Children were asked to lie down on a large piece of paper to have their body outline traced. Subsequently, the children were asked to draw their faces within the outline. All of the children included in this study drew their faces with normal mouths. None of the 171 patients with CL/CP drew their deformity when asked to draw their faces; the reasons are not clear. The children may have wanted to compensate for their disability with the constructive use of fantasy as they anticipated the surgery to repair their CL/CP. An additional hypothesis is that the children felt the need to draw an image that they knew represented their parents' desires.

  13. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  14. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  15. Original article The risk of muscle dysmorphia and the perception of change in retrospective, current and ideal self-image – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background A specific type of causes of extended training and gym exercises is muscle dysmorphia. People with this disorder think that their current appearance is not satisfactory, and the focus on the perceived defect is great. The perceived defect usually is connected with body and muscle mass and body shape. According to the conceptual model of dysmorphia proposed by Grieve (2007, the aim of the study was to verify the thesis that the risk of muscle dysmorphia is associated with the negative self-image generalized based on physical appearance. Participants and procedure Twelve women and 18 men, fulfilling the criteria of exercise addiction according to Pope, filled out the ACL scale, answering the questions concerning what kind of person they were before training, who they are now and what kind of person they would like to be. Also, they answered freely the questions concerning their feelings about training. Results A significant difference between perceived retrospective and current self-image was observed. The people examined became, in their opinion, more self-confident, more dominating and independent, and they described themselves in more positive categories. However, there still is relatively a lot of aggression and anxiety. The analysis of the ideal self-image indicates that the presented image performs – at least partly – the defence mechanism role. This is also confirmed by the analysis of the statements of the subjects examined, especially the question about the benefits resulting from the training. Conclusions The results confirm the role of the negative self-image in the risk of muscle dysmorphia. The exercises change self-assessment, but they do not solve the problems that were the reason for it. The characteristics of these problems in further research will facilitate therapy planning.

  16. Adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents: a study of self-image and outcome at an intensive outpatient program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezelius, Christina; Wahlund, Björn; Carlsson, Lars; Wiberg, Britt

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this clinical study was to explore how adolescent patients with eating disorders and their parents report their perceived self-image, using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), before and after treatment at an intensive outpatient program. Another aim was to relate the self-image of the young patients to the outcome measures body mass index (BMI) and Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) score. A total of 93 individuals (32 adolescents, 34 mothers, and 27 fathers) completed the SASB self-report questionnaire before and after family-based treatment combined with an individual approach at a child and youth psychiatry day care unit. The patients were also assessed using the C-GAS, and their BMI was calculated. The self-image (SASB) of the adolescent patients was negative before treatment and changed to positive after treatment, especially regarding the clusters self-love (higher) and self-blame (lower). A positive correlation between change in self-love and in C-GAS score was found, which rose significantly. Increased self-love was an important factor, explaining a variance of 26 %. BMI also increased significantly, but without any correlation to change in SASB. The patients' fathers exhibited low on the cluster self-protection. Mothers' profiles were in line with a non-clinical group. Results indicate that the self-image of adolescent patients change from negative to positive alongside with a mainly positive outcome of the ED after treatment. Low self-protection according to SASB among fathers suggests the need for greater focus on their involvement.

  17. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  19. Optical Splitters Based on Self-Imaging Effect in Multi-Mode Waveguide Made by Ion Exchange in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Barkman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Design and modeling of single mode optical multi-mode interference structures with graded refractive index is reported. Several samples of planar optical channel waveguides were obtained by Ag+, Na+ and K+, Na+ one step thermal ion exchange process in molten salt on GIL49 glass substrate and new special optical glass for ion exchange technology. Waveguide properties were measured by optical mode spectroscopy. Obtained data were used for further design and modeling of single mode channel waveguide and subsequently for the design of 1 to 3 multimode interference power splitter in order to improve simulation accuracy. Designs were developed by utilizing finite difference beam propagation method.

  20. Original article Changes in the perception of self-image and the sense of purpose and meaning in life, among women who lost their child before birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guzewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The article is concerned with descriptions of self-image and the sense of purpose in life, among women who have experienced the loss of a child through miscarriage, premature birth or stillbirth. The loss of a child at the prenatal stage is a very difficult experience for the mother. Such women experience a wide range of emotions and often show unpredictable behaviours, both of which can influence their future functioning and mental health. Participants and procedure The goal of the current study was to look at the differences between women who had given birth to a healthy child, and those who lost an unborn child. A total of 125 women participated in the study. The Gough and Heilbrun Adjective Check List (ACL as well as Wong’s Personal Meaning Profile tests were used as research methods. Results As expected, significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of their self-image and perceived sense of purpose and meaning in life. Women who lost an unborn child had a tendency for lower self-esteem, higher perceived guilt and lower needs. Conclusions The obtained results suggest the need for observation of mothers who experienced a prenatal child loss. The access to professional help and support from physicians and, more importantly, psychologists and therapists has an influence on their self-image, and the sense of purpose in both the present and the future. Adequate professional assistance has an influence on their family relations and their ability to plan another pregnancy (further attempts at conception, without a perception of guilt associated with the loss of the previous child.

  1. The association between chronic bullying victimization with weight status and body self-image: a cross-national study in 39 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qiguo; Su, Qiru; Li, Ruili; Elgar, Frank J; Liu, Zhihao; Zheng, Dongpeng

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity and school bullying are pervasive public health issues and known to co-occur in adolescents. However, the association between underweight or thinness and chronic bullying victimization is unclear. The current study examined whether chronic bullying victimization is associated with weight status and body self-image. A school-based, cross-sectional study in 39 North American and European countries and regions was conducted. A total of 213,595 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were surveyed in 2009/10. Chronic bullying victimization was identified using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Weight status was determined using self-reported height and weight and the body mass index (BMI), and body self-image was based on perceived weight. We tested associations between underweight and bullying victimization using three-level logistic regression models. Of the 213,595 adolescents investigated, 11.28% adolescents reported chronic bullying victimization, 14.80% were classified as overweight/obese according to age- and sex-specific BMI criteria, 12.97% were underweight, and 28.36% considered themselves a little bit fat or too fat, 14.57% were too thin. Bullying victimization was less common in older adolescent boys and girls. Weight status was associated with chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR underweight = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.16, p = 0.002; adjusted OR overweight = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.32-1.49, p self-image also related to chronic bullying victimization (adjusted OR too thin = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.49, p self-rated overweight are associated with chronic bullying victimization. Both overweight and underweight children are at risk of being chronically bullied.

  2. Polarization-dependent Character of 1x3 Beam Splitter Using Self-Imaging Phenomena in Air-Slab PhCW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Min; Malureanu, Radu; Kristensen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A 1x3 beam splitter in PhCWs using multi-mode interference (MMI) based on self-imaging principle is investigated. The 1x3 splitter is polarization-dependent. The total TE-polarized transmission of the 1x3 splitter is almost equal to the corresponding length of W1 PhCW. The TE-polarized input power...... is distributed equally be-tween the output ports within 1dB from 1541nm to 1552nm....

  3. The association between chronic bullying victimization with weight status and body self-image: a cross-national study in 39 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiguo Lian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity and school bullying are pervasive public health issues and known to co-occur in adolescents. However, the association between underweight or thinness and chronic bullying victimization is unclear. The current study examined whether chronic bullying victimization is associated with weight status and body self-image. Methods A school-based, cross-sectional study in 39 North American and European countries and regions was conducted. A total of 213,595 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years were surveyed in 2009/10. Chronic bullying victimization was identified using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Weight status was determined using self-reported height and weight and the body mass index (BMI, and body self-image was based on perceived weight. We tested associations between underweight and bullying victimization using three-level logistic regression models. Results Of the 213,595 adolescents investigated, 11.28% adolescents reported chronic bullying victimization, 14.80% were classified as overweight/obese according to age- and sex-specific BMI criteria, 12.97% were underweight, and 28.36% considered themselves a little bit fat or too fat, 14.57% were too thin. Bullying victimization was less common in older adolescent boys and girls. Weight status was associated with chronic bullying victimization (adjusted ORunderweight = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05–1.16, p = 0.002; adjusted ORoverweight = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.32–1.49, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORobese = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.71–2.14, p < 0.0001. Body self-image also related to chronic bullying victimization (adjusted ORtoo thin = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36–1.49, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORa little bit fat = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.48–1.61, p < 0.0001; adjusted ORtoo fat = 3.30, 95% CI = 2.96–3.68, p < 0.0001. Conclusion Both perceived weight and self-rated overweight are associated with chronic bullying victimization. Both overweight and underweight children are at risk of being

  4. From an “Internationalist Woman” to “Just another Asian Immigrant”: Transformation of Japanese Women’s Self-Image before and after Permanent Settlement in a Western Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko KAWAKAMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Young middle class Japanese women who speak English identify themselves as career-oriented “internationalist women.” They hold positive self-images; however, their self-images become convoluted with negative images as they experience changes in their lives. When they marry white males and become permanent residents in Western countries, their self-identities transform into “just another Asian immigrant” out of many. Many Japanese wives of white husbands deny their association with their compatriots when they actually do associate with other Japanese immigrant women. They also deny racial factors in their attraction to their white husbands. I argue that these behaviors are harnessed to redevelop a self-identity by renouncing the stereotypical images of Eurocentric Japanese women. This paper will describe the transformation of Japanese women’s self-images before and after permanent settlement in a Western country and the process of their redevelopment of self-identity.

  5. The development and validation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale: results from a nationally representative probability sample of men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Numerous factors may affect men's sexual experiences, including their health status, past trauma or abuse, medication use, relationships, mood, anxiety, and body image. Little research has assessed the influence of men's genital self-image on their sexual function or behaviors and none has done so in a nationally representative sample. The purpose of this study was to, in a nationally representative probability sample of men ages 18 to 60, assess the reliability and validity of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS), and to examine the relationship between scores on the MGSIS and men's scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The MGSIS was developed in two stages. Phase One involved a review of the literature and an analysis of cross-sectional survey data. Phase Two involved an administration of the scale items to a nationally representative sample of men in the United States ages 18 to 60. Measures include demographic items, the IIEF, and the MGSIS. Overall, most men felt positively about their genitals. However, 24.6% of men expressed some discomfort letting a healthcare provider examine their genitals and about 20% reported dissatisfaction with their genital size. The MGSIS was found to be reliable and valid, with the MGSIS-5 (consisting of five items) being the best fit to the data. The MGSIS was found to be a reliable and valid measure. In addition, men's scores on the MGSIS-5 were found to be positively related to men's scores on the IIEF. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. densities and biomasses of some ungulate populations in eastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environments free from any human intervention (with the exception of bush fires spreading from surrounding ..... Simba. The life of the lion. Cape Town. Timmins. HOLLOWAY, C. w. 1962. The effect of ... TALBOT, L. M. and TALBOT, M. H. 1963.

  7. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... associated factor with child abuse with parent/guardian is poverty (50.7%) ... Effect of child abuse ... parents and chaotic life styles. ... are evidences of poor self image, alcohol .... mothers, while 15% of the children were.

  8. Insidious: The relationship patients have with their eating disorders and its impact on symptoms, duration of illness, and self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén Mantilla, Emma; Clinton, David; Birgegård, Andreas

    2017-10-28

    In published clinical and autobiographical accounts of eating disorders, patients often describe their disorder in personified ways, that is, relating to the disorder as if it were an entity, and treatment often involves techniques of externalization. By encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, this study aimed to examine how young female patients experience their eating disorder as acting towards them, how they react in response, and whether these interactions are associated with symptoms, illness duration, and self-image. Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was used to operationalize how patients experience the actions of their eating disorder and their own reactions to the disorder. The relationship between patients (N = 150) and their eating disorders was examined with respect to symptoms, duration of illness, and self-image. Patients were also compared on their tendency to react with affiliation in relation to their disorder. Patients' responses on the SASB indicated that they tended to conceptualize their eating disorders as blaming and controlling, and they themselves as sulking and submitting in response. Greater experience of the eating disorder as being controlling was associated with higher levels of symptomatology. Patients reacting with more negative affiliation towards their disorder were less symptomatic. When encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, comprehensible relationship patterns between patients and their eating disorders emerged. The idea that this alleged relationship may resemble a real-life relationship could have theoretical implications, and its exploration may be of interest in treatment. Patients were able to conceptualize their eating disorder as a significant other to whom they relate when encouraged to do so. Patients tended to experience their disorder as controlling and domineering. Exploring the hypothetical patient-eating disorder relationship

  9. The importance of trunk perception during brace treatment in moderate juvenile idiopathic scoliosis: What is the impact on self-image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Piccinini, Giulia; Iosa, Marco; Piermattei, Cristina; De Angelis, Simona; Zangrando, Federico; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-01-01

    The perception of body image and the deformity of the trunk in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are a silver lining that has yet to be discussed in the relevant literature during brace rehabilitation treatment. To determine whether and how the use of the brace changes perception of the trunk in patients with AIS by the drawing test. We observed 32 subjects with AIS from our Rehabilitation outpatient clinic and divided them into the brace treatment (BG-16 subjects) and the non-brace treatment (CG-16 subjects). Trunk perception and quality of life were evaluated using the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire, and the perception of one's back was measured by the drawing test. Pain was lower in BG versus CG (p= 0.095). Satisfaction with the treatment was higher in BG than in CG (p= 0.002). Self-image did not differ significantly between the groups in terms of TAPS. Drawings of the most severe cases of scoliosis were made by the group without the brace. The use of the brace corrects the function of the trunk and has a positive influence on its perception.

  10. Risky sexual behaviors among sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college: Is a positive self-image an instigator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Walter L

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 498 sexually active first-year students matriculating at a historically Black college in North Carolina was used to determine correlates of risky sexual behaviors. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression, the self-esteem element "I take a positive attitude toward myself" (B = 1.12, p = .05), non-condom use because of partner issues (B = .53, p = .05) and being drunk or high (B = 1.20, p = .001), oral sex (B = 1.74, p = .001), anal sex (B = .61, p = .04), and bisexuality (B = .85, p = .03) all increased the number of these behaviors. Higher scores on the condom usage scale (B = -.38, p = .002) were found to decrease the number of risky sexual behaviors. Illicit drug use was an underpinning of the surprisingly positive relationship between positive self-image and risky sexual behaviors. It was concluded that school-based social workers, mental health care professionals, and community-based prevention providers can play a critical role in the training of peer facilitators, development, and supervision of peer-driven risk-reduction programs to address the complex interplay among self-esteem, sex, and substances.

  11. Meaning of 9/11 for two Pakistani communities: from external intruders to the internalisation of a negative self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Jamil, Uzma

    2008-12-01

    Since September 11, the increase in international tensions and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have created turmoil and fears in immigrant communities, fanned by the media in the context of the war against terrorism. This paper aims to compare the meaning systems evoked around 9/11 within two Pakistani groups-an immigrant community in Montreal and a group in Karachi. It also intends to examine the representation of themselves and of the 'Other' within these two groups. Results suggest that both Karachi and Montreal Pakistani respondents favour a conspiracy scenario which protects the Muslim community from the responsibility of 9/11 events. They refer to an argumentation process based on 'proofs', thus mirroring the political rhetoric used by the US government and its allies to justify the military intervention in Iraq. In the Montreal group, the pervasive feeling of fear and the bleak image that the community has of itself support the hypothesis of an immigrant internalisation of the negative representations of Muslim and South Asian identities in the North American context. The negative self-image observed in these minority groups indicates that more effort than ever should be dedicated to understanding the impact of the present international context on minority-majority relations in multi-ethnic societies. It is as if America is sitting right here in the living room with us … We have to ask them permission to breathe. (Parveen, Karachi).

  12. A new technique of characterization of intrapixel response dedicated to astronomical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchazo, C.; Viale, T.; Boulade, O.; Druart, G.; Moreau, V.; Mugnier, L.; Dubrueil, D.; Derelle, S.; Ronayette, S.; Guérineau, N.; Berthé, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a new technique of characterization of the intra-pixel sensitivity variations (IPSVs) of astronomical detectors. The IPSV is the spatial variation of the pixel response function (PRF). In the case of under-sampled instruments for high quality imaging and accurate photometry, IPSV can contribute to the instrument global error and it should be considered carefully. Our measurement technique is based in the Fourier transform (FT) approach. It consists into the sampling of the pixel transfer function (PTF) by projecting high-resolution periodic patterns onto the whole sensor without classic optics but using the self-imaging property (the Talbot effect) of a continuously self imaging grating (CSIG) illuminated by a plane wave. The PRF is determined by computing the inverse FT. Our measurement technique permits to determine the PRF with a resolution of pixel/10 (10 times Nyquist frequency)

  13. Investigation into the phase effects in nonlinear hollow waveguides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available field Figure 3: The dependence of Talbot length on pump power for different values of waveguide radius is shown; a)-R = 200mkm, b)-R = 300 mkm. When there is no pump zT is close to Talbot length without SRS and equal to 2.1 m for 300 mkm sss gigg...

  14. [Social Security Needs Social Medicine: Self-image of Physicians Practicing Social Medicine in Statutory Health Insurances and Social Security Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, E; Bahemann, A; Egdmann, W; van Essen, J; Gostomzyk, J; Hemmrich, K; Manegold, B; Müller, B; Robra, B P; Röder, M; Schmidt, L; Zobel, A; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2015-09-01

    In January, 2014, the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention established a working group on the self-image of the physicians active in the field of social medicine (medical expertise and counseling). The result of this work is the contribution presented here after consensus was achieved by specialists of social medicine from different fields and institutions (social security etc.) and in good cooperation with Prof. Dr. Gostomzyk and Prof. Dr. Robra. Based on the importance of an up to date social medicine for claimants and recipients of benefits on the one hand and the social security system on the other, and also on a description of the subjects, objectives and methods the following aspects are presented: · The perspective of social medicine. · Qualification in social medicine, concerning specialist training and continuing medical education. · The fields of duty of experts in social medicine. · The proceedings in social medicine. The working group identified challenges for the specialists in social medicine by a narrowed perception of social medicine by physicians in hospitals and practice, accompanied by an enlarged importance of expertise in social medicine, by the demand for more "patient orientation" and gain of transparency, and concerning the scientific foundation of social medicine. The working group postulates: · The perspective of social medicine should be spread more widely.. · Confidence in experts of social medicine and their independency should be strengthened.. · The not case-related consulting of the staff and executives should be expanded.. · Social medicine in practice needs support by politics and society, and especially by research and teaching.. · Good cooperation and transfer of experiences of the different branches of social security are essential for the impact of social medicine.. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Tradução e validação para o Brasil da escala de imagem corporal para adolescentes: offer self-image questionnaire (OSIQ Translation and validation for Brazil of the body image scale for adolescents: Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Conti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apreciar a equivalência semântica e de mensuração da subescala de imagem corporal do Offer Self Image Questionnaire (OSIQ. MÉTODOS: Participaram 386 adolescentes, na faixa etária de 10 a 18 anos, de ambos os sexos, de uma escola particular de ensino fundamental e médio. Realizou-se tradução, retrotradução, revisão técnica e avaliação do instrumento. Avaliou-se a consistência interna, a validade discriminante e concorrente e a confiabilidade. RESULTADOS: O instrumento apresentou, para a consistência interna, valores que variaram de 0,43 a 0,51 e foi capaz de discriminar os grupos estudados - população total, meninos, meninas, e meninos em fase inicial de adolescência, segundo o estado nutricional (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the semantic and measure equivalence of the body image sub-scale of the Offer Self Image Questionnaire (OSIQ. METHODS: Participants were 386 teenagers, 10 to 18 years old, both sexes, enrolled in a private school (junior and high school age. Translation, back-translation, technique revision and evaluation were conducted. The Portuguese instrument was evaluated for internal consistency, discriminate and concurrent validity. RESULTS: Internal consistency showed values from 0.43 to 0.54 and was able to discriminate all groups studied - the whole population, boys and girls, and boys in early adolescence, by nutritional status (p<0.001; p<0.009; p=0.030; p=0.043, respectively. Concurrent analyses showed significant correlation with anthropometric measures only for girls (r=-0.16 and p=0.021; r=-0.19 and p=0.007, early adolescence (r=-0.23 and p=0.008; r=-0.26 and p=0.003 and intermediate adolescence (r=-0.29 and p=0.010 and the retest confirmed reliability by the coefficient of interclass correlation. Although the instrument has proven its ability to discriminate between the groups studied by nutritional state, other results were less satisfactory. More studies are necessary for full transcultural

  16. Association of sociodemographic and clinical factors with self-image, self-esteem and locus of health control in patients with an intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Alves de Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to patients with an intestinal stoma and to correlate them with locus of health control, self-esteem and self-image. Method: 44 patients with an intestinal stoma participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Scale for Locus of Health Control, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale. Results: With regard to Locus Health Control variables, sociodemographic variables with alterations were: unemployed (28.13; retirees (27.79; age up to 50 years (28.44; and singles (27.89. Regarding Body Investment Scale, the sociodemographic variables with alterations were: age up to 50 years (21.79; single (19.15 or married (17.53; retired (18.79 or unemployed (19.83; and can read and write (20.13. Regarding Rosenberg-EPM Self-esteem Scale, all sociodemographic variables were altered. Conclusions: Ostomized patients presented alterations in the following variables: unemployed, retired, aged up to 50 years and unmarried. There were also alterations in individuals whose cause of the stoma was neoplasia, a temporary stoma, stoma time <4 years, and ostomized non-participants of an association or support group, and who also did not practice physical activities. We conclude from these findings that ostomized individuals who participated in the study and who were included in these variables showed negative feelings about their body and believed that only they could control their health and that the people involved in their care and rehabilitation did not could contribute to their improvement. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos relativos aos pacientes com estoma intestinal e correlacioná-los a locus de controle da saúde, autoestima e autoimagem. Método: 44 pacientes com estoma intestinal participaram do estudo. Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Escala para Locus de Controle da Saúde, Escala de Autoestima de

  17. Influência da atividade física na qualidade de vida e auto-imagem de mulheres incontinentes Influence of physical activity in the quality of life and self image of incontinent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletha Silva Caetano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo foi verificar a influência de uma proposta de atividades físicas na qualidade de vida e na auto-imagem de mulheres incontinentes. Constituiu-se de um estudo comparativo e exploratório realizado durante 16 semanas. Participaram 37 mulheres com e sem incontinência urinária (IU. Após o estudo observamos melhora significativa nos domínios relacionados com a percepção geral de saúde (p Our aim was to verify the influence of a physical activities proposal in the quality of life and self image of incontinent women. This study was comparative and exploratory and was developed in 16 weeks. Thirty-seven women with and without urinary incontinence (IU participated in the study. After the study, significant improvement in general health perception (p < 0.001, UI impact (p = 0.035, physical limitations (p = 0.015, personal relations, (p = 0.048, sleep and disposition (p = 0.012 and concerned with the gravity measurements (p = 0.011 was observed. Concerning self image, alterations in appearance were not observed; however, concerning body satisfaction, the women felt less satisfied with their bodies (p = 0.007. There was a reduction in the number of regions where they felt pain (p = 0.0003 and that they did not like (p = 0.0017. In conclusion, the Physical Education professionals using a systematized and integrated physical activities program can lead the women with IU to significant improvement in the perception of their quality of life and health concerning their self image with improvement of the IU symptoms and reduction of frequency and amount of urinary loss.

  18. Valorização profissional sob a perspectiva dos policiais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Professional self-image from the perspective of police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a visão dos policiais civis e militares do Rio de Janeiro sobre o tema de valorização humana e profissional. A partir da teoria sociológica sobre papéis sociais e de propostas de administração de recursos humanos, o texto tem como parâmetro de análise cinco indicadores qualitativos de valorização: dignidade, realização, reconhecimento, segurança e perspectiva promissora. Do ponto de vista metodológico, o estudo constitui uma análise contextualizada de textos escritos por esses agentes, ao final de um questionário fechado sobre condições de trabalho, de saúde e de vida, realizados numa série de estudos que se iniciaram em 2003 e que vieram a ser material para dois livros sobre as categorias. Os depoimentos foram trabalhados a partir das relevâncias dadas por seus próprios autores, tendo como parâmetro os cinco indicadores citados. Os resultados do estudo mostram que as duas categorias têm sérios problemas de valorização profissional, principalmente quanto aos salários, às condições habitacionais, ao acesso a serviços de saúde e ao apoio institucional e psicológico.This paper presents the viewpoint of civil and military police officers of the State of Rio de Janeiro on the issue of professional and human self-image. It adopts five qualitative indicators as parameter of analysis, namely dignity, achievement, recognition, security and promising prospects, drawn from the sociological theory of social roles and proposals for human resource management. From the methodological standpoint, the study provides a contextual analysis of texts written by these agents at the end of a closed questionnaire on work, health and life conditions, conducted in a series of studies that began in 2003 and provided material for two books about these categories. The analysis considered the relevance given by the authors themselves when they describe their situation, using the five indicators mentioned as parameters

  19. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-09-19

    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  20. DETAILED HYDROLOGIC AND HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS TALBOT COUNTY, MARYLAND USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. Talbot Lodge Nursing Home, Kinsealy Lane, Malahide, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Annemarie E

    2014-08-06

    Adults with an intellectual disability have poorer diets than the general adult population. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course aims to improve the diets of adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This study aims to evaluate the course by obtaining the views of course participants and the views of managers hosting the course. Thirty course participants took part in focus groups. Five managers hosting the course participated in a semi-structured interview. Positive features of the course included the group cooking, social interaction and course instructors. Collaboration between centres hosting the course and participants\\' home environment is needed to help transfer the skills learned to all home settings. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course provided participants with an important social outlet to learn essential occupational skills. These findings could particularly influence the diets of adults with an intellectual disability moving into independent living.

  2. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  3. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon; Cerwinsky, Derrick; Gahalaut, Krishan Pratap Singh; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, TALBOT, MARYLAND, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. Sossius, Talbot and the Parthian Scene in Antony and Cleopatra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Talbot Lodge Nursing Home, Kinsealy Lane, Malahide, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.

  7. Physical Fitness and Self-Image: An Evaluation of the Exercise Self-Schema Questionnaire Using Direct Measures of Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jafra D; Vanness, J Mark; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session. Participants not meeting inclusion criteria for Kendzierski's three original schema groups were categorized as "unschematic," and were included within MANCOVA/ANCOVA analyses, where gender served as the covariate. Participants underwent lab-based fitness assessments administered in accordance with the 2013 American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. The hypothesis of this study was partially supported. Specifically, exerciser schematics were significantly leaner than aschematics (p = .002) and they had greater levels of upper-body muscular endurance compared to both aschematic and nonexerciser schematics (p = .002). However, no differences were observed for cardiovascular fitness (i.e., predicted V02Max p = .410). The findings of this study help to establish the construct validity of Kendizerski's self-report exercise self-schema categorization scheme. Visual inspection of the data, as well as computed effect size measures suggest exercise self-schema is associated with dimensions of one's physical fitness.

  8. Self image and place of control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problematic of the self has a long history, being analyzed in the space of philosophical rationality since the Greek antiquity, being directed by the Socratic imperative of self-knowledge. Together with the establishment and development of social psychology, the last century, the researches on self-meet a special amplification. In the last decades, the thematic of self and its dimensions met a remarkable effervescent theoretics. The psychological researches extended on self-consciousness, self-esteem, self-handicapping, self-efficacy, self-improvement, self-enhancement, self-monitoring, self-focusing, self-disclosure, self-verification, etc. Our research aims to investigate the correlations that exist between the self-esteem and place of control, having in view certain variables such as age, sex, the level of studies graduated. The results obtained confirm in a great extent other researches mentioned in the paper.

  9. The Effects of Mirroring in a Playful Virtual Environment: A Comparative Study with Children and Adults Having Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Christiansen, Line Gad; Jepsen, Henrik Wolff

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a projected self-image in a game situation created for people with different impairments and ages, to question life quality and social cognition. A simple video capture game utilizing the Microsoft Ki-nect enabling embodied interaction was created. Test sessions...

  10. The Effect of Topical Use of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley) Versus That of Hydroquinone Cream on Reduction of Epidermal Melasma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravan, Shahla; Alami, Ali; Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Ramezani, Vahide

    Melasma disfigures the skin and thus influences people's self-image and self-concept. Therefore, melasma influences emotional and psychosocial health in addition to physical health. This clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of the topical use of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) on reduction of the severity of epidermal melasma.

  11. Reported Effects of Masculine Ideals on Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Greenberg, Stefanie T; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and feminine stereotypes. Additionally, more adverse versus positive effects on self-image and same-sex romantic relationships were reported including difficulty being emotional and affectionate, pressure to be physically attractive, and pressure to appear masculine in order to be accepted by society and to be seen as desirable by other gay men. While research on gay men's experience with masculinity continues, psychologists should consider the possible influence of traditional masculine ideals when conceptualizing their gay male clients.

  12. Essa Roupa é a Minha Cara: a contribuição do vestuário de luxo à construção da auto-imagem dos homossexuais masculinos [These clothes are so me: The contribution of luxury clothes to the self-image of male homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Gonçalves Altaf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da crescente busca de conhecimento sobre o comportamento de determinados subgrupos, pouco se sabe acerca dos hábitos do consumidor homossexual masculino brasileiro. Com isto em mente, o presente estudo buscou entender a relação entre o construto do auto-conceito e o comportamento do consumidor homossexual masculino no mercado de vestuário de marcas de luxo. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa de caráter exploratório, com entrevistas em profundidade com 12 sujeitos representativos desta sub-cultura, destinadas a captar e a analisar sua percepção a respeito do tema enfocado. Identificou-se que não existe uma unanimidade na forma como o vestuário de luxo pode contribuir para a construção da auto-imagem do consumidor, variando de acordo com a personalidade do indivíduo, com seu momento de vida e até mesmo com suas necessidades momentâneas. Por outro lado, ficou claro que o vestuário de luxo é de grande importância para a construção da auto-imagem deste público - muito embora a intensidade desta importância varie de indivíduo para indivíduo - tendo-se concluído que o auto-conceito influencia diretamente no comportamento de compra do homossexual masculino neste mercado. --- These clothes are so me: The contribution of luxury clothes to the self-image of male homosexuals --- Abstract --- In spite of the growing interest in the behaviour of certain subgroups, little is known about the habits of the Brazilian male homosexual consumer. The present study attempts to fill this gap as regards the relationship between the concept of self and the behaviour of the male homosexual consumer in the luxury clothing market. A qualitative exploratory research with 12 homosexuals was conducted in order to understand their opinion about this matter. The conclusion drawn is that there is no unanimity as to the way luxury clothing may contribute to these consumers’ self image: it varies according to personality, the moment in their

  13. Energyhealing and the placebo-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2012-01-01

    and the placebo effect? From a phenomenological perspective and with a point of departure in MUS (medically unexplained symptoms) patients’ experiences of ‘bodily-lived-meaning’ in Danish healing rituals I try to develop an understanding of how bodily experienced images of body and self work to transform...... the patient during a healing ritual, of the process of a bodily founded symbolic ‘re-editing’ of body- and self-image, which I argue is a fundamental art in healing rituals. In conclusion I argue that the placebo is nothing but the effectiveness of bodily sensed symbols....

  14. Self-enhancing effects of exposure to thin-body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramona; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2004-04-01

    This study examines the effect of thin-body media images on mood, self-esteem, and self-image ratings of restrained and unrestrained eaters. A secondary purpose was to examine whether these effects were influenced by exposure duration. Under the guise of a perception study, participants were exposed to thin-body or control advertisements (e.g., perfume bottles) for either 7 or 150 ms and then completed a questionnaire packet. Restrained eaters reported more favorable self-image and social self-esteem (but not appearance self-esteem) scores after exposure to thin-body images than after exposure to control advertisements. The self-image and social self-esteem scores of unrestrained eaters were unaffected by advertisement type, but their appearance self-esteem scores were lower after exposure to thin-body advertisements. No differences were found for mood ratings and total self-esteem. We discuss restraint status as a moderator of the effects of thin-body images on women's body image. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 333-341, 2004.

  15. Electron density and effective atomic number (Zeff) determination through x-ray Moiré deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Talbot-Lau based Moiré deflectometry is a powerful density diagnostic capable of delivering refraction information and attenuation from a single image, through the accurate detection of X-ray phase-shift and intensity. The technique is able to accurately measure both the real part of the index of refraction δ (directly related to electron density) and the attenuation coefficient μ of an object placed in the x-ray beam. Since the atomic number Z (or Zeff for a composite sample) is proportional to these quantities, an elemental map of the effective atomic number can be obtained with the ratio of the phase and the absorption image. The determination of Zeff from refraction and attenuation measurements with Moiré deflectometry could be of high interest in various fields of HED research such as shocked materials and ICF experiments as Zeff is linked, by definition, to the x-ray absorption properties of a specific material. This work is supported by U.S. DoE/NNSA Grant No. 435 DENA0001835.

  16. Effects of fixture rotation on coating uniformity for high-performance optical filter fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Binyamin; George, Jason; Singhal, Riju

    2018-04-01

    Coating uniformity is critical in fabricating high-performance optical filters by various vacuum deposition methods. Simple and planetary rotation systems with shadow masks are used to achieve the required uniformity [J. B. Oliver and D. Talbot, Appl. Optics 45, 13, 3097 (2006); O. Lyngnes, K. Kraus, A. Ode and T. Erguder, in `Method for Designing Coating Thickness Uniformity Shadow Masks for Deposition Systems with a Planetary Fixture', 2014 Technical Conference Proceedings, Optical Coatings, August 13, 2014, DOI: 10.14332/svc14.proc.1817.]. In this work, we discuss the effect of rotation pattern and speed on thickness uniformity in an ion beam sputter deposition system. Numerical modeling is used to determine statistical distribution of random thickness errors in coating layers. The relationship between thickness tolerance and production yield are simulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Production yields for different optical filters produced in an ion beam deposition system with planetary rotation are presented. Single-wavelength and broadband optical monitoring systems were used for endpoint monitoring during filter deposition. Limitations of thickness tolerances that can be achieved in systems with planetary rotation are shown. Paths for improving production yield in an ion beam deposition system are described.

  17. Preoperative and perioperative factors effect on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sturm, Peter F; Diab, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Prospective multicenter database. To identify factors associated with outcomes from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery outcomes and especially poor results. Because AIS is rarely symptomatic during adolescence, excellent surgical results are expected. However, some patients have poor outcomes. This study seeks to identify factors correlating with results and especially those making poor outcomes more likely. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared to 2-year postoperative Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) scores in 477 AIS surgical patients using stepwise linear regression to identify factors predictive of 2-year domain and total scores. Poor postoperative score patients (>2 SD below mean) were compared using t tests to those with better results. The SRS instrument exhibited a strong ceiling effect. Two-year scores showed more improvement with greater curve correction (self-image, pain, and total), and were worse with larger body mass index (pain, mental, total), larger preoperative trunk shift (mental and total), larger preoperative Cobb (self-image), and preoperative symptoms (function). Poor results were more common in those with Lenke 3 curve pattern (pain), less preoperative coronal imbalance, trunk shift and rib prominence (function), preoperative bracing (self-image), and anterior procedures (mental). Poor results also had slightly less average curve correction (50% vs. 60%) and larger curve residuals (31° vs. 23°). Complications, postoperative curve magnitude, and instrumentation type did not significantly contribute to postoperative scores, and no identifiable factors contributed to satisfaction. Curve correction improves patient's self-image whereas pain and poor function before surgery carry over after surgery. Patients with less spinal appearance issues (higher body mass index, Lenke 3 curves) are less happy with their results. Except in surgical patient selection, many of these factors are beyond physician control.

  18. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IMPLEMENTASI WEB GOVERNMENT SEBAGI MEDIA INFORMASI POTENSI DESA SUKARAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2017-05-01

    The development of information technology is so rapid that one of them is the Internet can be utilized in all aspects of human life both in terms of jobs and search for information is through web-based service that is often called the website. E-government On Talbot Village is one website created to provide services and information to the public about the overall portfolio of the Talbot Village, the potentials at Talbot Village, governance structure in Talbot Village and all relevant information in Talbot Village. Development of the system is done based approach method System Development Life Cycle (SDLC that includes the stages of planning, analysis, coding, and implementation of the system, a tool in the system development process using DAD (Data Flow Diagrams, DFD (Data Flow Diagram, and flowchart , In making this website the researchers used programming language HTML (Hypertext Markup Language, PHP (Hypertext Processor, CSS (Cascading Style sheet, JQUERY, JAVASCRIPT and presenting data in the form of MySQL. With the E-Government On Talbot Village aims to provide benefits to the wider community of the village by way of obtaining information easily, quickly, effectively and efficiently without knowing the time anytime and anywhere

  20. What is the effect of surgery on the quality of life of the adolescent with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A review and statistical analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul R P; Grevitt, Michael P

    2013-04-20

    Review and statistical analysis of studies evaluating the effect of surgery on the health-related quality of life of adolescents with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, using Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcomes. Apply published minimum clinical important differences (MCID) values for the SRS22r questionnaire to the literature to identify what areas of health-related quality of life are consistently affected by surgery and whether changes are clinically meaningful. The interpretation of published studies using the SRS outcomes has been limited by the lack of MCID values for the questionnaire domains. The recent publication of these data allows the clinical importance of any changes in these studies to be examined for the first time. A literature search was undertaken to locate suitable studies that were then analyzed. Statistically significant differences from baseline to 2 years postoperatively were ascertained by narratively reporting the analyses within included studies. When possible, clinically significant changes were assessed using 95% confidence intervals for the change in mean domain score. If the lower bound of the confidence intervals for the change exceeded the MCID for that domain, the change was considered clinically significant. The numbers of cohorts available for the different analyses varied (5-16). Eighty-one percent and 94% of included cohorts experienced statistically significant improvements in pain and self-image domains. In terms of clinical significance, it was only self-image that regularly improved by more than MCID, doing so in 4 of 5 included cohorts (80%) compared with 1 of 12 cohorts (8%) for pain. No clinically relevant changes occurred in mental health or activity domains. Evidence suggests that surgery can lead to clinically important improvement in patient self-image. Surgeons and patients should be aware of the limited evidence for improvements in domains other than self-image after surgery. Surgical decision-making will also

  1. Improving the Self-Image of the Socially Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lillian B.

    1975-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on physical attractiveness' relationship to selself-image and social acceptability, the author points out the need for self-care courses as "social therapy," gives a step-by-step procedure to develop such programs for the institutionalized, and tells how to become a teacher in a social therapy program. (AJ)

  2. SELF-IMAGE IN CHILDREN OF DIVORCED PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slagjana Angjelkoska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The family and its important role in the development of the child is the inspiration for many types of research that have the intention to emphasize certain aspects of family life and the consequences of the family relations in the development of the children. The issue of this research is to find out if there is a connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and self-concept in the children of early school age. The research is conducted on 30 children of single-parent families. The children of these single-parent families are children who have lived in families with conflicts and they have been direct or indirect participants in the conflict of the divorced parents. In the process of research, we applied projective techniques: Machover which consists of drawing a person’s figure, as well as a drawing a house and a tree-HTP (House-Tree-Person.The results are obtained through qualitative analysis and interpretation of each drawing particularly. During the investigation the relation between the variables, it is confirmed that there is a considerable connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and the self-concept in children. It is confirmed, during the process that the children of divorced parents from negative self-concept. In children of single-parent families it is indicated that this group of children in relation to the psychological picture for themselves presented the following characteristics: lowered EGO, mechanisms for defense, feeling of insecurity, low self-confidence, aggressiveness, great virility, and caution.

  3. A new technique of characterization of the intra-pixel response of astronomical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchazo, C.; Boulade, O.; Moreau, V.; Dubreuil, D.; Ronayette, S.; Berthe, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a new technique of characterization of the Intra-Pixel Sensitivity Variations (IPSVs) of astronomical detectors. The IPSV is the spatial variation of the sensitivity within a pixel and it was demonstrated that this variation can contribute to the instrument global error. Then IPSV has not to be neglected especially in the case of under-sampled instruments for high quality imaging and accurate photometry. The common approaches to measure the IPSV consist in determining the pixel response function (PRF) by scanning an optical probe through the detector. These approaches require high-aperture optics, high precision mechanical devices and are time consuming. The original approach we will present in this paper consists in projecting high-resolution periodic patterns onto the whole sensor without classic optics but using the self-imaging property (the Talbot effect) of a Continuously Self Imaging Grating (CSIG) illuminated by a plane wave. This paper describes the test bench and its design rules. The methodology of the measurement is also presented. Two measurement procedures are available: global and local. In the global procedure, the mean PRF corresponding to the whole Focal Plane Array (FPA) or a sub-area of the FPA is evaluated. The results obtained applying this procedure on e2v CCD 204 are presented and discussed in detail. In the local procedure, a CSIG is moved in front of each pixel and a pixel PRF is reconstructed by resolving the inverse problem. The local procedure is presented and validated by simulations. (authors)

  4. Coherence properties of blackbody radiation and application to energy harvesting and imaging with nanoscale rectennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Peter B.; Cutler, Paul H.; Miskovsky, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology allows the fabrication of antennas with a characteristic size comparable to the electromagnetic wavelength in the optical region. This has led to the development of new technologies using nanoscale rectifying antennas (rectennas) for solar energy conversion and sensing of terahertz, infrared, and visible radiation. For example, a rectenna array can collect incident radiation from an emitting source and the resulting conversion efficiency and operating characteristics of the device will depend on the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the absorbed radiation. For solar radiation, the intercepted radiation by a micro- or nanoscale array of devices has a relatively narrow spatial and angular distribution. Using the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, we show that the coherence length (or radius) of solar radiation on an antenna array is, or can be, tens of times larger than the characteristic wavelength of the solar spectrum, i.e., the thermal wavelength, λT=2πℏc/(kBT), which for T=5000 K is about 3 μm. Such an effect is advantageous, making possible the rectification of solar radiation with nanoscale rectenna arrays, whose size is commensurate with the coherence length. Furthermore, we examine the blackbody radiation emitted from an array of antennas at temperature T, which can be quasicoherent and lead to a modified self-image, analogous to the Talbot-Lau self-imaging process but with thermal rather than monochromatic radiation. The self-emitted thermal radiation may be important as a nondestructive means for quality control of the array.

  5. Daniel Stern's journey in infant psychiatry: interview by John A. Talbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This interview with Professor Daniel Stern, conducted on February 16, 2012 by Dr. John Talbott, reviews the field of infant psychiatry, the history of which goes back more than 100 years. Sigmund Freud, then Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, Donald Winnicott, and, finally, Margaret Mahler, all psychoanalysts, influenced its development. Direct observation of very young infants and their mothers began in the latter half of the 20th century, and the subsequent course shifted through the influence of developmental psychologists and ethologists. This review concludes with Dr. Stern's predictions and fears about future directions of the field.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF GUIDED SYSTEMATIC AEROBIC DANCE PROGRAMME ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tihanyi Hos, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    In our research we were seeking answers of the effects of guided, “age-needs specific,” systematic, group aerobic exercise programmes on the self-esteem and self-image of middle-aged women. Fifty three women (ages 48.6 + 5.1) took part in the study who had not participated in any systematic fitness training and worked in intellectual occupations. We formed two groups, i.e., the experimental (EG) and the control (CG) group. Members of the experimental group (n= 25) volunteered to participate i...

  7. Effects of rape on men: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jayne; Archer, John; Davies, Michelle

    2005-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of psychological disturbance, long-term effects, and reporting issues. Results revealed that most assaults had been carried out using physical or violent force, in a variety of different circumstances. All of the victims reported some form of psychological disturbance as a result of being raped. Long-term effects included anxiety, depression, increased feelings of anger and vulnerability, loss of self-image, emotional distancing, self-blame, and self-harming behaviors. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research in the area and perceptions of rape.

  8. Feasibility evaluation of a neutron grating interferometer with an analyzer grating based on a structured scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Kim, Jongyul; Kim, Daeseung; Hussey, Daniel. S.; Lee, Seung Wook

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an analyzer grating based on a structured scintillator fabricated by a gadolinium oxysulfide powder filling method for a symmetric Talbot-Lau neutron grating interferometer. This is an alternative way to analyze the Talbot self-image of a grating interferometer without using an absorption grating to block neutrons. Since the structured scintillator analyzer grating itself generates the signal for neutron detection, we do not need an additional scintillator screen as an absorption analyzer grating. We have developed and tested an analyzer grating based on a structured scintillator in our symmetric Talbot-Lau neutron grating interferometer to produce high fidelity absorption, differential phase, and dark-field contrast images. The acquired images have been compared to results of a grating interferometer utilizing a typical absorption analyzer grating with two commercial scintillation screens. The analyzer grating based on the structured scintillator enhances interference fringe visibility and shows a great potential for economical fabrication, compact system design, and so on. We report the performance of the analyzer grating based on a structured scintillator and evaluate its feasibility for the neutron grating interferometer.

  9. Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    Nanotechnology has drawn a wide variety of attention as interesting phenomena occurs when the dimension of the structures is in the nanometer scale. The particular characteristics of nanoscale structures had enabled new applications in different fields in science and technology. Our capability to fabricate these nanostructures routinely for sure will impact the advancement of nanoscience. Apart from the high volume manufacturing in semiconductor industry, a small-scale but reliable nanofabrication tool can dramatically help the research in the field of nanotechnology. This dissertation describes alternative extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography techniques which combine table-top EUV laser and various cost-effective imaging strategies. For each technique, numerical simulations, system design, experiment result and its analysis will be presented. In chapter II, a brief review of the main characteristics of table-top EUV lasers will be addressed concentrating on its high power and large coherence radius that enable the lithography application described herein. The development of a Talbot EUV lithography system which is capable of printing 50nm half pitch nanopatterns will be illustrated in chapter III. A detailed discussion of its resolution limit will be presented followed by the development of X-Y-Z positioning stage, the fabrication protocol for diffractive EUV mask, and the pattern transfer using self- developed ion beam etching, and the dose control unit. In addition, this dissertation demonstrated the capability to fabricate functional periodic nanostructures using Talbot EUV lithography. After that, resolution enhancement techniques like multiple exposure, displacement Talbot EUV lithography, fractional Talbot EUV lithography, and Talbot lithography using 18.9nm amplified spontaneous emission laser will be demonstrated. Chapter IV will describe a hybrid EUV lithography which combines the Talbot imaging and interference lithography rendering a high resolution

  10. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers

  11. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  12. Nurses' perception concerning the care for patients with physical disabilities that interfere with self-image: a phenomenological approach La percepción de enfermeros sobre el cuidado de pacientes con problemas físicos que interfieren en la autoimagen: un abordaje fenomenológico A percepção de enfermeiros sobre o cuidar de pacientes com problemas físicos que interferem na autoimagem: uma abordagem fenomenológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kalita de Oliveira Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the perception and the meaning of caring for patients with self-image problems resulting from physical alterations to nurses working at a university hospital. Phenomenology was the methodology used, and the subjects of study were eight nurses. In order to analyze the statements given, transcription and readings were performed, seeking for the essence of the units, the expression of meanings by thematizing and interpreting the discourse and looking for convergence, divergence, idiosyncrasies and synthesis of the phenomenon. The unveiled themes were: (non Acceptance of the disease; Team work; Limitations resulting from the disease; The nurse's and team's feelings and behavior; Ties between the team, patient and family; The family; Patient's self-image; Patients' age; Prejudice; Acknowledgement or knowledge of the disease; Care level and more intense care; Religion and Capacitation. Due to the amplitude of the phenomenon, other angles can be unveiled and other perspectives can be inhabited.El presente estudio tiene como objetivo comprender la percepción y el significado de cuidar de pacientes con problemas de autoimagen, resultantes de una alteración física, por enfermeros de un Hospital Universitario. La trayectoria metodológica fue la fenomenología, los sujetos de la investigación fueron ocho enfermeros. Para analizar las declaraciones, se realizaron la trascripción y las lecturas, buscando encontrar la esencia de las unidades, la expresión de los significados de los temas e interpretando los diálogos, buscando convergencias, divergencias e idiosincrasias y la síntesis del fenómeno. Los temas revelados fueron: La no aceptación de la enfermedad; el trabajo en equipo; las limitaciones como consecuencia de la enfermedad; los sentimientos y comportamiento del enfermero y del equipo; el vínculo entre el equipo, el paciente y la familia; la familia; la autoimagen del paciente; la edad de los pacientes; el

  13. 30-lens interferometer for high energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubomirskiy, M., E-mail: lyubomir@esrf.fr; Snigireva, I., E-mail: irina@esrf.fr; Vaughan, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation facility (ESRF), CS 40220, 71, av des Martyrs, F-38043, Grenoble (France); Kohn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Snigirev, A. [Baltic Federal University, 236041, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-27

    We report a hard X-ray multilens interferometer consisting of 30 parallel compound refractive lenses. Under coherent illumination each CRL creates a diffraction limited focal spot - secondary source. An overlapping of coherent beams from these sources resulting in the interference pattern which has a rich longitudinal structure in accordance with the Talbot imaging formalism. The proposed interferometer was experimentally tested at ID11 ESRF beamline for the photon energies 32 keV and 65 keV. The fundamental and fractional Talbot images were recorded with the high resolution CCD camera. An effective source size in the order of 15 µm was determined from the first Talbot image proving that the multilens interferometer can be used as a high resolution beam diagnostic tool.

  14. The effect of "in favor of myself": preventive program to enhance positive self and body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12-14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented.

  15. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  16. Visual effects of the first ladies’ Kebaya clothing on the image of Indonesian women’s appearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciati

    2016-04-01

    The image of Indonesian women on international level is partly influenced by the appearance of the First Lady. The role and position of the First Lady is the representation of Indonesian women, because basically the First Lady, as the wife who accompanies the President (head of state), has a strong background of cultural grip, high intellectuality and good personality in her daily lifestyle, including in wearing clothes, and as an ambassador of culture and design. Fashion style of the First Lady always draws praise and criticism from the public. The purpose of this study is to reveal the visualization effects of Indonesian First Ladies’ kebaya clothing style in various state occasions on the image of Indonesian women’s appearances. This study is a qualitative research of visual data that emphasizes the discussion of Kebaya Clothing using semiological study (connotation and denotation meaning) that bring out self-image. The results showed that the style the First Ladies’ Kebaya clothing in every presidency period of their husbands had characteristics both in the style of clothing or hairstyle, indicating self-image. The conclusion of this study reveals that the First Ladies’ Kebaya Clothing (National Clothing) is interpreted as having implied messages because clothing can be observed visually. Implication was done on the construction of learning patterns of clothing, national fashion design and Nusantara ethnic clothing design.

  17. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  18. Flatland optics. II. Basic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, A W; Wang, D; Pe'er, A; Friesem, A A

    2001-05-01

    In "Flatland optics: fundamentals" [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1755 (2000)] we described the basic principles of two-dimensional (2D) optics and showed that a wavelength lambda in three-dimensional (3D) space (x,y,z) may appear in Flatland (x,z) as a wave with another wavelength, lambda = lambda/cosalpha. The tilt angle alpha can be modified by a 3D (Spaceland) individual who then is able to influence the 2D optics in a way that must appear to be magical to 2D Flatland individuals-in the spirit of E. A. Abbott's science fiction story [Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions, 6th ed. (Dover, New York, 1952)] of 1884. We now want to establish the reality or objectivity of the 2D wavelength lambda by some basic experiments similar to those that demonstrated roughly 200 years ago the wave nature of light. Specifically, we describe how to measure the 2D wavelength lambda by mean of five different arrangements that involve Young's biprism configuration, Talbot's self-imaging effect, measuring the focal length of a Fresnel zone plate, and letting light be diffracted by a double slit and by a grating. We also performed experiments with most of these arrangements. The results reveal that the theoretical wavelength, as predicted by our Flatland optics theory, does indeed coincide with the wavelength lambda as measured by Flatland experiments. Finally, we present an alternative way to understand Flatland optics in the spatial frequency domains of Flatland and Spaceland.

  19. The Detrimental Effects of Oxytocin-Induced Conformity on Dishonesty in Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Gökhan; Jobst, Andrea; D'Ardenne, Kimberlee; Müller, Norbert; Kocher, Martin G

    2017-06-01

    Justifications may promote unethical behavior because they constitute a convenient loophole through which people can gain from immoral behavior and preserve a positive self-image at the same time. A justification that is widely used is rooted in conformity: Unethical choices become more permissible because one's peers are expected to make the same unethical choices. In the current study, we tested whether an exogenous alteration of conformity led to a lower inclination to adhere to a widely accepted norm (i.e., honesty) under the pressure of competition. We took advantage of the well-known effects of intranasally applied oxytocin on affiliation, in-group conformity, and in-group favoritism in humans. We found that conformity was enhanced by oxytocin, and this enhancement had a detrimental effect on honesty in a competitive environment but not in a noncompetitive environment. Our findings contribute to recent evidence showing that competition may lead to unethical behavior and erode moral values.

  20. In situ calibration of an interferometric velocity sensor for measuring small scale flow structures using a Talbot-pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Small scale flow phenomena play an important role across engineering, biological and chemical sciences. To gain deeper understanding of the influence of those flow phenomena involved, measurement techniques with high spatial resolution are often required, presuming a calibration of very low uncertainty. To enable such measurements, a method for the in situ calibration of an interferometric flow velocity profile sensor is presented. This sensor, with demonstrated spatial resolution better than 1 μm, allows for spatially-resolving measurements with low velocity uncertainty in flows with high velocity gradients, on condition that the spatial behavior of the interference fringe systems is well-known by calibration with low uncertainty, especially challenging to obtain at applications with geometries difficult to access. The calibration method described herein uses three interfering beams to form the interference fringe systems of the sensor, yielding Doppler burst signals exhibiting two peaks in the frequency domain whose amplitude ratio varies periodically along the measurement volume major z-axis, giving a further independent value of the axial tracer particle position that can be used to determine the calibration functions of the sensor during the flow measurement. A flow measurement in a microchannel experimentally validates that the presented approach allows for simultaneously estimating the calibration functions and the velocity profile, providing flow measurements with very low systematic measurement errors of the particle position of less than 400 nm (confidence interval 95%). In that way, the interferometric flow velocity profile sensor utilizing the in situ self-calibration method promises valuable insights on small scale flow phenomena, such as those given in shear and boundary layer flows, by featuring reliable flow measurements due to minimum systematic and statistical measurement errors.

  1. Implementation and effects of Movement-oriented Restorative Care in a nursing home - a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henskens, Marinda; Nauta, Ilse M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Vrijkotte, Susan

    2017-10-23

    The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase rapidly, and institutionalization is a common consequence of the disease. Dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) is a predictor for institutionalization and a determinant for the quality of life (QoL). A promising method to increase functional independence in nursing homes is a restorative care or function focused care (FFC) approach. Movement-oriented restorative care (MRC) is derived from the concept of FFC and restorative care and focuses on the integration of physical activity in the daily lives of nursing home residents with dementia using a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of MRC in preservation of ADL independence and QoL in nursing home residents with dementia. In this quasi-experimental 12-month study, the effects of MRC were compared to care as usual in 61 nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia. The outcome measures were ADL independence and QoL. These outcomes were measured five times (i.e. at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Additionally, data was collected regarding the degree of implementation, and the barriers to the implementation process. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using linear mixed model analyses. There was no significant overall intervention effect on ADL independence and QoL. A significant group-by-time interaction was found for the QoL subscale positive self-image: after a 12 month intervention period, the MRC group scored significantly better than the control group on positive self-image. Regarding the other subscales and the total score of the QoL, as well as ADL, no significant group-by-time interactions were found. MRC did not demonstrate significant improvements in ADL or QoL. After a 12-month intervention period, residents who received MRC showed higher scores on positive self-image compared to the control group. This study contributes to the limited research regarding the

  2. Free-space entangled quantum carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mariana R.; Ketterer, Andreas; Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2017-04-01

    The Talbot effect in quantum physics is known to produce intricate patterns in the probability distribution of a particle, known as "quantum carpets," corresponding to the revival and replication of the initial wave function. Recently, it was shown that one can encode a D -level qudit in such a way that the Talbot effect can be used to process the D -dimensional quantum information [Farías et al., Phys. Rev. A 91, 062328 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.062328]. Here we introduce a scheme to produce free-propagating "entangled quantum carpets" with pairs of photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. First we introduce an optical device that can be used to synthesize arbitrary superposition states of Talbot qudits. Sending spatially entangled photon pairs through a pair of these devices produces an entangled pair of qudits. As an application, we show how the Talbot effect can be used to test a D -dimensional Bell inequality. Numerical simulations show that violation of the Bell inequality depends strongly on the amount of spatial correlation in the initial two-photon state. We briefly discuss how our optical scheme might be adapted to matter wave experiments.

  3. Employee self-enhancement motives and job performance behaviors: investigating the moderating effects of employee role ambiguity and managerial perceptions of employee commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seokhwa; Takeuchi, Riki; Liu, Wei

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the effects of employee self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors (organizational citizenship behaviors and task performance) and the value of these behaviors to them. The authors propose that employees display job performance behaviors in part to enhance their self-image, especially when their role is not clearly defined. They further argue that the effects of these behaviors on managerial reward recommendation decisions should be stronger when managers believe the employees to be more committed. The results from a sample of 84 working students indicate that role ambiguity moderated the effects of self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors and that managerial perceptions of an employee's commitment moderated the effects of those organizational citizenship behaviors that are aimed at other individuals on managers' reward allocation decisions. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Does the Peer Group matter? The Effect of Relative Rank on Educational Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Peter Rohde

    as a point of comparison. I investigate this theory using a school-by-grade fixed effects model and comprehensive administrative data. I examine the non-linear relationships between peers educational achievement on choice of secondary education. I show that the relative rank in the classroom have......In this paper I investigate whether a social contrast mechanism affects the choice of secondary schooling. Based on a theory of relative deprivation, a strand of research in social inequality of educational attainment shows that, controlling for the students ability, students who attends schools...... with more privileged peers have lower educational attainment and less prestigious labor market careers. This theory shows that students with similar ability may be regarded differently depending on context, which may affect the students' academic self-image. This also means that the students use their peers...

  5. The Effect of “In Favor of Myself”: Preventive Program to Enhance Positive Self and Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. Methods A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12–14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. Results The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. Conclusions In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented. PMID:24265681

  6. Imagining the future self: how age influences our future self images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado, Sinue; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rathbone, Clare

    This study examines the impact of age on the quantitative features of future selves. A representative sample of the Danish population from different age-groups generated images of up to eight future selves which were dated and rated for vividness, positivity and emotional intensity. There were...... significant differences across age-groups on all ratings of the future selves. Positive correlations with age were found for vividness and emotional intensity, whereas positivity and distance from present correlated negatively. There was no correlation between age and number of selves generated. The findings...

  7. Seizure drawings: insight into the self-image of children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice

    2003-02-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that is associated with numerous psychological challenges, especially in children. Drawings have been underutilized as a method to obtain insight into psychological issues in children with epilepsy. We asked 105 children with epilepsy, ages 5 to 18 years, to draw a picture of what it is like to have a seizure. Across ages and epilepsy syndromes, the drawings showed evidence of impaired self-concept, low self-esteem, and a sense of helplessness and vulnerability. Overall, the drawings of human figures were less developed than expected for chronological age. In some drawings, indicators of underlying depression were found. When considered by epilepsy syndrome or seizure type, some specific artistic features were noted. Children with simple partial (motor) seizures drew distorted body parts, especially limbs. Those with complex partial seizures depicted sensory symptoms and mental status changes such as confusion. Children with generalized tonic-clonic seizures showed shaking extremities. Drawings by children with absence seizures illustrated mainly staring. In conclusion, drawings are a powerful method to examine the self-concept of children with epilepsy and gain insight into their feelings about themselves and their world.

  8. National self image: Celtic mythology in primary education in Ireland, 1924-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Frehan, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pádraic Gerard Frehan onderzocht hoe Keltische mythologische verhalen werden gedoceerd in het Ierse schoolsysteem van de twintigste eeuw als onderdeel van het transgenerationele propageren van een nationaal Iers zelfbeeld. Keltische mythen vormden een uniek Iers erfgoed maar waren politiek

  9. Citizenship and Identity: The Self-Image of Secondary School Students in England and Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Edda; Davies, Ian; Santisteban, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the ways in which English and Catalan students perceive themselves as members of communities and as citizens and the role of schools in these perceptions. Questionnaire and interview data were collected and analysed from 583 secondary school students in a total of 9 schools that were known for their commitment to citizenship education…

  10. Aberration resistant axial localization using a self-imaging of vortices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baránek, M.; Bouchal, P.; Šiler, Martin; Bouchal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2015), s. 15316-15331 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : point-spread function * phase modulation * microscopy * resolution * beams * holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2015

  11. Why Acting Environmentally-Friendly Feels Good : Exploring the Role of Self-Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhoeven, Leonie A.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental

  12. Self-Image and Expectations of First Year Engineering Students in a Brazilian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Grinberg, Patricia; Garcia, Ivan; Parise, Jose Alberto; da Silveira, Marcos Azevedo; Dumont, Ney

    This paper is an attempt to comprehend, in a more objective way, the students undertaking the second semester at the Technical and Scientific Center from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio). The research was carried out at the beginning of the semester, in one of the classes formed by students undertaking General…

  13. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent). The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, inc...

  14. Honesty-humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, P J

    2014-08-01

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance, and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = -.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students' self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  15. Effects of living environment on the postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-24 results in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a lifetime, probably systemic condition of unknown cause, resulting in a spinal curve or curves of ten degrees or more in about 2.5% of most populations. However, in only about 0.25% does the curve progress to the point that treatment is warranted. Untreated, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not increase mortality rate, even though on rare occasions it can progress to the >100° range and cause premature death. The rate of shortness of breath is not increased, although patients with 50° curves at maturity or 80° curves during adulthood are at increased risk of developing shortness of breath. Compared to non-scoliotic controls, most patients with untreated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis function at or near normal levels. They do have increased pain prevalence and may or may not have increased pain severity. Self-image is often decreased. Mental health is usually not affected. Social function, including marriage and childbearing may be affected, but only at the threshold of relatively larger curves. Non-operative treatment consists of bracing for curves of 25° to 35° or 40° in patients with one to two years or more of growth remaining. Curve progression of ≥ 6° is 20 to 40% more likely with observation than with bracing. Operative treatment consists of instrumentation and arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the most affected portion of the spine. Lasting curve improvement of approximately 40% is usually achieved. In the most completely studied series to date, at 20 to 28 years follow-up both braced and operated patients had similar, significant, and clinically meaningful reduced function and increased pain compared to non-scoliotic controls. However, their function and pain scores were much closer to normal than patient groups with other, more serious conditions. Risks associated with treatment include temporary decrease in self-image in braced patients. Operated patients face the usual

  17. Ergenlerin Benlik Saygısı ve Sosyal Kaygı Düzeyleri Arasındaki İlişki ve Kişisel Değişkenlerin Etkileri The Relation Between Self-Esteem And Social Anxiety Levels Of Adolescents And The Effects Of Personal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin ERİŞ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of adolescents. Besides, the effects of gender, perceived self-image, perceived school success, attending leisure time activities, having a peer group, having a special friend were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 adolescents, 152 girl, 148 boy by random sampling method. Data were collected by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Social Anxiety Scale with a questionnaire developed by the researchers to gather personal information. Data were analysed by using SPSS 15 statistical programme, with non-parametric techniques as Mann – Whitney U ve Kruskal – Wallis H and Spearman Brown correlation test. Results showed that there is a negative medium level relation between the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of the adolescents. According to the results, the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of the adolescents don’t differ according to gender and having a special friend. Perceived self-image is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels, general social anxiety levels of adolescents and also is found to be effective on social avoidance, being criticized anxiety and worthlessness levels. Perceived school success is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels of the adolescents. Attending leisure time activities is found to be effective on general social anxiety levels of the adolescents and also is found to be effective on social avoidance and being criticized anxiety levels of the adolescents. Having a peer group is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels of adolescents and also is found to be effective on general social anxiety levels, on the social avoidance and worthlessness levels of adolescents.

  18. The effect of personal grooming on self-perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paasschen, J; Walker, S C; Phillips, N; Downing, P E; Tipper, S P

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours, including the application of fragranced products, are thought to reflect a means of managing social impressions and self-image. Although application of deodorants has previously been shown to make individuals appear more confident to others, few studies have specifically examined the psychological effects of such rituals on the wearer. Here, we investigated how grooming behaviours affect self-perceived body image, a central component of an individual's self-image. In two separate experiments, using a psychophysical forced choice task, male and female participants with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI) indicated whether projected life-size images of their own body were bigger or smaller than their actual size. In the experimental condition, participants applied a fragranced deodorant before performing the task, whereas in the control condition, no product was applied. Our dependent measures were the point of subjective equality (PSE), the size at which participants report their body is subjectively equal to their actual body size, and the difference limen (DL), the amount of change in body size distortion necessary for it to be reliably detected. These measurements provide an index of attitudinal and perceptual components of body image, respectively. Both male and female participants who, at baseline, overestimated their body size, made significantly more accurate judgments about their body size, as measured by the PSE, following application of a fragranced deodorant or antiperspirant than they did in the control condition. This effect was seen in the absence of differences in perceptual sensitivity to changes in body size (DL) across groups and conditions. People who underestimated their body size did not show this effect. Of note, both male and female overestimators had a significantly larger BMI than underestimators. These results demonstrate that the attitudinal component of body image is malleable and can be influenced by everyday grooming

  19. The effect of social skills training on perceived competence of female adolescents with deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanieh Naeini, Tahereh; Keshavarzi Arshadi, Farnaz; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2013-12-01

    Although there are considerable researches on effectiveness of social skills training, little information is available on the effects of such training on perceived competence of adolescents with deafness. This study was conducted in special school settings to determine the effects of social skills training on perceived competence of female adolescents with deafness. A prepost quasi-experimental design was used to perform the study. Sixty nine female students with deafness who were enrolled in all of the four different special secondary schools in Tehran, Iran, between 2010 and 2011 participated in this research. Two of four secondary schools were randomly allocated to the intervention group (33 students), and the other two to the control group (36 students). The participants were between 11 and 21 years (Mean = 15.43; SD = 1.89), and more than three fourth of each groups ( i.e. 28 students in each groups) were affected by profound hearing impairment . The intervention group participated in twelve bi-weekly sessions. Pretest and posttest data were collected using the 'Hearing Impaired Children Self-Image Test'. The questionnaire was filled by an interviewer. This questionnaire asks students about their feeling toward their own competence in domains of cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The intervention led to significant improvement in total perceived competence scores of adolescents with deafness (P social skills in adolescents with deafness would improve their sense of competence, and emotional well being.

  20. Effects of novel corrective spinal technique on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as assessed by radiographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong Koog; You, Joshua Sung-H; Koh, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hoseong; Kim, Donghyun; Ko, Sung-Mok; Shin, Ji-Youn

    2014-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of a 3-dimensional corrective spinal technique (CST) and a conventional exercise program (CE) on altered spinal curvature and health related quality-of-life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (N=32, 6 males and 26 females) between 10 and 19 years of age (14.34 ± 2.60 years) were recruited and underwent the CST or CE for 60 minutes/day, 2-3 times a week, and an average of total 30 sessions. Diagnostic X-ray imaging technique was used to determine intervention-related changes in the Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, and vertebral rotation (Nash-Moe method). The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) health related quality-of-life questionnaire was used. Data were analysed using independent t-test, paired t-test, and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test at p self-image and treatment satisfaction subscale scores and total score, p=0.026, p=0.039, and p=0.041, respectively) as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the other measures between the two groups. This is the first clinical trial to investigate the effects of the 3-dimensional CST on spinal curvatures and health related quality-of-life in AIS, providing the important clinical rationale and compelling evidence for the effective management of AIS.

  1. 2003 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Dorchester, Somerset, Talbot,and Wicomico Counties, with portions of Caroline, Kent and Queen Anne's Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  2. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. EFFECT OF OPTICAL FIBER HYDROGEN LOADING ON THE INSCRIPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHIRPED BRAGG GRATINGS BY MEANS OF KrF EXCIMER LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Varzhel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present comparative results of the chirped Bragg gratings inscription efficiency in optical fiber of domestic production with and without low-temperature hydrogen loading. Method. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings inscription was made by the Talbot interferometer with chirped phase mask having a chirp rate of 2.3 nm/cm used for the laser beam amplitude separation. The excimer laser system Coherent COMPexPro 150T, working with the gas mixture KrF (248 nm, was used as the radiation source. In order to increase the UV photosensitivity, the optical fiber was placed in a chamber with hydrogen under a pressure of 10 MPa and kept there for 14 days at 40 °C. Main Results. The usage of the chirped phase mask in a Talbot interferometer scheme has made it possible to get a full width at half-maximum of the fiber Bragg grating reflection spectrum of 3.5 nm with induced diffraction structure length of 5 mm. By preliminary hydrogen loading of optical fiber the broad reflection spectrum fiber Bragg gratings with a reflectivity close to 100% has been inscribed. Practical Relevance. The resulting chirped fiber Bragg gratings can be used as dispersion compensators in optical fiber communications, as well as the reflective elements of distributed fiber-optic phase interferometric sensors.

  4. Emotional intelligence buffers the effect of physiological arousal on dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Conte, Beatrice; Caserotti, Marta; Scrimin, Sara; Rubaltelli, Enrico

    We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a

  5. Measured effect of some socio-demographic factors on depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is a disease predominantly found amongst women. It is a disease which threatens an organ that is intimately associated with a woman's self image, sexuality, as well as her reproductive and nurturing capacity. These threats have serious psychological implications for women living with breast ...

  6. The Effect of Honors Courses on Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Art L.; Squires, Suzanne Carter

    2016-01-01

    High-ability entering college students give three main reasons for not choosing to become part of honors programs and colleges; they and/or their parents believe that honors classes at the university level require more work than non-honors courses, are more stressful, and will adversely affect their self-image and grade point average (GPA) (Hill;…

  7. The interplay between customer participation and difficulty of design examples in the online designing process and its effect on customer satisfaction: mediational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hui-Yun; Huang, I-Chiang

    2009-04-01

    In the current consumer-centric economy, consumers increasingly desire the opportunity to design their own products in order to express more effectively their self-image. Mass customization, based on efficient and flexible modulization designs, has provided individualized products to satisfy this desire. This work presents an experiment employed to demonstrate that customer participation leads to higher satisfaction. Specifically, the increment in customer satisfaction due to participation is greater when an easy example is provided than when either no example or a difficult one is provided. Additionally, self-congruity plays a mediating role on the customer participation-satisfaction relationship, and this mediating effect varies across different levels of the design example provided in the design process. When an easy design example is present, customer participation has a direct effect on satisfaction, in addition to the indirect effect of self-congruity. When a difficult example is provided, customer participation does not have incremental effects on either self-congruity or customer satisfaction. Finally, when no design example is shown to customers, contrary to our expectation, participation still enhances customer satisfaction due to an increased sense of self-congruity.

  8. [Adiposity and psychological well-being: effects of physical activity on university students in Valencia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Molina-García, Javier

    2009-10-01

    To determine, through the use of a structural equation model, the relationships that exist between physical activity, body fat, perceived physical ability, and three indicators of psychological well-being, in a sample of Spanish university students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 639 students 18-29 years of age representative of the universities of Valencia, Spain, during the 2005-2006 term. Physical exercise was rated by taking an inventory of healthy behaviors among students. The following scales were applied: self-perceived physical ability, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and subjective vitality. Body fat was expressed as the percentage of fat mass (PFM). A theoretical model was devised using six measured variables. The participants' level of physical activity was moderate; they perceived themselves to be physically competent; had high self-esteem; were satisfied with life; and had high vitality. Physical activity was negatively correlated with PFM in men and women alike; and negatively associated with perceived physical ability; while perceived physical ability was positively associated with self-esteem, life satisfaction, and subjective vitality. The effect of physical activity on perceived competence was mediated in part by PFM in men. In women, exercise was directly correlated to PFM, as well as perceived ability, without PFM mediation. Increased physical activity is of great value to public health because, in addition to helping to reduce body fat, it improves psychological well-being and self-image.

  9. Role of dielectric effects in the red-green switching of porous silicon luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalviel, J.N.; Ozanam, F.; Dubin, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trapping of a carrier at an ionized impurity in porous silicon may be significantly hindered when the material is embedded in a high-dielectric-constant medium such as an aqueous electrolyte. This effect is estimated for a geometry of cylindrical silicon wires, and by modeling the two media with wavevector-independent dielectric constants. The self-image potential of the electron is taken into account, and the frequency dependence of the outer dielectric constant is treated in a simple manner. The results demonstrate that the impurity states are not accessible in the presence of the electrolyte, just due to the dielectric relaxation of the embedding medium. This result may apply to different kinds of localized electronic states, including those responsible for the red luminescence in dry porous silicon. This provides a plausible explanation for the red to green switching of the luminescence when the porous silicon is wet and suggests that using embedding media of intermediate dielectric constants should allow one to observe a progressive transition between red and green luminescence. Observation of porous silicon luminescence in solvents of various dielectric constants provides a preliminary test of this prediction. (orig.)

  10. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Lai

    Full Text Available Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS. We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56 with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA, typical achieving (TA, low achieving (LA, and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD. Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA. MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  11. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  12. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  13. Reciprocal effects of exercise and nutrition treatment-induced weight loss with improved body image and physical self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in self-image and mood are often reported as outcomes of obesity interventions. However, they may also concurrently influence weight loss, suggesting a reciprocal effect. Although previously reported for overweight women, such relationships were untested in morbidly obese women whose psychosocial responses to treatment may be different, and health-risks greater. Women (N = 161, Meanage = 42 years) with morbid obesity (MeanBMI = 45.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month, behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment. Significant within-group improvements in weight-loss behaviors (physical activity and eating), weight, body satisfaction, physical self-concept, and depression were found. After controlling for age, mediation analyses indicated that, as a result of the treatment, weight loss was both an outcome and mediator of improvements in body-areas satisfaction and physical self-concept (reciprocal effects), but not depression. Results replicated findings from women with lower degrees of overweight, and suggested that weight-loss treatments emphasize changes in self-perception.

  14. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined

  15. "Hollywood nurses" in West Germany: biographies, self-images, and experiences of academically trained nurses after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The School of Nursing at Heidelberg University was founded in 1953 on the initiative of the Rockefeller Foundation to generate new, scientifically trained nursing elite to advance the professionalization of nursing in West Germany. The "American" concept met massive resistance. Its "superior nursing training" was seen as creating "Hollywood nurses"-a threat to the traditional Christian understanding of good, caring nursing. Intense social conflicts also caused problems with other groups of nurses. The school nevertheless played a very important role as a "cadre academy" in the history of professionalization. Many of the first German professors in the nursing sciences trained or underwent further training in Heidelberg.

  16. Poor outcomes and satisfaction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: the relevance of the body mass index and self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Sánchez-Soler, Juan Francisco; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Mojal, Sergi; Bagó, Joan; Cáceres, Enric; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine whether a low body mass index (BMI) influences surgery outcomes and satisfaction. There were 39 patients in this prospective 3-year cohort study. The BMI, Cobb angle, the Body Shape Questionnaire 14 (BSQ-14), the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire 22 (SRS-22) and eight satisfaction questions results were obtained. Having a BMI greater than or less than 18 kg/m(2) was used as a determiner to allocate patients to groups. As a low BMI is related to the presence of a disturbance in body perception, patients were also dichotomized by using the BSQ-14. All scales were worse in both slimmer patients and the group with a body perception disorder. The group with a BMI 18 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). In terms of satisfaction, the percentage of patients that would undergo surgery again was 30.8 vs 69.2 % (p = 0.054). Patients with an alteration of physical perception obtained a total SRS-22 of 82.90 points versus 96.10 points in the control group (p < 0.001). No differences in terms of the Cobb correction (p = 0.29) or the percentage of correction (p = 0.841) were found in any case. The alteration of physical perception and a low BMI negatively affect the outcomes in AIS surgery, regardless of the curve magnitude and the percentage of correction. Considerable care should be taken in recommending surgical correction to these patients.

  17. The Romanian Freemasonry. Historical facts and self image in some journals of the National Grande Lodge of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel TOLCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's aim is to investigate how the reflection on the Freemasonry's role in Romanian history is being built: on the one hand, there is a scientific, historical approach, based on facts; on the other, there is a "mythological" reflection in which the document is replaced with a more or less imaginary hermeneutics.

  18. Profiles of Juvenile Male Incest Perpetrators: Preliminary Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundappa, G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effects on participants' self-image of sexual offenses they had committed. Subjects (N=6) were male adolescents convicted of child molestation in a residential treatment and care facility. Results suggested subjects (who were themselves victims of family violence) perceived an above average self-image and handled their problems by…

  19. Visual Impairment and Its Effect on the Development of the Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, R. Brian

    This doctoral dissertation compares the self-concept of people with visual impairments with that of normally sighted individuals in 14 studies from various geographical regions in the United States. Discussion of methodological issues examines first, definitions regarding the self (self-image, self-perception, self-evaluation, self-esteem,…

  20. The effectiveness of embodied symbols. The case of a Danish healing ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2010-01-01

    images of body and self work to transform the patient during a healing ritual; to develop an understanding of the process of a bodily founded symbolic ‘re-editing’ of body- and self-image, which it is argued is a fundamental art in any healing ritual. Furthermore, I will argue that a charismatic shaman...

  1. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  2. The Corporate Connection: Effective Company Research Is Just Like People Research--On a Larger Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourofsky, Carolyn E.

    1992-01-01

    To cultivate companies for fund raising, the college development officer should focus on appropriate people, understand giving trends, follow mergers and acquisitions, and note corporate differences in giving patterns. Annual reports can reveal company self-image, help identify individuals, and illuminate the company's fiscal situation. However,…

  3. Reported Effects of Masculine Ideals on Gay Men

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Greenberg, Stefanie T.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and...

  4. Long-Term Effects of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Pediatric Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Life Experiences and Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Lahaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT improves the survival rate of children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant conditions; however, the physical, psychological and social burden of such a procedure is considerable both during and after treatment. The present qualitative study investigated the long-term effects of HSCT after pediatric cancer. Thirty adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors (Mage = 23.61 years, SD = 5.21 participated in individual interviews and were invited to speak about their life experiences following their treatment and strategies they use to deal with their past medical experiences and the long-term sequelae. Our results showed the presence of ongoing physical and psychosocial consequences of their past illness and its treatments with wide ranging psychosocial impacts, such as affected self-image, social withdrawal, sense of lack of choice, and need for specific attention. Different strategies were reported to overcome these consequences, such as talking about illness, giving a sense to their past medical experiences, and developing meaningful social relationships. Clinical and research implications are also discussed.

  5. Social and emotional training in Swedish classrooms for the promotion of mental health: results from an effectiveness study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Birgitta; Sandell, Rolf; Bremberg, Sven

    2008-06-01

    Mental ill-health is a major problem worldwide. It includes depression, aggressive behavior, feeling down and alcohol and drug abuse. Since all children go to school, the school is an obvious arena for health interventions. A set of educational techniques named Social and Emotional Learning, based on the use by teachers of cognitive and behavioral methods, which teaches students self-control, social competence, empathy, motivation and self-awareness, has shown promising results in the USA. This paper reports on the application of similar techniques in Sweden (the Social and Emotional Training [SET] program). The study has a quasi-experimental longitudinal design, with two intervention and two control schools. A wide range of instruments, both Swedish and international, are employed. In this paper, results from the school years 1999-2000 (baseline) through to 2001-2002 are reported. Both the intervention and the data collection were performed by ordinary school staff in a routine school setting. Independent bi-annual ratings of teachers' performance were moderate to high, and teachers' perceptions of the program were generally, although by no means universally, high. However, their performance was poorer with regard to the collection of data. In terms of promotion, findings with regard to the impact of the program on mental health are generally favorable-in particular through the promotion of aspects of self-image, including well-being and the hindering of aggressiveness, bullying, attention-seeking and alcohol use. There was, however, no differential effect on social skills. It seems that SET has the potential to operate effectively as a health-promoting intervention during the school period, although its main impact may rather be to act as a brake on the deterioration in some aspects of mental health that is common during adolescence. Positively significant relationships were found on some but not all of the instrument scales, and effect sizes were medium.

  6. De invloed van geïdealiseerde mediabeelden op het zelfbeeld van jonge meisjes: Het positieve effect van mediabewustzijn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, van der F.S.; Schwinghammer, S.A.; Verkooijen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of idealised (extremely attractive) models appearing in beauty advertisements on the self-image of 10-13 year-old girls and investigates the possible protective role of media awareness. Model attractiveness (idealised vs. normally attractive) and media awareness

  7. Theoretical study of ghost imaging with cold atomic waves under the condition of partial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Yun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    A matter wave ghost imaging mechanism is proposed and demonstrated theoretically. This mechanism is based on the Talbot-Lau effect. Periodic gratings of matter wave density, which appear as a result of interference of atoms diffracted by pulses of an optical standing wave, are utilized to produce the reference wave and the signal wave simultaneously for the ghost imaging. An advantage of this mechanism is that during the imaging process, the beam-splitter is not needed, which highly simplifies the experimental setup and makes the ghost imaging possible in the field of matter wave

  8. Gradient-index optics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Reino, Carlos; Bao, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Gradient-Index (GRIN) optics provides a comprehensive and thorough treatment on fundamentals and applications of light propagation through inhomogeneous media. The book can be used both as a classroom text for students in physics and engineering and as a reference for specialists. A description of the phenomena, components and technology used in GRIN Optics are presented. The relationship to lenses, waveguides, optical connections, spatial solitons and vision is demonstrated. Applications of GRIN components and hybrid structures for optical connections, optical sensing and Talbot effect are analyzed.

  9. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals

  10. A momentum filter for atomic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas-based on a designed Talbot–Lau interferometer. It consists of two identical optical standing-wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one-dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar-shaped condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results. The filter is also effective for non-condensed cold atoms and could be applied widely. (paper)

  11. 2 ~ 5 times tunable repetition-rate multiplication of a 10 GHz pulse source using a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You; Han, Young-Geun; Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang

    2004-08-23

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for the tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication based on the fractional Talbot effect in a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The key component in this scheme is our linearly tunable, chirped FBG with no center wavelength shift, which was fabricated with the S-bending method using a uniform FBG. By simply tuning the group velocity dispersion of the chirped FBG, we readily multiply an original 8.5 ps, 10 GHz soliton pulse train by a factor of 2 ~ 5 to obtain high quality pulses at repetition-rates of 20 ~ 50 GHz without significantly changing the system configuration.

  12. Arcsecond and Sub-arcsedond Imaging with X-ray Multi-Image Interferometer and Imager for (very) small sattelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, K.; Kawabata, T.; Nakajima, H.; Inoue, S.; Tsunemi, H.

    2017-10-01

    The best angular resolution of 0.5 arcsec is realized with the X-ray mirror onborad the Chandra satellite. Nevertheless, further better or comparable resolution is anticipated to be difficult in near future. In fact, the goal of ATHENA telescope is 5 arcsec in the angular resolution. We propose a new type of X-ray interferometer consisting simply of an X-ray absorption grating and an X-ray spectral imaging detector, such as X-ray CCDs or new generation CMOS detectors, by stacking the multi images created with the Talbot interferenece (Hayashida et al. 2016). This system, now we call Multi Image X-ray Interferometer Module (MIXIM) enables arcseconds resolution with very small satellites of 50cm size, and sub-arcseconds resolution with small sattellites. We have performed ground experiments, in which a micro-focus X-ray source, grating with pitch of 4.8μm, and 30 μm pixel detector placed about 1m from the source. We obtained the self-image (interferometirc fringe) of the grating for wide band pass around 10keV. This result corresponds to about 2 arcsec resolution for parrallel beam incidence. The MIXIM is usefull for high angular resolution imaging of relatively bright sources. Search for super massive black holes and resolving AGN torus would be the targets of this system.

  13. Multisite study of particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M

    2005-08-15

    Particle number concentration data are reported from a total of eight urban site locations in the United Kingdom. Of these, six are central urban background sites, while one is an urban street canyon (Marylebone Road) and another is influenced by both a motorway and a steelworks (Port Talbot). The concentrations are generally of a similar order to those reported in the literature, although higher than those in some of the other studies. Highest concentrations are at the Marylebone Road site and lowest are at the Port Talbot site. The central urban background locations lie somewhere between with concentrations typically around 20 000 cm(-3). A seasonal pattern affects all sites, with highest concentrations in the winter months and lowest concentrations in the summer. Data from all sites show a diurnal variation with a morning rush hour peak typical of an anthropogenic pollutant. When the dilution effects of windspeed are accounted for, the data show little directionality at the central urban background sites indicating the influence of sources from all directions as might be expected if the major source were road traffic. At the London Marylebone Road site there is high directionality driven by the air circulation in the street canyon, and at the Port Talbot site different diurnal patterns are seen for particle number count and PM10 influenced by emissions from road traffic (particle number count) and the steelworks (PM10) and local meteorological factors. Hourly particle number concentrations are generally only weakly correlated to NO(x) and PM10, with the former showing a slightly closer relationship. Correlations between daily average particle number count and PM10 were also weak. Episodes of high PM10 concentration in summer typically show low particle number concentrations consistent with transport of accumulation mode secondary aerosol, while winter episodes are frequently associated with high PM10 and particle number count arising from poor dispersion of

  14. Treatment Options for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  15. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Intraocular [Uveal] Melanoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  17. General Information about Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  19. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  20. Stages of Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  1. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    did not statistically affect it. (p>0.05). Conclusion ... and irritability) with concomitant memory .... associated with other health related effects though believe that it will affect the self- image and ego of .... attitude toward andropause among health.

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  3. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  5. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  6. Media Sosial dan Citra Diri ( Studi Korelasional Pengaruh Penggunaan Media Sosial Twitter Terhadap Pembentukan Citra Diri Elit Politik Pada Mahasiswa Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP USU Angkatan 2012 dan 2013 )

    OpenAIRE

    Andhika, Irend Eka

    2016-01-01

    The tittle of this study is “Social Media and Self Image” (a corelational study of effect of the utilization social media Twitter to self image of political elite ) in Communication Science student in Faculty of Social Science and Political Science University of Sumatera Utara generation 2012 and 2013 . The aim of this study is to draw how the relation of social media Twitter to self image of political elite in Communication Science student in Faculty of Social Science and Political Scien...

  7. COLLAGE 2: a numerical code for radionuclide migration through a fractured geosphere in aqueous and colloidal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindrod, P.; Cooper, N. [Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1993-05-01

    In previous work, the COLLAGE code was developed to model the impacts of mobile and immobile colloidal material upon the dispersal and migration of a radionuclide species within a saturated planer fracture surrounded by porous media. The adsorption of radionuclides to colloid surfaces was treated as instantaneous and reversible. In this report we present a new version of the code, COLLAGE 2. Here the adsorption of radionuclides to the colloidal material is treated via first order kinetics. The flow and geometry of the fracture remain as in the previous model. The major effect of colloids upon the radionuclide species is to adsorb them within the fracture space and thus exclude them from the surrounding porous medium. Thus the matrix diffusion process, a strongly retarding effect, is exchanged for a colloid capture/release process by which adsorbed nuclides are also retarded. The effects of having a colloid-radionuclide kinetic interaction include the phenomena of double pulse breakthrough (the pseudo colloid population followed by the solute plume) in cases where the desorption process is slow and the pseudo colloids are highly mobile. Some example calculations are given and some verification examples are discussed. Finally a complete listing of the code is presented as an appendix, including the subroutines allowing for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformed solution via Talbot`s method. 6 figs.

  8. The Influence of Psychological Empowerment on the Enhancement of Chemistry Laboratory Demonstrators' Perceived Teaching Self-Image and Behaviours as Graduate Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who fulfill teaching roles in the undergraduate laboratory play an important role in establishing a positive learning environment. A host of various graduate teacher training programmes have been developed, implemented and evaluated accordingly in order to enhance their teaching capability. In addition research has also…

  9. Being authentic is the new image : A qualitative study on the authenticity constructions and self-images of Christian millennials in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is a qualitative study that focuses on the authenticity and self-constructions of Christian millennials in Africa. While exploring how 15 respondents manifested their authentic self-behaviours using a case study design, the hallmark of the study was to observe the common coping mechanism

  10. Do the SRS-22 self-image and mental health domain scores reflect the degree of asymmetry of the back in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheshire, James; Gardner, Adrian; Berryman, Fiona; Pynsent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are becoming increasingly recognised in the management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS2) surface topography is a validated tool to assess AIS. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate strong correlations between AIS and patient-reported outcomes highlighting the need for additional objective surface parameters to define the deformities associated with AIS. The aim of this study was to exami...

  11. The Princess and the Poor Self-Image: An Analysis of Newbery Medal Winners for Gender Bias and Female Underrepresentation Leading into the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. McCleary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how 12 recent (2000-2011 Newbery Medal-winning books represent gender. The study counts how many of the books’ characters represent progressive or traditional gender roles, how many male and female characters represent each character category (protagonist, antagonist, major, and minor, how many strong female characters are accepted or rejected by their peers, how many characters hold stereotypical gender beliefs about themselves or their peers, and how many works contain balanced feminist perspectives. The study finds equitable female representation, but the study also finds a bias toward traditional male stereotypes. The results indicate a general acceptance of strong female characters and a balanced representation of females, regardless of a historical fiction classification. These results suggest that characters in Newbery Medal-winning books represent gender more equally and less stereotypically compared to characters in works of earlier decades.

  12. Being authentic is the new image: a qualitative study on the authenticity constructions and self-images of Christian millennials in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is a qualitative study that focuses on the authenticity and self-construction of Christian millennials in Africa. While exploring how 15 respondents manifested their authentic self-behaviours using a case study design, the hallmark of the study was to observe the common coping mechanism of self-regulation, adopted by respondents to deal with their internal crisis. This coping strategy was employed as they remained true to self by creating new “authentic” images of themselves in th...

  13. Coralistas amadores: auto-imagem, dificuldades e sintomas na voz cantada Amateur choir singers: self-image, difficulties and symptoms of the singing voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Castro Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a auto-imagem, dificuldades e presença de sintomas negativos após o canto em coralistas amadores com diferentes classificações vocais, idades e experiência. MÉTODO: cento e vinte e cinco cantores responderam a um questionário que abordou dados de identificação, informações sobre a auto-imagem da voz cantada, dificuldades apresentadas no canto e ocorrência ou não de sintomas vocais após o canto. RESULTADOS: a comparação por naipes evidenciou maior dificuldade na emissão de sons agudos para os contraltos e baixos, maior dificuldade na emissão graves para os sopranos, maior dificuldade na transição de registro grave para agudo para os baixos, e maior cansaço vocal para os contraltos. Na divisão por idade, tanto adultos jovens e adultos referiram maior soprosidade do que os idosos. Os adultos referiram melhor intensidade vocal do que adultos jovens. Os adultos jovens consideraram seu timbre de voz adequado mais frequentemente do que adultos. Em relação à experiência, os cantores menos experientes referiram percepção de voz rouca em maior número do que os cantores mais experientes, que referiram apresentar intensidade adequada durante o canto em maior número do que os demais. Cantores menos experientes referiram maior ocorrência de rouquidão após o canto do que cantores mais experientes. CONCLUSÃO: as dificuldades encontradas no canto estão atreladas ao naipe, e não dependem da idade e nem da experiência. Sintomas estão relacionados ao naipe e ao grau de experiência com o canto. A auto-imagem vocal negativa também está relacionada ao naipe e ao nível de experiência, sendo que a auto-imagem positiva é mais comum em cantores experientes.PURPOSE: to evaluate vocal self-perception, difficulties and presence of negative symptoms after singing of amateur choir singers of different vocal classifications, age and experience. METHOD: one hundred and twenty five singers answered a questionnaire containing identification data, information about self-perception of the singing voice, difficulties with singing and negative symptoms after singing. RESULTS: the comparison considering vocal classification evidenced greater difficulties with high notes for altos and basses, greater difficulty regarding the transition to high notes for basses and greater vocal fatigue for altos. Comparing the singers by age, both adults and young adults referred more breathiness than the elderly. The adults referred better vocal intensity than the young adults. The young adults referred better timbre than adults. Regarding the experience, the less experienced singers reported self-perception of hoarseness and presence of hoarseness after singing in greater number than the experienced singers. CONCLUSION: the difficulties with singing are connected to the vocal classification and do not depend on age or experience. Vocal symptoms are related to the vocal classification and to the experience with singing. Negative self-perception is also related the vocal classification and to the experience with singing, and positive self-perception was more reported by experienced singers.

  14. An unhappy and utterly pitiable creature? Life and self images of Deaf people in the Netherlands at the time of the founding fathers of Deaf education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tellings, A.E.J.M.; Tijsseling, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how young deaf people in the Netherlands between 1809 and 1828 made the transition from living in a school for the Deaf,1 a rather protected community with mostly deaf people and with hearing people who could understand them rather well, to a life in hearing society with

  15. L'Apprentissage et le Changement des Attitudes envers Soi-meme: Le Concept de Soi. (Learning and the Change of Attitudes Towards Oneself: Self Image).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Aimee

    1980-01-01

    The French language article is the second in a series and describes the principles of classic conditioning which underlie attitude formation and change. The article also notes the many functions of self-concept attitudes in order to guide the choices of intervention in attitude learning. (Author/SB)

  16. Does GPs' self-perception of their professional role correspond to their social self-image?--a qualitative study from Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natanzon, I.; Ose, D.; Szecsenyi, J.; Campbell, S.M.; Roos, M.; Joos, S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a decline in the relative numbers of general practitioners in Germany. Earlier research showed that the professional relationship between general practitioners and specialists is overshadowed by conflicts which could influence medical students not to choose a career in general

  17. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  18. Long-term effects of conservative treatment of Milwaukee brace on body image and mental health of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Jakub; Głowacki, Maciej; Okręt, Adam

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients' perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30) after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace). The study group's SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002), among the remaining subscales the study group's results differed significantly at p<0.001. Considering SRS-22 results, it was revealed that the patient group scored higher, signaling better functioning with reference to pain level (p = 0.016), function/activity (p<0.001) and the total score (p<0.001). The findings add to the complexity of long-term effect evaluations of AIS, particularly amongst females treated with a Milwaukee brace. Long-term results were not conclusive in terms of nonverbal assessment of body image and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis had a

  19. The effect of a medical opinion on self-perceptions of weight for Mexican adults: perception of change and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Jonathan F; Stephens, Christopher R; Román Sicilia, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the relationship between perceived and actual Body Mass Index (BMI) and the effect of a prior identification of obesity by a medical professional for adults using difference in response for two distinct BMI self-perception questions. Typically, self-perception studies only investigate the relation with current weight, whereas here the focus is on the self-perception of weight differences. A statistical approach was used to assess responses to the Mexican ENSANUT 2006 survey. Adults in the range of BMI from 13 to 60 were tested on responses to a categorical question and a figure rating scale self-perception question. Differences in response by gender and identification of obesity by a medical professional were analysed using linear regression. Results indicated that regardless of current BMI and gender, a verbal intervention by a medical professional will increase perceived BMI independently of actual BMI but does not necessarily make the identified obese more accurate in their BMI estimates. A shift in the average self-perception was seen with a higher response for the identified obese. A linear increase in perceived BMI as a function of actual BMI was observed in the range BMI self-image, to be considerably less. It was seen that an identification of obesity by a health care professional did not improve ability to judge weight but, rather, served as a new anchor from which the identified obese judge their weight, suggesting that even those identified obese who have lost weight, perceive their weight to be greater than it actually is. We believe that these results can be explained in terms of two cognitive biases; the self-serving bias and the anchoring bias.

  20. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD The placebo effect Joseph H. Friedman, MD Richard Dubinsky, MD WHAT ... placebo: a “dummy” medication that should have no effect on the condition. Placebos are not only drugs. ...

  1. A study to ascertain the effect of structured student tutorial support on student stress, self-esteem and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, John; Morgan-Samuel, Heulwen

    2005-05-01

    The overall aim of this intervention study was to investigate, and measure quantitatively, the psychological effects of structured student tutorial support, on undergraduate students' level of stress, self-esteem and cognitive coping. A quantitative research approach was adopted using a quasi-experimental design (post-test only, non-equivalent control group design) in order to ascertain whether there were any significant differences between the experimental conditions (n=25) and a control group (n=25). The independent variable was structured student tutorial support and the dependent variables were student stress, self-esteem and cognitive coping. A total of 50 subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Quantitative data were collected using: the Student Nurse Stress Index (Jones, M.C., Johnston, D.W., 1997a. The derivation of a 22 item Student Nurse Stress Index, using exploratory, confirmatory and multi-sample confirmatory factor analytic techniques. In: Paper Presented at the Annual Nursing Research Conference, 18-20th April, University of Wales, Swansea; Jones, M. C. Johnston, D.W., 1999. Derivation of a brief Student Nurse Stress Index. Work and Stress 13(2), 162-181), the Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, M., 1965. Society and the Adolesent Self Image. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ) and a Linear Analogue Coping Scale (Gammon, J., 1998. Analysis of the stressful effects of hospitalisation and source isolation on coping and psychological constructs. International Journal of Nursing Practice 4(2), 84-97). The methods of data analysis were the application of the t-test and descriptive statistics. The results indicated a significantly lower level of stress in the experimental group (t=-3.85, p=0.001) and a significantly higher self esteem (t=4.11, p=0.001). Results also suggested that students who were provided with structured tutorial support perceived they coped more effectively with their studies (t=4.65, p=0.001). The

  2. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  3. Nondestructive measurement of refractive index profile of optical fiber preforms using moire technique and phase shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Samaneh; Khalesifard, Hamid R.; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2006-01-01

    The refractive index profile of optical fiber preform is measured by a nondestructive technique based on Talbot interferometry. In this technique the preform is placed between two ronchi ruling gratings of 10 lines/mm and the system is illuminated by an expanded and collimated beam of He-Ne laser. In this arrangement the 2nd grating is positioned in the Talbot image of the 1st grating and the preform axis is parallel to the gratings planes. To eliminate the effect of clad on the light beam deflection during the measurements, the preform is immersed in an index matching liquid. The phase front of the laser light over the 2nd grating can be monitored by analysis of the moire pattern which is formed over there. The analysis is done by means of 4-step phase shift technique. In this technique the second grating is moved in four steps of 1/4 of the grating vector and in each step the intensity profile of the moire pattern is recorded. The phasefront can be specified by using the recorded intensities. The refractive index profile of the preform can be calculated from the changes on phasefront while the preform is placed between the gratings respect to the case when it is absent. The whole procedure is automated and computer controlled by using a CCD camera to record the moire fringes, a stepper motor for linear translation of the 2nd grating and a code in MATLAB to control the system and measurements.

  4. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  5. Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2008-08-01

    X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.

  6. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  7. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  8. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  9. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  10. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  11. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  12. Effective leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Vávrová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I describe problems of effective leadership in organization in relation with organization's objectives filling. I focus here on main principles of leadership process. I characterize process of leadership and personality of leader, who is active executor of this process in organization. The effective leadership is here evaluated mainly from organization theory point of view and in relation with requirements to management, especially its relation with leadership and its de...

  13. THE COMPARATIVE MICROANATOI\\{Y OF M LOIVGISSIMI-IS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .Sct., I ,. A NOTE ON. The growing interest of late in the meat production potential of game animals (t"ide Talbot, Payne, Ledger,. Verdcourt & Talbot, 1965) has given rise to considerable speculation on the meat qualities of the species involved. Thusfar, however, research data are confined very largely to live weights and ...

  14. [Effective delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2008-12-01

    Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills.

  15. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  16. The effects of movement stimulation on activities of daily living performance and quality of life in nursing home residents with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henskens M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marinda Henskens,1 Ilse M Nauta,2 Katja T Drost,3 Erik JA Scherder1 1Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3tanteLouise, Bergen op Zoom, the Netherlands Background: Nursing home (NH residents with dementia experience a reduced quality of life (QoL, in part, due to a dependence in performing activities of daily living (ADL. Stimulating movement is associated with improvements in ADL performance. Therefore, movement stimulating interventions, such as ADL training and exercise, focus on optimizing ADL performance to improve QoL. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three movement stimulating interventions on QoL and ADL performance in NH residents with dementia. Methods: In this 6-month double parallel randomized controlled trial, the effects of ADL training, a multicomponent aerobic and strength exercise training, and a combined ADL and exercise training were analyzed in 87 NH residents with dementia. The Global Deterioration Scale was used to classify the severity of dementia. Participants were screened at baseline using the 6 minute walk test and Mini-Mental State Examination. The Qualidem, and the Care Dependency Scale and Erlangen ADL test were evaluated at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months to measure QoL and ADL, respectively. Multilevel analyses were adjusted for baseline performance, age, and gender. Results: A 6-month ADL training positively affected overall QoL (p = 0.004 and multiple aspects of QoL, including care relationship (p = 0.004, positive self-image (p = 0.002, and feeling at home (p = 0.001, compared to care-as-usual. No benefits were observed of exercise on QoL. No benefits were observed of a combined ADL and exercise intervention on QoL. No effects were found of the three movement interventions on ADL performance. Conclusion: The results indicate

  17. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  18. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  19. Listening Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, Frank W.

    1987-01-01

    Research indicates that people spend roughly 45 to 65 percent of their waking moments listening to other persons. To help administrators improve their listening effectiveness, a format to develop a profile of personal listening styles is provided. The strengths and weaknesses of six different listening styles are explored along with ways to…

  20. Effective Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Mabel

    This module, consisting of materials for use in conducting a consumer education mini-course, deals with effective consumerism. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: being prepared with information (sources of consumer information and subscription forms); evaluating warranties and service contracts; evaluating advertising and…

  1. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis

  2. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  3. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  4. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  5. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  6. An examination of the effects of service brand dimensions on customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    The present study intends to examine how consumers evaluate service brands. Building on past literature, several causal relationships are examined between key brand dimensions and consumer satisfaction using the airline industry as an exemplary branded service category. Results reveal price, core...... service, feelings and self-image congruence to be the most important dimensions of a service brand which, in turn, impact significantly on consumer satisfaction. Except price, these attributes are intangible components of the service brand that can only be assessed by the customer during the use stage...... of decision-making. Besides these brand components, controlled communications are also found to strongly influence customers’ overall dispositions toward the brand....

  7. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  9. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruyff Carolien C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity. The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. Study design/Methods In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Discussion Because of the increasing prevalence of

  10. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Rimke C; Wit, Jan M; Pijl, Hanno; Kruyff, Carolien C; Houdijk, Euphemia C A M

    2011-05-06

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity.The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old) are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Because of the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the impact on the individual as well as on society

  11. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  12. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  13. Condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, D J

    1998-01-01

    People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.

  14. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  15. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  16. Interpersonal goals and change in anxiety and dysphoria in first-semester college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Canevello, Amy; Breines, Juliana G; Flynn, Heather

    2010-06-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the associations between interpersonal goals (i.e., self-image and compassionate goals) and anxiety and dysphoria (i.e., distress). In Study 1, 199 college freshmen (122 women, 77 men) completed 12 surveys over 12 weeks. Compassionate goals predicted decreased distress, and self-image goals predicted increased distress from pretest to posttest when distress was assessed as anxiety, dysphoria, or a composite, and when the goals were worded as approach goals, avoidance goals, or a composite. In Study 2, 115 first-semester roommate pairs (86 female and 29 male pairs) completed 12 surveys over 12 weeks. Compassionate and self-image goals predicted distress in same-week, lagged-week, and pretest-to-posttest analyses; effects of compassionate goals remained significant when the authors controlled for several known risk factors. Having clear goals consistently explained the association between compassionate goals but not self-image goals and distress. Results supported a path model in which compassionate goals predict increased support given to roommates, which predicts decreased distress. Results also supported a reciprocal association; chronic distress predicted decreased compassionate and increased self-image goals from pretest to posttest, and weekly distress predicted decreased compassionate goals the subsequent week. The results suggest that compassionate goals contribute to decreased distress because they provide meaning and increase support given to others. Distress, in turn, predicts change in goals, creating the potential for upward and downward spirals of goals and distress. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Long-term effects of conservative treatment of Milwaukee brace on body image and mental health of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Misterska

    Full Text Available We aimed to provide a complex assessment of adult females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS after a minimum of 23 years after completed Milwaukee brace treatment. In the present study, a comparison between healthy female and AIS patients' perception of trunk disfigurement, self-image, mental health, pain level and everyday activity was made. Thirty AIS patients with a mean of 27.77 yrs (SD 3.30 after the treatment were included in the study. The control group consisted of 42 females, matching the age profile of the patient group. Study participants from both groups were examined using the same protocol, except for the radiological evaluation. Patients and healthy controls completed the Polish versions of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22 and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ. Patients additionally filled the Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity (BSSQ-Deformity and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace (BSSQ-Brace. The study group's SAQ results differ significantly in regard to the total score and all individual domains, indicating better functioning among healthy controls. Except for the General domain (p = 0.002, among the remaining subscales the study group's results differed significantly at p<0.001. Considering SRS-22 results, it was revealed that the patient group scored higher, signaling better functioning with reference to pain level (p = 0.016, function/activity (p<0.001 and the total score (p<0.001. The findings add to the complexity of long-term effect evaluations of AIS, particularly amongst females treated with a Milwaukee brace. Long-term results were not conclusive in terms of nonverbal assessment of body image and emotional tension regarding the experiences of brace-wearing. Future patients can be reassured that scoliosis treated conservatively does not negatively affect everyday activity, pain level, childbearing and mental health. Subjects who declared to have psychological problems due to scoliosis

  18. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  19. Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, James; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Matter-wave interferometry performed with massive objects elucidates their wave nature and thus tests the quantum superposition principle at large scales. Whereas standard quantum theory places no limit on particle size, alternative, yet untested theories—conceived to explain the apparent quantum to classical transition—forbid macroscopic superpositions. Here we propose an interferometer with a levitated, optically cooled and then free-falling silicon nanoparticle in the mass range of one million atomic mass units, delocalized over >150 nm. The scheme employs the near-field Talbot effect with a single standing-wave laser pulse as a phase grating. Our analysis, which accounts for all relevant sources of decoherence, indicates that this is a viable route towards macroscopic high-mass superpositions using available technology.

  20. X-ray directional dark-field contrast for sub-pixel resolution imaging of bone microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernath, Thomas; Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics (E17) and Institute of Medical Engineering (IMETUM), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Jensen, Torben [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The basic principles of X-ray image formation in radiography have remained essentially unchanged since Roentgen first discovered X-rays over a hundred years ago. The conventional approach relies on X-ray absorption as the sole source of contrast and thus gives an information about the density changes in the sample. The recently introduced X-ray dark field imaging technique (DFI) yields a fundamentally different signal: DFI is a measure of the sample small angle scattering signal and thus yields information about the sample microstructure. Such measurements can be effectively performed thanks to a Laue-Talbot grating interferometer. This presentation shows recent experimental directional dark-field imaging results of various samples both from synchrotron and classical X-ray tube sources.

  1. Optical computing and neural networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan, Dec. 16, 17, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ken-Yuh (Editor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses optical neural networks, photorefractive nonlinear optics, optical pattern recognition, digital and analog processors, and holography and its applications. Attention is given to bifurcating optical information processing, neural structures in digital halftoning, an exemplar-based optical neural net classifier for color pattern recognition, volume storage in photorefractive disks, and microlaser-based compact optical neuroprocessors. Also treated are the optical implementation of a feature-enhanced optical interpattern-associative neural network model and its optical implementation, an optical pattern binary dual-rail logic gate module, a theoretical analysis for holographic associative memories, joint transform correlators, image addition and subtraction via the Talbot effect, and optical wavelet-matched filters. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  2. Optical computing and neural networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan, Dec. 16, 17, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ken-Yuh; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    The present conference discusses optical neural networks, photorefractive nonlinear optics, optical pattern recognition, digital and analog processors, and holography and its applications. Attention is given to bifurcating optical information processing, neural structures in digital halftoning, an exemplar-based optical neural net classifier for color pattern recognition, volume storage in photorefractive disks, and microlaser-based compact optical neuroprocessors. Also treated are the optical implementation of a feature-enhanced optical interpattern-associative neural network model and its optical implementation, an optical pattern binary dual-rail logic gate module, a theoretical analysis for holographic associative memories, joint transform correlators, image addition and subtraction via the Talbot effect, and optical wavelet-matched filters. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  3. Analysis of reflection-peak wavelengths of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xihua; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin

    2008-09-10

    The reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) in the spectra of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp (SFBGs-LC) are theoretically investigated. Such RPWs are divided into two parts, the RPWs of equivalent uniform SFBGs (U-SFBGs) and the wavelength shift caused by the large chirp in the grating period (CGP). We propose a quasi-equivalent transform to deal with the CGP. That is, the CGP is transferred into quasi-equivalent phase shifts to directly derive the Fourier transform of the refractive index modulation. Then, in the case of both the direct and the inverse Talbot effect, the wavelength shift is obtained from the Fourier transform. Finally, the RPWs of SFBGs-LC can be achieved by combining the wavelength shift and the RPWs of equivalent U-SFBGs. Several simulations are shown to numerically confirm these predicted RPWs of SFBGs-LC.

  4. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  5. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  6. 10 noort veebifirmat, millel tasub silm peal hoida

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aastatel 2003-2008 asutatud ettevõtetest Ushahidi, Mashery, 33Across, Qik, Pinger, QTech, Dash Navigation, Powence, Anagran ning Peer39, mis loodavad kasu teenida innovaatiliste sotsiaalse interneti ideedega. Vt. samas: David Talbot. Kriisiallikate kaardistamine; Lissa Harris. Erinevate veebilehtede andmete integreerimine on nüüd lihtne; Larry Aragon. Kas sul on... mõjuvõimu?; David Talbot. Videoedastus mobiiltelefoniga; Larry Aragon. Kiire kõnepostiteenus; Lissa Harris. Kõik ei lähegi meelest ära!; David Talbot. Liiklusekspert; Lissa Harris. Privaatne failivahetus; Larry Aragon. Videopakettide edastus; Lissa Harris. Semantilised reklaamid

  7. Effects of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Anesthesia 101 Effects of Anesthesia Explore this page: Effects of Anesthesia ... the types of anesthesia and their side effects? Effects of Anesthesia If you’re having surgery, you ...

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for healthful dietary change in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    To describe associations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for dietary change with participant characteristics and current diet among African Americans. Cross-sectional survey of 658 African American adults in North Carolina provided information on intrinsic (self-image and health concerns) and extrinsic (social influence) motivation scales, participant characteristics, and diet. Most respondents considered it important to change their diet for health reasons; fewer were motivated by self-image or social influence. Motivation scales were significantly associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics and fat, but not fruit/vegetable consumption, after adjustment for covariates (Pextrinsic motives may improve the effectiveness of dietary interventions in African Americans.

  9. LA CONSTRUCTION DE L’ETHOS POLITIQUE DU PRÉSIDENT BIYA DANS SES DISCOURS À LA JEUNESSE CAMEROUNAISE / THE CONSTRUCTION OF POLITICAL ETHOS IN PRESIDENT PAUL BIYA’S SPEECHES DELIVERED FOR THE YOUTH IN CAMEROON / CONSTRUCŢIA ETOSULUI POLITIC ȊN DISCURSURILE PREŞEDINTELUI BIYA CĂTRE TINERETUL CAMERUNEZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzessé Ladislas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at showing how President Paul Biya constructs self image (ethos in his speeches to cameroonian youth. Analysing the relationship between prediscursive and discursive ethos of president Biya, is to put into perspective his discursive and social identity respectively. For an effectiveness project of persuasion, the political operator achieves a work either or favourable features reinforcement, or of deconstruction of the negative representations for both specifics identity and self image. This ethos consists of three major figures namely: credibility ethos, identification ethos and paternalist ethos.

  10. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  11. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the ...

  12. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  13. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  14. The Impact of Mass Communication on Consumer Decision-Making among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth; And Others

    Elderly residents of a large southern city were surveyed in a study designed to examine the effects of media advertising on the elderly's perceptions. The 91 subjects completed a questionnaire on social factors such as the subjects' self-image, their perceptions of the elderly as portrayed by the mass media, product brand preferences, sex role…

  15. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral

  16. Los Pactos entre Padres y Maestros (Teacher-Parent Partnerships). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    Research provides insight into parent attributes that support partnerships with teachers. These attributes include warmth, sensitivity, nurturance, the ability to listen, consistency, positive self-image, personal competence, and effective interpersonal skills. Researchers have cited positive attitudes, continuous teacher training, involvement in…

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  18. Let's put "care" back into health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, C E

    1990-01-01

    Organizations that clearly demonstrate they care about their people reap the benefits of a positive self-image, higher productivity and financial gains. Consider the effects that a demoralized, unappreciated staff have on productivity, recruitment and retention, public relations, marketing, customer satisfaction and the resulting financial repercussions. Can we afford not to care?

  19. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect ...

  20. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  1. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Self-Image Development: A Chicano Enfasis. Self-Programmed Counseling and Self-Programmed Control. Instructor's Guide = Desarrollo de la Imagen Propia: Enfasis en el Chicano. Sistema de Consejo y Control Auto-Programado. Manuel del Profesor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, S. Raymond

    Self-Programmed Counseling, the instructor's guidance, and Self-Programmed Control (SPC), the student's response, was initially developed by Title III Project USTED (United Students and Teachers for Educational Development) for Mexican American students on academic probation to use on a non-credit, special group counseling basis. As part of a…

  3. Métalepse et image de soi de l’auteur dans le récit de fiction Metalepsis and the author’s self-image in fictional narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Bokobza Kahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La perméabilité des frontières entre l’intérieur et l’extérieur du texte de fiction nécessite la conciliation des concepts narratologiques d’« auteur implicite » et de « narrateur non fiable » qui privilégient la fonction interne du texte avec la notion d’« ethos discursif » qui ouvre le texte en amont, versant auteur. Le concept clé de l’article - la « métalepse » - comprise ici comme l’intrusion d’un niveau narratif dans un autre, souligne dans le récit la spécificité de la relation causale qui unit l’auteur à son œuvre. La combinaison de ces outils méthodologiques vise à proposer une piste de travail permettant de dégager l’ethos  auctorial toujours fuyant dans un discours fictionnel.The permeability of the borders between the inside and the outside of fiction invites us to combine narratological concepts, as “implied author” and “unreliable narrator” concentrated on the internal mechanisms of the text, and the concept of “discursive ethos” opening the text toward its external source, the author. The key concept of this article - the “metalepsis” - defined here as the intrusion of one narrative level into another - emphasizes the special relationship between the author and his work in the narrative. The combination of these methodological tools offers an analytical approach facilitating the apprehension of the unstable auctorial ethos in the fictional text.

  4. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  5. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  6. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  8. Acoustic Casimir Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homes, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    ...). When the indirect manifestations of the ZPF are interpreted as due to radiation pressure, acoustic noise can provide an excellent analog to investigate the Casimir effect as well as other effects due to the ZPF...

  9. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  10. Characteristics of Effective Argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frana, Adrian W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how the 1988 Presidential Debates provide a resource for effective instruction in public argument. Provides several examples of effective (and ineffective) argumentative speaking taken from the debates. (MM)

  11. Climate Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance and Trainings Webinars Data and Tools Publications Climate Effects on Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... effects has been excerpted from the Third National Climate Assessment’s Health Chapter . Additional information regarding the health ...

  12. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  13. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  14. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  15. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  16. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  18. Effects of teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....

  19. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  20. Magnetic effects in electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of imposed magnetic fields onto the electrodeposition of magnetic (nickel and non – magnetic (copper metals was analysed. Also, magnetic properties of electrochemically obtained nanocontacts were examined. An effort to establish a possible correlation between the morphologies of the nanocontacts and the effect of the very large ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR effect was made.

  1. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  2. Almost sharp quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Alvaro; Gudder, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Quantum effects are represented by operators on a Hilbert space satisfying 0≤A≤I, and sharp quantum effects are represented by projection operators. We say that an effect A is almost sharp if A=PQP for projections P and Q. We give simple characterizations of almost sharp effects. We also characterize effects that can be written as longer products of projections. For generality we first work in the formalism of von Neumann algebras. We then specialize to the full operator algebra B(H) and to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces

  3. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  4. Spread effects - methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  5. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  6. Knudsen effects in a Scott effect experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Wood, L. T.; Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal torque sometimes observed in Scott effect measurements has been studied experimentally and an explanation for the thermal torque proposed. The magnitude of the thermal torque can be comparable to the Scott torque depending on geometrical and thermal anisotropies. The thermal torque is predicted to decrease with application of an axial magnetic field.

  7. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  8. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  9. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  10. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  11. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.

  12. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  13. Effective communication with seniors

    OpenAIRE

    PONCAROVÁ, Ester

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called "The Effective Communication With Seniors". The aim of this thesis is to describe communication, its various kinds and the basic principles of the effective communication. I will also describe the communication with seniors suffering from dementia. Another aim of this thesis is to find out whether workers in the senior houses know and use the principles of the effective communication.

  14. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  15. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, C.

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coefficients is introduced and the parameters are calculated via perturbation theory. The method described in this work has been implemented in a software tool that performs a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger- and Poisson-equation for a one-dimensional cut through a MOS structure or heterostructure. The calculation of the carrier densities is performed assuming Fermi-Dirac statistics. In the case of a MOS structure a metal or a polysilicon gate is considered and an arbitrary gate bulk voltage can be applied. This allows investigating quantum mechanical effects in capacity calculations, to compare the simulated data with measured CV curves and to evaluate the results obtained with a quantum mechanical correction for the classical electron density. The behavior of the defined subband parameters is compared to the value of the mass and the non-parabolicity coefficient from the model due to Kane. Finally the presented characterization of the subbands is applied

  16. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  17. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  18. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  19. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    .... It specifically looks at the current definitions of leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness...

  20. Effective Lagrangian of QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, J.Z.

    1981-01-01

    A renormalization group equation for the effective Lagrangian of QED is obtained. Starting from this equation, perturbation theory for the renormalization group equation (PTRGE) is developed. The results are in full agreement with the standard perturbation theory. Conjecturing that the asymptotic effective coupling constant is finite, the effective Lagrangian for a strong magnetic field is obtained, which is proportional to the Maxwellian Lagrangian. For the asymptotically free theories the situation is diametrically opposed to QED. In these cases the effective Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills system tends to infinity for very strong external Yang-Mills fields. (Auth.)

  1. Impurity effect in the quantum Nernst effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Ryoen; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi

    2005-11-01

    We theoretically study the Nernst effect and the Seebeck effect in a two-dimensional electron ga in a strong magnetic field and a temperature gradient under adiabatic condition. We recently predicted for a pure system in the quantum Hall regime that the Nernst coefficients strongly suppressed and the thermal conductance is quantized due to quantum ballistic transport. Taking account of impurities, we here compute the Nernst coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient when the chemical potential coincides with a Landau level. We adopt the self-consistent Born approximation and consider the linear transport equations of the thermal electric transport induced by the temperature gradient. The thermal conductance and the Nernst coefficient are slightly modified from the pure case and the Seebeck coefficient newly appears because of the impurity scattering of electrons in the bulk states. (author)

  2. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  3. Summary of geonuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawson, Donald E.

    1970-01-01

    Geonuclear effects are considered here to include all of the interactions between underground nuclear explosions and the surrounding earth material. They constitute a large spectrum of effects that starts with the complex chemistry of the explosion 'fireball' and continues in space until the teleseismic signals in the earth have attenuated and in time until the radioactive products have decayed. This paper does not treat the total spectrum but is restricted to those effects which are of direct use to possible non excavation engineering projects and the major side effects that could detract from the use of nuclear explosions for such projects. Emphasis is given to possible methods of enhancing the desired geonuclear effects and minimizing the deleterious ones. Those who have directly participated in developing nuclear explosive technology cannot help but be impressed by the terrific potential for useful work associated with this energy source. Those who have viewed this developing technology from the periphery (the potential industrial market, the concerned public, and specialists in many allied fields) are certainly interested in the potential benefits but cannot help but be impressed by the attendant risks. Some of the useful geonuclear effects balanced against the associated side effects are shown schematically. More experience and increased knowledge of these effects will affect both project costs and public opinion. These factors will determine how the balance will tilt in relation to specific nuclear explosion engineering projects

  4. The polarized EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  5. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  6. Summary of geonuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawson, Donald E [Explosives Engineering Services, Gulf General Atomic Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Geonuclear effects are considered here to include all of the interactions between underground nuclear explosions and the surrounding earth material. They constitute a large spectrum of effects that starts with the complex chemistry of the explosion 'fireball' and continues in space until the teleseismic signals in the earth have attenuated and in time until the radioactive products have decayed. This paper does not treat the total spectrum but is restricted to those effects which are of direct use to possible non excavation engineering projects and the major side effects that could detract from the use of nuclear explosions for such projects. Emphasis is given to possible methods of enhancing the desired geonuclear effects and minimizing the deleterious ones. Those who have directly participated in developing nuclear explosive technology cannot help but be impressed by the terrific potential for useful work associated with this energy source. Those who have viewed this developing technology from the periphery (the potential industrial market, the concerned public, and specialists in many allied fields) are certainly interested in the potential benefits but cannot help but be impressed by the attendant risks. Some of the useful geonuclear effects balanced against the associated side effects are shown schematically. More experience and increased knowledge of these effects will affect both project costs and public opinion. These factors will determine how the balance will tilt in relation to specific nuclear explosion engineering projects.

  7. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  8. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  9. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  10. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  11. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  12. PLEYOTROPIC EFFECTS OF METFORMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ju. Morgunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, traditionally used for the therapy of diabetes mellitus, possesses a number of diverse pleyotropic effects. The drug, in addition to the glucose-lowering actions, has a beneficial effect on components of the metabolic syndrome, significantly reduces body weight.

  13. Genetic effect of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Fesenko, Eh.V.

    1984-01-01

    Gene mutations resulting from neutron effect are considered, but attention is focused on chromosome mutations. Dose curves for different energy of neutrons obtained at different objects are obtained which makes it possible to consider RBE of neutrons depending on their energy and radiation dose and to get some information on the neutron effect on heredity

  14. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  15. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  16. RBE for deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the present report, data on RBE values for effects in tissues of experimental animals and man are analysed to assess whether for specific tissues the present dose limits or annual limits of intake based on Q values, are adequate to prevent deterministic effects. (author)

  17. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  19. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  20. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, D.D.; Hulme, B.L.; Daniel, S.L.; Varnado, G.B.; Bennett, H.A.; Chapman, L.D.; Engi, D.

    1976-09-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  1. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  2. A 'Copenhagen Effect'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the Danish company law reform of 2009/2010, this article examines the question of whether the processes of liberalisation and internationalisation of the Danish rules on public and private companies which the reform represents are significant enough to warrant the term...... the ‘Copenhagen effect' in competition with the already established ‘London effect'....

  3. En "Copenhagen effect"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen efterprøver på grundlag af den danske selskabsreform 2009/10, om den liberalisering og internationalisering, der herved har fundet sted af den danske lovgivning om aktie- og anpartsselskaber, er så betydningsfuld, at det fremtidigt giver mening at tale om en "Copenhagen effect" i...... konkurrence med den allerede kendte "London effect". Udgivelsesdato: Juni 2009...

  4. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  5. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  6. Nocebo effect in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Sonthalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of ′permanent cure′ and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients′ right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management.

  7. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  8. Electroplastic effect in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, A.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the effects of single d-c current pulses (1000-6000 A/mm 2 approx.60 μs) on plastically deforming metals. Polycrystalline wire specimens (D 0 approx. 1/2 mm, L 0 approx. 50 mm) representing the three more common crystal structures were employed: Ti from the HCP structures; Fe, Nb, and W from the bcc structure; and Al, Cu, and Ni from the fcc structure. The tests were carried out under uniaxial tension with an applied strain rate of 1.7 x 10 -4 sec -1 at room temperature. Forced air cooling was employed in order to reduce the principal side effect, heating. As a result of applying a current pulse, there were significant drops in the flow stress (1-35%). These drops not only included an electron dislocation interaction but all side effects as well. The main side effect due to the temperature rise was thermal expansion and could account for 60-90% of the drops. In addition to thermal expansion, some thermally induced plastic flow occurred as indicated by computer simulations. The total side effects (thermal expansion and plastic flow) approximately accounted for the stress drops in Ti, W, and Nb. However, a strong electron dislocation (ed) interaction was observed in Cu and Al since plastic flow from thermal effects was negligible. In Ni and Fe the portion of the stress drops due to (ed) was unclear due to some dynamic aging effects present

  9. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  10. Bystander effects and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy.

  11. Effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Kalkreuter, T.; Palma, G.; Speh, M.

    1992-05-01

    Effective field theories encode the predictions of a quantum field theory at low energy. The effective theory has a fairly low utraviolet cutoff. As a result, loop corrections are small, at least if the effective action contains a term which is quadratic in the fields, and physical predictions can be read straight from the effective Lagrangean. Methods will be discussed how to compute an effective low energy action from a given fundamental action, either analytically or numerically, or by a combination of both methods. Basically, the idea is to integrate out the high frequency components of fields. This requires the choice of a 'blockspin', i.e. the specification af a low frequency field as a function of the fundamental fields. These blockspins will be fields of the effective field theory. The blockspin need not be a field of the same type as one of the fundamental fields, and it may be composite. Special features of blockspin in nonabelian gauge theories will be discussed in some detail. In analytical work and in multigrid updating schemes one needs interpolation kernels A from coarse to fine grid in addition to the averaging kernels C which determines the blockspin. A neural net strategy for finding optimal kernels is presented. Numerical methods are applicable to obtain actions of effective theories on lattices of finite volume. The special case of a 'lattice' with a single site (the constraint effective potential) is of particular interest. In a higgs model, the effective action reduces in this case to the free energy, considered as a function of a gauge covariant magnetization. Its shape determines the phase structure of the theory. Its loop expansion with and without gauge fields can be used to determine finite size corrections to numerical data. (orig.)

  12. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  13. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  14. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  15. Effective career ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B; Rabbitts, D; Shover, J; Torres, M; VanDerHeyden, B; Violand-Jones, S

    1992-01-01

    Motivation, quality improvement, productivity enhancement. These are just some of the benefits of an effective career ladder program. The key term here is effective. It is easy for laboratory personnel to stagnate professionally if they do not have a career ladder program, but it is even easier for them to become frustrated--even cynical--over a program that fails to live up to its expectations to encourage, support, and reward professional advancement. If you have been looking form some ideas to get your own career ladder program off the ground, the following responses from your colleagues may help as CLMR asks: What makes your career ladder program effective?

  16. Don’t be too strict with yourself! Rigid negative self-representation in healthy subjects mimics the neurocognitive profile of depression for autobiographical memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSperduti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM comprises representation of specific (episodic and generic personal information (semantic. Depression is characterized by a shift from episodic to semantic AM retrieval (overgeneralization. Theoretical models have proposed that this effect could be linked to reduced executive resources. Moreover, overgeneral memories, accompanied by a negativity bias in depression, lead to a pervasive negative self-representation. Even in non clinical populations executive functions and AM specificity are closely linked, and overgeneral memories could result in depressive emotional responses. We made the hypothesis that healthy subjects showing a rigid negative self-image would mimic the neurocognitive profile of patients. We measured executive functions and the self-image in young healthy subjects, and recorded their brain activity, by means of fMRI, while they retrieved episodic AMs. We report that a more rigid negative self-image corresponds to lower executive functions and less vivid specific memories. Moreover, higher negative self-image is accompanied by attenuated activity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal and in the anterior cingulate cortex, that have been repeatedly shown to exhibit altered functionality in depression. Activity in these regions, on the contrary, positively correlates with executive and memories performances, in agreement with their role in executive functions and AM retrieval. We claim that rigid negative self-image could represent a marker or a vulnerability trait of depression that is linked to reduced executive functions efficiency and to episodic AM decline. Our results are encouraging for psychotherapeutic approaches promoting cognitive flexibility in depression and other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mącik, Dorota; Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once - for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier.

  18. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  19. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  20. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic ... neurotransmittion in the central nervous system and .... Autoinhibition of brain histamine release.

  1. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  2. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  3. Flexo-photovoltaic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Kim, Dong Jik; Alexe, Marin

    2018-04-19

    It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable a higher efficiency of solar cells. Here, we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We introduce strain gradients using either an atomic force microscope or a micron-scale indentation system, creating giant photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , and Si. This strain-gradient-induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p - n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  5. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  6. Antihypertensive Effects of Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Vera, Iñaki; Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Sánchez, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations. The meta-analysis of the human studies supports that supplementation with probiotics reduces blood pressure. The mechanism of this antihypertensive effect of probiotics and its protective effect on endothelial function has not been fully elucidated. Further investigations are needed to clarify if the effects of probiotic bacteria result from the changes in the gut microbiota and its metabolic by-products; the restoration of the gut barrier function; and the effects on endotoxemia, inflammation, and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  7. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  8. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  9. The effective nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical analyses is made of the mean effective internucleon potential required in the shell-model description of nuclei, allowing for the presence of many-body effects as suggested by current theory. A consistent description is found in which the effective two-body interaction acts almost entirely in even states, and the many-body effects are simulated by a repulsive three-body contact interaction. The strength of the two-body interaction is consistent with that expressed by the free scattering matrix of the two-nucleon system, and that of the three-body interaction with the 'rearrangement energy' calculated in the many-body theory. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Greenhouse effect and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Model calculations with different marginal conditions and different physical processes do, on the basis of realistic assumptions, result in a temperature rise of 3 ± 1.5degC at doubling carbon dioxide concentrations. Temperatures are increasing even more due to the presence of trace gases contributing to the greenhouse effect. They are assumed to be having a share of 100% in the carbon dioxide effect (additive) in 30-40 years from now. According to the model calculations the CO 2 increase from about 280 ppm around 1850 to 345 ppm (1985) is equal to a globally averaged temperature rise of 0.5-0.7degC. As the data obtained before 1900 were incomplete and little representative climatic analyses cannot be considered to have been effective but after that time. However, considering the additional influence of other climatic effects such as vulcanism the temperature rise satisfactorily corresponds to the values obtained since 1900. (orig./HP) [de

  11. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  12. Conditions for Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeannette T.

    1988-01-01

    The most effective college presidents are those whose leadership styles are dominant, decisive, and when appropriate, autocratic. The president has to believe profoundly in the intrinsic value of the college. (Author/MSE)

  13. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  14. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  15. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  16. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  17. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  18. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary ... Allium sativum commonly known as garlic is a specie in the onion ..... nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

  19. Deforestation Hydrological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda J, G.; Mesa S, O.J.

    1995-01-01

    Deforestation causes strong disturbances in ecosystems and in hydrological cycle, increasing or reducing wealths. Particularly in this work, effects of feed back between interface processes land - atmosphere are discussed and is demonstrated that losses of water by evaporation-transpiration are thoroughly indispensable to maintain the balance of hydrological regime. It's concluded that as a rule the effect of deforestation is to reduce wealth middle and to increase extreme wealth with consequent stronger and more frequent droughts or flood effects. Other deforestation effects as increase in superficial temperature, increase in atmospherical pressure, decrease in soil moisture, decrease in evaporation-transpiration, decrease of soil ruggedness, decrease of thickness of atmospherical cap limit, decrease of clouds, decrease of rain in both medium and long term and the consequent decrease of rivers wealth middle are explained. Of other side, the basins with greater deforestation affectation in Colombia are indicated. Finally, it's demonstrated the need of implementing reforestation programs

  20. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  1. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  2. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  3. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  4. The quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Transport phenomena in two dimensional semiconductors have revealed unusual properties. In this thesis these systems are considered and discussed. The theories explain the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first and the second chapters lay down the theory of the IQHE, the third and fourth consider the theory of the FQHE. Chapter five deals with the statistics of particles in two dimension. (author). Refs

  5. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  6. High Burnup Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Synchronization on effective networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  8. Synchronization on effective networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.

  9. The Lisse effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Edwin P

    2002-01-01

    The Lisse effect is a rarely noted phenomenon occurring when infiltration caused by intense rain seals the surface soil layer to airflow, trapping air in the unsaturated zone. Compression of air by the advancing front results in a pressure increase that produces a water-level rise in an observation well screened below the water table that is several times as large as the distance penetrated by the wetting front. The effect is triggered by intense rains and results in a very rapid water-level rise, followed by a recession lasting a few days. The Lisse effect was first noted and explained by Thal Larsen in 1932 from water-level observations obtained in a shallow well in the village of Lisse, Holland. The original explanation does not account for the increased air pressure pushing up on the bottom of the wetting front. Analysis of the effect of this upward pressure indicates that a negative pressure head at the base of the wetting front, psi(f), analogous to that postulated by Green and Ampt (1911) to explain initially rapid infiltration rates into unsaturated soils, is involved in producing the Lisse effect. Analysis of recorded observations of the Lisse effect by Larsen and others indicates that the water-level rise, which typically ranges from 0.10 to 0.55 m, should be only slightly larger than psi(f) and that the depth of penetration of the wetting front is no more than several millimeters.

  10. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  11. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  12. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  13. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  14. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  15. Magnetoelectric effects in manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen

    Research on manganites has been conducted for more than half century. Recent discoveries of colossal responses to external fields such as colossal magnetoresistance effects and correlation among spin, orbital, and lattice in phase separated manganites and multiferroic manganites have motivated me to understand these materials. The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand magnetoelectric effects in phase separated (La1-yPr y)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO) thin films and multiferroic BiMnO3 (BMO) thin films. First, high quality phase separated manganite thin films have been successfully grown. To grow the high quality manganite thin films, extensive effort was devoted to fine tuning of oxygen pressure, temperature, and laser fluence during film growth. As-grown films were characterized with various ex-situ techniques: magnetization measurements, transport measurements, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and/or transmission electron microscopy to remove the effects of impurities and unwanted strains except substrate induced strain. Second, three major results were obtained in high quality phase separated LPCMO thin films. These results are based on the dynamic nature of phases in LPCMO. 1) LPCMO thin films showed single domain to multi-domain transition during cooling. This transition can be tuned by substrate stress induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy. 2) Evidence for the origin of colossal electroresistance (CER) effect has been observed. The CER is triggered by dielectrophoresis, or movements of ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) phase, which is manifested in anisotropic transport properties in microfabricated LPCMO cross structures. This fluidic nature of the FMM phase in LPCMO under high electric fields lead to exotic magnetoelectric effects. 3) Electric field effects on magnetotransport properties have been observed. This phenomena can also be tuned by the combined effect of substrate strain and current flow. This combined effect of electric and magnetic

  16. Pharmacological effects of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    In the last few decades, more vitamin-mediated effects have been discovered at the level of gene expression. Increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of these vitamins has opened new perspectives that form a connection between nutritional signals and the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. The vitamin regulates genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism: Biotin has stimulatory effects on genes whose action favors hypoglycemia (insulin, insulin receptor, pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase); on the contrary, biotin decreases the expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme that stimulates glucose production by the liver. The findings that biotin regulates the expression of genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism are in agreement with several observations that indicate that biotin supply is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Biotin deficiency has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased utilization of glucose. On the other hand, the diabetic state appears to be ameliorated by pharmacological doses of biotin. Likewise, pharmacological doses of biotin appear to decrease plasma lipid concentrations and modify lipid metabolism. The effects of biotin on carbohydrate metabolism and the lack of toxic effects of the vitamin at pharmacological doses suggest that biotin could be used in the development of new therapeutics in the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, an area that we are actively investigating.

  17. NEUROTROPHIC EFFECTS OF ETIFOXINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Torshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher anxiety results in the decreased levels of various neurotrophic factors and enkephalins and in impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines. The anxiolytic etifoxine is used to treat anxiety states and adjustment disorders. Etifoxine modulates the GABAergic transmission and metabolism of neurosteroids. The latter determines the unique neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of the drug, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, regeneration of nerve fibers, and preservation and regeneration of myelin sheaths. Other important pharmacological effects of an etifoxine molecule have been also discovered; these are to relieve allodynia related to 3α-steroids and GABA receptors and to effectively treat cerebral edema, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and excessive nervous excitability in the presence of alcohol withdrawal. In addition, the chemoreactome simulation of the molecule of etifoxine has established that its attenuated side effects are due to its lower interaction with serotonin, acetylcholine, adrenergic and other neurotransmitter receptors than is shown by benzodiazepines. Etifoxine has been also found to have anti-inflammatory (due to antihistamine and antileukotriene effects and antitumor activities and an ability to affect hemodynamics and vessel walls.The paper presents a systematic analysis of the results of trials of the neurotrophic properties of etifoxine. It considers how the drug stimulates the expression of neurotrophic factors, accelerates the maturation and regeneration of nerve fibers, and regenerates myelin sheaths.The neurotrophic effects of etifoxine along with its anxiolytic activity will accelerate the recovery of patients with different neurological diseases and enhance the quality of their neurorehabilitation.

  18. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasaraju Kavalipati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe.

  19. Heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.P.

    1981-01-01

    There are two problems discussed, both of which have to do with dissimilar magnitudes in mass. Theoretically, we can devise the large difference in mass as observed by decreeing some vev, v/sub i/ to be much bigger than the other; or, we can assume that some couplings g/sub i/ are much stronger. These two different assumptions give rise to entirely different patterns of interaction in the resulting theory. The first way to generate a mass hierarchy can be called the soft way, because in the zeroth order, the large mass scale leaves its foot print merely in a few effective parameters of the residual theory. The effective theory is renormalizable, sans anomaly. In this limit, the heavy particles decouple. The second assumption (g/sub j/ much greater than g/sub j'/) to create mass hierarchy does a lot of violence to a theory. Effects of the large mass scale will be felt by the system left behind in many ways. An infinite number of parameters are needed to summarize the effects in this limit. This is called the hard limit. It follows that the resulting effective Lagrangian, if in fact it makes sense to construct one at all, will be non-polynomial and apparently non-renormalizable

  20. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.