Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Greenberg, Stefanie T.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and...
Suen, Yiu Tung
Previous research saw older gay men as subject to structural marginalization of ageism but yet possessing agency to interpret aging in diverse ways. I move beyond this duality, drawing on the theory of defensive othering to understand how older gay men live with the aging discourse in the gay community. Informed by grounded theory, I analyzed interviews with 25 self-identified single gay men aged 50 or above in England inductively. It emerged that many older gay men found it difficult to escape the discourse that marginalizes the aging body. Even when they argued they were the exception and "looked good," they were discursively producing a two-tier system: they themselves as the "good older gay men," as opposed to the other "bad older gay men," who "had given up." Such a defensive othering tactic seemingly allowed them to resist age norms from applying to them personally, but unintentionally reinforced an ageist discourse.
... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...
Sánchez, Francisco J; Greenberg, Stefanie T; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and feminine stereotypes. Additionally, more adverse versus positive effects on self-image and same-sex romantic relationships were reported including difficulty being emotional and affectionate, pressure to be physically attractive, and pressure to appear masculine in order to be accepted by society and to be seen as desirable by other gay men. While research on gay men's experience with masculinity continues, psychologists should consider the possible influence of traditional masculine ideals when conceptualizing their gay male clients.
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.
How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…
Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A
As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.
Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A
There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.
Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele
This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…
Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or w...
Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)
Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine
Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne
Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.
Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael
The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.
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Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of
Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M
The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A; Millett, Gregorio; Diaz, Rafael M
Latino gay men report experiences of racial discrimination within and outside the gay community. This study focused on correlates of racism within general and gay contexts. Racism was assessed in a probability sample of 911 Latino gay men recruited from 3 U.S. cities. Factor analysis of the 10-item scale produced 2 factors: (a) General Racism Experiences, and (b) Racism Experiences in Gay Contexts. The scale and each factor showed adequate reliability and validity. Latino gay men with darker skin, more Indian features, more time in the United States, and low self-esteem reported more racism in both general and gay contexts. The authors examine the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses interpersonal racism among Latinos, report correlates of racism within a gay context, and provide an assessment tool for understanding the role of racism in the lives of Latino gay men.
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.
Taywaditep, K J
Contemporary research has shown that a significant portion of gay men have traits, interests, occupations, and behaviors that are consistent with the stereotype of gay men as effeminate, androgynous, or unmasculine. A great number of gay men exhibit gender nonconformity during childhood; most, however, "defeminize" during adolescence, possibly in response to stigmatization and society's gender-role prescription. Only a relatively small percentage of gay men continue to be gender-nonconforming in their adulthood, often at a price, as they also tend to have lower psychological well-being. Although gay culture historically appreciated camp and drag, which subvert the gender-based power hierarchy and celebrate gender nonconformity, anti-effeminacy prejudice is widespread among gay men. Ironically, gender-nonconforming gay men may suffer from discrimination not only from society at large, but from other gay men, who are most likely to have experienced stigmatization and may have been effeminate earlier in their lives. Drawing from anecdotes and findings from various sources, this article suggests that beyond many gay men's erotic preference for masculinity lies contempt and hostility toward effeminacy and effeminate men on sociopolitical and personal levels. Two correlates of gay men's anti-effeminacy attitudes are proposed: (a) hegemonic masculinity ideology, or the degree to which one subscribes to the value system in which masculinity is an asset, and men and masculinity are considered superior to women and femininity; and (b) masculinity consciousness, or the saliency of masculinity in one's self-monitoring, public self-consciousness, and self-concept. These two variables are hypothesized to interact with gay men's self-perceived masculinity-femininity and their history of defeminization in predicting attitudes toward effeminacy. Research is underway to measure levels of anti-effeminacy attitudes and explore hypothesized correlates.
Frank A Sattler
Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna
According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...
Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.
The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…
Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry
This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…
Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.
Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John
A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.
Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A
Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.
Sexual politics in the gay male world would be enhanced by a serious engagement with radical feminist politics, particularly critiques of pornography and the sex industry. As the domination/subordination dynamic at the heart of patriarchy damages homosexual men, such engagement is crucial to the future of a gay movement.
Filipa Daniela Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Research in the field of older gay men remains scarce. This exploratory study examines older gay men's experiences in the construction of family integrity (versus disconnection and alienation. The family integrity approach is a developmental perspective that links ego integrity to a larger process of constructing meaning within the family system. The sample comprises ten participants (from 60 to 88 years old. A semi-structured interview was conducted and submitted to content analysis. The main findings suggest three experiences in older gay men's construction of family integrity: (i influence of homosexuality throughout life; (ii establishing a family of choice; (iii creating a legacy associated with homosexuality. Family integrity in older gay men seems to evolve from disclosure at a young age to making homosexuality a legacy in old age.
... for Reproductive Medicine Counseling issues to discuss with gay men and lesbians seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART) More lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and couples are ...
Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon
Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Social science research as well as a rise in sexually transmitted diseases and new HIV infections among men who have sex with men point to increasing numbers of gay men engaging in unprotected anal intercourse without condoms, a practice called "barebacking." There is some evidence that barebacking is linked to the rise of crystal methamphetamine…
Koc, Yasin; Vignoles, Vivian L
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Hence, we tested if global identification would predict higher levels of gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being, via alternative masculinity representations for gay and male identities. A community sample of 219 gay and bisexual men from Turkey completed the study. Structural equation modelling revealed that global identification positively predicted gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being; however, alternative masculinity representations did not mediate this relationship. Our findings illustrate how identity categories in different domains can intersect and affect each other in complex ways. Moreover, we discuss mental health and well-being implications for gay men living in cultures where they experience high levels of prejudice and stigma. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Mental health professionals working with people with HIV disease are often confronted by the patients' feelings of shame and should be prepared to recognize and treat what can sabotage the openness crucial to the therapeutic process. Shame is unlike guilt in that instead of being a transgression against some moral code or value, it is the failure to live up to an internal ideal image of oneself; its sanction is rejection or abandonment as opposed to punishment. Shame can have many triggers, and when faced with these triggers, a strong sense of self can protect a person. However, most people with HIV find that shame does arise in some situations. In its wake, shame can cause withdrawal, substance abuse, depression, denial, rage, grandiosity, lack of entitlement, and perfectionism. Therapists can help gay men deal with shame and cope better with the indignities of HIV infection. Guidelines include building a strong patient/therapist relationship to build trust and improve self-esteem; and identifying the shame, and bringing it out for validation by the patient. Therapists must guide patients to an awareness of their true feelings, and help them trust their perceptions of these needs and feelings.
The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.
Corneau, Simon; van der Meulen, Emily
Despite the proliferation of writing on pornography generally, much of the literature that focuses on gay pornography specifically conforms to either a pro- or anti-porn framework. This overly simplistic dichotomy positions pornography as a homogeneous construct, albeit one that is either "good" or "bad." Even theorists who situate pornography on a continuum, with erotica at one end and hardcore at the other, tend to reify these discourses. Further, it is not uncommon for researchers to draw conclusions about the effects of pornography consumption without defining exactly what pornography is. This ethnographic research draws on qualitative interviews with 20 consumers' of gay pornography in Toronto, Canada. By using a thematic analysis to document the ways in which gay men define, distinguish, and conceptualize gay pornography, five definitional categories were developed: Mellow; Commercial; Raunch; Amateur; and Bareback. These broad conceptualizations are discussed in reference to writing on gay pornography. Our research results emphasize the importance of clear definitions of pornography within pornography research.
Riggs, Damien W; Due, Clemence; Power, Jennifer
While growing numbers of Australian gay men are entering into 'offshore' surrogacy arrangements in order to become parents, little empirical research has been conducted with this population. This article reports on a qualitative analysis of interviews with 12 gay men who had entered into surrogacy arrangements in India. The findings outline both positive and negative experiences in terms of support pre-conception, during the birth and post-birth. Changes to legislation in India mean that gay men can no longer access surrogacy services there, but it is important to understand the experiences of men who had previously accessed those services. The article concludes by highlighting aspects of the data that demonstrate the particular experiences of gay men who undertake offshore surrogacy arrangements, especially with regard to their need for support and involvement in all aspects of the process. A more thoroughly developed network of care may help to facilitate such support and this may further increase the positive outcomes reported by gay men who form families through surrogacy arrangements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Peterson, Grant Tyler
This article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the intersections of gender, sexuality, and dance. It examines the expressions of sexuality among gay males through culturally popular forms of club dancing. Drawing on political and musical history, I outline an account of how gay men's gendered choreographies changed throughout the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Through a notion of "technologies of the body," I situate these developments in relation to cultural levels of homophobia, exploring how masculine expressions are entangled with and regulated by musical structures. My driving hypothesis is that as perceptions of cultural homophobia decrease, popular choreographies of gay men's dance have become more feminine in expression. Exploring this idea in the context of the first decade of the new millennium, I present a case study of TigerHeat, one of the largest weekly gay dance club events in the United States.
Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric
While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations. We discuss the multiple difficulties these men face in relation to religious intolerance and ethnic heteronormativity, and reflect upon the possibilities and obstacles of using Western identity politics towards the promotion of social justice within a framework of growing homohysteria. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren
Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Talcott, James A; Heeren, Timothy; de Vries, Brian; Blank, Thomas O; Clark, Jack A
To identify factors associated with masculine self-esteem in gay men following treatment for localized prostate cancer (PCa) and to determine the association between masculine self-esteem, PCa-specific factors, and mental health factors in these patients. A national cross-sectional survey of gay PCa survivors was conducted in 2010-2011. To be eligible for the study, men needed to be age 50 or older, reside in the United States, self-identify as gay, able to read, write, and speak English, and to have been treated for PCa at least 1 year ago. One hundred eleven men returned surveys. After simultaneously adjusting for the factors in our model, men aged 50-64 years and men aged 65-74 years reported lower masculine self-esteem scores than men aged 75 years or older. Lower scores were also reported by men who reported recent severe stigma. Men who reported feeling comfortable revealing their sexual orientation to their doctor reported higher masculine self-esteem scores than men who were not. The mental component score from the SF-12 was also positively correlated with masculine self-esteem. PCa providers are in a position to reduce feelings of stigma and promote resiliency by being aware that they might have gay patients, creating a supportive environment where gay patients can discuss specific sexual concerns, and engaging patients in treatment decisions. These efforts could help not only in reducing stigma but also in increasing masculine self-esteem, thus greatly influencing gay patients' recovery, quality of life, and compliance with follow-up care.
Reese, G.; Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.
Previous research suggests that people from some religious backgrounds hold more negative attitudes towards gay men than others do. The current research focuses on psychological variables as an alternative explanation to religious affiliation, testing whether masculinity beliefs regarding gay men
... Conference Newsroom Support GLMA Site Search Ten Things Gay Men Should discuss with Their Healthcare Provider ( Download . ... have identified as most commonly of concern for gay men. While not all of these items apply ...
This paper is a report of a study to examine the construction of the stereotype of male nurses as gay, and to describe how this discourse impacts on a group of New Zealand male nurses. A discourse stereotyping male nurses as gay is accompanied by one which privileges hegemonic masculinity and marginalizes homosexuality. This social constructionist study drew on data collected from existing texts on men, nursing and masculinity and interviews with 18 New Zealand men conducted in 2003-2004. Discourse analysis, informed by masculinity theory and queer theory, was used to analyse the data. Despite the participants' beliefs that the majority of male nurses are heterosexual, the stereotype persists. A paradox emerged between the 'homosexual' general nurse and the 'heterosexual' psychiatric nurse. The stigma associated with homosexuality exposes male nurses to homophobia in the workplace. The heterosexual men employed strategies to avoid the presumption of homosexuality; these included: avoiding contact with gay colleagues and overt expression of their heterosexuality. There is a paradox between widespread calls for men to participate more in caring and discourses which stereotype male nurses as gay and conflate homosexuality and sexual predation. These stigmatizing discourses create a barrier to caring and, aligned with the presence of homophobia in the workplace, deter men's entry into the profession and may be important issues with respect to their retention. Nurse educators must ensure that nurses are able to resist collusion with stigmatizing discourses that marginalize men (and women) in the profession through the perpetration of gender and sexual stereotypes.
Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel
This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…
Wu, S. (Shangwei); J.R. Ward (Janelle)
textabstractA growing body of literature focuses on gay men's use of mobile dating applications or “dating apps.” Running on smartphones and working with GPS, dating apps connect users to others in close geographic proximity and often in real time. These apps allow users to create profiles to
Bozett, Frederick W.
Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)
Auerback, Sandra; Moser, Charles
Found groups for wives of gay and bisexual men to be an effective therapeutic intervention for the problems that arise when a husband makes a disclosure to his wife that he is interested in pursuing homosexual relationships. The groups helped wives resolve the issues of the marriage and to make positive changes in their lives. (Author)
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery
Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Jaspal, Rusi; Cinnirella, Marco
This study explores identity processes, identity threat, and interpersonal relations with other gay men in a qualitative interview study with a sample of young British Muslim gay men of Pakistani background. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Data were analyzed through the interpretive lens of Identity Process Theory. Three superordinate themes are reported: (a) self-continuity and the transition from straight to gay space; (b) interpersonal relations with other gay men and self- and other categorization; and (c) interpersonal contact or identification with White gay men as an identity enhancer. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E.
As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6–8 in. long (15–20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4–6 in. around (10–15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men’s attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was “too tight.” Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage. PMID:22552706
Tan, Chris K K
Anglo-American ontologies posit that gay men should come out to match their outer selves with their inner ones. In Confucianized Singapore, however, gay men refrain from coming out to their parents to avoid shaming their families. Instead, they couch their homosexuality in kinship terms and "go home" with their boyfriends (Chou, 2000). "Going home" gains familial acceptance, but it does not challenge mainstream discourses of homosexuality. By examining how Singaporean gay men negotiate their sexuality with their families, I question the validity of coming out and going home as both ontological discourses and strategies.
Nakamura, Nadine; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.
This study describes factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in a racially diverse sample of 340 methamphetamine-using, HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. A factor analysis was conducted on reasons for initiation, and four factors were identified: to party, to cope, for energy, and to improve self-esteem. Methamphetamine to party accounted for more than one-third of the variance in the factor analysis. Methamphetamine to cope captured almost 9% of the variance, methamphetamine for ...
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
Zeidner, Moshe; Zevulun, Attara
This study examined the effects of dual-identity conflict, religious identity (religious/spiritual vs. sexual), and partnership status on the coping strategies and mental health of gay Jewish men in modern Israeli society. Participants were 73 religious and 71 secular gay men recruited via e-mail, social networking sites, and online resources targeting sexual minority men. Participants were assessed via measures of identity conflict, mental health, and coping strategies. Jewish gay men who reported more severe identity conflict also reported using less problem-focused and avoidance coping and more emotion-focused coping strategies and reported poorer mental health than their less identity-conflicted counterparts. Furthermore, gay men who self-identified as religious reported poorer mental health as well as less problem-focused coping and more emotion-focused coping compared to secular men. Religious gay men in romantic relationships reported lower intensities of dual-identity conflict and better mental health compared to their nonpartnered counterparts.
Protect Yourself Against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B... a guide for gay and bisexual men Men who have sex with men are at increased What are the symptoms of hepatitis A and hepatitis B? risk of becoming infected with ...
Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat
This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets.
Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M
We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.
This dissertation research is aimed at analyzing the gay roles portrayal in print advertisements by the advertisers. In order to conduct this study, the researcher had selected sample of gay advertisements from the leading US gay magazine and the mainstream magazine. The researcher also developed a coding sheet for the purpose of this analysis. The coding sheet was developed on the basis of various aspects which would enable to find out the various roles that could be portrayed by the gay men...
Halkitis, Perry N.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Millett, Gregorio A.
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic in the United States and in many other parts of the world. The HIV epidemic is inextricably tied to other health problems that disproportionately affect gay, bisexual, and other MSM including…
Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J
The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.
Semlyen, Joanna; Ali, Atif; Flowers, Paul
Individual interviews were conducted with six self-identified Muslim gay men living in London focusing on their experience of health service use. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analysis identified two major themes: the close(d) community and self-management with healthcare professionals, detailing participants' concerns regarding the risks of disclosing sexuality; and the authentic identity - 'you're either a Muslim or you're gay, you can't be both' - which delineated notions of incommensurate identity. Analysis highlights the need for health practitioners to have insight into the complexity of intersectional identities, identity disclosure dynamics and the negative consequences of assumptions made, be these heteronormative or faith-related.
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Meerendonk, Bas van de; Eisinga, Rob; Felling, Albert
national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch populadon completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first attempt
Meerendonk, B. van de; Eisinga, R.N.; Felling, A.J.A.
A national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch population completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first
McFarland, William P.; McMahon, Timothy R.
The male archetypes of king, lover, magician, and warrior provide important and timeless insights into mature masculine qualities. Homosexual identity development models describe tasks that confront gay men as they move through the identity development process. Proposes that by understanding the metaphor of male archetypes, gay men will discover…
Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…
Hamilton, Christopher J.; Mahalik, James R.
The authors examined the contributions of the minority stress model, traditional masculine gender roles, and perceived social norms in accounting for gay men's use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and risky sexual practices. Three hundred fifteen gay men recruited from listserv communities completed measures assessing internalized homophobia,…
Varangis, Eleanna; Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom; Feldman, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine gay men's perceived attractiveness of male figures based on short-term and long-term partner contexts. A sample of 190 gay adult men rated the attractiveness of line-drawings depicting male figures varying systematically in muscularity and body fat percentage in both short-term and long-term dating contexts. Mixed effects modeling was used to estimate the effects of figure (muscularity and body fat), dating context (short-term vs. long-term), and individual rater characteristics on attractiveness ratings. Results indicated that figure muscularity and body-fat had significant non-linear (i.e., quadratic) relationships with attractiveness ratings, and short-term dating context was associated with more discriminating ratings of attractiveness. Interactions between individual characteristics and figure characteristics indicated that the more available the individual and lower body fat, the more discriminating they were in ratings of attractiveness. The implications for future investigations considering both object and observer characteristics of attractiveness preferences are discussed. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Katarina Görts Öberg, PhD
Öberg KG, Hallberg J, Kaldo V, et al. Hypersexual Disorder According to the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory in Help-Seeking Swedish Men and Women With Self-Identified Hypersexual Behavior. Sex Med 2017;5:e229–e236.
O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera
A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.
Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna
International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.
Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori ) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan
Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.
Rankin, Susan R.; Hesp, Grahaeme A.; Weber, Genevieve N.
The study included 337 self-identified gay and bisexual fraternity members, with 170 joining their chapters in the year 2000 or after, 99 joining their chapters between the years 1990 and 1999, and 68 joining in the year 1989 or before. Participants who self-identified as gay or bisexual men and who joined in the year 2000 or after reported a more…
McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J
Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.
One of the most persistent popular notions of gay men and lesbians is that they either live in or move to larger cities. In this thesis, the geography and migration paths of gay men and lesbians are studied using the life course perspective to challenge this idea. It is argued that gay men and lesbians are affected by the time and place into which they are born. Like heterosexuals, they are subject to the normative conceptions of life paths that are present at a specific historical period and...
Kirby, Brenda J; Michaelson, Christina
The purpose of this study was to compare morality judgments of American Catholics and the general public about lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children. The general sample endorsed higher agreement that lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt and to teach children compared to the Catholic only sample. Older participants were less accepting than all other age groups, and there was an interaction effect between education and political ideology such that those with less education and with more politically conservative beliefs were generally less accepting of lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.
Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.
There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…
Rosser, B R Simon; Smolenski, Derek J; Erickson, Darin
This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants were 1,391 MSM living in the US, recruited online...... to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Almost all (98.5 %) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days. While 41 % reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed "bareback SEM"), 17 % preferred to actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed "safer sex...
Philpot, Steven P; Duncan, Duane; Ellard, Jeanne; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Grierson, Jeffrey; Prestage, Garrett
When viewed over time, many gay men's relationships are not static, or firmly fixed to monogamy or non-monogamy. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 61 Australian gay men to explore how monogamy and non-monogamy are experienced over time, expectations of what constitutes the norms regarding gay men's relationships and how couples experience and practices change. Although some gay men may idealise monogamy, particularly at the beginning of a relationship, it is often experienced as temporary. Non-monogamy is often seen as a likely prospect for gay relationships owing to the social and cultural norms that operate in gay communities. These expected trajectories are reflected in practice - many relationships begin monogamously and then become non-monogamous over time. While the application of 'rules', experimentation and flexibility can facilitate change, couples may struggle to navigate new territory as their relationship structures shift. This is particularly the case when partners value monogamy and non-monogamy differently, or when one partner's values change. These findings shed light on how gay men approach change to the status of 'fidelity' within their relationships, and the tensions and opportunities that change can produce for couples.
Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Hopwood, Max; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06883652X; Holt, Martin
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.
Han, Chong-Suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Choi, Kyung-Hee
Rather than a defined endpoint that is waiting to be discovered or developed, racial and sexual identities can be considered social identities which are fluid, malleable, and socially created through a social process that defines what it means to be a member of a social group. This paper expands the work on how social identities are constructed by examining personal anecdotes used by gay men of color to discuss how they come to see themselves as "gay men of color." In doing so, we find that gay men of color use a number of cultural tropes that provide them the framework necessary to structure their experiences within a larger social context of a largely white, heterosexual society. Drawing on these cultural tropes, gay men of color create a social identity that is simultaneously raced and sexed through the use of shared cultural tropes that define what it means to be a member of this group.
Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Træen, Bente; Iantaffi, Alex
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between perception of own appearance, Internet pornography consumption, preferences for pornographic actors' appearance, and sexual self-esteem in gay and bisexual men in Norway. An online survey of 477 gay and bisexual men showed that, despite the prevailing muscular and lean gay body ideal, many men with less ideal bodies also preferred to watch pornographic actors with body types similar to their own. Self-perceived attractiveness, having an ideal body type, and viewing Internet pornography in longer sessions each made a unique contribution to higher self-esteem as a sexual partner. Preferring to watch pornographic actors with ideal bodies was not related to sexual self-esteem. The findings underscore the importance for gay or bisexual men of both self-perceived attractiveness and being athletic or young and fit, for a positive self-evaluation of sexual performance and competence.
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J
Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie
Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, Psocial media recruitment ads. ©Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 02.06.2017.
Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.
Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...
The cultural expectation of an arranged heterosexual marriage poses social and psychological challenges for British Asian gay men. This article examines the diary accounts of twelve British Asian gay men concerning their perceptions and feelings concerning marriage in face of familial pressure to get married and the implications for identity processes and psychological wellbeing. Data were analyzed qualitatively using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Identity Process Theory. The f...
Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A
In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360
Rich, Ashleigh; Scott, Kai; Johnston, Caitlin; Blackwell, Everett; Lachowsky, Nathan; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert; Roth, Eric
Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment. We conducted interviews with 11 gay, bisexual and queer transgender men. Participants' narratives suggest that HIV risk for these transgender men is shaped by a diversity of sexual behaviours, including inconsistent condom use, seeking partners online for greater safety and accessing HIV/STI testing and other healthcare services despite facing transition-related barriers. Public health prevention and health education must recognise the presence of transgender men and ensure health services and broader population health promotion meet the unique sexual health needs of this sub-population of gay, bisexual and queer men.
Vaughn, Allison A; Teeters, Stacy A; Sadler, Melody S; Cronan, Sierra B
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) were examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies. Competence predicted behaviors for men, whereas warmth and competence predicted behaviors for women, and, for the most part, more was better. Admiration and contempt mediated most of these relationships across most subgroups, but pity and envy played smaller roles for some subgroups. Across all groups, competence played a more predictive role than warmth.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Russell, Eric M; DelPriore, Danielle J; Butterfield, Max E; Hill, Sarah E
Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.
Eric M. Russell
Full Text Available Although research has made progress in elucidating the benefits exchanged within same- and opposite-sex friendships formed between heterosexual men and women, it is less clear why straight women and gay men form close relationships with one another. The current experiments begin to address this question by exploring a potential benefit hypothesized to be uniquely available to straight women and gay men in the context of these friendships: trustworthy mating advice. Experiment 1 revealed that straight women perceive mating-relevant advice from a gay man to be more trustworthy than similar advice offered by a straight man or woman. Experiment 2 demonstrated that gay men perceive mating advice offered by a straight woman to be more trustworthy than advice offered by a lesbian woman or another gay man. Overall, the results provide initial experimental evidence that relationships between gay men and straight women may be characterized by a mutual exchange of mating-relevant benefits in the absence of sexual interest or competition.
Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.
Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.
Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.
Freeland, Ryan; Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob
The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex male relationships has been reported to be at least as prevalent as is observed in female-male relationships. Though research has focused on understanding the prevalence and antecedents of IPV in male-male relationships, there is a paucity of data describing perceptions of coping strategies adopted by gay and bisexual men who may experience IPV. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, Georgia, between September 2013 and November 2013. Focus groups examined perceptions of how gay and bisexual men would respond to IPV and the IPV-coping services they would utilize. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes that describe how gay and bisexual men perceive existing IPV services and how they would use these services, if gay and bisexual men were to experience IPV. The results indicate that men experiencing IPV in male-male relationships do not have adequate access to IPV services that are tailored to their unique needs. As a result, there is a strong reliance on informal sources of support. Services are urgently needed to meet the unique needs of men experiencing IPV in same-sex relationships.
St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A
Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...
Unlu, Hayriye; Beduk, Tülin; Duyan, Veli
This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards lesbian women and gay men. Nursing education in Turkey is conducted holistically; in other words, it is an integration of the physical, spiritual, mental and social realms. Students are therefore expected to not express any discrimination due to factors such as religion, language, race and gender. However, some serious problems still exist in terms of the practical applications of that philosophy. This study was descriptive. This study included 964 students. The Attitudes towards Lesbian Women and Gay Men scale and a questionnaire were used to learn about the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students regarding gay men and lesbian women. Results of this study have indicated that the attitudes of religiously educated and/or conservative students towards lesbian women and gay men were negative. Female students from families with high incomes and highly educated families attended social activities and read more than other female students. The students with free life choice options expressed very positive attitudes towards gay men. The nursing education curriculum should cover information about patients with diverse sexual orientations and their absolute rights for equally optimal healthcare. Strategies to discourage traditional gender role stereotypes and educational and media experiences for better acceptance of sexual minorities need to be developed by educational policy makers. Antidiscrimination policies protecting lesbian women and gay men should be developed by the legislative authorities and then taught to students during their nursing education. Getting familiar with diverse sexual orientations might create awareness among nursing students and reduce their attitudinal and behavioural prejudices and biases. To provide equal healthcare services for all patients, nurses must have accurate information about lesbian women, gay men and modify their attitude and behaviour
Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A
We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.
Reece, Michael; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Dodge, Brian; Novak, David S
Recent reports indicate that vibrator use during solo and partnered sexual activities is common among heterosexual men and women in the United States. However, little research has comprehensively assessed vibrator use among gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the extent to which gay and bisexually identified men report using vibrators, the sexual and relational situations within which they use them, and how men use vibrators on their own and their partners' bodies. Data were collected from 25,294 gay and bisexually identified men from 50 U.S. states and from the District of Columbia via an internet-based survey. Measures included sociodemographics, health-related indicators, sexual behaviors, and those related to recent and past use of vibrators during solo and partnered sexual interactions with other men. Approximately half (49.8%) of gay and bisexually identified men reported having used vibrators. Most men who had used a vibrator in the past reported use during masturbation (86.2%). When used during partnered interactions, vibrators were incorporated into foreplay (65.9%) and intercourse (59.4%). Men reported frequent insertion of vibrators into the anus or rectum when using them during masturbation (87.3%), which was also common during partnered interactions (∼60%), but varied slightly for casual and relationship sex partners. For both masturbation and partnered interactions, men overwhelmingly endorsed the extent to which vibrator use contributed to sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Vibrator use during both solo and partnered sexual acts was common among the gay and bisexually identified men in this sample and was described by men as adding to the quality of their sexual experiences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim
There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men.
Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.
Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…
Aggarwal, S.; Gerrets, R.
Despite the Netherlands' reputation as a world leader with respect to gay rights, homosexual Dutch men have much higher rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts than heterosexual Dutch men. Epidemiologists report similar disparities elsewhere in Western Europe and North
Bariola, Emily; Lyons, Anthony; Leonard, William
Lesbians and gay men are exposed to unique minority stressors. We examined the health implications of one type of distal minority stressor (victimisation) and one type of proximal minority stressor (sexual identity concealment due to anticipated stigma) among lesbians and gay men. Gender-specific health implications were assessed. Data were collected via an online survey involving an Australian sample of 1,470 gay men and 1,264 lesbians. Survey questions assessed demographics, experiences of different forms of sexual identity-related victimisation and sexual identity concealment in a variety of contexts. Health outcomes included self-reported general health, illicit drug use, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and weight status. Gay men reported higher rates of victimisation and identity concealment than lesbians. Controlling for demographic differences, experiences of victimisation were associated with poorer self-rated health, illicit drug use, and smoking among both gay men and lesbians. In contrast, identity concealment was linked with poorer health outcomes among lesbians only. Our findings offer new insights into the potential antecedents of the health inequalities that have previously been reported for these populations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Higgins, Daryl J
Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.
George, Clemon; Adam, Barry A; Read, Stanley E; Husbands, Winston C; Remis, Robert S; Makoroka, Lydia; Rourke, Sean B
In Canada, there is a paucity of research aimed at understanding Black gay men and the antecedents to risk factors for HIV. This study is an attempt to move beyond risk factor analysis and explore the role of sexual and ethnic communities in the lives of these men. The study utilized a community-based research and critical race theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight key informants to augment our understanding of Black gay men and to facilitate recruitment of participants. In-depth interviews were done with 24 Black gay men. Our data showed that the construction of community for Black gay men is challenged by their social and cultural environment. However, these men use their resilience to navigate gay social networks. Black gay men expressed a sense of abjuration from both gay and Black communities because of homophobia and racism. It is essential for health and social programmers to understand how Black gay men interact with Black and gay communities and the complexities of their interactions in creating outreach educational, preventive and support services.
Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro
A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors
Ravenhill, James P; de Visser, Richard O
In anal intercourse between gay men, men who are typically insertive ("tops") are often perceived as, and may identify as, more masculine than those who are typically receptive ("bottoms"). "Versatile" men, who may adopt either position, may be perceived as more gender balanced and may transcend the gender-role stereotypes associated with self-labeling as top or bottom. The aim of this study was to explore how gay men's beliefs about masculinity were associated with their beliefs about the gendered nature of sexual self-labels and their behavior in anal intercourse. Individual semistructured interviews were undertaken with 17 UK-based gay men. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) identified that perceptions of tops and bottoms as gendered social identities varied depending on the extent to which gay men subscribed to the mandates of hegemonic masculinity, the dominant masculinity in Western society. The findings also suggested that some gay men differentiated between top and bottom as social identities and topping and bottoming as gendered behaviors. This had implications for gay men's behaviors in anal intercourse. It is suggested that future efforts to engage with gay men about their sexual behavior should account for their beliefs regarding the gender-role stereotypes associated with gay sexual self-labels.
Öberg, Katarina Görts; Hallberg, Jonas; Kaldo, Viktor; Dhejne, Cecilia; Arver, Stefan
The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) was developed by the American Psychiatric Association for clinical screening of hypersexual disorder (HD). To examine the distribution of the proposed diagnostic entity HD according to the HDSI in a sample of men and women seeking help for problematic hypersexuality and evaluate some psychometric properties. Data on sociodemographics, the HDSI, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual Behavior were collected online from 16 women and 64 men who self-identified as hypersexual. Respondents were recruited by advertisements offering psychological treatment for hypersexual behavior. The HDSI, covering the proposed criteria for HD. Of the entire sample, 50% fulfilled the criteria for HD. Compared with men, women scored higher on the HDSI, engaged more often in risky sexual behavior, and worried more about physical injuries and pain. Men primarily used pornography, whereas women had sexual encounters. The HD group reported a larger number of sexual specifiers, higher scores on the SCS, more negative effects of sexual behavior, and more concerns about consequences compared with the non-HD group. Sociodemographics had no influence on HD. The HDSI's core diagnostic criteria showed high internal reliability for men (α = 0.80) and women (α = 0.81). A moderate correlation between the HDSI and the SCS was found (0.51). The vast majority of the entire sample (76 of 80, 95%) fulfilled the criteria for sexual compulsivity according to the SCS. The HDSI could be used as a screening tool for HD, although further explorations of the empirical implications regarding criteria are needed, as are refinements of cutoff scores and specific sexual behaviors. Hypersexual problematic behavior causes distress and impairment and, although not included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, HD should be endorsed as a diagnosis to develop evidence
Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan
To understand Chinese gay men's health and life satisfaction in Guanzhou, and to analyze the main factors for life satisfaction. Methods: Male gay participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face investigations with self-administered questionnaires, including a general demographic questionnaire, a suicide questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety Stress Scale, the Self-Stigma Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Surveys were successfully conducted for 420 gay men. High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed among the respondents. A total of 29.3% had suicidal tendency in the past year, 36.5% experienced dating violence, 39.2% had homosexual sex without protection in the past 6 months, and 14.0% were infected with at least one type of infection of sexually transmitted diseases. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gay men who felt highly satisfied with life exhibited low levels of self-stigma, high self-esteem, and low levels of depression. Moreover, they did not suffer dating violence and playing passive sex roles. Conclusion: The survey confirmed that gay men in Guangzhou, China, have poor health and lower life satisfaction levels. Self-stigma, self-esteem, sex roles, depression, and dating violence are the main factors that influence the life satisfaction of them.
Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Paterson, Andrew D; Bogaert, Anthony F
In men, sexual orientation correlates with the number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. However, this phenomenon, the fraternal birth order effect, accounts for the sexual orientation of only a proportion of gay men. To estimate the size of this proportion, we derived generalized forms of two epidemiological statistics, the attributable fraction and the population attributable fraction, which quantify the relationship between a condition and prior exposure to an agent that can cause it. In their common forms, these statistics are calculable only for 2 levels of exposure: exposed versus not-exposed. We developed a method applicable to agents with multiple levels of exposure--in this case, number of older brothers. This noniterative method, which requires the odds ratio from a prior logistic regression analysis, was then applied to a large contemporary sample of gay men. The results showed that roughly 1 gay man in 7 owes his sexual orientation to the fraternal birth order effect. They also showed that the effect of fraternal birth order would exceed all other causes of homosexuality in groups of gay men with 3 or more older brothers and would precisely equal all other causes in a theoretical group with 2.5 older brothers. Implications are suggested for the gay sib-pair linkage method of identifying genetic loci for homosexuality.
Grossman, A H
Older gay men over the age of 50 have been and continue to be an invisible part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The reasons for this phenomenon are many, but among them are societal beliefs, myths, and stereotypes emanating from ageism and homophobia. In addition, HIV/AIDS is sometimes misdiagnosed in older adults because many of its symptoms mimic other illness that affect older people. Among the HIV risk factors of older gay men are internalized homophobia, denial of risk, alcohol and other substance use, and anonymous sexual encounters. The challenge for nurses and other providers is to reach, educate, and assist older gay men effectively in changing and maintaining safe behaviors when they are engaging in sexual and drug-using behaviors that can transmit HIV.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina
Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.
Stephenson, Rob; Hall, Casey D.; Williams, Whitney; Sato, Kimi; Finneran, Catherine
Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, ptool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of
Ramos, M M; Téllez, C M; Palley, T B; Umland, B E; Skipper, B J
To examine the attitudes of physicians practicing in New Mexico toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues. In May 1996, the authors mailed a questionnaire with demographic and attitude questions to 1,949 non-federally employed physicians practicing in New Mexico. The questionnaire consisted of questions dealing with medical school admission, residency training, and referrals to colleagues. The response rate was 53.6%. Of all the responding physicians, 4.3% would refuse medical school admission to applicants known to be gay or lesbian. Respondents were most opposed to gay and lesbian physicians' seeking residency training in obstetrics and gynecology (10.1%), and least opposed to their seeking residency training in radiology (4.3%). Disclosure of homosexual orientation would also threaten referrals to gay and lesbian obstetrician-gynecologists (11.4%) more than to gay or lesbian physicians in other specialties. Physicians' attitudes toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues seem to have improved considerably from those reported previously in the literature. However, gay men and lesbians in medicine continue to face opposition in their medical training and in their pursuit of specialty practice.
Anderson, Austin Robert
This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…
Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.
In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)
Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.
Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342
Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen
To identify ways Chinese and South Asian gay and bisexual men living in Auckland talk about issues related to sexuality and experiences of living 'gay social lives.' Results will be available to inform health policy and practice. A qualitative design with individual interviews and thematic analysis was used. Semi-structured digitally recorded interviews were undertaken with 27 Chinese and 17 South Asian gay and bisexual men living in Auckland. Four themes in the data related to talk about sexuality and living gay social lives are reported: (a) 'Happy in my skin': Being gay is Ok! (b) 'To come out or not': Managing sexual identity, (c) 'Places to go, people to see': Connecting with others, and (d) 'What's wrong with being Asian': Tolerating discrimination. There are many similarities in the ways these men talked about their identity and sexuality that can be usefully considered by health policy makers and service planners. The concept of gay (and bisexual) sexuality had some salience for the men interviewed, despite the adoption and acknowledgement of same-sex identity being a relatively new phenomenon in some Asian countries. This supports the use of these terms in local health interventions. However, as these men closely managed their gay identity and typically had not disclosed their sexuality to others, including healthcare professionals, interventions to address the skills and comfort of healthcare providers in addressing sexuality in clinical settings appear warranted to facilitate optimal healthcare. These men are not well connected with others and this has implications for HIV health promotion that is based on creating cultural norms among networks to encourage safe sex. Discrimination results in many Chinese and South Asian gay and bisexual men disengaging from connecting with others and should be addressed.
Full Text Available An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.
Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian May; McDaid, Lisa Margaret; Hilton, Shona
An array of empirical research has emerged related to public participation in health research. To date, few studies have explored the particular perspectives of gay and bisexual men taking part in behavioural surveillance research, which includes the donation of saliva swabs to investigate HIV prevalence and rates of undiagnosed HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-nine gay and bisexual men in Scotland who had participated in a bar-based survey. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their motives for participation and their perceptions of not receiving individual feedback on HIV status suggested a shared understanding of participation in research as a means of contributing to 'community' efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. Most men expressed sophisticated understandings of the purpose of behavioural research and distinguished between this and individual diagnostic testing. Despite calls for feedback on HIV results broadly, for these men feedback on HIV status was not deemed crucial.
Higgins, Daryl J
In the current study, the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of 26 gay or bisexual men who were married to a woman are examined. Data are provided on childhood family background and experiences, sexual practices with men, reasons for entering marriage, and the "coming out" process. The frequency of childhood sexual experiences was associated with unsafe sexual practices with other men in adulthood. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were more negative now than at the time of marriage. The two most frequent reasons for marriage were that it seemed natural, and a desire for children and family life. The results support the hypothesis that internalised homophobia is a factor that leads men into mixed-orientation marriages. Cognitive consistency theory is used to explain the eventual marriage breakdown.
Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert
This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.
Friedman, M Reuel; Bukowski, Leigh; Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Dyer, Typhanye V; Siconolfi, Dan; Stall, Ron
Compared with Black gay men, Black bisexual men experience psychosocial health disparities, including depression, polydrug use, physical assault, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Black bisexual men are also less likely to disclose their sexuality, which may result in them receiving less sexual minority community support, exacerbating psychosocial health disparities. We assessed relationships between bisexual behavior, bisexual identity, sexuality nondisclosure, gay community support, and psychosocial morbidities among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Between 2014 and 2017, survey data were collected from Black MSM ≥ 18 years old (n = 4430) at Black Pride events in six U.S. cities. We differentiated between bisexual-identified men reporting past-year sex with men and women (bisexual MSMW, 8.4%); gay-identified men reporting sex with men only (gay MSMO, 73.1%); gay MSMW (8.0%); and bisexual MSMO (8.4%). Multivariable regressions contrasted these groups by psychosocial morbidities, sexuality nondisclosure, and gay community support. Structural equation models assessed total, direct, and indirect effects. Compared with gay MSMO, bisexual MSMW and gay MSMW were significantly more likely to report polydrug use, depression symptoms, IPV, physical assault, sexuality nondisclosure, and lack of gay community support. Lack of gay community support had significant indirect effects on the relationships between bisexual behavior and psychosocial morbidity (p psychosocial morbidity (p Psychosocial health disparities experienced by Black bisexual men are associated with both bisexual behavior and bisexual identity. Interventions decreasing biphobia will facilitate opportunities for protective sexuality disclosure and access to sexual minority community support.
McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G
Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.
Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A
Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.
Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M
Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.
Erin C Westgate
Full Text Available Legal rights and cultural attitudes towards lesbian women and gay men have shifted rapidly in the early 21st century. Using 683,976 visitors to Project Implicit from February 2006 to August 2013, we investigated whether shifts were also observable in implicit evaluations that occur outside of conscious awareness or control. Similar to public opinion polling, the estimated explicit preference for straight people over lesbian women and gay men was 26% weaker on the last day compared to the first. The estimated implicit preference for straight people declined by 13.4% over the same period. The largest shifts in implicit evaluations occurred among Hispanic, White, female, liberal, and young adult participants; the smallest shifts occurred among Black, Asian, male, conservative, and older adult participants. Societal change in evaluation of lesbian and gay people is not limited to what people are willing and able to report. However, change in implicit evaluation appears to be slower.
Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter
There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”
This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.
Operario, Don; Smith, Carla Dillard; Kegeles, Susan
This study used qualitative methods to explore the social and psychological context of sexual behavior and HIV risk among African American non-gay-identified men who have sex with men. Analysis of men's narratives on their sexual behaviors revealed four social and psychological factors contributing to risk for HIV infection: (a) a tendency to compartmentalize and personally disengage from same-sex behavior, (b) traditional gender roles that reinforce men's adherence to masculine images and ambivalent attitudes toward women, (c) cultural norms that favor secrecy and privacy about any personal matters, and (d) spontaneous and unplanned sexual episodes with other men. Findings indicate that innovative HIV prevention and risk reduction strategies are necessary to reach this group and question the legitimacy of conventional sexual orientation categories for these men. Interventions must address social contextual determinants of risk, reinforce men's public identifications as straight/heterosexual, and maintain men's need for privacy about same-sex behaviors.
St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A
Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.
Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.
Donaldson, Steven M.
Comments on R. Barret and R. Barzan (1996), who do well in exploring the spiritual experiences of gay men and lesbians but in the process set up a precedent of reverse discrimination against clients whose religious beliefs proscribe homosexual behavior. Suggestions are offered to sensitize counseling professionals to such bias. (Author/MKA)
Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie
Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Morgan, Richard; Rosser, B. R. Simon
HIV prevention educators frequently encourage gay and bisexual men (GBM) to negotiate condom use prior to sexual engagement. Identifying groups of GBM based on their presexual agreements can aid efforts to tailor interventions. Using cross-sectional data from 1,188 GBM who reported having sex with a nonprimary sex partner in the 90 days prior to…
Hays, Robert B.; And Others
Examined impact of social support and HIV-related conditions on depression among 508 gay men. Number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related symptoms experienced significantly predicted depression cross-sectionally and one year later. Satisfaction with each of three types of social support (emotional, practical, informational) was inversely…
Bos, H.M.W.; Picavet, C.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight
Lee, Evelyn; Murphy, Dean; Mao, Limin; de Wit, John; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; Holt, Martin
In this study we sought to identify the social and behavioural characteristics of Australian gay and bisexual men who had and had not tested for HIV during their current relationship. The results were based on 2012 and 2013 data collected from ongoing cross-sectional and community-based surveys held
Lange, Alex C.; Moore, Candace M.
In this critical narrative inquiry study, we explored the experience of gay cisgender men in college at the borderlands of social constructionism, critical race theory, and queer theory. Findings included 3 major themes: (a) the salience, tokenization, and centrality of being an "other" in a given space, (b) how performativity varied in…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan
The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Jaspal, Rusi; Williamson, Iain
This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma. Identity may be chronically threatened due to the multiple layers of stigma, which can limit the coping strategies available to individuals. Findings strongly support the need for action and programmes to highlight and tackle both racism and HIV stigma on the gay scene and to fund more specific resources for sub-communities of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, which employ appropriately trained and culturally competent staff.
Rullo, Jordan E; Strassberg, Donald S; Israel, Esther
The present study assessed the category-specificity of sexual interest of gay men and lesbians toward an understanding of the possible interaction of sex and sexual orientation that may exist in this phenomenon. Utilizing viewing time as a measure of sexual interest, we had participants (N = 99) rate the sexual appeal of sexually provocative pictures while the amount of time spent viewing each picture was inconspicuously measured. As hypothesized, same-sex oriented individuals demonstrated a category-specific pattern of sexual interest. That is, gay men and lesbians (1) viewed preferred sex pictures (i.e., of same sex) significantly longer than nonpreferred sex pictures (i.e., of opposite sex) and (2) rated preferred sex pictures as significantly more sexually appealing than nonpreferred sex pictures. Additionally, the difference in viewing times between preferred and nonpreferred sexual stimuli was not significantly different for gay men and lesbians, suggesting that lesbians are as category-specific as gay men. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Means, Darris R.; Beatty, Cameron C.; Blockett, Reginald A.; Bumbry, Michael; Canida, Robert L., II; Cawthon, Tony W.
Using an intersectionality and Black queer studies framework, this article presents reflections from Black gay men who are current doctoral students or recent graduates of higher education, student affairs, and leadership studies programs to provide a deeper understanding of the challenges and successes that they experienced during their doctoral…
Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa
We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…
Same-sex marriage has received much scholarly attention in the United States in the past decade. Yet we know little about how same-sex couples experience marriage. In this article, I present findings from in-depth interviews with 32 legally married gay men in Iowa. I focus on their experiences with families of origin and investigate the…
Race, Kane; Lea, Toby; Murphy, Dean; Pienaar, Kiran
There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain. Sexualised drug use is associated with a range of other problems, including dependence, mental health issues, accident and overdose. A growing body of work in the Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD) field demonstrates the action of drugs and their purported effects to be a product of their relations with various other actors, contexts and practices. Given these contingencies, it is impossible to predict the future of drugs or their effect on the sexual health of gay and MSM with any degree of certainty. This article outlines some of the conditions most likely to mediate such futures in the medium term. Public funding for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer drug issues should not remain restricted to questions of HIV prevention and sexual health. It should be expanded to equip sexual health and AOD service providers with the cultural and sexual literacy to mitigate stigma and allow them to respond constructively to drug problems among sexual and gender minorities as a matter of priority.
Soeker, Shaheed; Bonn, Gerri-Lee; de Vos, Zahraa; Gobhozi, Thobile; Pape, Candice; Ribaudo, Shelly
The South African constitution protects the rights of gays; however in the workplace gays experience discrimination and marginalization. As a result of marginalization they struggle to reach their potential regarding career development and the fulfilment of their worker role. The study explored the experiences and perceptions of gay males with regard to acquiring and maintaining their worker roles. The study is phenomenological and qualitative in design. Eleven of these men participated in two focus groups. One male participated in two in-depth interviews and one interview was conducted with a key informant. Three themes emerged: 1) Being boxed in, 2) The glass ceiling, 3) This is where I can wear my feather boa. The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by homosexual men and how this negatively impacts on their worker role. Minimal facilitatory factors exist, to assist gay males %in with regard to their worker role. It was found that homo-prejudice still exists in South Africa and its workplaces and has a negative impact not only on gay men's worker role but also their well-being. This significantly highlights the great need for occupational therapy intervention in the lives of these gay men, and their workplaces.
Elmer, Eddy Michael
Young and older gay men from 40 countries rated the importance of 258 body features in judging the physical attractiveness of other men (N = 3,600). Exploratory factor analyses using two separate, independent samples suggested four factors underlying male same-sex physical attractiveness: Facial Attractiveness; Muscularity/Body Shape; Body Fat/Overall Appearance; and Intimate Regions. Twenty items representing the four dimensions were selected. Confirmatory factor analytic models using two ot...
Card, Kiffer G; Armstrong, Heather L; Carter, Allison; Cui, Zishan; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Julia; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A
Assessments of gay and bisexual men's substance use often obscures salient sociocultural and identity-related experiences related to how they use drugs. Latent class analysis was used to examine how patterns of substance use represent the social, economic and identity-related experiences of this population. Participants were sexually active gay and bisexual men (including other men who have sex with men), aged ≥ 16 years, living in Metro Vancouver (n = 774). LCA indicators included all substances used in the past six months self-reported by more than 30 men. Model selection was made with consideration to model parsimony, interpretability and optimisation of statistical criteria. Multinomial regression identified factors associated with class membership. A six-class solution was identified representing: 'assorted drug use' (4.5%); 'club drug use' (9.5%); 'street drug use' (12.1%); 'sex drug use' (11.4%); 'conventional drug use' (i.e. tobacco, alcohol, marijuana; 25.9%); and 'limited drug use' (36.7%). Factors associated with class membership included age, sexual orientation, annual income, occupation, income from drug sales, housing stability, group sex event participation, gay bars/clubs attendance, sensation seeking and escape motivation. These results highlight the need for programmes and policies that seek to lessen social disparities and account for social distinctions among this population.
Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips Ii, Gregory; DuBois, L Zachary; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian; Ybarra, Michele L
Using social networking websites to recruit research participants is increasingly documented in the literature, although few studies have leveraged these sites to reach those younger than 18 years. To discuss the development and refinement of a recruitment protocol to reach and engage adolescent gay, bisexual, and other teenaged men who have sex with men (AGBM). Participants were recruited for development and evaluation activities related to Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention program. Eligibility criteria included being between 14 to 18 years old; being a cisgender male; self-identifying as gay, bisexual, and/or queer; being literate in English, exclusively owning a cell phone, enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan, intending to keep their current phone number over the next 6 months, and having used text messaging for at least the past 6 months. Recruitment experiences and subsequent steps to refine the Internet-based recruitment strategy are discussed for 4 research activities: online focus groups, content advisory team, beta test, and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Recruitment relied primarily on Facebook advertising. To a lesser extent, Google AdWords and promotion through partner organizations working with AGBM youth were also utilized. Facebook advertising strategies were regularly adjusted based on preidentified recruitment targets for race, ethnicity, urban-rural residence, and sexual experience. The result was a diverse sample of participants, of whom 30% belonged to a racial minority and 20% were Hispanic. Facebook advertising was the most cost-effective method, and it was also able to reach diverse recruitment goals: recruitment for the first focus group cost an average of US $2.50 per enrolled participant, and it took 9 days to enroll 40 participants; the second focus group cost an average of US $6.96 per enrolled participant, and it took 11 days to enroll 40 participants. Recruitment for the
Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.
Saucier, Jason A; Caron, Sandra L
This study provides an analysis of gay men's magazines, examining both the content and advertisements. Four magazine titles were selected, including The Advocate, Genre, Instinct, and Out, each targeting gay men as its target audience. These magazines were coded for both article content and advertisement content. In the advertisement analysis, both the type of advertisement and characteristics of the men depicted within the advertisement when present. The results mirror previous research findings relating to the portrayal of women, including the objectification of specific body parts and the high community standards set by the images depicted. These findings were reinforced by both the advertisements and content analyzed to include a high degree of importance being placed on having the right body type. Implications for further research are discussed.
Choi, Namok; Herdman, Kevin; Fuqua, Dale R; Newman, Jody L
This exploratory study was designed to examine the relationship between gender role dimensions derived from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the 4 dimensions of gender role conflict represented on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) using a sample (N = 400) composed of exclusively gay men. Results from regression of 3 BSRI scores (femininity, social masculinity, personal masculinity) on the 4 subscale scores of the GRCS indicated that gender role conflict was most strongly and positively associated with the negative aspect of masculinity (social masculinity), accounting for about 11% of variability in social masculinity scores. In particular, the success-power-competition dimension of the GRCS was the major predictor of social masculinity in gay men. Gender role conflict was also strongly but negatively associated with femininity, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance in femininity scores among the men in the sample. Implications and recommendations for further studies are discussed.
Grace, Daniel; Chown, Sarah A; Kwag, Michael; Steinberg, Malcolm; Lim, Elgin; Gilbert, Mark
We explore gay men's sex life narratives following their diagnosis with an acute or recent HIV infection. All participants received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis and completed a series of self-administered questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews over a one-year period or longer. Over the course of four qualitative interviews, participants frequently spoke of the role of medications (e.g., decisions to start treatment) and changing viral loads (e.g., discourses of becoming "undetectable") in relation to their sex lives since being diagnosed with HIV. Many men talked about milestones relating to initiating medication and viral load as informing their shifting sexual behaviors and identities as HIV-positive--or "undetectable"--gay men. The narratives of our participants provide insight regarding complex negotiations and processes of decision-making over time related to sex, counseling needs, treatment initiation, viral load, and the significance of undetectability as an emergent identity.
Kobrak, Paul; Ponce, Rafael; Zielony, Robert
This qualitative study explored the social experiences and HIV-related sexual practices of 30 young gay and bisexual men who moved to New York City in the past 3 years from other countries or elsewhere in the United States. For many migrants, a key basis of vulnerability to HIV was their engagement with New York City's unfamiliar sexual culture. Many recent arrivals migrated from places with small gay communities and low HIV prevalence, and some came with a practice of limited condom use. Participants described encountering an abundance of sexual opportunity in New York City, accessible to even the newest arrivals through internet sex sites. Some migrants expressed surprise that few men they met were interested in dating or establishing trust before having sex. Although frequent HIV testing was common, HIV status, testing history, and condom use were seldom discussed with sex partners for some men even with new partners or before sex without condoms. International and in-country migrants who are beginning to navigate New York City's gay sexual culture may be more vulnerable to HIV infection than established residents if they are inexperienced in encountering vast sexual opportunity, are less practiced in local norms of sexual communication, or if their lack of economic resources or social connections encourages them to have sex for money or shelter. This article suggests HIV prevention interventions for urban migrants and other men who have sex with men.
Verduzco, Ignacio Lozano
Same-sex sexual practices among men in Mexico City are stigmatized. This article analyzes sexual practices and experiences of gay men in Mexico City and its implications on emotional and sexual health. The concept of sexual practices is used from a public health perspective, and the concept of sexual experiences from a psychological one, intending to understand both physical and emotional discomfort and pleasure in sexual contexts. The aim of this article is to analyze sexual practices and experiences of gay men in Mexico City and its implications on health, particularly emotions that can lead to depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and unsafe sex. Fifteen in-depth interviews were carried out with gay men of three generations who live in Mexico City. The data were analyzed using techniques from grounded theory to identify categories, and critical discourse analysis as an analytical approach to understand how social discourses affect subjectivity, emotions, and practices. Sexual practices and experiences are the result of homoerotic desire, which gender and heteronormative culture encourage to be kept hidden and clandestine. This leads men into risk contexts where practices are hardly negotiated, thus exposing themselves to sexually transmitted infections and abuse. These practices also produce a series of emotions such as guilt, shame, fear, and sadness that may develop into mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Interventions at all levels must consider homophobic discrimination as part of gay men's daily lives and should be oriented toward decreasing it, to diminish discomforting emotions and reduce the probability of unsafe sex practices. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yunyong, Liu; Zhe, Wang; Junting, Xu; Yan, Zhou; Xiaoxia, An; Li, Zhao; Yuan, Gu; Chao, Jiang
This study was designed to assess the levels of and associations between gay-related stressful events, social support, emotional distress and the number of unprotected anal intercourse partners among Chinese men who have sex with men. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 807 men who have sex with men were recruited in urban areas of northeast China and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Gay-related stressful events were measured using the Gay-Related Stressful Life Events Scale; levels of depression, anxiety symptoms and social support were measured using the Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, respectively. Over a quarter of study participants experienced gay-related stressful events during the preceding 3 months. Their average Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Social Support scores differed significantly from the national norm. Gay-related stressful events significantly correlated with anxiety (r = 0.167, p Gay-related stressful events are common and are significantly associated with emotional distress, lack of social support and high-risk sexual behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men. Multifaceted approaches are warranted to increase social support and reduce intolerance toward homosexual behaviors and to reduce risky sexual behaviors related to the rapid HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men population in China. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie
The present study seeks to ascertain the attitudes of Portuguese psychology students (future psychologists) toward the development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Each participant (N = 182) read a vignette describing an adoption of a child by lesbian and gay persons. After reading the vignette, participants rated four different aspects of the future development of the adopted child (psychosocial adjustment, victimization, psychological disturbance, and normative sexuality). Furthermore, participants were asked about their gender, interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men, gender role attitudes, and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Future psychologists' attitudes toward the developmental outcomes of children adopted by lesbians and gay men were associated with negative attitudes toward non-heterosexuals, which in turn correlated to interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men and adherence to gender conservative values. These results clearly highlight the central role of social attitudes and the need for cultural competence training of future psychologists that encourages interpersonal contact with non-heterosexuals and discourages traditional gender roles and negative attitudes toward lesbian and gay men.
Virginity loss is a vital milestone in the development of one's sexual identity. Unfortunately, there is very little literature available studying virginity loss definitions among the wider straight population, and even less examining virginity loss among LGBTQ+ populations. The present study recruited 251 (45.4%) cisgender straight men and 114 (54.6%) cisgender gay men. An online, anonymous survey was administered to explore whether they considered various male-on-male (M-M) and male-on-female (M-F) sexual behaviors as constitutive of virginity loss. Results indicate that more gay men than straight considered M-M receptive anal intercourse (i.e., bottoming) and M-F penetrative anal intercourse to be constitutive of virginity loss. Results also indicate that both gay and straight men almost unanimously endorsed M-F penovaginal sex to be constitutive of virginity loss. This study is a first-step toward gaining a better understanding of LGBTQ+ virginity loss conceptualizations. Future research is strongly encouraged.
Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Further...
Kolstee, Johann; Philpot, Steven; Grierson, Jeffrey; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Duncan, Duane; Prestage, Garrett
How gay and bisexual men (GBM) establish partnership agreements may be affected by several factors, including age. The ability to communicate with a partner about sexual agreements has important sexual health implications for GBM. To assess differences in partnership agreements among GBM. We surveyed GBM about their partnerships using a national, anonymous online survey in 2013-14. We compared men who had monogamous partnerships with men who had non-monogamous partnerships, according to age and other factors. Regarding the nature of their partnership with their primary regular partner (PRP), younger men were less likely to have an agreement of any sort and were less likely to have discussed it. Younger men were more likely to report having a monogamous partnership, but they were also less likely to report condomless anal intercourse with their PRP. In multivariate analysis of partnership arrangements, having a non-monogamous partnership with their PRP was associated with being older (adjusted odds ratio=1.03; 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.04; Prelationship', younger men were particularly less likely to do so. Due to less communication with partners about sexual agreements, when young GBM engage in sexual risk behaviour they may be at an increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections.
Eric Julian Manalastas
Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.
Cáceres, Carlos F
To assess the epidemiological and social/cultural context of, and the social response to, the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of epidemiological surveillance reports to the Pan American Health Organization/UNAIDS; published studies on HIV prevalence/incidence among MSM in the region; social/cultural studies on homosexuality; documents analysing risk and vulnerability among MSM and publications documenting the social response to the MSM epidemic. The regional HIV epidemic is concentrated in MSM populations in most urban centres (HIV prevalence 5-20%). Incidence rates (1.5-3.3 in Brazil and Peru) are still moderately high, and call for continued programmatic action. Transmission from bisexual men to women is increasingly observed, demonstrating that the neglect of intervention will fuel co-existent epidemics. MSM in the region are culturally diverse, with mediation of social class, sex, and ethnicity. Around core gay subcultures, non-gay identified MSM interact with them and frequently exchange sex for goods. Examples are shown of sexual meanings affecting prevention messages focused on individual risk, as well as of the role of structural vulnerability on potential exposure to infection, calling for programmes beyond individual rational decision-making. The social response to the AIDS epidemic has, in most countries, included programmes oriented to MSM, usually from civil society organizations, and has strengthened gay organizing. Renewed, imaginative efforts are needed from governments and community organizations to strengthen culturally sensitive prevention work, and integrate it into community empowerment and the promotion of sexual rights.
Shenkman, Geva; Shrira, Amit; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov
The aim of the current study was to examine whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) gay men report higher interpersonal vulnerability in comparison to non-OHS gay men, and to further assess whether that vulnerability mediates the association between having a Holocaust background and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). For this purpose, a community-dwelling sample of 79 middle-aged and older OHS and 129 non-OHS gay men completed measures of hostile-world scenario (HWS) in the interpersonal domain, satisfaction from current steady relationship, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Results indicated that OHS reported higher HWS interpersonal vulnerability and lower satisfaction from current relationship in comparison to non-OHS gay men. Also, having a Holocaust background had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction through HWS interpersonal vulnerability as well as through satisfaction from current relationship. These findings are the first to suggest interpersonal vulnerability of older OHS, in comparison to non-OHS, gay men, and an association between this vulnerability and adverse psychological outcomes. This interpersonal vulnerability, possibly representing HWS threats of both early family-based trauma and current sexual minority stress, along with its implications, should be addressed by practitioners who work with older gay men having a Holocaust background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study examined the frequencies of the desires and likelihood estimations of Israeli gay men regarding fatherhood and couplehood, using a sample of 183 gay men aged 19-50. It follows previous research which indicated the existence of a gap in the United States with respect to fatherhood, and called for generalizability examinations in other countries and the exploration of possible explanations. As predicted, a gap was also found in Israel between fatherhood desires and their likelihood estimations, as well as between couplehood desires and their likelihood estimations. In addition, lower estimations of fatherhood likelihood were found to predict depression and to correlate with decreased subjective well-being. Possible psychosocial explanations are offered. Moreover, by mapping attitudes toward fatherhood and couplehood among Israeli gay men, the current study helps to extend our knowledge of several central human development motivations and their correlations with depression and subjective well-being in a less-studied sexual minority in a complex cultural climate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Schilder, Arn J; Lampinen, Thomas M; Miller, Mary Lou; Hogg, Robert S
Poly-substance use in gay social ('club') settings is common. Recent studies suggest a link between 'club' drug use and sexual risk behaviours. In this qualitative study, we compare and contrast two 'club' drugs: crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy (MDMA). Life history interviews were conducted with 12 HIV seroconverters and 12 age-matched controls recruited from a prospective cohort study of young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver, British Columbia. Textual data concerning illicit substance use and unsafe sex were analyzed using NUDIST software. Most men related a substantial knowledge of and experience with crystal and ecstasy. Both drugs had attributes that enhanced gay socialization and were used in the same venues. Crystal was used to remain awake and increase energy. Ecstasy was used to induce euphoria and group connectedness. However, unlike ecstasy, crystal was associated with a distinct pattern of sexual arousal that frequently included unprotected (sometimes group) sex, was more likely to be used regularly by HIV-positive men, and was reportedly highly addictive and problematic. Crystal and ecstasy are used in the same social venues but differ markedly in relation to sexual risk behaviour.
Hoover, Karen W; Tao, Kevin L; Peters, Philip J
To estimate the number of men in the U.S. military who are gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men (MSM) to inform the development of military and other federal policies. We analyzed data from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate the number of U.S. men who were gay, bisexual, or MSM, and who had served in the military, compared to those who did not serve. We stratified using hierarchical categories of gay, bisexual, and other MSM to compare proportions in the military and general population. We found that 4.23% of men self-reported as gay, bisexual, or other MSM among men who served in the military, compared to 4.14% among men who had not served (p = 0.93). When stratified, we found that 0.78% self-reported as gay among men who served in the military, compared to 2.12% among men who had not served (pgay was lower in the military than in the general population. This finding might have been influenced by historical military policies related to sexual orientation.
Pachankis, John E; Sullivan, Timothy J; Feinstein, Brian A; Newcomb, Michael E
This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More self-described feminine men experienced quicker reductions in concealment, compared to more self-described masculine men. Enacted stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with depression and social anxiety across 8 years; and anticipated stigma and internalized stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with social anxiety across 8 years. Enacted stigma was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among men who reported greater masculinity compared to those who reported greater femininity. Findings are discussed in terms of common developmental influences across early sexual orientation identity formation, including gay and bisexual young men's resilience to stigma-based stress; the transition from college; and the rapidly changing social climate surrounding sexual minority individuals. Findings suggest the need for future longitudinal examinations of stigma and mental health among sexual minorities that utilize multiple age cohorts to determine the relative contribution of cohort-specific versus common maturational factors influencing the mental health of this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.
Concetta P Pelullo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. RESULTS: In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male, lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men, unmarried (compared to the others, and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results
Pelullo, Concetta P; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F
This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male), lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men), unmarried (compared to the others), and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode). The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results may serve for improving policy initiatives to reduce such
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
This article studies the representation of gay men in Spanish comedies of the 1970s. It analyzes how cinema used the stereotypical image of gay men projected by the dictatorship and how, once it ended, this image endured in the comedy genre. It introduces film theories on the construction of humor taken from relevant authors, such as Jordan, Charney, Voitylla, and Petri. Afterward, it focuses on the works of Ozores as a filmmaker who encapsulates the main characteristics of the so-called comedia de mariquitas (sissy comedy). It analyzes how the construction of humor was based on the Francoist conception of gay men, and questions why the figure of the gay man was so effective in the production of comedy. Finally, this article refers to Dyer's theories around stereotyping, and develops them to study the Spanish context.
Discusses addictive model of compulsive sex among some homosexual men. Describes commonalities between two most prevalent and successful approaches used to treat this disorder: group treatment and self-help Twelve Step addictive model. Contends that, whether compulsive sexual behavior is accepted as an addiction, the addictive model itself seems…
Reisen, Carol A; Brooks, Kelly D; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J; Bianchi, Fernanda T
The current study investigated a methodological question of whether traditional, additive, quantitative data can be used to address intersectional issues, and illustrated such an approach with a sample of 301 HIV-positive, Latino gay men in the United States. Participants were surveyed using A-CASI. Hierarchical logistic set regression investigated the role of sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, gender nonconformity, and gay and ethnic discrimination in relation to depression and gay collective identity. Results showed the discrimination set was related to depression and to gay collective identity, as was gender nonconformity. Follow-up logistic regression showed that both types of discrimination were associated with greater depression, but gender nonconformity was not. Gay discrimination and gender nonconformity were positively associated with gay collective identity, whereas ethnic discrimination was negatively associated. Results are discussed in terms of the use of traditional quantitative data as a potential means of understanding intersectional issues, as well as of contributing to knowledge about individuals facing multiple structural inequalities.
Morrison, Todd G; Bearden, Anomi G
Social scientists appear to focus on negative beliefs about, and attitudes toward, gay men and lesbian women. This emphasis, though understandable in view of the widespread oppression of gay and lesbian individuals, is somewhat myopic because it ignores what might be referred to as the positive dimension of stereotypes. Although such a concept may appear oxymoronic, it is widely recognized that individuals may endorse a mixture of positive and negative stereotypes toward stigmatized groups such as African Americans and women. The purpose of the current series of studies (Study 1, N = 212; Study 2, N = 105) was to devise an instrument measuring endorsement of positive stereotypes about gay men (Homopositivity Scale; HPS). Two versions of the HPS (of varying length) were evaluated, with scale scores on both appearing to be internally consistent and factorially distinct from scales measuring negative stereotypes and prejudices about gay men. These studies also suggest that females are more likely than males to endorse positive stereotypes about gay men, and that such endorsement is negatively associated with need for uniqueness and need for cognition, and positively associated with media contact and benevolent sexism. The limitations of the two studies are outlined and the importance of assessing positive stereotypes about gay men in conjunction with oft-examined homonegativity is discussed.
Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
The minority stress process of internalized homophobia (IH) has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, evidence is mixed regarding the effect of IH on drug use, suggesting the potential role of multiple mediated pathways. Researchers have linked depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment with IH. Depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment have also been linked with drug use and drug-related problems suggesting potential mediating roles. A U.S. national sample of 1071 HIV-negative GBM completed at-home surveys, including measures of sociodemographic characteristics, IH, depression, sexual anxiety, gay community attachment, and drug use and associated problems. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression mediated the association between IH and recent drug use. IH was positively associated with depression, and depression was positively associated with recent drug use. Gay community attachment partially mediated drug-related problems. IH had a positive direct association with drug-related problems and a negative direct association with gay community attachment. Gay community attachment had a positive association with drug-related problems. IH was positively associated with sexual anxiety, but sexual anxiety was not associated with either drug outcome. Efforts to reduce IH among HIV-negative GBM are likely to have a positive impact on mental health problems, as well as reduce risk for drug use and drug-related problems. Gay communities could provide the social support necessary for reducing IH; however, emphasis on community level interventions that address factors that increase risk for drug-related problems remains important.
K S Jethwani
Full Text Available Background: Surveying vulnerable and incarcerated populations is often challenging. Newer methods to reach and collect sensitive information in a safe, secure, and valid manner can go a long way in addressing this unmet need. Homosexual men in India live with inadequate social support, marginalization, and lack legal recognition. These make them less reachable by public health agencies, and make them more likely to continue with high-risk behaviors, and contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Aims: To understand coping skills and HIV testing patterns of homosexual men versus heterosexual men. Materials and Methods: An internet based study using a secure web platform and an anonymised questionnaire. The brief COPE Inventory was used to assess coping styles. Results: A total of 124 respondents were studied. Homosexual men used negative coping skills such as behavioral disengagement and tested for HIV significantly more often than heterosexual men. Heterosexual respondents used positive coping skills more often. The most commonly used coping skill by heterosexual men was instrumental coping and by homosexual men was acceptance. Discussion: Overall, homosexual men used negative coping mechanisms, like behavioral disengagement more often. The Indian family structure and social support is probably responsible for heterosexual men′s over-reliance on instrumental coping, while resulting in disengagement in homosexuals. Conclusion: The lack of legal and social recognition of homosexuality has negatively impacted lives of gay men in India. This is strongly linked to harmful psychological and public health implications for HIV prevention and mental health for homosexual men.
Full Text Available Social media not only create new opportunities but also pose new challenges for the ways people navigate their online selves. As noted by boyd, social media are characterized by unique dynamics such as collapsed contexts, implying that one’s distinct offline social worlds meet online. This creates particular challenges for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ people, at least those who find it crucial to maintain distinct contexts in which they disclose or conceal their gender and/or sexual selves. However, the existing scholarship on social media use by LGBTQs is predominantly anchored in English-language Western contexts and tends to lose sight of the cultural specificities of Internet use. Therefore, in this article, we build on the scholarship to further investigate the role of context for disclosing or concealing gender and/or sexual selves online. More specifically, we ask, “How do social, cultural, and material contexts affect the ways LGBTQs navigate their selves on social media?” To investigate this question, we analyze in-depth face-to-face interviews with gay men who themselves, or whose parents, migrated to Belgium. Because their migration background forces them to negotiate different social, cultural, and material contexts, our focus on diasporic gay men helps to bring out the issue of context in social media use.
Ren, Zhengjia; Hood, Ralph W
This study reports the development of an inventory to assess the perceived internalized homophobia of gay men in a collectivistic Chinese cultural context. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using two samples suggested the viability and stability of a three-factor model: internalized heteronormativity (IHN), family-oriented identity (FOI), and socially oriented identity (SOI). The 11-item internalized homophobia inventory demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Internalized homophobia was related positively to the extent of a sense of loneliness and negatively to self-evaluation and the discrepancy in self-identification as a gay man. In addition, the participants' internalized SOI consistently predicted their coming out choices in their social surroundings, while their FOI predicted their decisions to enter into heterosexual marriages. The findings suggest that sexual self-prejudice was correlated with IHN, family values, and social norms. The present research demonstrates that a culturally sensitive scale is necessary to understand the cultural and family-oriented values that influence gay Chinese men's everyday lives, self-constructs, and behavioral choices.
This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally.
Stoové, Mark; Asselin, Jason; Pedrana, Alisa; Lea, Toby; Hellard, Margaret; Wilson, David B; Prestage, Garrett; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Melbourne. METHODS: Undiagnosed HIV was compared between GBM recruited anonymously in 2008 in gay venues only and GBM anonymously or confidentially (results delivery) recruited in 2014 at gay venues and a community
Bilgic, Dilek; Daglar, Gulseren; Sabanciogullari, Selma; Ozkan, Semiha Aydin
Lesbians and gay men are subjected to negative attitudes and poor quality health care by midwives in the process of having children and by nurses in the process of receiving general health care services. Our aim was to investigate midwifery and nursing students' attitudes towards lesbians and gay men and their opinions about health care approaches displayed towards them. The study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive one and conducted in one midwifery and two nursing schools in a city in Turkey and comprised 1321 students. To assess the participants' attitudes, the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays (ATLG) Scale was used. To assess opinions about health care approaches, the students were asked open-ended questions. All the participating students' attitude scores were below the average and they exhibited negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays. While very few of the participants had positive views about health care given to, most of them either had negative views or did not have any opinions. The midwifery students' attitudes were more positive than were those of the nursing students. Students' health care approaches towards lesbians and gay men were insufficient and negative. Educators need to develop training programs, which can help students gain cultural awareness of the health care needs of lesbians and gay men in different cultures before they graduate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Owens, Zachary D
The rapid proliferation of social media, mobile applications, and Internet technologies has shifted a wide variety of social interaction from physical spaces to an online environment. Drawing from 42 semistructured, in-depth interviews with gay college-aged men between the ages of 18 and 27, this article explores these changing patterns of social interaction among gay men. I discuss three strategies of identity management college-aged gay men use to disclose or conceal their sexual identity to others. The first group of men, "Out and Proud," uses Facebook as a way to celebrate and reaffirm their sexual identity, in addition to actively coming out to others on the social media Web site. The second group, "Out and Discreet," uses Facebook to indirectly come out to some of their friends while hiding this information from others. The men in the last group I identify, "Facebook Closeted," actively manage their online profiles to ensure their sexual identity is not exposed. Facebook is both transformative and risky for college-aged gay men, as it represents a new platform for them to come out as gay to friends and family, as well as other areas of their lives where they must actively manage the presentation of their sexual identity.
Graziano, Kevin J
Guided by photovoice, a form of participatory action research that uses documentary photography and storytelling, this study examines how Black gay men and lesbians view themselves in relation to White gay men and lesbians in South Africa. Participants were from 4 South African townships and included 4 women, and 3 men. Participants discussed interracial dating, a lack of education, and information regarding differing sexualities and health care. They reported being sexually and physically assaulted for challenging the heterosexual status quo. Other themes that emerged from this study were classism, cultural traditions of visiting African healers, and segregated social spaces. Amidst oppression and despair, participants showed signs of strength, hope, and optimism.
Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret
Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…
Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…
Hosking, Warwick; Lyons, Anthony; van der Rest, Brittany
Previous studies have identified gay men as a high-risk population for body image disturbances. However, little research has examined the mental health impact of gay men's physical appearance concerns in the context of other major life domains. The present study addressed this gap by investigating how mental health outcomes (satisfaction with life, self-esteem, positive well-being, and psychological distress) were associated with satisfaction with and importance of physical appearance, work, family relationships, friendships, health and fitness, and sex life among Australian gay men aged 18-39. The possible moderating role of intimate relationship status was also examined. Results from an online survey revealed that greater satisfaction with physical appearance, work, family, and friendships all had similar positive associations with mental health. However, more importance placed on physical appearance was more consistently associated with poorer mental health compared with the subjective importance of other domains. Findings also indicated the associations between physical appearance satisfaction and life satisfaction, and between physical appearance importance and positive well-being, were weaker for those in relationships. Thus, physical appearance matters in gay men's lives, but was only one factor when considered in the broader context of other life areas that contributed to overall well-being. These findings suggest the need for a nuanced and contextualized understanding of how physical appearance concerns fit into gay men's lives.
Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism.
Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine
. Intentions to delay help-seeking for testicular symptoms were often linked to a number of emotional factors including fear and embarrassment, and social normative factors such as machoism and stoicism. In this study, culture was perceived by some participants as a barrier to awareness and help-seeking. In contrast, many believed that young men, especially those who self-identify as gay, are becoming increasingly interested in their own health. Findings suggest the need to educate young men about testicular disorders and symptoms. This could be achieved through conducting health promotion campaigns that appeal to younger men, drafting national men's health policies, and normalising open discussions about testicular health at a young age. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893
Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.
Ferlatte, Olivier; Salway, Travis; Hankivsky, Olena; Trussler, Terry; Oliffe, John L; Marchand, Rick
This study draws from intersectionality to describe variations in recent suicide attempts (RSA) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) across sociodemographics. Using survey data, logistic regression modeling explored RSA in two analytical stages: (1) the individual effects of each sociodemographic were measured; (2) two-way interaction terms between sociodemographics were tested and added to the models created in stage A. In stage A, only education and income achieved significance. In stage B, the study found that (a) education and income interacted significantly such that the odds of RSA increased for those with a lower income and a lower education; (b) sexual orientation and partnership status interacted, resulting in decreased odds among bisexual men in heterosexual partnerships; and (c) income and education interacted with geography; the effects of these variables were significant only among urban men. These findings suggest that GBM are at unequal risk of RSA according to intersecting sociodemographics.
When lacking explicit knowledge of someone's sexual orientation, gay people commonly assess the likelihood that another is gay using their "gaydar." The term gaydar is a playful mix of the word gay with radar, suggesting that one can sense, intuit, or perceive some set of characteristics in another that signal a shared minority status. While commonly mentioned, the exact criteria a gay person uses when employing their gaydar are little discussed. Drawing methodologically on a series of five focus groups of self-identified lesbians and gay men, this study explores the physical, visual, energetic, and conversational cues gay people consider when they employ the trope of gaydar. Specifically, interview subjects most often described their gaydar as triggered by the following elements: physical presentation, including mannerisms, dress, and voice; interactions, especially eye contact; a presence or absence of certain conversational social norms; and, intangibly, as a kind of energetic exchange.
Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J; Ludlam, Adrian H
To identify predictors of non-condom use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand with casual male partners. We analysed anonymous self-completed data from GBM who participated in the communitybased Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay Online Sex Survey (GOSS), undertaken in 2014. Infrequent condom use was defined as not using condoms "always" or "almost always" during anal intercourse in the prior six months. Of the 1,912 GBM reporting anal intercourse with a casual partner, 27.2% reported infrequent condom use. Being recruited from Internet dating sites, Pacific ethnicity, having over 20 recent male partners, infrequent condom use with a current regular partner, or being HIV-positive were independently predictive of infrequent condom use. Conversely, being older, having a tertiary degree, using a condom at first anal intercourse, being exclusively receptive with a casual partner/s, and seeing condoms promoted through multiple channels predicted frequent condom use. Attitudes to condoms and safe sex were strongly predictive of actual condom use. Social marketing should target the modifiable predictors of condom use, such as attitudes to safe sex. Interventions also need to engage successfully with GBM reporting non-modifiable traits such as HIV-positive GBM.
Gold, R S; Skinner, M J
This study investigated gay men's use of perceptible characteristics to infer antibody status. Participants (n = 66) read brief descriptions of men they did not know and estimated the likelihood that they were HIV-infected. Each description highlighted one of 6 characteristics: physical attractiveness, intelligence/education level, healthy appearance and lifestyle, personality, a combination of the preceding, and wealth. Three versions of each sketch were used; they depicted the man in positive, neutral, and negative terms respectively. There were significant differences in the ratings for the 3 versions in the case of every characteristic except wealth. In general, the negative version elicited higher ratings (corresponding to a greater likelihood that the man was HIV-positive) than either the positive or neutral versions; in the case of physical attractiveness, the positive version elicited higher ratings than the neutral version. Results are discussed in relation to earlier findings regarding gay men's inferences during sexual encounters, of antibody status from perceptible characteristic; to possible differences between AIDS-related thinking during sexual encounters and in the cold light of day; and to educational techniques that might be used to counter inferences of this type.
Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit
As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. PMID:23584507
Chonody, Jill M
The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina
Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).
Matheson, L; Watson, E K; Nayoan, J; Wagland, R; Glaser, A; Gavin, A; Wright, P; Rivas, C
Prostate cancer (PCa) can negatively impact on men's sexual, urinary and emotional functioning, affecting quality of life. Most men with PCa are older (≥65 years), married and heterosexual and little is known about the impact on men who are younger, unpartnered or gay. We aimed to synthesise existing qualitative research on these three groups of men. A systematic metasynthesis was undertaken that included data on the unique impacts of PCa on younger (identity-illustrating the multiple threats to men's work, sexual and social identities; shifting into different communities of practice-such as the shift from being part of a sexually active community to celibacy. These findings suggest that PCa can have a particular impact on the quality of life of younger, unpartnered and gay men. This has implications for the provision of tailored support and information to these potentially marginalised groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission.
Comulada, W Scott
Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and intervention delivery, e.g. mobile users can video chat with counselors. This is due in part to privacy issues and other barriers that are more difficult to address outside of academic settings where most mobile research to date has taken place. In this article, we aim to inform a broader discussion on mobile research. In particular, benefits and challenges to mobile phone-based data collection are highlighted through our mobile phone-based pilot study that was conducted on egocentric networks of 12 gay men (n = 44 total participants). HIV-transmission and general health behaviors were reported through a mobile phone-based daily assessment that was administered through study participants' own mobile phones. Phone log information was collected from gay men with Android phones. Benefits and challenges to mobile implementation are discussed, along with the application of multi-level models to the type of longitudinal egocentric data that we collected.
Wight, Richard G; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Detels, Roger
We investigated associations between stress and mental health (positive affect, depressive symptoms) among HIV-negative and HIV-positive midlife and older gay-identified men, along with the mediating and moderating effects of mastery and emotional support. We also studied the mental health effects of same-sex marriage. We obtained data from self-administered questionnaires completed in 2009 or 2010 by a subsample (n = 202; average age = 56.91 years; age range = 44-75 years) of participants in the University of California, Los Angeles component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, one of the largest and longest-running natural-history studies of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Both sexual minority stress (perceived gay-related stigma, excessive HIV bereavements) and aging-related stress (independence and fiscal concerns) appeared to have been detrimental to mental health. Sense of mastery partially mediated these associations. Being legally married was significantly protective net of all covariates, including having a domestic partner but not being married. Education, HIV status, and race/ethnicity had no significant effects. Sexual minority and aging-related stress significantly affected the emotional lives of these men. Personal sense of mastery may help to sustain them as they age. We observed specific mental health benefits of same-sex legal marriage.
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to gain an understanding of the daily life experiences of eight gay men with HIV/AIDS living alone in New York City. The participants ranged in age from 25 to 50 years. Data were primarily collected using in-depth personal interviews in 1996 followed by telephone interviews 1 year later. Constant-comparison and thematic analyses were used to identify themes and subthemes. Two broad themes with related subthemes were generated from the data. "A Reasonably Stable Base" represented the emotional, physical, and environmental foundation that preexisted or was created as a consequence of living with HIV/AIDS. This theme played a particularly important role in the participants' lives, especially during periods of emotional and physical instability. "Finding and Maintaining Balance" was a second theme that illustrated strategies used for managing and readjusting daily routines, goals, and priorities, as well as how the participants experienced this readjustment process. All of the participants developed their own daily living strategies that were comparable to intervention methods provided in occupational therapy such as energy conservation and work simplification. The findings suggest that occupational therapy practitioners could potentially assist urban gay men with HIV/AIDS with finding and maintaining stability and balance in their daily lives.
Comulada, W. Scott
Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and intervention delivery, e.g. mobile users can video chat with counselors. This is due in part to privacy issues and other barriers that are more difficult to address outside of academic settings where most mobile research to date has taken place. In this article, we aim to inform a broader discussion on mobile research. In particular, benefits and challenges to mobile phone-based data collection are highlighted through our mobile phone-based pilot study that was conducted on egocentric networks of 12 gay men (n = 44 total participants). HIV-transmission and general health behaviors were reported through a mobile phone-based daily assessment that was administered through study participants’ own mobile phones. Phone log information was collected from gay men with Android phones. Benefits and challenges to mobile implementation are discussed, along with the application of multi-level models to the type of longitudinal egocentric data that we collected. PMID:25844003
Brian Joseph Gillespie
Full Text Available Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185 completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender.
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian
Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008
Ekstrand, M L
Although early acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs produced dramatic reductions in unsafe sexual practices on the part of homosexual men, there is evidence that new behaviors have not been maintained consistently. Various cohort studies have related risky sex relapse to low self-efficacy, emotional depression, and relationship issues. Unprotected sex is widely perceived as more pleasurable than condom use and is likely to be practiced by gay men concerned with their partner's presumed preferences. This finding suggests a need to identify ways of increasing the pleasure associated with safe sex by eroticizing condom use. Approaches that include erotic descriptions of safe sex (e.g., pamphlets with explicit photographs, mass media campaigns that use sexually explicit language, and attractively packaged condoms) have been found to increase behavioral risk reduction practices. All interventions aimed at preventing risky sex relapse should be empirically based and delivered in a fashion acceptable to the homosexual community.
Lachowsky, Nathan J; Dulai, Joshun J S; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Patterson, Thomas L; Corneil, Trevor T; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M
Studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) have higher rates of mental health conditions and substance use than heterosexual men, but are limited by issues of representativeness. To determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health disorders among GBM in Metro Vancouver, Canada. From 2012 to 2014, the Momentum Health Study recruited GBM (≥16 years) via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to estimate population parameters. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) collected demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral information, while nurse-administered structured interviews asked about mental health diagnoses and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression using manual backward selection was used to identify covariates for any lifetime doctor diagnosed: (1) alcohol/substance use disorder and (2) any other mental health disorder. Of 719 participants, 17.4% reported a substance use disorder and 35.2% reported any other mental health disorder; 24.0% of all GBM were currently receiving treatment. A lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with being a student (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.27-0.99) and an annual income ≥$30,000 CAD (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67) and positively associated with HIV-positive serostatus (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.63-3.96), recent crystal methamphetamine use (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.69-4.40) and recent heroin use (AOR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.39-13.12). Any other lifetime mental health disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with self-identifying as Latin American (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.81), being a refugee or visa holder (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05-0.65), and living outside Vancouver (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), and positively associated with abnormal anxiety symptomology scores (AOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.06-4.51). Mental health conditions and substance use, which have important implications for clinical and public health practice, were highly prevalent and co-occurring.
Ussher, Jane M; Rose, Duncan; Perz, Janette
Age is the predominant risk factor for developing prostate cancer, leading to its description as an "older man's disease." Changed sexual embodiment is a concern for men who develop prostate cancer, often compounding experiences of age-related sexual decline. Although research has examined heterosexual men's experiences of aging in the context of sexual embodiment after prostate cancer, gay and bisexual men have received little attention. This qualitative study used a material-discursive analysis, drawing on positioning theory and intersectionality, to explore constructions of aging following prostate cancer in 46 gay or bisexual men. Thematic decomposition of one-to-one interviews identified three subject positions: "mastering youth," involving maintaining an active sex life through biomedical interventions, accessing commercial sex venues, or having sex with younger men; "the lonely old recluse," involving self-positioning as prematurely aged and withdrawal from a gay sexual scene; and "accepting embodied aging," involving the incorporation of changed sexual function into intimate relationships and finding pleasure through nonsexual activities. These subject positions are conceptualized as the product of intersecting masculine and gay identities, interpreted in relation to broader cultural discourses of "new aging" and "sexual health," in which sexual activity is conceptualized as a lifelong goal.
Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke; Vincke, John
The role of visibility management strategies, as an extended measure of outness related to sexual orientation, has been rarely studied with the aim of explaining the experience of external stressors (i.e., experiences of everyday discrimination and perceived sanctioning of cross-gender behavior) and internal stressors (i.e., internalized homonegativity and general mental distress). In this study, we examined gender differences within these relationships. A non-representative sample of 2,378 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals was recruited. We found that lesbian and bisexual women scored significantly higher on perceived cross-gender sanctioning and general mental distress compared to gay and bisexual men. Multivariate analysis showed that visibility management was significantly related to the experience of internalized homonegativity in both men and women. Visibility management mediated the relationship between experiences of every day discrimination on the one hand and internalized homonegativity and general mental distress on the other. Finally, we found that compared to gay and bisexual men, lesbian and bisexual women who maintained relatively closed visibility management strategies, reported lower scores on internalized homonegativity but higher scores on general mental distress. We found fewer gender differences related to visibility management than expected and those that we did find were relatively small. Flemish lesbian and bisexual women and gay and bisexual men appear to more alike than different.
Wang, Jen; Häusermann, Michael; Berrut, Sylvie; Weiss, Mitchell G
High prevalences of depression and suicidality have been found among gay men. This paper assesses the possible impact of Blues-out, a depression awareness campaign based on the European Alliance Against Depression targeting the gay/lesbian community in Geneva, Switzerland. In 2007 and 2011, pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted among two distinct samples of gay men in Geneva, recruited by probability-based time-space sampling. Effect sizes and net percent changes are reported for mental health literacy and mental health outcomes in 2007 and 2011 as well as among men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. 43% of the respondents correctly recognized depression in 2011 with no change vis-à-vis 2007. Despite small effect sizes, significant net decreases (from -18% to -28%) were seen in lifetime suicide plans, 12-month suicidal ideation, lifetime depression, and 4-week psychological distress between 2007 and 2011. These decreases were not accompanied by changes in any of the numerous items on attitudes/knowledge, found only when comparing men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. More men aware of Blues-out found specialists and psychological therapies helpful than their counterparts and correctly identified depression and gay men's greater risk for depression. Community-level assessment with no control. Although improvement in depression recognition and decrease in suicide attempts could not be replicated unequivocally in this adapted intervention among gay men, there are indications that this evidence-based depression awareness campaign may have lessened suicidality and mental morbidity and improved mental health literacy and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant research literature exists that details the sexual health and sexual behaviour of gay and bisexual men who have diagnosed HIV. However, much of this research has focussed on HIV transmission risk behaviours among this group, rather than seeking to understand their sexual health and sexual well-being more broadly. There have been growing calls for interventions to support people with diagnosed HIV to achieve health and well-being, including sexual health and well-being. A detailed understanding of the problems people in this group face, and how they might be overcome, is required to facilitate such interventions. Methods One thousand two hundred and seventeen gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV were recruited by convenience sampling through charitable AIDS service organisations, genitourinary medicine clinics and local authority agencies to complete a survey of their health and social care needs. Respondents were asked to report any problems they had with regards to sex during the 12 months prior to survey completion. They were also asked to describe what support might help them to overcome any problems they experienced. Results Overall, 70.5% of the gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV completing the survey reported one or more problems with sex within the previous 12 months. Most commonly reported problems include loss of libido (44.0%, n=540, poor self-image or low self confidence (43.9%, n=534, worries about passing HIV to potential sexual partners (37.3%, n=454, and fears of rejection from sexual partners (34.7%, n=422. Responses varied according to age, time since diagnosis, and whether or not the respondent was currently taking anti-retroviral therapy. Qualitative analysis of data relating to what support might help men overcome problems with sex indicate a need for therapeutic support to increase self esteem and confidence, clarity on criminalisation of HIV transmission, the tackling of HIV related
Bourne, Adam; Hickson, Ford; Keogh, Peter; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter
A significant research literature exists that details the sexual health and sexual behaviour of gay and bisexual men who have diagnosed HIV. However, much of this research has focussed on HIV transmission risk behaviours among this group, rather than seeking to understand their sexual health and sexual well-being more broadly. There have been growing calls for interventions to support people with diagnosed HIV to achieve health and well-being, including sexual health and well-being. A detailed understanding of the problems people in this group face, and how they might be overcome, is required to facilitate such interventions. One thousand two hundred and seventeen gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV were recruited by convenience sampling through charitable AIDS service organisations, genitourinary medicine clinics and local authority agencies to complete a survey of their health and social care needs. Respondents were asked to report any problems they had with regards to sex during the 12 months prior to survey completion. They were also asked to describe what support might help them to overcome any problems they experienced. Overall, 70.5% of the gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV completing the survey reported one or more problems with sex within the previous 12 months. Most commonly reported problems include loss of libido (44.0%, n=540), poor self-image or low self confidence (43.9%, n=534), worries about passing HIV to potential sexual partners (37.3%, n=454), and fears of rejection from sexual partners (34.7%, n=422). Responses varied according to age, time since diagnosis, and whether or not the respondent was currently taking anti-retroviral therapy. Qualitative analysis of data relating to what support might help men overcome problems with sex indicate a need for therapeutic support to increase self esteem and confidence, clarity on criminalisation of HIV transmission, the tackling of HIV related stigma and help to achieve a higher quality (as
Prestage, Garrett; Hammoud, Mohamed; Jin, Fengyi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Bourne, Adam; Maher, Lisa
Compared to the general population, among gay and bisexual men (GBM) prevalence rates of anxiety and depression, and of drug use, are high. This paper explores the relationship between mental health, sexual risk behavior, and drug use among Australian GBM. We identify factors associated with indicators of poor mental health. Between September 2014 and July 2017, 3017 GBM responded to measures of anxiety and depression in an online cohort study of drug use. Mean age was 35.3 years (SD 12.8). 17.9% screened positive for current moderate-severe anxiety and 28.3% for moderate-severe depression. The majority (52.2%) reported use of illicit drugs in the previous six months, including 11.2% who had used methamphetamine. One third had high (20.4%) or severe (10.6%) risk levels of alcohol consumption, and 18.3% who were current daily smokers. Most illicit drug use in general was not associated with either anxiety or depression, but men who used cannabis were more likely to show evidence of depression (p = 0.005). Among recent methamphetamine users, 28.0% were assessed as dependent: dependent users were more likely to show evidence of both depression and anxiety than were non-dependent users. High or severe risk drinking was associated with depression and daily tobacco use was associated with both anxiety and depression. Depression and anxiety was associated with: less personal support, viewing oneself as 'feminine', and being less socially engaged with gay men. Sexual risk behavior was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was high, as was prevalence of licit and illicit drug use. Substance use was associated with anxiety and depression only when the use was considered problematic or dependent. Social isolation and marginalization are strong drivers of poor mental health, even within this population for whom anxiety and depression are common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E
Research on gay and bisexual men's sexual position self-label (i.e., being a top, bottom, or versatile during anal sex) has revealed only independent snapshots of its development by focusing primarily on the influence of penis size. Moreover, the basic chronology of development of the sexual position self-label has barely been addressed. In response, we implemented a survey of 282 gay and bisexual men that measured demographics (including height and penis size), age of sexual recognitions, sexual position self-label, and attitudinal constructs suggested by previous literature as important (e.g., pleasure, control, anxieties, and gender typicality). Results suggested that men's sexual position self-label was learned over a 15-year timespan. Ages of first same-sex genital manipulation and first anal sex experiences were related to age at first self-labeling. With respect to predictors of labels, a multivariate path model was created. The model did not support the direct importance of penis size, but identified indirect paths that linked penis size to top/bottom identification (e.g., smaller penis sizes leading to topping-anxieties and thus, a bottom label). Finding bottoming to be pleasurable and the importance of sexual control dynamics were the only two direct predictors. The path model substantiated the reliance both bottoms and tops show towards seeking (or not seeking among tops) gender typical, sexually dominant partners. It also supported previous evidence regarding race; specifically, while race may activate differences in sexual behavioral dynamics, it is not a great predictor of the sexual position self-label. This study shows that sexual position self-labeling has enormous complexity and cannot be reduced down to penis size.
Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.
Read, Phillip J; Knight, Vickie; Bourne, Christopher; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; Allan, Warwick; McNulty, Anna M
Objectives Increased testing frequency is a key strategy in syphilis control, but achieving regular testing is difficult. The objective of this study is to describe a sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing outreach program (the Testing Tent) at a gay community event. Gay men attending the testing tent in 2010-11 completed a computer-assisted self-interview and were screened for STIs. Clinical, demographic, behavioural and diagnostic data were compared with gay men attending a clinic-based service during 2009. The Testing Tent was marketed on social media sites and data were extracted on the number of times the advertisements were viewed. Staffing, laboratory, marketing and venue hire expenses were calculated to estimate the cost of delivering the service. Ninety-eight men attended the Testing Tent. They were older (median age: 42 years v. 30 years; Pfacilities are an acceptable option and are accessed by gay men requiring regular testing, and may be an important addition to traditional testing environments.
Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S.
Full Text Available The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men.Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S. Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence.A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90. The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures.The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S.
Carvalheira, Ana; Santana, Rita
The inability to reach orgasm is probably the least common and least understood of all male sexual dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate the incidence of the inability to reach orgasm, and the psychological and interpersonal factors associated with this sexual difficulty. A total of 3,672 heterosexual men from three European countries (1,937 Portuguese, 1,215 Croats, 520 Norwegians) participated in this web survey (M age = 36.6 years, SD = 18-75 years). A total of 354 (9.6%) reported the inability to reach orgasm. Among those men, 89.8% reported moderate to extreme distress regarding this sexual difficulty. A multivariate assessment revealed that men in short-term relationships and taking antidepressants were more likely to report inability to reach orgasm. Men who reported having difficulties getting or maintaining an erection were 4 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. Men who experienced difficulty "'letting go' and surrendering to sexual pleasure during sex" were 2.7 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. This difficulty of "letting go" might reflect the unwillingness to give oneself, an idea presented in previous research.
Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong
Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. This descriptive study found the Internalized Homophobia Scale to be suitable for use in China. The sample demonstrated a high prevalence of internalized homophobia. Latent profile analysis suggested a 2-class solution as optimal, and a high level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (Wald = 6.49, AOR = 1.66), transactional sex during the previous 6 months (Wald = 5.23, AOR = 2.77), more sexual compulsions (Wald = 14.05, AOR = 2.12), and the concealment of sexual identity from others (Wald = 30.70, AOR = 0.30) and parents (Wald = 6.72, AOR = 0.49). These findings contribute to our understanding of internalized homophobia in China, and highlight the need to decrease gay-related psychological stress/distress and improve public health services.
Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.
Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities. PMID:27695579
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations, with increasing evident that gay men experience IPV at the same rates as heterosexual women. This study examines the relationship between self-reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and IPV among a sample of 750 gay and bisexual men. Participants answered questions regarding recent receipt and perpetration of IPV using the IPV-GBM Scale (Cronbach Alpha 0.90). Of the sample, 46.1% reported recent receipt of any type of IPV and 33.6% reported recent perpetration of any type of IPV. Overall, 55.1% of participants reported CAI at last sex. Significant associations were determined between several forms of IPV and increased odds of reporting CAI at last sex. These findings suggest that IPV may be a risk factor for CAI among men who have sex with men, and highlight the need to understand the IPV prevention and care needs of this population.
CRAFT, SHONDA M.; SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...
Hart Graham J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long
Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted
Tian, T; Cai, A J; Huang, B X; Abidan, Ainiwaer; Wang, H; Dai, J H
Objective: To understand the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status in men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from gay bathhouses and HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, and identify the associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 200 MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited by using the " snowballing" sampling method from gay bathhouses and VCT clinics in Urumqi during March-May, 2016. The MSM recruited completed questionnaires after filling in the informed consent form. The information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected, and anal swabs were collected from them for HPV genotyping. Results: The overall HPV infection rate was 54.0 % . The HPV infection rate was 66.7 % (74/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 38.2 % (34/89) in MSM from VCT clinics and the high risk type HPV infection rate was 39.6 % (44/111) in MSM from gay bathhouses and 14.6 % (13/89) in MSM from VCT clinics, the differences were significant ( χ (2)=16.112, P prevalence of HPV in MSM from gay bathhouses was higher than that in MSM from VCT clinics, indicating that close attention should be paid to the behavior intervention in MSM.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G
Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses
McElhiney, Martin C.; Rabkin, Judith G.; Rabkin, Richard; Nunes, Edward V.
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of modafinil combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treatment of methamphetamine (MA) dependence among HIV+ gay men. Methods In a single blind trial, modafinil was administered for 12 weeks, followed by a 4-week placebo phase. CBT was conducted for 18 sessions over the 16-week study. Primary outcome measures were self-reported use of days per week plus urine toxicology assays. Additional measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Cravings Scale, and O/C Crystal Use Scale. Response was defined as > 50% decline in days used per week. Thirteen patients were enrolled over an 18-month period. Results Ten patients (77%) completed the trial, although two discontinued modafinil due to side effects. Six of the ten study completers reduced their MA use by > 50%. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest good retention using combined medication and psychotherapy, and support further examination of modafinil and CBT in double-blind placebo controlled trials. PMID:19152204
Brion, John M; Menke, Edna M
Focus group methodology was used to describe the medication adherence experience of 24 HIV-infected gay men who reported being adherent to their medication regimens. A conceptualization of medication adherence as an evolving process consisted of challenges to adherence (learning the diagnosis, starting the medications, struggling with the medications, dealing with side effects, coping with stigma) as well as those factors supportive of adherence (believing in medications, finding motivating factors, using reminders, depending on others, owning the disease). Themes associated with challenges to adherence focused on diagnosis and the physical and emotional adjustments individuals made to incorporate antiretroviral medications into their daily lives and move toward medication adherence. The factors supportive of adherence were related to the ongoing behaviors identified with establishing and maintaining adherence behaviors. What can be taken from the study is that adherence is a complex and dynamic process rather than a static behavior.
Callander, Denton; Holt, Martin; Newman, Christy E
Racialised language is a salient and contested aspect of contemporary sexual cultures, particularly in the online domain. This paper explores the ways in which gay men in Australia employ race-related language when using online sex/dating websites. Using inductive content analysis, descriptive categories were developed to identify recurrent patterns in the racialised language employed by website users. A coding framework was then constructed to identify the 'subject' (self, other or concept) of each piece of race-related content, its 'purpose' (marketing, negative or positive discrimination, commentary) and the 'position' adopted (defensive, normalised or critical). Descriptive and comparative analyses revealed differences in the ways in which members of racial groups employed racialised language online. These differences are reviewed in relation to broader discourses on Whiteness and race in Australia, as well as recent community-produced anti-racism campaigns.
Jeffries, William L; Okeke, Janice O; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne
Although religion and spirituality can promote healthy behaviours and mental well-being, negative religious experiences may harm sexual minority men's health. Despite increasing vulnerability to HIV infection among young gay and bisexual men, few studies examine how religion and spirituality might affect them. To this end, we interviewed young gay and bisexual men who were diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. Questionnaires assessed religious service attendance, disclosure of sexuality within religious communities, and beliefs about homosexuality being sinful. A subset described religious and spiritual experiences in qualitative interviews. We calculated the prevalence of religion- and spirituality-related factors and identified themes within qualitative interviews. Among men completing questionnaires, 66% currently attended religious services, 16% believed they could disclose their sexuality at church, and 37% believed homosexuality was sinful. Participants who completed qualitative interviews commonly discussed religious attendance and negative experiences within religious settings. They often expressed their spirituality through prayer, and some used it to cope with adverse experiences. These data suggest that religion and spirituality are notable factors that shape young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men's social contexts. Programmes and interventions that constructively engage with religious institutions and are sensitive to spiritual beliefs may promote these men's health.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R
Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
I. Mary Poynten
Full Text Available Objective: HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM. Methods: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC is an ongoing, prospective cohort study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Australian GBM. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent an anal swab for HPV genotyping using Roche Linear Array. We analysed baseline data from SPANC by HPV type, mean number of types, stratified by age and HIV status. Results: Anal HPV results from 606 (98.2% of 617 participants (median age 49 years, 35.7% HIV-positive showed 525 (86.7% had â¥1 HPV type and 178 (29.4% had HPV16. Over one third of participants (214, 35.3% had no nonavalent vaccine-preventable types detected. Two (0.3% participants had all quadrivalent types and none had all nonavalent vaccine types. HIV-positive participants (p<0.001 and younger participants (p=0.059 were more likely to have more vaccine-preventable HPV types detected. Conclusion: Anal HPV was highly prevalent in this largely community-based GBM cohort. Vaccine-preventable HPV16 was detected in approximately one third of participants. These findings suggest that the potential efficacy of HPV vaccination of older GBM should be explored. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV, Anal, Vaccine, Prevalence, Gay and bisexual men, MSM, HIV
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel
Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.
Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob
Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.
Hibbert, M; Crenna-Jennings, W; Kirwan, P; Benton, L; Lut, I; Okala, S; Asboe, D; Jeffries, J; Kunda, C; Mbewe, R; Morris, S; Morton, J; Nelson, M; Thorley, L; Paterson, H; Ross, M; Reeves, I; Sharp, L; Sseruma, W; Valiotis, G; Wolton, A; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V
We aim to understand the difference in stigma and discrimination, in particular sexual rejection, experienced between gay and heterosexual men living with HIV in the UK. The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 recruited a convenience sample of persons with HIV through over 120 cross sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an online survey. 1162 men completed the survey, 969 (83%) gay men and 193 (17%) heterosexual men, 92% were on antiretroviral therapy. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men were significantly more likely to report worrying about workplace treatment in relation to their HIV (21% vs. 11%), worrying about HIV-related sexual rejection (42% vs 21%), avoiding sex because of their HIV status (37% vs. 23%), and experiencing HIV-related sexual rejection (27% vs. 9%) in the past 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression controlling for other sociodemographic factors, being gay was a predictor of reporting HIV-related sexual rejection in the past 12 months (aOR 2.17, CI 1.16, 4.02). Both gay and heterosexual men living with HIV experienced stigma and discrimination in the past 12 months, and this was higher for gay men in terms of HIV-related sexual rejection. Due to the high proportion of men reporting sexual rejection, greater awareness and education of the low risk of transmission of HIV among people on effective treatment is needed to reduce stigma and sexual prejudice towards people living with HIV.
Hegazi, A; Lee, M J; Whittaker, W; Green, S; Simms, R; Cutts, R; Nagington, M; Nathan, B; Pakianathan, M R
The objective of this study was to analyse associations between sexualised substance use (chemsex), STI diagnoses and sexual behaviour among gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men accessing sexual health clinics to better inform clinical pathways. A retrospective case notes review was undertaken following the introduction of more detailed and holistic profomas for all gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men attending two London sexual health clinics between 1 June 2014 and 31 January 2015. Chemsex status was documented for 655/818. Overall, 30% disclosed recreational drug use of whom 113 (57%) disclosed chemsex and 27 (13.5%) injecting drugs. HIV-positive gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men were more likely to disclose chemsex (AOR 6.68; 95% CI 3.91-11.42; p sex, group sex, fisting, sharing sex toys, injecting drug use, higher alcohol consumption and the use of 'bareback' sexual networking applications (p sex with a discordant HIV or hepatitis C-infected partner (p < 0.001). Chemsex disclosure is associated with higher risk-taking behaviours, acute bacterial STIs, rectal STIs and hepatitis C incidence. HIV incidence was higher but not significantly so in the study period. Chemsex disclosure in sexual health clinics should prompt an opportunity for prevention, health promotion and wellbeing interventions.
... men who have sex with men (MSM), including gay and bisexual men. GLMA President Jesse Joad, MD, ... to establish clear and comprehensive regulations ensuring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people do not face discrimination ...
This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies.
Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Pakam, Charnwit; Nonenoy, Siriporn; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Sohn, Annette H; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya
One-in-three men who have sex with men (MSM) surveyed between 2007 and 2010 in Bangkok were HIV infected; 54% of new infections in Thailand are expected to be among MSM. Although MSM are the top internet-accessing population in Thailand, it has not been optimally used to scale up early HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and linkage to treatment. Thailand needs innovative technology-based strategies to help address the exploding epidemic of HIV among gay men and other MSM. Adam's Love, an innovative web-based communications strategy, was launched in 2011 by the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre. It includes a dedicated website, integrated social media and web message boards for online counselling, recruitment and appointment making, a club membership programme offering non-financial incentives for HTC, targeted marketing and promotions, and collaboration with MSM-friendly clinics and private hospitals to improve accessibility of HTC services. Between September 2011 and January 2015, the website engaged 1.69 million viewers, and gained more than 8 million page views. An estimated 11,120 gay men and other MSM received online counselling; 8,288 MSM were referred to HTC services; 1,223 to STI testing services; and 1,112 MSM living with HIV were advised regarding HIV treatment. In total, 1,181 MSM recruited online were enrolled in the club membership programme, and 15.5% were diagnosed with HIV. The Adam's Love programme has successfully demonstrated the potential for utilising 'online-to-offline' recruitment models in Thailand, and has attracted national and regional recognition as a trusted resource on HIV and referral to testing and care.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG persons is high and increasing in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic, socioeconomic, sexual behavior and interest in future HIV prevention trials among gay and bisexual MSM and TG presenting for HIV testing (VCT and pre-screening for the iPrEx pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis trail. METHODS: In 2008-09, MSM/TG participants attending VCT were interviewed and tested for HIV and STI. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were done to assess associations with HIV infection. RESULTS: A total of 551 MSM clients (56.1% gay, 25.4% TG, and 18.5% bisexual (BS were enrolled. The mean age was 23.9 years. HIV prevalence among MSM overall was 12.9% (71/551; 16.5% among gay men, 9.3% among TG, and 6.9% among BS. Consistent use of condom was low, 33.3% in insertive anal sex and 31.9% in receptive anal sex. Interest in participation was high, 86.3% for PrEP, 69.7% for HIV vaccine trials, but 29.9% for circumcision. HIV was independently associated with being gay identified, aOR 2.8, p = 0.037 and with being aged 25-29, aOR 2.7, p = 0.027. Among repeat testers, HIV incidence was 8.2/100 PY, 95% CI, 3.7/100PY to 18.3/100PY. CONCLUSION: HIV risks and rates varied by self-reported sexual orientation and gender identity. HIV was associated with sexual practices, age, and being gay-identified. These are populations are in need of novel prevention strategies and willing to participate in prevention research.
Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H
Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.
Green, Adam Isaiah
Abstract In this article, I draw from an ongoing ethnographic study of HIV prevention for gay, bisexual, and 'men who have sex with men' to develop an institutional analysis of HIV behavioral intervention science and praxis. I approach this analysis through the lens of the social worlds framework, focusing on the institutional arena in which HIV behavioral interventions are devised and executed. Toward this end, I focus on two fundamental points of contention that lie at the heart of the prevention enterprise and put its social organization in high relief: (1) conceptions of health and lifestyle practices and (2) attributions of expertise. These core contentions reveal less the steady advance of normal science than an arena of actors ensconced in boundary work and jurisdictional struggles over how to engineer behavior change and reduce the scale of the HIV epidemic. Their resolution, I argue, has occurred in a historically contingent process determined by the political economy of the US HIV prevention arena and the differential structural location of its social worlds.
Lewis, Nathaniel M
An established body of research in psychology, psychiatry and epidemiology links social stigma and stress with poor mental and sexual health outcomes among gay-identified men. Less work considers how these linkages are mediated by place and almost none considers the role of movement across places. This qualitative study, based on the migration narratives of 48 gay-identified men living in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and Washington, D.C., U.S.A. gives more careful consideration to the ways in which mental and emotional health issues (e.g., anxiety, depression, substance use) in this population both precipitate migration and stem from migration. The narratives show that decisions to migrate often emerge from men׳s experiences of place-based minority stress and associated health outcomes. At the same time, moving to urban gay communities, when coupled with other life circumstances, can create or reinforce physical and emotional insecurities that lead to low self-esteem, substance use and sexual risk-taking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skinta, Matthew D; Brandrett, Benjamin D; Schenk, William C; Wells, Gregory; Dilley, James W
HIV-related stigma is a major driver of poor prognosis for the treatment and reduced spread of HIV. The present article provides a qualitative analysis surrounding various themes related to stigma and shame as a result HIV. Eight gay men recruited from a community HIV clinic contacted the researchers in response to a study involving participation in a structured, eight-week group intervention for HIV-related stigma. Following this group, three men took part in open-ended interviews about their thoughts and experiences. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the participants' experiences surrounding shame and stigma related to living with HIV. Three superordinate themes were identified: social support and the disclosure of serostatus, stigma associated with serosorting and attempts to negotiate a spoiled identity. In San Francisco, a city with a great deal of acceptance surrounding HIV and a large, politically active community of persons living with HIV, gay men continue to struggle with disclosure and stigma. This stigma may be an unexpected result of a high degree of HIV testing and attempts by both HIV-positive and negative gay men to practise serosorting.
Hopwood, Max; Lea, Toby; Aggleton, Peter
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly reported among gay and bisexual men. However, little is known about the personal and social dimensions of HCV-related experience among these men in Australia. An online survey of 474 Australian gay and bisexual men was conducted from August to December 2013. A subsample of 48 HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected men was analysed to explore HCV knowledge, sources of information, unmet information needs and use of HCV-related services. More than half of respondents in the subsample were unaware that HIV infection increases the risk of sexually acquired HCV and most wanted information about how to prevent the sexual transmission of HCV. A majority of respondents requested gay-specific HCV services, and approximately similar proportions of men indicated that they would like these services delivered by a hepatitis organization, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) organization and a HIV organization. Men in receipt of HIV antiretroviral treatments were most likely to request that gay-specific HCV information and support services be delivered by a LGBTI or HIV organization (OR = 8.63). These findings suggest that a variety of organizations are required to address the information and support needs of Australian gay and bisexual men with HCV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Baral, Stefan; Turner, Rachael M; Lyons, Carrie E; Howell, Sean; Honermann, Brian; Garner, Alex; Hess, Robert; Diouf, Daouda; Ayala, George; Sullivan, Patrick S; Millett, Greg
Gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV pandemic. Traditionally, GBMSM have been deemed less relevant in HIV epidemics in low- and middle-income settings where HIV epidemics are more generalized. This is due (in part) to how important population size estimates regarding the number of individuals who identify as GBMSM are to informing the development and monitoring of HIV prevention, treatment, and care programs and coverage. However, pervasive stigma and criminalization of same-sex practices and relationships provide a challenging environment for population enumeration, and these factors have been associated with implausibly low or absent size estimates of GBMSM, thereby limiting knowledge about the dynamics of HIV transmission and the implementation of programs addressing GBMSM. This study leverages estimates of the number of members of a social app geared towards gay men (Hornet) and members of Facebook using self-reported relationship interests in men, men and women, and those with at least one reported same-sex interest. Results were categorized by country of residence to validate official size estimates of GBMSM in 13 countries across five continents. Data were collected through the Hornet Gay Social Network and by using an a priori determined framework to estimate the numbers of Facebook members with interests associated with GBMSM in South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritania, The Gambia, Lebanon, Thailand, Malaysia, Brazil, Ukraine, and the United States. These estimates were compared with the most recent Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national estimates across 143 countries. The estimates that leveraged social media apps for the number of GBMSM across countries are consistently far higher than official UNAIDS estimates. Using Facebook, it is also feasible to assess the numbers of GBMSM aged 13-17 years, which demonstrate similar
Fussner, Lauren M; Smith, April R
This study explored perceptions of partner body image preferences and symptoms of disordered eating in gay and heterosexual men. Participants were male college students (n = 201; M age = 20.46), and over one third identified as gay. We compared discrepancies between participants' current and ideal body type and participants' current body type and the body type they believed they should have to attract a dating partner. For gay men, the discrepancy between their current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner was significantly greater than the discrepancy between their current and ideal body types. In gay and heterosexual men, the discrepancy between current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner predicted eating, shape, and weight concern. Results suggest that perceptions of partner body image preferences may contribute to eating disorder pathology in men.
Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. BG (n = 51) and heterosexual (n = 522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; El-Hayek, Carol; Gouillou, Maelenn; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Nguyen, Phuong; Stoovè, Mark
Since 2000, notifications of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have increased significantly in Australian gay men. We evaluated the impact of a social marketing campaign in 2008-2009 aimed to increase health-seeking behavior and STI testing and enhance HIV/STI knowledge in gay men. A convenience sample of 295 gay men (18-66 years of age) was surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Participants were asked about campaign awareness, HIV/STI knowledge, health-seeking behavior, and HIV/STI testing. We examined associations between recent STI testing and campaign awareness. Trends in HIV/STI monthly tests at 3 clinics with a high case load of gay men were also assessed. Logistic and Poisson regressions and χ tests were used. Both unaided (43%) and aided (86%) campaign awareness was high. In a multivariable logistic regression, awareness of the campaign (aided) was independently associated with having had any STI test within the past 6 months (prevalence ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-2.4. Compared with the 13 months before the campaign, clinic data showed significant increasing testing rates for HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among HIV-negative gay men during the initial and continued campaign periods. These findings suggest that the campaign was successful in achieving its aims of increasing health-seeking behavior, STI testing, and HIV/STI knowledge among gay men in Victoria.
Ross, M W; Kajubi, P; Mandel, J S; McFarland, W; Raymond, H F
We investigated the relationship of internalized homonegativity/homophobia (IH) to sexual risk behaviours among 216 Ugandan gay and bisexual men, using the 7-item IH scale previously developed on this population. IH was significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse, and more so with unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Higher IH was also associated with more sex while intoxicated. There was a strong association between anal intercourse of any type and IH, suggesting a complex relationship between anal sex and identification with, or internalization of, homonegativity/homophobia. Specifically, it may be the anal component of sex rather than the sex with another man that is seen as labeling one as homosexual or stigmatizing. Those men who stated that they engaged in sex with other men for love, rather than for the physical feeling or for money, had higher IH scores. These data suggest that there may be an interactive relationship between IH and sexual behaviour, with greater internalization being associated with more stereotypically gay activities, which in turn may lead to more self-identification as gay and thus greater susceptibility to internalization.
Šević, Sandra; Ivanković, Iva; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
Emotional intimacy cuts across contexts as diverse as sexual motivation and satisfaction, psychological and physical health, and relational well-being. Although the experience of intimacy and its effects on sex life may be gender and sexual orientation-specific, the role of intimacy in personal and sexual relationships has been studied mostly among heterosexual individuals and couples. Using the minority stress framework (Meyer, 2003) to address this gap in knowledge, the present study comparatively explored levels and predictors/correlates of emotional intimacy, and its association with sexual satisfaction among coupled heterosexual and gay/bisexual men sampled online in a predominantly homonegative country (Croatia). Heterosexual participants (n = 860; M age = 36.4, SD = 9.09) were recruited in 2011 and gay/bisexual participants (n = 250; M age = 29.4, SD = 7.13) in 2013. Controlling for age and relationship duration, gay/bisexual men reported higher levels of emotional intimacy than heterosexual men. Suggesting that the role of emotional intimacy in sexual satisfaction is not sexual orientation-specific, the strength of the association between these two constructs was similar in both samples. However, internalized homonegativity, which was negatively associated with emotional intimacy in this study, remains a challenge to creating and maintaining intimacy in male same-sex relationships.
This article charts the winding and tumultuous course Israeli gay men have taken in their struggles to claim a visible and audible place within the Israeli public sphere. Whereas for the greater part of history, Jewish gay men were symbolically annihilated by various social institutions, for the past decade they have been active as agents of social change. The paper's objectives are to offer an account of the developments that enabled such a transformation, to review socio-political strategies in an arena not yet discussed in academic literature, and to examine the roles mass media play in these processes. The article is composed of four chapters: literature review, detailed descriptions of the erstwhile and present legal, social, and cultural status of gay men in Israel, and a brief discussion of Orthodox-Jews' reactions. As this is a preliminary, and the first of its kind, study, it combines analyses of a diversified melange of sources. The author deliberately employs an eccletic methodological framework, nonetheless with an emphasis on newspapers as viable texts.
Otis, Joanne; McFadyen, Amélie; Haig, Thomas; Blais, Martin; Cox, Joseph; Brenner, Bluma; Rousseau, Robert; Émond, Gilbert; Roger, Michel; Wainberg, Mark
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adapted their sexual practices over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic based on available data and knowledge about HIV. This study sought to identify and compare patterns in condom use among gay, bisexual, and other MSM who were tested for HIV at a community-based testing site in Montreal, Canada. Results showed that while study participants use condoms to a certain extent with HIV-positive partners and partners of unknown HIV status, they also make use of various other strategies such as adjusting to a partner's presumed or known HIV status and viral load, avoiding certain types of partners, taking PEP, and getting tested for HIV. These findings suggest that MSM who use condoms less systematically are not necessarily taking fewer precautions but may instead be combining or replacing condom use with other approaches to risk reduction.
Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E; Holt, Martin
Sexual racism is a specific form of racial prejudice enacted in the context of sex or romance. Online, people use sex and dating profiles to describe racialized attraction through language such as "Not attracted to Asians." Among gay and bisexual men, sexual racism is a highly contentious issue. Although some characterize discrimination among partners on the basis of race as a form of racism, others present it as a matter of preference. In May 2011, 2177 gay and bisexual men in Australia participated in an online survey that assessed how acceptably they viewed online sexual racism. Although the men sampled displayed diverse attitudes, many were remarkably tolerant of sexual racism. We conducted two multiple linear regression analyses to compare factors related to men's attitudes toward sexual racism online and their racist attitudes more broadly. Almost every identified factor associated with men's racist attitudes was also related to their attitudes toward sexual racism. The only differences were between men who identified as Asian or Indian. Sexual racism, therefore, is closely associated with generic racist attitudes, which challenges the idea of racial attraction as solely a matter of personal preference.
Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M
In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.
Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.
In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and 9 service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community, and from friends within the Black gay community, that otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with their alienation and rejection. PMID:24784224
Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.
Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799
Romero-Severson, E O; Volz, E; Koopman, J S; Leitner, T; Ionides, E L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission models that include variability in sexual behavior over time have shown increased incidence, prevalence, and acute-state transmission rates for a given population risk profile. This raises the question of whether dynamic variation in individual sexual behavior is a real phenomenon that can be observed and measured. To study this dynamic variation, we developed a model incorporating heterogeneity in both between-person and within-person sexual contact patterns. Using novel methodology that we call iterated filtering for longitudinal data, we fitted this model by maximum likelihood to longitudinal survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Collaborative HIV Seroincidence Study (1992-1995). We found evidence for individual heterogeneity in sexual behavior over time. We simulated an epidemic process and found that inclusion of empirically measured levels of dynamic variation in individual-level sexual behavior brought the theoretical predictions of HIV incidence into closer alignment with reality given the measured per-act probabilities of transmission. The methods developed here provide a framework for quantifying variation in sexual behaviors that helps in understanding the HIV epidemic among gay men. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Pala, Andrea Norcini; Dell'Amore, Francesca; Steca, Patrizia; Clinton, Lauren; Sandfort, Theodorus; Rael, Christine
The experience of sexual orientation stigma (e.g., homophobic discrimination and physical aggression) generates minority stress, a chronic form of psychosocial stress. Minority stress has been shown to have a negative effect on gay and bisexual men's (GBM's) mental and physical health, increasing the rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and HIV risk behaviors. In conservative religious settings, such as Italy, sexual orientation stigma can be more frequently and/or more intensively experienced. However, minority stress among Italian GBM remains understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the dimensionality, internal reliability, and convergent validity of the Minority Stress Scale (MSS), a comprehensive instrument designed to assess the manifestations of sexual orientation stigma. The MSS consists of 50 items assessing (a) Structural Stigma, (b) Enacted Stigma, (c) Expectations of Discrimination, (d) Sexual Orientation Concealment, (e) Internalized Homophobia Toward Others, (f) Internalized Homophobia toward Oneself, and (g) Stigma Awareness. We recruited an online sample of 451 Italian GBM to take the MSS. We tested convergent validity using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Through exploratory factor analysis, we extracted the 7 theoretical factors and an additional 3-item factor assessing Expectations of Discrimination From Family Members. The MSS factors showed good internal reliability (ordinal α > .81) and good convergent validity. Our scale can be suitable for applications in research settings, psychosocial interventions, and, potentially, in clinical practice. Future studies will be conducted to further investigate the properties of the MSS, exploring the association with additional health-related measures (e.g., depressive symptoms and anxiety).
Fleming, John B; Burns, Michelle Nicole
Internalized homonegativity is linked to psychological distress in sexual minorities and is thus a potential treatment target in this population. Previous studies have shown that evaluative conditioning (EC) can modify self-esteem, another self-directed attitude. The present study aimed to determine if EC deployed over the Internet could modify self-esteem and internalized homonegativity. Gay men recruited online (N = 184) were randomly assigned to a control group or an experimental condition. Participants completed self-reports and measures of implicit attitudes before and after being exposed to control or experimental tasks. The study was administered online. There were no significant between-group differences on implicit or explicit self-esteem (ps > .49) or internalized homonegativity (ps > .28). Despite past laboratory success, Internet-based EC did not produce significant effects in implicit or explicit self-directed attitudes. Post hoc analyses did not support any of several potential explanations for these results. Alternative explanations are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rozbroj, Tomas; Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Mitchell, Anne; Christensen, Helen
E-therapies for depression and anxiety rarely account for lesbian and gay users. This is despite lesbians and gay men being at heightened risk of mood disorders and likely to benefit from having access to tailored self-help resources. We sought to determine how e-therapies for depression and anxiety could be improved to address the therapeutic needs of lesbians and gay men. We conducted eight focus groups with lesbians and gay men aged 18 years and older. Focus groups were presented with key modules from the popular e-therapy "MoodGYM". They were asked to evaluate the inclusiveness and relevance of these modules for lesbians and gay men and to think about ways that e-therapies in general could be modified. The focus groups were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach to identify major themes. The focus groups indicated that some but not all aspects of MoodGYM were suitable, and suggested ways of improving e-therapies for lesbian and gay users. Suggestions included avoiding language or examples that assumed or implied users were heterosexual, improving inclusiveness by representing non-heterosexual relationships, providing referrals to specialized support services and addressing stigma-related stress, such as "coming out" and experiences of discrimination and harassment. Focus group participants suggested that dedicated e-therapies for lesbians and gay men should be developed or general e-therapies be made more inclusive by using adaptive logic to deliver content appropriate for a user's sexual identity. Findings from this study offer in-depth guidance for developing e-therapies that more effectively address mental health problems among lesbians and gay men.
Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov
The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.
How do human rights help us with the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who face discrimination and barriers in their sexual lives? Men with ID who are gay face a whole range of rights violations when it comes to exercising their sexual identity. How can such a seemingly marginalised group draw on rights based claims for better and equal treatment? This paper explores how the power of men's own stories may usefully challenge prevailing social norms and in turn strengthen human rights claims in this area. It also reflects on the challenges posed to such an agenda by current economic difficulties and changes in the organisation of adult social care in the UK. The paper draws on empirical research with gay men with ID completed in the UK in 2005 and briefly revisits some key messages from the data. It also considers the wider literature on the power and possibilities of human rights, 'intimate stories' and translating human rights into everyday change. Gay men with ID tell powerful stories of love, longing and exclusion. Such stories have the capacity to transform wider social attitudes and in turn strengthen the rights claims of this marginalised groups. There are question marks about the possibility of such change in a time of austerity and the broader move in the UK's welfare state from the collective to the individual consumer of services. However, the telling of men's 'intimate stories' creates an almost unassailable challenge to current discriminatory practices and norms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Pachankis, John E.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Keene, Danya E.
Social?sexual networking technologies have been reported to yield both psychosocial benefits and sexual risks for gay and bisexual men, yet little research has explored how technology interacts with the social?geographical environment to shape the health of gay and bisexual men in the relatively understudied environment of small cities. This article draws on 29 semistructured interviews examining the use of social?sexual networking technologies among racially diverse gay and bisexual men in t...
Körner, Henrike; Newman, Christy; Mao, Limin; Kippax, Susan; Kidd, Michael R; Saltman, Deborah
This paper reports on in-depth interviews with general practitioners (GPs) about their views and experiences of diagnosing depression in gay men - some of whom are living with HIV - and the broader social contexts in which such a diagnosis is located. This analysis is a key outcome of a collaboration between social researchers, primary healthcare researchers, GPs and community partners, to investigate the management of depression in gay men in primary care settings. As the qualitative component of this project, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 GPs with high caseloads of gay men, in three geographical settings in Australia: Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town. GPs considered the diagnosis and management of depression to be an integral part of primary care, especially in gay male patients. They had a heightened sense of awareness that depression was common in the group of patients they were seeing. Central to diagnosing depression was the ongoing, long-term relationship GPs had with their gay male patients. GPs were vigilant and proactively inquired about depression, taking into account somatic, social and psychological indicators. In their approach to diagnosing depression, GPs considered not only the life circumstances of individual patients but also the broader social context of stigma related to homosexuality, and the effects that the HIV epidemic has had on individuals, especially on gay men who have been living with HIV for a long time.
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom
This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic.
Hylton, Emily; Wirtz, Andrea L; Zelaya, Carla E; Latkin, Carl; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladmir; Dzhigun, Petr; Kostetskaya, Irina; Galai, Noya; Beyrer, Chris
Depression is a major public health problem in the Russian Federation and is particularly of concern for men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM living in Moscow City were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and participated in a cross-sectional survey from October 2010 to April 2013. Multiple logistic regression models compared the relationship between sexual identity, recent stigma, and probable depression, defined as a score of ≥23 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. We investigated the interactive effect of stigma and participation in the study after the passage of multiple "anti-gay propaganda laws" in Russian provinces, municipalities, and in neighboring Ukraine on depression among MSM. Among 1367 MSM, 36.7% (n = 505) qualified as probably depressed. Fifty-five percent identified as homosexual (n = 741) and 42.9% identified as bisexual (n = 578). Bisexual identity had a protective association against probable depression (reference: homosexual identity AOR 0.71; 95%CI 0.52-0.97; p laws was significant. Among participants with stigma, probable depression increased 1.67-fold after the passage of the anti-gay laws AOR 1.67; 95%CI 1.04-2.68; p laws that deny homosexual identities. Repeal of Russia's federal anti-gay propaganda law is urgent but other social interventions may address depression and stigma in the current context.
Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T
The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. We examined trends in SID milestones by birth cohort in a 2015 U.S. national sample of GBM (n = 1,023). Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of the same sex (median age 11 to 12). However, with the exception of age of first same-sex attraction, older cohorts tended to pass other milestones at later ages than younger cohorts. Latent class analysis (LCA) of SID milestone patterns identified three subgroups. The majority (84%) began sexual identity development with same-sex attraction around the onset of puberty (i.e., around age 10) and progressed to self-identification, same-sex sexual activity, and coming out-in that order. The other two classes felt same-sex attraction during teen years (ages 12.5 to 18.0) but achieved the remaining SID milestones later in life. For 13% of men, this was during early adulthood; for 3% of men, this was in middle adulthood. Findings highlight the need to monitor ongoing generational differences in passing SID milestones.
Ludlam, Adrian H; Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J
General practitioners (GPs) can improve HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, vaccination and wellbeing among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) if they are aware of a patient's sexual orientation. To estimate GP awareness of their GBM patients' sexual orientation and examine whether HIV and STI screening was associated with this. We analysed anonymous, self-completed data from 3168 GBM who participated in the community-based Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay men's Online Sex Survey (GOSS) in 2014. Participants were asked if their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation or that they had sex with men. Half (50.5%) believed their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation/behaviour, 17.0% were unsure, and 32.6% believed he/she was unaware. In multivariate analysis, GP awareness was significantly lower if the respondent was younger, Asian or an 'Other' ethnicity, bisexual-identified, had never had anal intercourse or had first done so very recently or later in life, and had fewer recent male sexual partners. GBM whose GP was aware of their sexual orientation were more likely to have ever had an HIV test (91.5% vs 57.9%; p<0.001), specific STI tests (91.7% vs 68.9%; p<0.001), and were twice as likely to have had an STI diagnosed. Lack of sexual orientation disclosure is resulting in missed opportunities to reduce health inequalities for GBM. More proactive, inclusive and safe environments surrounding the care of sexual orientation minorities are needed in general practice to encourage disclosure.
Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina
The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stahlman, Shauna; Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David
There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (Pharassment as the most common form of stigma. Disclosure of same-sex practices to family members increased prevalence of reported stigma from family members within all geographic settings (Psexual behavior stigma among MSM in the United States appears to have a high absolute burden and similar pattern as the same forms of stigma reported by
Ferlatte, Olivier; Salway, Travis; Oliffe, John L; Trussler, Terry
HIV positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) continue to struggle with the pervasiveness of HIV stigma, but little is known about the health effects of stigma. In this article, suicidal ideation and attempts are measured among GBM living with HIV, evaluating the extent to which these experiences are associated with stigma and suicide. Drawing from an online national survey of Canadian GBM completed by 7995 respondents, a sub-set of data provided by respondents self-reporting HIV-positive status was used for the current study. The associations between suicidal ideation (SI) and attempts (SA) and four measures of HIV stigma were measured: social exclusion, sexual rejection, verbal abuse and physical abuse. A total of 673 HIV-positive men completed the survey (8% of total sample). Among this group, 22% (n = 150) reported SI and 5% (n = 33) SA in the last 12 months. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, SI and SA were associated with each of the four measures of HIV stigma: being excluded socially for being HIV positive (SI adjusted odds ratio, AOR 2.0 95% CI 1.4-3.1; SA AOR 3.8 95% CI 1.9-7.9), rejected as a sexual partner (SI AOR 1.6 95% CI 1.1-2.4; SA AOR 2.6 95% CI 1.1-6.0), verbally abused (SI AOR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.5; SA AOR 2.4 95% CI 1.1-5.1), and physically abused (SI AOR 4.5 95% CI 1.8-11.7; SA AOR 6.4 95% CI 2.0-20.1). Furthermore, experiencing multiple forms of stigma was associated with significantly increased risk of SI and SA. The authors conclude that HIV positive GBM experience significant levels of stigma that are associated with heightened risk for suicide. The findings affirm the need for targeted interventions to prevent suicide amid public health efforts to de-stigmatize HIV and mental illness.
Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary
Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151
Stahlman, Shauna; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baral, Stefan D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at elevated risk for HIV acquisition and transmission secondary to biological and behavioral characteristics, social and sexual network characteristics, community environmental factors, and structural factors. HIV incidence rates remain high among MSM in both low- and high-income settings, and in both concentrated and more generalized HIV epidemic settings. While data quality tends to be poorer, the best estimates collectively suggest that MSM have up to 20 times the odds of living with HIV as compared to other reproductive aged adults across low- and middle-income countries. Recent prevention strategies to lower biological HIV transmission and acquisition risks, including the early use of antiretrovirals to decrease infectiousness for those living with HIV, and pre-exposure prophylaxis for those at significant risk of HIV acquisition, have demonstrated the potential to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemics among MSM. However, the coverage and effectiveness of these approaches is limited by structural factors including the punitive legal frameworks and institutional discrimination that contribute to limited uptake, challenges to adherence, and suboptimal health-seeking behaviors among MSM. More intensive efforts will be required to reach MSM who do not currently have access to relevant and effective prevention and treatment services or elect not to access these services given enacted and/or perceived stigma. Respect for human rights, including efforts to aggressively confront and combat the forms of stigma that are preventing us from achieving an AIDS-Free generation, are needed for all people including gay men and other MSM.
Card, Kiffer G; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Jollimore, Jody; Howard, Terry; Birch, Robert; Carter, Allison; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric Abella
Despite continued research among men with more sexual partners, little information exists on their seroadaptive behavior. Therefore, we examined seroadaptive anal sex strategies among 719 Vancouver gay and bisexual men (GBM) recruited using respondent-driven sampling. We provide descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable adjusted statistics, stratified by HIV status, for the covariates of having ≥7 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months (Population fourth quartile versus <7). Sensitivity Analysis were also performed to assess the robustness of this cut-off. Results suggest that GBM with more sexual partners are more likely to employ seroadaptive strategies than men with fewer partners. These strategies may be used in hopes of offsetting risk, assessing needs for subsequent HIV testing, and balancing personal health with sexual intimacy. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of these strategies, assess how GBM perceive their efficacy, and understand the social and health impacts of their widespread uptake.
Evans, Alison Ruth; Wiggins, Richard Donovan; Bolding, Graham; Elford, Jonathan
An invitation to take part in a web survey of sexual behaviour appeared on two popular websites for gay men in the UK in May and June 2003. As soon as men began the survey, their responses were recorded. If they quit before the end, the point at which they stopped was identified. Men clicked into the survey a total of 4,271 times and 2,752 (64%) respondents completed it. The median last question reached by respondents who dropped out was question number 20 out of 158. Multivariate analysis indicated that drop out was related to ethnic group, openness about sexual orientation and age. The results suggest that MSM who use the Internet to seek sexual partners may be younger, more likely to be from an ethnic minority and less open about their sexuality than web surveys indicate. This has implications for the development of online HIV and STI interventions.
Otis, Melanie D; Skinner, William F
An exploratory study of lesbians (70) and gay men (118) from a rural state in the mid-South was conducted using a self-administered, mail-out survey. The nonrandom sample was drawn from organizational mailing lists, snowball sampling, and a convenience sample at a community event. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of the following affected sexual orientation: genetics, relationship between parents, relationship with parents, birth order, peers, growing up in a dysfunctional family, growing up in a single-parent family, negative experiences with the opposite sex, and positive experiences with the same sex. Similar to studies of heterosexual men and women, these gay men were more likely to view sexual orientation as a result of genetics than the lesbian respondents. Further, the lesbian group were more likely to view positive relationships with the same sex to have a great influence on sexual orientation. These data indicate there are sex differences in views on factors that affect sexual orientation.
Smiley, Sabrina L; Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G
Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication ("sexting") is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses including yes/no and Likert scale
Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David
Background There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. Objective The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. Methods The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men’s Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Results Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (Psexual behavior stigma among MSM in the United States appears to have a high absolute burden and similar pattern as the same forms of stigma reported by MSM in Sub-Saharan Africa, although results may be influenced by differences in sampling methodology across regions. The disproportionate burden of HIV
Jaime Eduardo Barrientos Delgado
Full Text Available This paper intends to validate the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (Herek, 1988. The starting point is the five dimensions reported in previous studies (Cárdenas & Barrientos, 2008. No research has confirmed the hypothesized ATLG factor structure with a Spanish-language sample. This study tested three factor structures, results indicating that the two- factor second-order model provides the best description of ATLG items. Additionally, psychometric properties were examined using a sample of 518 college students. ATLG proved reliable (α = 0.93 and valid for Chilean population.
Arístegui, Inés; Radusky, Pablo D; Zalazar, Virginia; Lucas, Mar; Sued, Omar
The stigma related to HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation has negative implications for the quality of life of individuals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the resources that these stigmatized groups recognize as tools to cope with stigma and maintain their psychological well-being. Four focus groups were conducted with gay men and transgender women divided by HIV status. A thematic analysis revealed that individual, interpersonal, and institutional resources are commonly recognized as coping resources. This article discusses the importance of enhancing self-acceptance, social support, and a legal framework that legitimizes these groups as right holders.
Eslen-Ziya, Hande; Koc, Yasin
This paper examines expressions and experiences of internalised sexual stigma with respect to definitions of masculinity and identity conflicts through a thematic analysis of life-history narratives of 14 self-identified gay men living in Turkey. The analysis reveals that internalised sexual
Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.
Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola
This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.
Schrimshaw, Eric W.
Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W
Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [ AOR ] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter ( AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner ( AOR = 2.18), being willing to host ( AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex ( AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices ( AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex ( AOR = 0.34) and rimming ( AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads.
Iryna B Zablotska
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. METHODS: Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR or casual partners (UAIC. The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. CONCLUSION: Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates
Zablotska, Iryna B; Frankland, Andrew; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett
Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding
Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A
Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Soler, Jorge H; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Córdova, David; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A
Gay and bisexual men may form chosen families in addition to or in place of families of origin. However, the characteristics of these diverse families remain largely unexamined in the quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a family typology based on responses from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of young adult gay and bisexual men (YGBM) recruited from the Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=350; 18-29 years old). To explore the role of family, we then examined family social support and social undermining in relation to YGBM psychological distress within different family types. A series of multivariate regressions were used to examine associations between family social support and social undermining with depression and anxiety outcomes. The majority (88%) of YGBM included family of origin in their definitions of family and 63% indicated having chosen families. Associations between family social processes and psychological outcomes varied by type of family, suggesting that family composition shapes how perceptions of support and undermining relate to experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Chosen families play a prominent role in the lives of YGBM and should not be overlooked in family research. Findings also highlight the importance of examining co-occurring family social support and social stress processes to further address psychological distress symptoms among YGBM.
Parsons, Jeffrey T; Millar, Brett M; Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Rendina, H Jonathon; Grov, Christian
The syndemics framework has been used to explain the high rates of HIV infection among gay and bisexual men. However, most studies have relied primarily on urban or otherwise limited (e.g., single location) samples. We evaluated the prevalence of syndemics-here, depression, polydrug use, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and sexual compulsivity-among gay and bisexual men from across the United States, including nonurban areas. Using data from a national sample of 1,033 HIV-negative gay and bisexual men, demographic differences in the prevalence of each syndemic condition and associations with HIV transmission risk behavior were examined. More than 62% of men reported at least 1 syndemic condition. Prevalence did not vary by U.S. region-however, a larger proportion of nonurban men and those with lower income and education levels were above the median number of syndemic conditions. In bivariate analyses, HIV transmission risk behavior was associated with each syndemic condition except for childhood sexual abuse, whereas in multivariate analyses, it was associated with polydrug use, sexual compulsivity, being Latino, and being single and was highest among those reporting 3 or more syndemic conditions. Rates of syndemic conditions among this national sample of gay and bisexual men were generally comparable to previous studies, however elevated rates in nonurban men suggest the need for targeted intervention and support. Links observed between syndemics and HIV transmission risk behavior highlight the ongoing need to address psychosocial concerns among gay and bisexual men in order to reduce their disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15914700
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.
The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…
Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…
Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg
This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…
Meyer, Ilan H.
The author addresses two issues raised in Moradi, DeBlaere, and Huang's Major Contribution to this issue: the intersection of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and the question of stress and resilience. The author expands on Moradi et al.'s work, hoping to encourage further research. On the intersection of identities,…
Brennan, David J; Bauer, Greta R; Bradley, Kaitlin; Tran, Oth Vilaythong
Research on sexual minority men (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men) was examined with regard to the measures of sexual orientation used, the methods of research, and the main health outcomes under study. A systematic review of English-language quantitative studies was conducted focused on the health of sexual minority men published in 2010 (n = 250). The results provide a snapshot of the literature and revealed that research on sexual minority men overwhelmingly focused on HIV, STIs, and sexual health for which sexual orientation was most commonly defined behaviorally. For topics of mental health or body/fitness outcomes, sexual orientation was most commonly defined by identity. Most study samples were venue-based, and only 8.8% of published papers drew data from population-based samples. The findings suggest that there exists a need for research on sexual minority men's health beyond STIs and HIV that will examine mental and physical health outcomes beyond sexual risk, uses probability-based samples, and addresses intersectional concerns related to race/ethnicity and age.
Young, Lindsay E; Jonas, Adam B; Michaels, Stuart; Jackson, Joel D; Pierce, Mario L; Schneider, John A
The endogenous social support systems of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), like surrogate families and social networks, are considered crucial assets for HIV prevention in this population. Yet, the extent to which these social systems foster sexual health protections or risks remains unclear. We examine the networked patterns of membership in ballroom houses and independent gay families, both Black gay subcultures in the United States, and how these memberships are related to HIV protective and risk traits of members. Drawing from a population-based sample of 618 YBMSM living in Chicago between June 2013 and July 2014, we observe a suite of protective and risk traits and perform bivariate analyses to assess each of their associations with being a member of a house or family. We then present an analysis of the homophilous and heterophilous mixing on these traits that structures the patterns of house and family affiliations among members. The bivariate analyses show that members of the house and family communities were more likely than non-members to report protective traits like being aware of PrEP, having health coverage, having a primary care doctor, and discouraging sex drug use among peers. However, members were also more likely to engage in the use of sex drugs. With respect to how these traits inform specific house/family affiliations, results show that members who had a recent HIV test, who were PrEP aware, or who engaged in exchange sex were more likely to belong to the same house or family, while HIV positive individuals were less likely to cluster within houses or families. These findings provide insights regarding the strengths and vulnerabilities of the house and gay family communities that can inform more culturally specific interventions that build on the existing human and social capital in this milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zarwell, Meagan C; Robinson, William T
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name. In 2014, 553 MSM were recruited through venue-based time-space sampling during the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in New Orleans to complete a structured survey and HIV test. Black, Latino, and other race MSM were more likely to belong to constructed families in comparison to white MSM. In addition, participants who belonged to constructed families with a family name were more likely to engage in protective behaviors including wearing condoms at last sexual intercourse. Overall, younger, white MSM who did not belong to any social groups were more likely to engage in at least one risk behavior. These findings significantly contribute to understanding variations in HIV risk behavior among members of constructed families.
Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Phanuphak, Nittaya
Existing data on the feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC) and linkage to care among men who have sex with men (MSM) in hotspots are currently limited. A prospective study on active targeted HTC and linkage to care among MSM (≥18 years old) was conducted at a gay sauna in Thailand from November 2013 to October 2015. HIV risks and risk perception were evaluated through an anonymous survey. HIV testing with result notification and care appointment arrangement were provided on-site. Of the 358 participants; median age was 30 years; 206/358(58%) were at high risk for HIV acquisition; 148/358(41%) accepted HTC, all of whom either had prior negative HIV tests [98/148 (66%)] or had not known their HIV status [50/148 (34%)]. The three most common reasons for declining HTC were prior HIV testing within 6 months (48%), not ready (19%) and perceiving self as no risk (11%). Of the 262 moderate- and high-risk participants, 172 (66%) had false perception of low HIV risk which was significantly associated with declining HTC. Among the 148 participants undergoing HTC, 25 (17%) were HIV-infected. Having false perception of low risk (P = 0.004) and age antiretroviral therapy. The active targeted HTC and facilitating care establishment was feasible among MSM attending the gay sauna but required strategies to improve accuracy of HIV-risk perception and linkage to care.
Full Text Available Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI has long been recognised as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM. A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioural surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as any CLAI do not accurately measure HIV sexual risk behaviour. Methods: Participants were 1,427 HIV-negative men from the Health in Men cohort study run from 2001 to 2007 in Sydney, Australia, with six-monthly interviews. At each interview, detailed quantitative data on the number of episodes of insertive and receptive CLAI in the last six months were collected, separated by partner type (regular vs. casual and partners’ HIV status (negative, positive, and HIV status unknown.Results: A total of 228,064 episodes of CLAI were reported during the study period with a mean of 44 episodes per year per participant (median: 14. The great majority of CLAI episodes were with a regular partner (92.6%, most of them with HIV-negative regular partners (84.8%. Participants were more likely to engage in insertive CLAI with casual than with regular partners (66.7% vs. 55.3% of all acts of CLAI with each partner type, p<0.001. Men were more likely to report CLAI in the receptive position with HIV-negative and HIV status unknown partners than with HIV-positive partners (p<0.001 for both regular and casual partners. Conclusion: Gay and other MSM engaging in CLAI demonstrate clear patterns of HIV risk reduction behaviour. As HIV prevention enters the era of antiretroviral-based biomedical approach, using all forms of CLAI indiscriminately as a measure of HIV behavioural risk is not helpful in understanding the current drivers of HIV transmission in the community.
Chan, Lik Sam
Mobile dating apps are now a popular platform for men who have sex with men (MSM) to connect with others. Based on the uses and gratifications (U&G) theory, this study explores the relationship between sex-seeking and the number of casual sex partners met through MSM-based mobile dating apps (Grindr, Jack'd, and SCRUFF). The conditional process analysis (N = 401) shows that this relationship was significant and was mediated by the intensity of app use. That is, sex-seeking indirectly affected the number of casual sex partners through the intensity of app use. Furthermore, gay identity confusion and outness to the world moderated this indirect effect: it was stronger when the user was either more confused about his sexuality or was less out to the world. This research introduces an alternative way to incorporate psychographics variables into the U&G framework.
Papadaki, Vasileia; Plotnikof, Kyriaki; Gioumidou, Meropi; Zisimou, Vasiliki; Papadaki, Eleni
This study investigated the attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among social work, psychology, medical, and nursing students in Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. No respondents held completely heterosexist attitudes; only 1.6% held completely non-heterosexist attitudes. The 44.96 total ATLG score indicates a slightly positive attitude toward lesbians and gay men. Psychology students scored higher than all others on positive attitudes, followed by social work students, medical students, and nursing students. Gender, having lesbian or gay acquaintances or friends, and religiosity were significant factors influencing students' attitudes, while no impact on attitudes due to the effects of higher education could be discerned. Implications for curriculum design and teaching methods are discussed.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings
Chen, Hong-quan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Bei-chuan; Li, Xiu-fang
Characteristics on AIDS high-risk behaviors in gay or bisexual men with suicide ideas were explored and analyzed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with the snowball sampling method adopted. Subjects with suicide ideas were collected from responses to the valid questionnaires and subjects with no suicide ideas were collected from the age comparable men. The overall rate of gays or bisexuals with suicide ideas was 20.2% in this survey. The attitude for homogeneity and marital status among the unmarried was more than that among the comparable group (P sexual harassment, bleeding during sexual intercourse in the last year, coitus with unfamiliar same-sex partners in cities, suffering from adult same-sex sexual abuse before the age of 16, having had sexual abuse and abusive behavior, having had active or passive anal kiss, having had active or passive coitus with fingers, alcohol consumption weekly at least once or more, hurt by gays because of attitude and/or same-sex sexual activity and hurt by heterosexual men because of attitude and/or same-sex sexual activity were significantly higher in gays and bisexual men with suicide ideas than those without (P men (Waldχ(2) = 5.835, P = 0.016) due to attitude on homosexual activity appear to be the risk factors causing the suicide ideas. Reducing the social discrimination and harm towards gays and bisexual men could reduce the occurrence of the suicide ideas and have a positive effect on curbing the prevalence of AIDS.
Lloren, Anouk; Parini, Lorena
Support for lesbians’, gay men’s, bisexuals’, and transgender people’s (LGBT) rights has increased over the last two decades. However, these recent trends hide existing disparities between and within countries. In particular, workplace discrimination is still a relatively widespread phenomenon. Although many countries lack legal provision protecting LGBT employees, numerous organizations have adopted LGBT-supportive policies over the last two decades. Many studies have investigated the busine...
Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wolitski, R J; Rietmeijer, C A; Goldbaum, G M; Wilson, R M
The present study examined patterns of serostatus disclosure among previously untested HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative gay and bisexual men recruited from four American cities (n = 701). Six months after learning their HIV serostatus, 97% of study participants had disclosed their test results to at least one other individual. Consistent with earlier studies, test results were most frequently shared with friends and the respondent's primary partner. HIV serostatus was disclosed less frequently to family members, co-workers, and non-primary sex partners. Compared with HIV-seronegative men, HIV-seropositive men were more likely to have disclosed their status to a health care provider and less likely to have shared this information with family members. Of seropositive men, 11% did not disclose their serostatus to their primary partner and 66% did not disclose to a non-primary sex partner. Of HIV-seropositive men with one or more non-primary partners, 16% of those who did not disclose their serostatus reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with these partners. No significant differences in self-reported sexual practices were observed for HIV-seropositive disclosers versus non-disclosers. Compared with HIV-seronegative men who did not disclose, seronegative men who shared information about their serostatus were more likely to have had receptive anal intercourse with their primary partner (p masturbation (p < 0.005), receptive oral sex (p < 0.005) and insertive anal intercourse (p < 0.05) with non-primary partners. No significant differences were observed between disclosers and non-disclosers with regard to condom use. Implications of the findings for future research and HIV prevention programmes are discussed.
A longitudinal cohort study of HIV 'treatment as prevention' in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: the Treatment with Antiretrovirals and their Impact on Positive And Negative men (TAIPAN) study protocol.
Callander, D; Stoové, M; Carr, A; Hoy, J F; Petoumenos, K; Hellard, M; Elliot, J; Templeton, D J; Liaw, S; Wilson, D P; Grulich, A; Cooper, D A; Pedrana, A; Donovan, B; McMahon, J; Prestage, G; Holt, M; Fairley, C K; McKellar-Stewart, N; Ruth, S; Asselin, J; Keen, P; Cooper, C; Allan, B; Kaldor, J M; Guy, R
Australia has increased coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) over the past decade, reaching 73% uptake in 2014. While ART reduces AIDS-related deaths, accumulating evidence suggests that it could also bolster prevention efforts by reducing the risk of HIV transmission ('treatment as prevention'). While promising, evidence of community-level impact of treatment as prevention on reducing HIV incidence among gay and bisexual men is limited. We describe a study protocol that aims to determine if scale up of testing and treatment for HIV leads to a reduction in community viraemia and, in turn, if this reduction is temporally associated with a reduction in HIV incidence among gay and bisexual men in Australia's two most populous states. Over the period 2009 to 2017, we will establish two cohorts making use of clinical and laboratory data electronically extracted retrospectively and prospectively from 73 health services and laboratories in the states of New South Wales and Victoria. The 'positive cohort' will consist of approximately 13,000 gay and bisexual men (>90% of all people living with HIV). The 'negative cohort' will consist of at least 40,000 HIV-negative gay and bisexual men (approximately half of the total population). Within the negative cohort we will use standard repeat-testing methods to calculate annual HIV incidence. Community prevalence of viraemia will be defined as the proportion of men with a viral load ≥200RNA copies/mm 3 , which will combine viral load data from the positive cohort and viraemia estimates among those with an undiagnosed HIV infection. Using regression analyses and adjusting for behavioural and demographic factors associated with infection, we will assess the temporal association between the community prevalence of viraemia and the incidence of HIV infection. Further analyses will make use of these cohorts to assess incidence and predictors of treatment initiation, repeat HIV testing, and viral suppression. This study will
Lyons, Anthony; Pepping, Christopher A
Middle-aged and older gay men experience higher rates of depression and anxiety compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with internalized homonegativity and sexual identity concealment known to be major stress-related contributors. This study examined the prospective effect of different types and sources of social support on internalized homonegativity and sexual identity concealment experienced among middle-aged and older gay men. A longitudinal survey involving two waves of data collection separated by 12 months was conducted among a cohort of 186 gay-identified men aged 40 years and older. Two types of social support were found to be important. Greater baseline tangible or practical support independently predicted lower internalized homonegativity at 12-month follow-up, while greater baseline emotional or psychological support independently predicted a lower tendency toward sexual identity concealment at 12-month follow-up. Greater baseline support from community or government agencies, such as health services and support organizations, predicted higher internalized homonegativity at 12-month follow-up. These findings suggest that tangible and emotional support may be beneficial in reducing internalized homonegativity and sexual identity concealment among middle-aged and older gay men. Ensuring that services provide environments that do not compound the stressful impact of stigma also appears to be important.
Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.
This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…
McInnes, David; Murphy, Dean
This paper seeks to make a theoretical and analytic intervention into the field of HIV-related education and prevention by applying the pedagogy framework of Basil Bernstein to a series of pedagogical devices developed and used in community-based programmes targeting gay men in Australia. The paper begins by outlining why it is such an…
Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,
Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.
Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159
Feinstein, Brian A.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Davila, Joanne
Objective: The current study used path analysis to examine potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Method: The sample included 218 lesbians and 249 gay men (total N = 467) who participated in an online survey about minority stress and mental health. The proposed model…
Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B; Dunn, Matthew; Blashill, Aaron J
Gay and bisexual men may be at heightened risk for using anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies, however, have examined AAS use among gay and bisexual men living in countries outside the United States. In addition, few studies have explored the potential associations of AAS use with body image concerns beyond muscularity, including height and genitals, or with eating disorder symptoms and quality of life. Thus, we examined the associations of AAS use, and of thoughts about using AAS, with body image, eating disorder symptoms, and quality of life among gay and bisexual men living in Australia and New Zealand. A sample of 2733 gay and bisexual men completed an online survey promoted by paid nationwide advertisements to users of geosocial-networking smartphone applications. The prevalence of AAS use, and of thoughts about using AAS, were 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4%, 6.1%) and 25.4% (95% CI: 23.8%, 27.1%), respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that more frequent thoughts about using AAS were associated with being older, taller, and experiencing greater dissatisfaction with muscularity and height, less dissatisfaction with body fat, greater eating disorder symptoms, and lower subjective quality of life. Actual AAS users were more likely to be older, from a non-Australian/New Zealander cultural background, experiencing less dissatisfaction with body fat, and experiencing greater eating disorder symptoms. Psychopathology related to body image and eating disorders are associated with AAS use among gay and bisexual men living in Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Draper, Bridget L; Fowkes, Freya J I; Oo, Zaw Min; Thein, Zaw Win; Aung, Poe Poe; Veronese, Vanessa; Ryan, Claire; Thant, Myo; Hughes, Chad; Stoové, Mark
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a key component of contemporary HIV combination prevention strategies. To explore the local suitability of PrEP, country-specific acceptability studies are needed to inform potential PrEP implementation. In the context of Myanmar, in addition to resource constraints, HIV service access by gay men, other men who have sex with men, and transgender women (GMT) continues to be constrained by legislative and community stigma and marginalization. We aimed to determine PrEP acceptability among GMT in Myanmar and explore the factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. GMT were recruited in Yangon and Mandalay through local HIV prevention outreach programmes in November and December 2014. Quantitative surveys were administered by trained peer educators and collected data on demographics, sexual risk, testing history and PrEP acceptability. A modified six-item PrEP acceptability scale classified self-reported HIV undiagnosed GMT as willing to use PrEP. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. Among 434 HIV undiagnosed GMT, PrEP awareness was low (5%). PrEP acceptability was high, with 270 (62%) GMT classified as willing to use PrEP. GMT recruited in Mandalay (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.79; 95%CI = 1.05-3.03), who perceived themselves as likely to become HIV positive (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.10-3.02), who had more than one recent regular partner (aOR = 2.94; 95%CI = 1.41-6.14), no regular partners (aOR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.10-3.67), more than five casual partners (aOR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.06-3.99) or no casual partners (aOR = 2.25; 95%CI = 1.23-4.11) were more likely to be willing to use PrEP. The association between never or only occasionally using condoms with casual partners and willingness to use PrEP was marginally significant (aOR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.00-4.10). GMT who reported concern about side effects and long-term use of PrEP were less
Fisher, D S; Ryan, R; Esacove, A W; Bishofsky, S; Wallis, J M; Roffman, R A
This paper reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a social marketing campaign designed to recruit clients Project ARIES, and AIDS prevention study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Marketing channels employed for the campaign included advertising in the gay press, generating coverage in the mainstream press, distributing materials to HIV testing centers and other health and social service providers, and displaying posters in gay bars and baths. While these approaches all succeeded in eliciting inquiries from individuals engaging in high risk sexual behaviors, they differed in several respects, including their ability to reach specific subgroups that are often underserved by more traditional programs, such as men of color, younger men, and men who self-report as being closeted. Promotional materials displayed in gay bars and baths resulted in the highest percentage of callers who, after inquiring about the program, decided to participate in the counseling. Coverage in the mainstream press was the most successful in reaching closeted men, men who were less active in the gay community, and individuals who did not self-identify as gay. Display and classified ads in the gay press produced the highest number of initial inquiries. Finally, recruitment of participants via materials distributed to HIV test sites and other service providers was the most effective in reaching men who were HIV-positive.
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung Y; Tanner, Amanda E; Arellano, Jorge Elias; Rodriguez-Celedon, Rodrigo; Garcia, Manuel; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Painter, Thomas M
To evaluate the HOLA en Grupos intervention, a Spanish-language small-group behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. In 2012 to 2015, we recruited and randomized 304 Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men, aged 18 to 55 years in North Carolina, to the 4-session HOLA en Grupos intervention or an attention-equivalent general health education comparison intervention. Participants completed structured assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 100%. At follow-up, relative to comparison participants, HOLA en Grupos participants reported increased consistent condom use during the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 7.9; P < .001) and HIV testing during the past 6 months (AOR = 13.8; 95% CI = 7.6, 25.3; P < .001). HOLA en Grupos participants also reported increased knowledge of HIV (P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (P < .001); condom use skills (P < .001), self-efficacy (P < .001), expectancies (P < .001), and intentions (P < .001); sexual communication skills (P < .01); and decreased fatalism (P < .001). The HOLA en Grupos intervention is efficacious for reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men.
Card, Kiffer G; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Armstrong, Heather L; Cui, Zishan; Wang, Lu; Sereda, Paul; Jollimore, Jody; Patterson, Thomas L; Corneil, Trevor; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A; Moore, David M
Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores assessed mental health. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores assessed alcohol disorders. Poly-use of multiple drug types (e.g., stimulants, sedatives, opiates, hallucinogens) was assessed over the previous six months. Among 719 predominantly white (68.0%), gay-identified (80.7%) GBM, alcohol use was not associated with increased prevalence of high-risk sex. Controlling for demographic factors and partner number, an interaction between polysubstance use and depressive symptoms revealed that the combined effects were additively associated with increased odds for high-risk sex. Mediation models showed that polysubstance use partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and high-risk sex. An interaction effect between polysubstance use (defined by using 3 or more substances in the past six months) and depressive symptoms (defined by HADS scores) revealed that the combination of these factors was associated with increased risk for high-risk sex - supporting a syndemic understanding of the production of HIV risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.
Wight, Richard G; Harig, Frederick; Aneshensel, Carol S; Detels, Roger
We concatenate 28 years of historical depressive symptoms data from a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. gay men who are now midlife and older (n = 312), with newly collected survey data to analyze trajectories of depressive symptomatology over time and their impact on associations between current stress and depressive symptoms. Symptoms are high over time, on average, and follow multiple trajectories. Aging-related stress, persistent life-course sexual minority stress, and increasing sexual minority stress are positively associated with depressive symptoms, net of symptom trajectories. Men who had experienced elevated and increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms are less susceptible to the damaging effects of aging-related stress than those who experienced a decrease in symptoms over time. Intervention efforts aimed at assisting gay men as they age should take into account life-course depressive symptom histories to appropriately contextualize the health effects of current social stressors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Newmanxy, Bernie Sue
SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.
McDavitt, Bryce; Mutchler, Matt G.
Conversations with friends are a crucial source of information about sexuality for young gay men, and a key way that sexual health norms are shared during emerging adulthood. However, friends can only provide this support if they are able to talk openly about sexuality. We explored this issue through qualitative interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of young gay men and their best friends. Using theories of sexual scripts, stigma, and emerging adulthood, we examined how conversations about sex could be obstructed or facilitated by several key factors, including judgmentalism, comfort/discomfort, and receptivity. Gay male friends sometimes spoke about unprotected sex in judgmental ways (e.g., calling a friend “slut” or “whore” for having sex without condoms). In some cases, this language could be used playfully, while in others it had the effect of shaming a friend and obstructing further communication about sexual risk. Female friends were rarely openly judgmental, but often felt uncomfortable talking about gay male sexuality, which could render this topic taboo. Sexual communication was facilitated most effectively when friends encouraged it through humor or supportive questioning. Drawing on these findings, we show how judgmentalism and discomfort may generate sexual scripts with contradictory norms, and potentially obstruct support from friends around sexual exploration during a period of life when it may be most developmentally important. PMID:25419044
van der Meer, T.A.M.
Most of what is known about the perpetrators of anti-gay violence is reported by victims of such violence. None the less, it is obvious from such reports that 'gay bashers' are overwhelmingly young men who operate in groups, sometimes at gay cruising sites or near gay bars. Drawing on finding from
In order to examine the ways in which men's perceptions of their social surroundings influence how they experience and negotiate sexual risk, we conducted a qualitative study with 36 men who lived in London or Birmingham, had five or more male partners in the previous year and believed themselves to be HIV negative. Men were recruited into two sub-samples (18 men each). The high proximity group personally knew someone with HIV and had a positive sexual partner in the year prior to interview. The low proximity group had never personally known anyone with HIV and had never had a sexual partner who they knew or believed to be HIV positive. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Men in the low proximity groups used moral discourses to articulate beliefs and social norms around the disclosure of HIV which may act as a deterrent to sexual partners disclosing. Although most expected positive sexual partners to disclose, they had difficulty in articulating how they would respond to disclosure and how they would manage any consequent sexual risk. For the men in the high proximity group, living around HIV constituted a part of everyday life. Disclosure and discussion of HIV did not violate their social norms. The majority did not expect positive sexual partners to disclose to them and knew how they would respond to such disclosure if it occurred. Men in this group did not use moral discourses but talked practically about better and worse ways of managing disclosure. Proximity to HIV is mediated by strong social norms and self-perpetuating moral discourses which effectively creates a social divide between men who perceive themselves to be in low proximity to HIV and their HIV positive contacts and sexual partners. Men with perceived low proximity to HIV are appropriate as a target group for HIV prevention.
William C. Goedel
Full Text Available Geosocial-networking smartphone applications utilize global positioning system (GPS technologies to connect users based on their physical proximity. Many gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM have smartphones, and these new mobile technologies have generated quicker and easier modes for MSM to meet potential partners. In doing so, these technologies may facilitate a user’s ability to have multiple concurrent partners, thereby increasing their risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. Researchers have sought to recruit users of these applications (e.g., Grindr, Jack’d, Scruff into HIV prevention studies, primarily through advertising on the application. Given that these advertisements often broadly targeted large urban areas, these approaches have generated samples that are not representative of the population of users of the given application in a given area. As such, we propose a method to generate a spatially representative sample of MSM via direct messaging on a given application using New York City and its geography as an example of this sampling and recruitment method. These methods can increase geographic representativeness and wider access to MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications.
Wade, Ryan M; Harper, Gary W
Black young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM) are at high risk for negative health outcomes, though this population is underrepresented in the health literature. An extensive literature review and content analysis of health-related peer-reviewed articles (1988-2013) was conducted that targeted Black YGBMSM, examining five content areas: sexual health, health care, substance use, psychosocial functioning, and sociostructural factors. A coding sheet was created to collect information on all content areas and related subtopics and computed descriptive statistics. Out of 54 articles, most were published after 2004 ( N = 49; 90.7%) and addressed some aspect of sexual health ( N = 50; 92.6%). Few articles included content on psychosocial functioning, including bullying/harassment, suicide, and racial/ethnic identity. Data on health care delivery/receipt and health insurance were underrepresented; tobacco use and substance abuse were seldom addressed. Important sociostructural factors, including sexual networks and race-based discrimination, were poorly represented. Last, there was a noteworthy deficit of qualitative studies and research exploring intersectional identity and health. This review concludes that studies on Black YGBMSM health places sex at the forefront to the neglect of other critical health domains. More research is needed on the diverse health issues of a vulnerable and underexamined population.
Rosser, B R Simon; Capistrant, Benjamin
Recently, researchers have faced the challenge of conflicting recommendations for online versus traditional methods to recruit and interview older, sexual minority men. Older populations represent the cohort least likely to be online, necessitating the use of traditional research methods, such as telephone or in-person interviews. By contrast, gay and bisexual men represent a population of early adopters of new technology, both in general and for medical research. In a study of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, we asked whether respondents preferred online versus offline methods for data collection. Given the paucity of research on how to recruit older gay and bisexual men in general, and older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer in particular, we conducted an observational study to identify participant preferences when participating in research studies. To test online versus offline recruitment demographic data collection, and interview preferences of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer. Email blasts were sent from a website providing support services for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, supplemented with an email invitation from the web-host. All invitations provided information via the study website address and a toll-free telephone number. Study tasks included respondents being screened, giving informed consent, completing a short survey collecting demographic data, and a 60-75 minute telephone or Internet chat interview. All materials stressed that enrollees could participate in each task using either online methods or by telephone, whichever they preferred. A total of 74 men were screened into the study, and 30 were interviewed. The average age of the participants was 63 years (standard deviation 6.9, range 48-75 years), with most residing in 14 American states, and one temporarily located overseas. For screening, consent, and the collection of demographic data, 97% (29/30) of the participants completed these tasks
Bacchus, L J; Buller, A M; Ferrari, G; Peters, T J; Devries, K; Sethi, G; White, J; Hester, M; Feder, G S
This cross-sectional survey measured adult experience and perpetration of negative and potentially abusive behaviours with partners and its associations with mental and sexual health problems, drug and alcohol abuse in gay and bisexual men attending a UK sexual health service. Of 532 men, 33.9% (95% CI: 29.4-37.9) experienced and 16.3% (95% CI: 13.0-19.8) reported carrying out negative behaviour. Ever being frightened of a partner (aOR 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0-3.1) and having to ask a partner's permission (aOR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.6-4.7) were associated with increased odds of being anxious. There were increased odds of cannabis use in the last 12 months amongst men who reported ever being physically hurt (aOR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.6). Being frightened (aOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), being physically hurt (aOR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.8), being forced to have sex (aOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.9) and experiencing negative behaviour in the last 12 months (aOR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.5) were associated with increased odds of using a Class A drugs in the last 12 months. Sexual health practitioners should be trained with regards to the risk indicators associated with domestic violence and abuse, how to ask about domestic violence and abuse and refer to support.
Bui, H; Zablotska-Manos, I; Hammoud, M; Jin, F; Lea, T; Bourne, A; Iversen, J; Bath, N; Grierson, J; Degenhardt, L; Prestage, G; Maher, L
While illicit drug use is prevalent among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia, little is known about the factors associated with injecting drug use among GBM. The Following Lives Undergoing Change (FLUX) study is a national, online prospective observational cohort investigating drug use among Australian GBM. Eligible participants were men living in Australia who were aged 16.5 years or older, identified as gay or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the last year. We examined baseline data for associations between socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics and recent (last six months) injecting using log-binomial regression. Of 1995 eligible respondents, 206 (10.3%) reported ever injecting drugs and 93 (4.7%) had injected recently, most commonly crystal (91.4%) and speed (9.7%). Among recent injectors, only 16 (17.2%) reported injecting at least weekly; eight (8.6%) reported recent receptive syringe sharing. Self-reported HIV and HCV prevalence was higher among recent injectors than among other participants (HIV: 46.2% vs 5.0%, p drug classes (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.21-1.41), longer time since initiating party drug use (APR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.04), greater numbers of sex partners (2-10 sex partners: APR = 3.44, 95%CI 1.45-8.20; >10 sex partners: APR = 3.21, 95%CI 1.30-7.92), group sex (APR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.91) and condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (APR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.34-2.43) in the last six months. Observed associations between injecting and sexual risk reflect a strong relationship between these practices among GBM. The intersectionality between injecting drug use and sex partying indicates a need to integrate harm reduction interventions for GBM who inject drugs into sexual health services and targeted sexual health interventions into Needle and Syringe Programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Jessica; McDaid, Lisa M
Objectives To examine alcohol and drug use during unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and whether use is associated with HIV-related risk behaviours among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (n=1515, 65.2% response rate); 639 men reporting UAI are included. Results 14.4% were always and 63.4% were sometimes drunk during UAI in the previous 12 months; 36.3% always/sometimes used poppers; 22.2% always/sometimes used stimulant or other recreational/illicit drugs; and 14.1% always/sometimes used Viagra. All were significantly correlated and, in multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds of having UAI with 2+ partners in the previous 12 months were significantly higher for men who reported stimulant or recreational/illicit drug use during UAI (AOR=2.75, 95% CI 1.74 to 4.34) and the adjusted odds of UAI with casual partners were higher for men who reported poppers use (AOR=1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17). Men who reported always being drunk during UAI were more likely to report UAI with 2+ partners (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.81), casual partners (AOR=2.18, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.73), and partners of unknown/discordant HIV status (AOR=2.14, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.53), than men who were not. Conclusions Our study suggests alcohol and drug use may be relatively common during UAI among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Brief alcohol or drug interventions, particularly in clinical settings, are justified, but should be properly evaluated and take into account the potential influence of broader, situational and social factors on sexual risk. PMID:24345556
White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pachankis, John E; Eldahan, Adam I; Keene, Danya E
Social-sexual networking technologies have been reported to yield both psychosocial benefits and sexual risks for gay and bisexual men, yet little research has explored how technology interacts with the social-geographical environment to shape the health of gay and bisexual men in the relatively understudied environment of small cities. This article draws on 29 semistructured interviews examining the use of social-sexual networking technologies among racially diverse gay and bisexual men in two small cities. Questions probed participants' use of technology to meet sexual partners, engagement in the gay community, and the role of virtual and nonvirtual spaces in relation to health. Findings suggest that social networking technologies can help men navigate the challenges of small cities, including small and insular gay communities, lack of dedicated gay spaces, and sexual minority stigma. However, participants also describe declines in gay community visibility and cohesion, which they attribute to technology use. The article concludes by discussing the intersections of virtual and physical space in small cities as sites for the production of health and illness.
White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Pachankis, John E.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Keene, Danya E.
Social–sexual networking technologies have been reported to yield both psychosocial benefits and sexual risks for gay and bisexual men, yet little research has explored how technology interacts with the social–geographical environment to shape the health of gay and bisexual men in the relatively understudied environment of small cities. This article draws on 29 semistructured interviews examining the use of social–sexual networking technologies among racially diverse gay and bisexual men in two small cities. Questions probed participants’ use of technology to meet sexual partners, engagement in the gay community, and the role of virtual and nonvirtual spaces in relation to health. Findings suggest that social networking technologies can help men navigate the challenges of small cities, including small and insular gay communities, lack of dedicated gay spaces, and sexual minority stigma. However, participants also describe declines in gay community visibility and cohesion, which they attribute to technology use. The article concludes by discussing the intersections of virtual and physical space in small cities as sites for the production of health and illness. PMID:27885147
Fisher, Michael P.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Bana, Sarah; Iguchi, Martin Y.
Objective: This study examined substance use (intended and actual), unprotected sex, and HIV disclosure practices (disclosure and questioning) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) at two party-oriented vacations, where substance use and sexual risk may be heightened. Method: A random sample of 489 MSM attending one of two party-oriented vacations participated in PartyIntents, a short-term longitudinal survey. Nearly half (47%) completed a follow-up assessment at the event or online for up to 2 weeks after the event. We examined rates of baseline intentions to use substances, actual substance use, and unprotected intercourse among HIV-positive men in attendance.Rates among HIV-negative men were estimated for comparison. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the impact of illegal drug use and HIV status on unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Results: HIV-positive attendees (17%) were significantly more likely than HIV-negative attendees to use nitrite inhalants (or “poppers”) (24.3% vs. 10.7%). HIV-positive attendees were also significantly more likely to have insertive UAI (64.3% vs. 34.1%) and receptive UAI (68.8% vs. 22.2%). Multivariate models showed associations between HIV status and illegal drug use with UAI (for HIV status, odds ratio [OR] = 4.5, p = .001; for any illegal drug use, OR = 16.4, p < .001). There was no evidence that the influence of drug use moderated risk by HIV status. Rates of HIV disclosure and questioning did not differ by HIV status. Conclusions: HIV-positive men attending these events engaged in higher rates of illegal drug use and sexual risk than HIV-negative men. Prevention campaigns targeting MSM at high-risk events should include messages geared toward HIV-positive men. PMID:23200162
... their lives. The Effects of Negative Attitudes on Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Some people may have negative attitudes toward gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Y; Hull, Mark W; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Jollimore, Jody; Rich, Ashleigh; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for approximately half of Canada's new HIV infections. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a recently established and effective HIV prevention tool for MSM is currently not approved nor publicly funded. We recruited MSM via respondent-driven sampling to complete a self-administered computer-based interview. Stratified by HIV status, multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with PrEP awareness. Of 673 participants, 102/500 (20.9 %) HIV-negative and 63/173 (26.5 %) HIV-positive men were aware of PrEP, but none had used it. One third of PrEP-aware MSM spoke about it with friends or sex partners. Self-declared knowledge was limited. Factors associated with PrEP awareness varied by HIV status, but included greater HAART optimism for HIV-negative MSM. Among HIV-negative MSM, being PrEP unaware was associated with younger age, not always having condoms, and preferring receptive versus insertive anal sex. Future longitudinal research should identify early adopters of PrEP and its associated impacts.
Smith, Nathan Grant; Hart, Trevor A; Kidwai, Ammaar; Vernon, Julia R G; Blais, Martin; Adam, Barry
Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience In Discriminatory Environments) is an 8-session small group intervention aimed at reducing negative mental and behavioral health outcomes resulting from minority stress. This study reports the results of a one-armed pilot test of Project PRIDE, which aimed to examine the feasibility and potential for efficacy of the intervention in a sample of 33 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 25. The intervention appeared feasible to administer in two different sites and all participants who completed posttreatment (n = 22) or follow-up (n = 19) assessments reported high satisfaction with the intervention. Small to large effect sizes were observed for increases in self-esteem; small effect sizes were found for decreases in loneliness and decreases in minority stress variables; and small and medium effect sizes were found for reductions in alcohol use and number of sex partners, respectively. Overall, Project PRIDE appears to be a feasible intervention with promise of efficacy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ibragimov, Umedjon; Wong, Frank Y
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Tajikistan are an extremely stigmatised group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, there is a paucity of research on how and in what way stigma affects their lives. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of stigma on GBM's lives in Tajikistan, focusing on stigma enactors, settings, factors affecting vulnerability of GBM and health consequences. Eight individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus-group discussions with 13 participants (N = 21) from GBM community were conducted in two cities of Tajikistan. Results reveal that police frequently engage in blackmail and perpetrate sexual and physical violence against GBM. Service providers often discriminate against GBM limiting their access to health and legal services. Exposure to stigma results in chronic stress affecting mental health of GBM. Fear of disclosure, low social cohesion, absence of prominent opinion leaders and activists reduce resilience of GBM community to stigma. State-sanctioned violations of human rights of marginalised populations and lack of effective legal protection mechanisms have enabled widespread harassment of GBM. These findings warrant further research on stigma leading to the development of culturally adapted and tailored multilevel structural interventions, including broad legal and policy reforms.
Siegel, K; Meyer, I H
Upon being notified that they are positive for HIV, people often experience terror and confusion. At the beginning stages of coping with HIV diagnosis, suicide ideation and behavior may arise as the infected person begins to envision frightening images of a future life with AIDS. We examined the narratives of gay men who contemplated or attempted suicide soon after they had learned of their HIV infection. We found that suicidal ideation and attempt often provoked a process of coping with HIV disease, leading to a redefinition of the meaning of HIV, enhancing one's sense of control over life, and prompting a renewed effort at self-help and help seeking, a new commitment to life, and a reappraisal of personal goals. We recommend that clinicians and HIV counselors be cognizant of these positive symbolic functions of suicidality in coping with HIV infection. Allowing people who were recently diagnosed with HIV to discuss suicidality may allow them to move toward acceptance and commitment to life.
Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted
Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.
Ceglarek, Peter; Darbes, Lynae; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, Jose
Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one's sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-reported psychological well-being (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety; self-esteem, sense of personal competency) and YGBM's negative and positive appraisals of breakups within a sample of single YGBM (N=1,040; ages 18-24) who reported prior serious same-sex relationships. Negative appraisals were associated with lower psychological well-being. Positive appraisals were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and sense of personal competency. Our findings highlight the need to acknowledge how YGBM's differential responses to breakups may be associated with their psychological well-being.
The current study examined the relationship between sexual identity development and body image, as well as the potential mediating effect of self-esteem, in a community sample of gay men. A diverse group of participants (N = 172), recruited through listservs and flyers, completed an online survey. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships between identity development and self-esteem, identity development and body image, self-esteem and body image, and the mediating role of self-esteem. As predicted, significant relationships were identified between each pair of variables, and self-esteem was found to be a mediator when the sample was considered as a whole. When participants of color were compared to those who were White, however, between-group differences emerged; identity stage did not predict self-esteem or body image for participants of color, nor did the mediated relationship exist. Self-esteem did predict body image in both groups. The sociocultural context of these findings is considered.
Bailey, John; Wallace, Michael; Wright, Bradley
An Internet-based field experiment was conducted to examine potential hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation; specifically, the "first contact" between job applicants and employers was looked at. In response to Internet job postings on CareerBuilder.com®, more than 4,600 resumes were sent to employers in 4 U.S. cities: Philadelphia, Chicago, Dallas, and San Francisco. The resumes varied randomly with regard to gender, implied sexual orientation, and other characteristics. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that employers' response rates vary by the applicants' assumed sexuality; and second, that employers' Response Rates by Sexuality vary by city. Effects of city were controlled for to hold constant any variation in labor market conditions in the 4 cities. Based on employer responses to the applications, it was concluded that there is no evidence that gay men or lesbians are discriminated against in their first encounter with employers, and no significant variation across cities in these encounters was found. Implications of these results for the literature on hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation, the strengths and limitations of the research, and the potential for the Internet-based field experiment design in future studies of discrimination are discussed.
Satterly, Brent A.
Little research exists on how self-disclosure is taught in social work education (Pianko, 2001). Few social work education programs include precontemplative components of exploring identity for gay male students. In this study, the data from 4 focus groups of gay male therapists, who discussed their self-disclosure, decision-making processes, were…
Gesink, Dionne; Wang, Susan; Guimond, Tim; Kimura, Lauren; Connell, James; Salway, Travis; Gilbert, Mark; Mishra, Sharmistha; Tan, Darrell; Burchell, Ann N; Brennan, David J; Logie, Carmen H; Grace, Daniel
There are complex, synergistic, and persistent sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics affecting gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) in every major urban centre across North America. We explored the spatial architecture of egocentric sexual networks for gbMSM in Toronto, Canada. Our integrative mixed methods study included in-depth interviews with 31 gbMSM between May and July 2016. During interviews, participants mapped their egocentric sexual network for the preceding 3 months geographically. At the end, a self-administered survey was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, online technology use, and STI testing and history. We identified 6 geosexual archetypes: hosters, house-callers, privates, rovers, travellers, and geoflexibles. Hosters always, or almost always (≥80%), hosted sex at their home. House-callers always, or almost always (≥80%), had sex at their partner's home. Rovers always or almost always (≥80%) had sex at public venues (eg, bath houses, sex clubs) and other public spaces (eg, parks, cruising sites). Privates had sex in private-their own home or their partner's (part hoster, part house-caller). Travellers had sex away from their home, either at a partner's home or some other venue or public space (part house-caller, part rover). Geoflexibles had sex in a variety of locations-their home, their partner's home, or public venues. All hosters and rovers, and to a lesser extent, geoflexibles, reported a history of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus. Prioritizing interventions to hosters, rovers, and geoflexibles may have an important impact on reducing STI transmission.
Starks, Tyrel J; Castro, Michael A; Castiblanco, Juan P; Millar, Brett M
The existing literature has identified that beliefs about the interpersonal meaning of condom use are a significant predictor of condomless anal sex (CAS). Some have suggested that condom use in this context may function as a form of nonverbal communication. This study utilized attachment theory as a framework and tested a hypothesized model linking adult attachment to CAS through communication skills and condom expectancies. An online survey was completed by 122 single, HIV-negative gay and bisexual (GB) men living in the U.S. They completed measures of adult attachment (anxious and avoidant), condom expectancies regarding intimacy and pleasure interference, communication skills, self-assessed mate value, and recent CAS with casual partners. There was a significant, positive bivariate association between anxious attachment and receptive CAS. In path model analyses, two over-arching pathways emerged. In the other-oriented pathway, anxious attachment, self-perceived mate value, and emotional communication predicted the belief that condoms interfere with intimacy. In turn, intimacy interference expectancies were positively associated with the odds of receptive CAS. In the self-oriented pathway, assertive communication skills mediated a link between avoidant attachment and the belief that condoms interfere with sexual pleasure. Pleasure interference expectancies were positively associated with the odds of insertive CAS. The findings highlight the importance of relational or interpersonal concerns in sexual risk-taking among single GB men. Attachment theory may serve as a framework for organizing these interpersonal correlates of CAS. Results are consistent with the conceptualization of condom use as a form of nonverbal attachment-related behavior. Implications for sexual health and risk-reduction interventions are explored in this context.
Tairy, Daniel; Levy, Itzchak; Turner, Dan; Livnat, Yuval; Mor, Zohar
HIV-discordant gay male couples may play an important role in HIV-transmissions. This cross-sectional study compared the knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviors of HIV-uninfected gay men, between those in HIV-discordant and those in HIV-concordant steady relationships. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically in designated gay-related internet sites and in AIDS-clinics in 2015. The dependent variable was defined as a steady relationship of an HIV-uninfected man with an HIV-infected partner. Risky sexual behavior was defined as unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a sex partner whose HIV-status was either positive or unknown. Of 2,319 responders, 460 (20%) were HIV-uninfected gay men in steady relationships, of whom 72 were in HIV-discordant relationships and 388 were in HIV-concordant relationships. Those in HIV-discordant relationships presented better established knowledge regarding HIV-transmission, more lenient attitudes regarding UAI, and reported being involved in riskier sexual behavior, both within and outside their steady relationship compared to men in HIV-concordant relationships. UAI was performed by 48% of the HIV-discordant couples and was associated with the use of sero-positioning strategy and with achieving undetectable viral-load. These findings reflect the complexity of constant use of condoms during long-term sero-discordant relationships. Targeted interventions for HIV-prevention in HIV-discordant couples should be employed for balancing the partners' desire for intimacy and sexual pleasure in the relationship, while reducing the risk for acquiring HIV. ART: Antiretroviral therapy; PEP: Post exposure prophylaxis; PrEP: Pre exposure prophylaxis; STI: Sexually transmitted infections; UAI: Unprotected anal intercourse.
Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from
Lachowsky, Nathan; Hawkins, Blake W; Jollimore, Jody; Baharuddin, Fahmy; Hogg, Robert S
Background Social media is used by community-based organizations (CBOs) to promote the well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, few studies have quantified which factors facilitate the diffusion of health content tailored for sexual minorities. Objective The aim of this study was to identify post characteristics that can be leveraged to optimize the health promotion efforts of CBOs on Facebook. Methods The Facebook application programming interface was used to collect 5 years’ of posts shared across 10 Facebook pages administered by Vancouver-based CBOs promoting GBM health. Network analysis assessed basic indicators of network structure. Content analyses were conducted using informatics-based approaches. Hierarchical negative binomial regression of post engagement data was used to identify meaningful covariates of engagement. Results In total, 14,071 posts were shared and 21,537 users engaged with these posts. Most users (n=13,315) engaged only once. There was moderate correlation between the number of posts and the number of CBOs users engaged with (r=.53, P<.001). Higher user engagement was positively associated with positive sentiment, sharing multimedia, and posting about pre-exposure prophylaxis, stigma, and mental health. Engagement was negatively associated with asking questions, posting about dating, and sharing posts during or after work (versus before). Conclusions Results highlight the existence of a core group of Facebook users who facilitate diffusion. Factors associated with greater user engagement present CBOs with a number of strategies for improving the diffusion of health content. PMID:29625953
Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana
In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.
Shariati, Helia; Armstrong, Heather L; Cui, Zishan; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Zhu, Julia; Anand, Praney; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Oudman, Greg; Tonella, Christina; Moore, David M
Cigarette smoking is common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and most of the mortality gap between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals is attributable to smoking. We recruited sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBMSM age ≥16 years using respondent-driven sampling. Study visits occurred every six months for up to four years and included a computer-assisted self-interview and clinical assessment. We conducted bivariate analyses to compare factors associated with "never", "former", "daily", or "non-daily" smoking at baseline and longitudinal mixed effects models to examine factors associated with cessation and (re)initiation. 774 participants completed a baseline visit and 525 enrolled in the cohort and completed at least one follow-up visit. At baseline, the median age was 34 years and 31.5% were daily smokers. In follow-up (median=2.5years), 116 daily or non-daily smokers (41%) quit at least once and of these, 101 (87%) remained former smokers at their last visit. Smoking cessation was positively associated with incomes ≥$60,000 and self-reported excellent health. Alcohol use, ecstasy use, and having a partner who smokes were associated with decreased odds of cessation. Substance use (cannabis, GHB, and crystal methamphetamine) and having a partner who smokes were positively associated with increasing to/resuming daily smoking. HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to smoke but not more likely to quit. Targeted, culturally relevant smoking cessation resources are needed, especially for HIV-positive GBMSM. Engaging couples in cessation interventions may be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meites, Elissa; Gorbach, Pamina M; Gratzer, Beau; Panicker, Gitika; Steinau, Martin; Collins, Tom; Parrish, Adam; Randel, Cody; McGrath, Mark; Carrasco, Steven; Moore, Janell; Zaidi, Akbar; Braxton, Jim; Kerndt, Peter R; Unger, Elizabeth R; Crosby, Richard A; Markowitz, Lauri E
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact. During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P sexual orientation, and lifetime number of sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity. Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Hussen, Sophia A; Easley, Kirk A; Smith, Justin C; Shenvi, Neeta; Harper, Gary W; Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Stephenson, Rob; Del Rio, Carlos
Social capital, the sum of an individual's resource-containing social network connections, has been proposed as a facilitator of successful HIV care engagement. We explored relationships between social capital, psychological covariates (depression, stigma and internalized homonegativity), and viral suppression in a sample of young Black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YB-GBMSM). We recruited 81 HIV-positive YB-GBMSM 18-24 years of age from a clinic setting. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey, and HIV-1 viral load (VL) measurements were extracted from the medical record. Sixty-five percent (65%) were virally suppressed (HIV-1 VL ≤ 40 copies/ml). Forty-seven percent (47%) had a positive depression screen. Depressive symptoms affected viral suppression differently in YB-GBMSM with lower vs. higher social capital (p = 0.046, test for statistical interaction between depression and social capital). The odds of viral suppression among YB-GBMSM with lower social capital was 93% lower among those with depressive symptoms (OR 0.07, p = 0.002); however, there was no association between depressive symptoms and viral suppression among those with higher social capital. Our results suggest that social capital may buffer the strong negative effects of depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes in YB-GBMSM living with HIV. In addition to treating depression, there is a role for interventions to augment social capital among YB-GBMSM living with HIV as a strategy for enhancing care engagement.
Elliot, E; Rossi, M; McCormack, S; McOwan, A
An estimated one in eight men who have sex with men (MSM) in London lives with HIV, of which 16% are undiagnosed. It is a public health priority to minimise time spent undiagnosed and reduce morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. 'Dean Street at Home' provided an online HIV risk self-assessment and postal home HIV sampling service aimed at hard-to-reach, high-risk MSM. This 2-year service evaluation aims to determine the HIV risk behaviour of users, the uptake of offer of home sampling and the acceptability of the service. Users were invited to assess their HIV risk anonymously through messages or promotional banners on several gay social networking websites. Regardless of risk, they were offered a free postal HIV oral fluid or blood self-sampling kit. Reactive results were confirmed in clinic. A user survey was sent to first year respondents. 17 361 respondents completed the risk self-assessment. Of these, half had an 'identifiable risk' for HIV and a third was previously untested. 5696 test kits were returned. 121 individuals had a reactive sample; 82 (1.4% of returned samples) confirmed as new HIV diagnoses linked to care; 14 (0.25%) already knew their diagnosis; and 14 (0.25%) were false reactives. The median age at diagnosis was 38; median CD4 505 cells/µL and 20% were recent infections. 61/82 (78%) were confirmed on treatment at the time of writing. The post-test email survey revealed a high service acceptability rate. The service was the first of its kind in the UK. This evaluation provides evidence to inform the potential roll-out of further online strategies to enhance community HIV testing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
B. R. Simon Rosser, Ph.D., M.P.H., L.P., is professor and director of the HIV/STI Intervention and Prevention Studies (HIPS) Program, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota. He has advanced degrees in psychology, epidemiology, and behavioral medicine, with postdoctoral training in clinical/research sexology. An NIH-funded behavioral science researcher, and current chair of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Prevention Studies Section at NIH, Dr. Rosser conducted the first NIH-funded studies of Internet-based HIV prevention for men who use the Internet to seek sex with men, the effects of gay pornography on HIV risk, and most recently, an NCI-funded study of the effects of treatment on gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. Dr. Rosser has published around 100 papers and has been featured in U.S. News & World Report and the Washington Blade. Currently, he is conducting the first NCI-funded randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of a comprehensive approach to treating sexual and urinary dysfunction in gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. At the University of Minnesota, Dr. Rosser directs the graduate program for a minor in Sexual Health and teaches two courses: “Public Health Approaches to HIV/AIDS”, and “Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Health.”
Eslen-Ziya, Hande; Koc, Yasin
This paper examines expressions and experiences of internalised sexual stigma with respect to definitions of masculinity and identity conflicts through a thematic analysis of life-history narratives of 14 self-identified gay men living in Turkey. The analysis reveals that internalised sexual prejudice emerges when widely accepted hegemonic masculinity ideology is 'violated' by being gay. Participants' narratives indicate that their construction of masculinity is a vigorous process established via encounters with hegemonic masculinity. Findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature and in relation to Turkish culture's traditional understanding of gender and gender roles.
Finneran, Catherine; Chard, Anna; Sineath, Craig; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob
Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures - namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism - on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity. Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in
Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM experience intimate partner violence (IPV at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism– on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paperexamines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S., Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil.Methods: We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Threeoutcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity.Results: Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries.Conclusion: There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middleincome countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were
Carolina de Campos Borges
Full Text Available This article stems from a survey conducted with men living a conjugal relationship with partners of the same sex. It aimed at understanding the effects of the naturalization of heteronormative standards in homosexual conjugal experiences. For this study, the authors selected part of the results of the discourse analysis of nine interviews – middle-class homosexual men, aged 25 to 47, residents of the Brazilian city of Goiania living with their partners. The authors discussed the results concerning two categories that emerged from the interview analysis process: their views of family and marriage; and their daily experiences regarding conjugality. The results show that those subjects have their views of family and marriage that are deeply influenced by the appreciation of affection and respect for the singularity of the individuals. In their everyday lives, they create a particular sharing of domestic chores that does not follow socially established gender distinction criteria. Although the participants feel free from the sexist norms in their spaces of intimate life, they suffer the effects of social heteronormativity in public spheres.
Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis
Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self.
Adebajo, Sylvia B; Eluwa, George I; Allman, Dan; Myers, Ted; Ahonsi, Babatunde A
This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score using an 11-item scale. A total of 1,125 MSM were interviewed. About 44.4% self-identified as homosexual or gay while 55% regarded themselves as bisexual. About a third of the respondents reported internalized homophobia. With homosexual/gay men as reference, respondents who self-identified as bisexual were two times more likely [AOR 2.1; 95 CI: 1.6 - 2.9, p Nigeria.
Full Text Available To investigate the awareness of, and willingness to use, HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP, and willingness to take part in a PrEP study among gay and bisexual men in Scotland.Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (N = 1515, 65.2% response rate; 1393 are included in the analyses.Just under one-third of participants had heard of PrEP (n = 434; 31.2%, with awareness associated with being aged older than 35 years, talking to UAI partners about HIV, and with having had an HIV or STI test in the previous 12 months. Around half were willing to take part in a PrEP study (n = 695; 49.9% or to take PrEP on a daily basis (n = 756; 54.3%. In multivariate analysis, willingness to take PrEP was associated with lower levels of education, regular gay scene attendance, 'high-risk' unprotected anal intercourse (UAI and testing for HIV or STI in the previous 12 months. Reasons for not wanting to participate in a PrEP study or take PrEP included perceptions of low personal risk of HIV and concerns with using medication as an HIV prevention method.There is a willingness to engage in new forms of HIV prevention and research amongst a significant number of gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Future biomedical HIV interventions need to consider the links between sexual risk behaviour, testing, and potential PrEP use.
Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Gold, Judy; Ata, Nadine; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Asselin, Jason; Ilic, Olivia; Batrouney, Colin; Stoove, Mark
A growing number of health promotion interventions are taking advantage of the popularity and interactivity of new social media platforms to foster and engage communities for health promotion. However, few health promotion interventions using social networking sites (SNS) have been rigorously evaluated. "Queer as F**k"(QAF) began as pilot project in 2010 to deliver sexual health promotion via short "webisodes" on SNS to gay men. Now in its fifth season, QAF is among the few published examples internationally to demonstrate the sexual health promotion potential of SNS. The objective of this evaluation is to assess reach, interactivity, and engagement generated by QAF to inform future health interventions and evaluations using SNS. We undertook a mixed method process evaluation using an uncontrolled longitudinal study design that compared multiple measurements over time to assess changes in reach and engagement. We adapted evaluation methods from the health promotion, information systems, and creative spheres. We incorporated online usage statistics, interviews informed by user diary-scrapbooks, and user focus groups to assess intervention reach and engagement. During Series 1-3 (April 2010 to April 2011), 32 webisodes were posted on the QAF Facebook and YouTube pages. These webisodes attracted over 30,000 views; ranging from 124-3092 views per individual episode. By April 2011, the QAF Facebook page had 2929 predominantly male fans. Interview and focus group participants supported the balance of education and entertainment. They endorsed the narrative "soap opera" format as an effective way to deliver sexual health messages in an engaging, informative, and accessible manner that encouraged online peer discussion of sexual health and promoted community engagement. QAF offers a successful example of exploiting the reach, interactivity, and engagement potential of SNS; findings from this process evaluation provide a model to inform the delivery and evaluation of future
Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated
Dustin T. Duncan
Full Text Available The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598 provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1 residential and social boroughs; (2 residential and sex boroughs; (3 social and sex boroughs; and (4 residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential
Card, Kiffer George; Lachowsky, Nathan; Hawkins, Blake W; Jollimore, Jody; Baharuddin, Fahmy; Hogg, Robert S
Social media is used by community-based organizations (CBOs) to promote the well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, few studies have quantified which factors facilitate the diffusion of health content tailored for sexual minorities. The aim of this study was to identify post characteristics that can be leveraged to optimize the health promotion efforts of CBOs on Facebook. The Facebook application programming interface was used to collect 5 years' of posts shared across 10 Facebook pages administered by Vancouver-based CBOs promoting GBM health. Network analysis assessed basic indicators of network structure. Content analyses were conducted using informatics-based approaches. Hierarchical negative binomial regression of post engagement data was used to identify meaningful covariates of engagement. In total, 14,071 posts were shared and 21,537 users engaged with these posts. Most users (n=13,315) engaged only once. There was moderate correlation between the number of posts and the number of CBOs users engaged with (r=.53, Puser engagement was positively associated with positive sentiment, sharing multimedia, and posting about pre-exposure prophylaxis, stigma, and mental health. Engagement was negatively associated with asking questions, posting about dating, and sharing posts during or after work (versus before). Results highlight the existence of a core group of Facebook users who facilitate diffusion. Factors associated with greater user engagement present CBOs with a number of strategies for improving the diffusion of health content. ©Kiffer George Card, Nathan Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Jody Jollimore, Fahmy Baharuddin, Robert S Hogg. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 06.04.2018.
Effects of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying in childhood on depression, anxiety, and physical pain in emerging adulthood and the moderating effects of social support among gay and bisexual men in Taiwan.
Wang, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Huang-Chi; Chen, Mu-Hong; Ko, Nai-Ying; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lin, I-Mei; Yen, Cheng-Fang
This study examined the differences in the current levels of depression, anxiety, and physical pain in emerging adulthood among gay and bisexual men with various experiences of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying based on gender role nonconformity and sexual orientation and the moderating effects of family and peer support. A total of 500 gay or bisexual men (age 20-25 years) in Taiwan were recruited from August 2015 to July 2017. The levels of depression, anxiety, and physical pain among gay or bisexual men who had experienced both traditional and cyber homophobic bullying (n=109), only traditional or cyber bullying (n=173), and neither traditional nor cyber bullying during childhood (n=218) were compared. The moderating effects of family and peer support on the effects of homophobic bullying victimization on depression, anxiety, and physical pain were also examined. Victims of any type of homophobic bullying in childhood had more severe depression, anxiety, and physical pain in emerging adulthood than nonvictims. Victims of both traditional and cyber homophobic bullying had more severe anxiety in adulthood than victims of only traditional or cyber homophobic bullying. Family but not peer support in childhood moderated the effects of homophobic bullying victimization on current levels of anxiety and physical pain in emerging adulthood among gay and bisexual men. The results of the present study support that early prevention and intervention for homophobic bullying and enhancement of family support are essential to reduce mental health problems in emergent adults among gay and bisexual men.
This study explores the way in which some Chinese gay men negotiate dance performances in parks and other public spaces in an attempt to invent and experiment with 'possible selves'. In most circumstances, these same men conceal their sexual orientation for fear of stigma and discrimination, experiencing in the process something of a 'divided self'. Little attention has been given to understanding the way such individuals negotiate and construct same-sex experiences, especially through the negotiation of specific and restricted social interactions and performances. Based on participant observation with a group of dancers practising in a Chinese public park, this paper analyses how these men explore same-sex relations and lifestyles through the circumscribed performance of collective public dance.
García, Dalia I; Gray-Stanley, Jennifer; Ramirez-Valles, Jesus
In the United States, most adults state that religion plays an important role in their lives and claim a religious affiliation. For gay, bisexual, and transgender persons (GBT), the story is unique because their sexual and gender identity is not accepted by most religions. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of religiosity in the life course of Latino GBTs raised as Catholics. Data come from 66 life history interviews with Latino GBTs living in Chicago and San Francisco, who grew up as Catholics. We found a religious trajectory that mirrored participants' developmental stages. During childhood, religion was inculcated by the family, culture, and schools. In adolescence, many experienced a conflict between their religion and their GBT identity, and in adulthood, they reached a resolution. Most participants abandoned Catholicism to join other religions or spiritual groups that they perceived to be welcoming. We found participants engaging in a remedial ideological work to reconcile their religious values and their identity.
Grace, Daniel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Chown, Sarah A; Jollimore, Jody; Parry, Robin; Gilbert, Mark
Limited research has explored how gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men describe the impact of their involvement in HIV and sexual health research. We enrolled 166 gay and bisexual men who tested HIV-negative at a community sexual health clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, into a year-long mixed methods study. Thirty-three of these participants who reported recent condomless anal intercourse were purposively recruited into an embedded qualitative study. Analysis revealed rich accounts of the self-described, interrelated impacts of study participation: (1) pride in contribution and community involvement (e.g., as a rationale for enrolment and an outcome of participation); (2) how one thinks about sexual behaviours and partnerships (e.g., encouraging reflection on the types and amount of sex they have had; in some cases the methods of quantitative data collection were said to have produced feelings of guilt or shame); and (3) experiencing research as a form of counselling (e.g., qualitative interviews were experienced as having a major therapeutic component to them). Our analysis underscores the importance of researchers being reflexive regarding how study participation in HIV research may impact participants, including unintended emotional and behavioural impacts.
Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.
The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs) in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598) provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1) residential and social boroughs; (2) residential and sex boroughs; (3) social and sex boroughs; and (4) residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential/socializing/sex boroughs
Molina, Y.; Ramirez-Valles, J.
Despite the increased interest in HIV/AIDS stigma and its negative effects on the health and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), little attention has been given to its assessment among Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to develop a multidimensional assessment of HIV/AIDS stigma for Latino GBT living with HIV/AIDS, and to test whether such stigma is related to self-esteem, safe sex self-efficacy, s...
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery
Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex.
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery
Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. PMID:27211584
E. Castro de Batänjer
Full Text Available Sabida la importante seroprevalencia en la Isla de Margarita para el HIV-1 nos propusimos conocer la seroprevalencia de HTLV-I/II en muestras de grupos epidemiologicamente importantes en su transmisión. El estudio se desarrolló con 141 trabajadoras sexuales y 40 hombres gays entre 1994 y 1997. Nuestros resultados permitieron establecer infección por HTLV-I en un hombre. Este es el primer reporte conocido sobre pesquisa epidemiológica de la infección por HTLV-I/II en la Isla de Margarita.In attention to the important HIV-1 seroprevalence observed in Margarita Island, we carried out this study to establish HTLV-I/II seroprevalence into target groups for sexual transmission. Therefore the survey was done with 141 female sex workers and 40 gay men between 1994 and 1997. We found HTLV-I infection in one man. This is the first known report to describe epidemiological features of HTLV-I/II infection in Margarita Island.
McKee, Michael B; Picciano, Joseph F; Roffman, Roger A; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C
Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel" (i.e., strategy) vis-à-vis the number of all callers, eligible callers, and enrolled callers, as well as reaching so-called "hard-to-serve" individuals. Nearly all channels offered success in reaching specific subgroups. Latinos responded favorably to posters, bisexuals responded favorably to paid media in an alternative (non-gay) publication, and precontemplators responded to referrals by family and friends. Although multiple recruitment strategies were used, three were crucial to the success of the project: (a) recruiters' presence in gay venues, (b) referrals by family and friends (snowball technique), and (c) paid advertisements in alternative (non-gay) local newspapers. Resource allocation and costs are also presented for each channel.
Grov, Christian; Cain, Demetria; Rendina, H Jonathan; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Gay and bisexual men are at elevated risk for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (GC/CT). Rectal GC/CT symptoms may be less obvious than urethral, increasing opportunities for undiagnosed rectal GC/CT. A US national sample of 1071 gay and bisexual men completed urethral and rectal GC/CT testing and an online survey. In total, 6.2% were GC/CT positive (5.3% rectal, 1.7% urethral). We calculated adjusted (for education, race, age, relationship status, having health insurance, and income) odds ratios for factors associated with rectal and urethral GC/CT diagnoses. Age was inversely associated with urethral and rectal GC/CT. Compared with white men, Latinos had significantly greater odds of rectal GC/CT. Among men who reported anal sex, those reporting only insertive sex had lower odds of rectal GC/CT than did men who reported both insertive and receptive. There was a positive association between rectal GC/CT and number of male partners (<12 months), the number of anal receptive acts, receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) acts, and insertive CAS acts. Compared with those who had engaged in both insertive and receptive anal sex, those who engaged in only receptive anal sex had lower odds of urethral GC/CT. The number of male partners (<12 months) was associated with increased odds of urethral GC/CT. Rectal GC/CT was more common than urethral and associated with some demographic and behavioral characteristics. Our finding that insertive CAS acts was associated with rectal GC/CT highlights that providers should screen patients for GC/CT via a full range of transmission routes, lest GC/CT go undiagnosed.
Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven
This study compared outcomes in methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors from a modified gay-specific, cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) combined with a low-cost contingency management (CM; [GCBT+CM]) intervention to prior findings from clinical trials of the original GCBT. Effect sizes for primary outcomes were compared using meta analysis. Comparisons of effect sizes at end of treatment showed the modified GCBT+CM produced significantly fewer consecutive weeks of methamphetamine abstinence (-0.44, CI: -0.79, -0.09) and fewer male sexual partners (-0.36, CI: -0.71, -0.02) than the first trial of GCBT, and more days of methamphetamine use (0.35, CI: 0.02, 0.68) than the second trial of GCBT. At 26-week follow-up, the modified GCBT+CM produced greater effects in reducing the number of male sexual partners (-0.54, CI: -0.89, -0.19; -0.51, CI: -0.84, -0.18). The original GCBT produced more and mostly short-term beneficial drug use outcomes, though sexual behavior changes consistently favored the modified GCBT+CM. On balance, most benefits are retained with the modified GCBT+CM intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Díaz, Rafael M; Ayala, George; Bein, Edward
Based on data from a probability sample of 912 Latino gay men in 3 U.S. cities, a multivariate model of sexual risk was tested, including experiences of homophobia, racism, and poverty as predictors. Participants reported multiple instances of verbal and physical abuse, rude mistreatment, and discrimination on account of their sexual orientation and their race or ethnicity. Many reported experiences of poverty, such as inability to pay for basic necessities of food or shelter. Men who reported more instances of social discrimination and financial hardship were more psychologically distressed and more likely to participate in "difficult" sexual situations, as predicted. Participation in difficult sexual situations mediates the effects of social oppression and psychological distress on sexual risk behavior. (c) 2004 APA
Ramchand, Rajeev; Fisher, Michael P.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Becker, Kirsten; Iguchi, Martin Y.
Substance use is high among gay and bisexual men attending weekend dance events, yet little research has investigated motivations for drug use and contextual factors influencing use in these settings. We hypothesized that beliefs about peer drug use interact with individuals’ own drug use intentions to predict use. 489 men attending weekend dance events completed an anonymous assessment asking about their own and their beliefs about other attendants’ drug use intentions – 47% completed a follow-up assessment after the event. Forty-four percent reported intending to use ecstasy at the event; intentions to use GHB, marijuana, cocaine, unprescribed Erectile Dysfunction Drugs (EDDs), and poppers were also high. Perceptions about other attendant’s drug use predicted use among those intending and those not intending to use drugs. Normative beliefs are important predictors of drug use at weekend dance events; event-specific prevention strategies should encompass messages that correct misperceptions of drug use among party attendants. PMID:23271598
Habarta, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Badal, Hannah; Johnston, Jennie; Uhrig, Jennifer; Green, Donata; Ruddle, Paul; Rosenthal, Jacqueline; Stryker, Jo Ellen
This study assessed exposure among Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) to a communication campaign, Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), and its association with HIV testing to determine campaign effectiveness. Data from an online survey (N = 3,105) were analyzed using propensity score weight-adjusted logistic regression to examine the effect of exposure on HIV testing. Among BMSM aged 18-44 (n = 702), 43.2% reported TMUS exposure. The majority of those exposed were aged 25-34 (54%), HIV-negative (65%), and had some college education (87%). TMUS exposure was associated with reported increased HIV testing behaviors at 6- and 12-month frequencies. Communication campaigns with clear implementation strategies, focused objectives, and online and event presence can be associated with longer-term outcomes such as HIV testing.
Currin, Joseph M.; Hubach, Randolph D.; Durham, André R.; Kavanaugh, Katherine E.; Vineyard, Zachary; Croff, Julie M.
The information shared in schools on sex education in the USA is highly variable depending on the state and sometimes city in which a student lives. Gay and bisexual students living in a socially conservative, primarily rural state such as Oklahoma often receive little information about sexual health information that pertains to their behaviours…
Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Denger, L.
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central
Sánchez, Francisco J; Vilain, Eric
Some gay men are preoccupied with traditional notions of masculinity and express negative feelings towards effeminate behavior in gay men. Various scholars have speculated that such attitudes by gay men reflect internalized negative feelings about being gay. Thus, we sought to assess the importance of masculinity among gay men, to compare their ideal versus perceived masculinity-femininity, to ask how gay men assess masculinity, and to test whether masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy could predict negative feelings about being gay. Results from an online survey of 751 gay men in the United States (MAge=32.64 years, SD=11.94) showed that the majority rated masculinity for themselves and in a same-sex partner as important, and they ideally wished that their behavior was more masculine (Cohen's d=.42) and less feminine (d=.42) than they perceived it to be. Furthermore, one's behavior was more important than how one looks when assessing masculinity. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they were preoccupied with masculinity and expressed anti-effeminacy accounted for 30% of the variance in negative feelings about being gay. These finding further support the idea that masculinity is an important construct for gay men and that masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy are related to negative feelings about being gay.
Duncan, Dustin T; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs) in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598) provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1) residential and social boroughs; (2) residential and sex boroughs; (3) social and sex boroughs; and (4) residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential/socializing/sex boroughs
Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin
Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated with a greater risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than with other ways of meeting partners. Data were analysed from the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, community-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted in Australian state capital cities between 2010 and 2014. χ 2 tests and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse differences in risk profiles of men who used different methods to meet partners. Data were analysed from 36 428 men who participated in the Gay Community Periodic Surveys between 2010 and 2014. In 2014, 4116 men reported meeting sex partners with the use of mobile apps, increasing from 23.9% in 2011 to 42.5% in 2014. Men who used a combination of online and offline methods reported a greater number of sex partners and were more likely to report a recent STI than men who used online methods only or offline methods only. There has been a steep increase in the use of mobile phone apps by gay men in Australia to meet male partners. However, men who use a combination of mobile phone apps, internet websites and offline places to meet partners appear to be at increased risk of STIs or HIV compared with men who use a narrower range of online and offline methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Rosenberger, Joshua G; Herbenick, Debby; Novak, David S; Reece, Michael
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by STIs and HIV. In addition to traditional risk factors, increasing attention has been given to the potential role of affective components of a sexual encounter, including mood state. To date, no study has described sexual behaviors engaged in by those who report being in love (or not) during a given sexual event. Internet-based survey data were collected from 24,787 gay and bisexual men who were members of online websites facilitating social or sexual interactions with other men. Measures included sociodemographics, recent sexual behavior history, sexual event characteristics, and perceptions of "love" with men's most recent male sexual partner. Participants' mean age was 39.2 years; ethnicities included white (84.6 %), Latino (6.4 %), and African American (3.6 %). Nearly all men (91 %) were matched by presence (I love him/he loves me), absence (I don't love him/he doesn't love me), or uncertainty (I don't know if I do/I don't know if he does) of love with their most recent sexual partner. Men who reported love for their partner and believed their partner loved them were significantly more likely to have engaged in behaviors such as cuddling and kissing on the mouth. Differences were also seen in regard to love and men's reports of anal intercourse and oral sex. Findings highlight differences in sexual behaviors based on perceptions of love and suggest the need to further explore how these differences influence sexual health.
Flowers, P; Riddell, J; Park, C; Ahmed, B; Young, I; Frankis, J; Davis, M; Gilbert, M; Estcourt, C; Wallace, L; McDaid, L M
The aim of the study was to explore preparedness for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) and those involved in HIV prevention and care. A mixed methods exploratory research design was employed, detailing awareness and willingness to use the self-test and the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were completed in parallel. Descriptive and inferential analysis of cross-sectional bar-based survey data collected from MSM through a self-completed questionnaire and oral fluid specimen collection (n = 999) was combined with qualitative, thematic, analysis of data collected through 12 expert focus groups (n = 55) consisting of gay men, National Health Service (NHS) staff, community organizations, entrepreneurs and activists. Findings were subsequently combined and assessed for synergies. Among MSM, self-test awareness was moderate (55%). Greater awareness was associated with increased educational attainment [adjusted odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.30; P = 0.05] and previous history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.11-2.39; P = 0.01). Willingness to use the test was high (89%) and associated with meeting sexual partners online (unadjusted odds ratio 1.96; 95% CI 1.31-2.94; P self-testing; it was understood as convenient, discreet, accessible, and with a low burden to services. However, some ambivalence towards self-testing was reported; it could reduce opportunities to engage with wider services, wider health issues and the determinants of risk. Self-testing represents an opportunity to reduce barriers to HIV testing and enhance prevention and access to care. Levels of awareness are moderate but willingness to use is high. Self-testing may amplify health inequalities. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Vissman, Aaron T; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. © The Author(s) 2011
Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob
Background Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men account for a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence in the United States, with one-third to two-thirds of these new HIV infections occurring within main partnerships. Early initiation and adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment is a key factor in treating and preventing the transmission of HIV; however, the average rate of adherence in the United States is low. Social support has been examined as a source of improving health for people experiencing a variety of chronic health conditions. This study aims to understand perceptions of how dyadic HIV care could influence partner-specific support for same-sex male couples with a goal of improving adherence. Methods Data were collected from 5 focus group (n = 35) discussions with gay and bisexual men in same-sex male relationships in Atlanta, GA. Participants discussed perceptions of how dyadic HIV care would impact partner support among serodiscordant and seroconcordant HIV-positive same-sex male couples. Verbatim transcripts were segmented thematically and systematically analyzed to examine patterns. Results Participants described how dyadic HIV care can facilitate emotional, informational, and instrumental support at various stages across the continuum of care, depending on partner dynamics. Participants stated that dyadic HIV care can provide an additional “sense of togetherness” and “solidarity” that helps to “alleviate stress.” Conclusions Results suggest that dyadic approaches for HIV care across the continuum may be useful in promoting partner support and improving adherence. Future research should further examine dyadic interventions for HIV treatment among same-sex male couples. PMID:25867781
Palmer, R; Bor, R
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and disease progression create imbalance in long-term, HIV-serodiscordant, gay male relationships, particularly in sexual relations and issues of physical and emotional intimacy. Stage of disease progression and worldview of the couple both affect the relationship and its survival. To redress imbalance, partners employ a range of coping strategies and techniques. This article explores these issues in the context of HIV serodiscordant gay couples and how they preserve their relationships in the face of these unique challenges. For workers who provide psychotherapeutic and community support for people with HIV and for their partners, the results of this study may be helpful in recognizing stress factors for couples, and tailoring support services to the needs of both partners. Overall, this study provides a basis for further work examining the dynamics of serodiscordant relationships.
Ceglarek, Peter; Darbes, Lynae; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, Jose
Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one’s sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men’s (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-repor...
Tu, Jia-Wei; Lee, Tien-Tsung
Relatively little research has investigated the association of information sources and the stereotyping of homosexuals in other cultures. This study is a survey of 226 Chinese college students about their stereotypes of homosexuals and their sources of information on gays and lesbians. The stereotyping of homosexuals is predicted by the size of community, interest in knowing homosexuals, and in-person contacts. A higher level of negative stereotypes is associated with frequent usage of Chinese media.
Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan
The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool.
Henderson, Neil John
Sexual practices among gay and other men who have sex with men are evolving in South Africa and heteronormative stereotypes are being contested. This paper draws from a larger qualitative study on how men construct a gay identity and negotiate their relationships within contemporary South African contexts, following constitutional and legal changes, in this respect. A feminist, social constructionist approach was used to collect and analyse data from in-depth interviews with 15 self-identified gay men, aged 20 to 46 years, drawn from a university in the larger Cape Metropole, South Africa. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic and narrative analysis. 'Bottoms' revealed being powerful in receptive sex. Other men deconstructed the binaries of masculine/feminine and resisted heteronormativity by engaging in fluid constructions in their relationships, whereby participants 'switched' or 'flipped' or did not recognise stereotypical roles when practising sex. There may be value in making these flexible and reciprocal sexual practices better known about and promoted as non-normative African models of sexual practice.
Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews conducted with a multi-racial/ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, California. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP’s effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent. PMID:21476147
Kupprat, Sandra A; Krause, Kristen D; Ompad, Danielle C; Halkitis, Perry N
Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older. Data from a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive MSM, aged 50 and older (N = 169) were gathered using a computer-assisted survey, researcher-administered behavioral and neurocognitive measures. More than 50% of the men used substances and had one or more cognitive impairments. However, only 25% were at higher risk for dementia (i.e., two or more cognitive impairments). Multivariable modeling indicated that use of alcohol to intoxication and date of HIV diagnosis were the strongest predictors of CAS in both a model that included dementia risk and a model that included impaired executive function risk. Current illicit substance use was a significant predictor of CAS only in the model that included dementia risk. Those with better cognitive and executive function had higher odds of CAS. However, only executive function was a significant cognitive predictor of CAS. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of cognitive function and substance use on sexual risk behaviors as these HIV-positive men achieve normal life expectancies, while continuing to use substances and engage in CAS. Furthermore, addiction treatment remains a critical need for this group even as they transition into later adulthood.
There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…
Yu, Dorothy; Hatala, Andrew R; Reimer, Joss; Lorway, Rob
Despite decreased rates of HIV infection in Winnipeg, syphilis incidence continues to rise. Communities of men who have sex with men shoulder much of this burden of illness. This qualitative study aimed to better understand the co-evolution of HIV and syphilis in Winnipeg through a series of interviews with gay men. Eighteen individuals were recruited through advertising in sexual health centres and through subsequent snowball sampling. Thematic interpretive analysis and inductive reasoning were used to find individual and shared group meanings. We found that HIV formed the contextual ground on which sexual decision-making was made, with three main themes emerging during interviews: 1) bacterial STI transience being contrasted against HIV permanence; 2) syphilis being 'dirty' versus HIV carrying significant stigma, though being spared the label of uncleanliness; and 3) the role of pleasure and intimacy in sexual health decision-making. Based on these findings, we recommend further exploration to develop more effective strategies around syphilis prevention, in particular with regards to the longer-term illness ramifications and its relationship to HIV transmission.
Kissen, Rita M.
This study explores issues of importance to gay and lesbian teachers. It seeks to answer questions and to dramatize the damaging effects of homophobia on the lives of gay teachers, as well as all teachers and students. The project was narrative and qualitative, consisting of informal and open ended interviews of 10 self-identifies gay or lesbian…
Steven A John
Full Text Available Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV transmission risk, barriers for uptake and persistence exist. We sought to identify whether GBM in a nationwide cohort who have not yet initiated PrEP (n = 906 would prefer to get PrEP-related care from a primary care provider (PCP compared to a specialist clinic or provider. We then sought to identify their level of interest and factors associated with preference for using home-based PrEP services (i.e., HB-PrEP, defined to participants as conducting HIV/STI self-testing from home with PrEP prescription mailing after an initial in-person clinic visit. We examined the associations of demographics, sexual HIV transmission risk, concern about frequent medical checkups associated with PrEP, health care access, and PrEP intentions with preferences for healthcare provider type and HB-PrEP. Concern about frequent medical checkups were associated with preferring a PCP for PrEP-related care, but men who perceived a barrier to bringing up the topic of PrEP with a doctor preferred a specialist clinic or provider more than a PCP. HB-PrEP was more appealing for younger men and those engaged in sexual HIV transmission risk, suggesting HB-PrEP could help reach GBM most vulnerable to HIV and in need of PrEP. HB-PrEP expansion has potential to increase PrEP uptake and persistence among GBM, particularly for men with barriers to clinic-based care and higher intentions to initiate PrEP. Clinical guidelines regarding HB-PrEP are needed to expand its use.
Sexual partner characteristics and incident rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a prospective cohort in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria.
Ramadhani, Habib O; Liu, Hongjie; Nowak, Rebecca G; Crowell, Trevor A; Ndomb, Teclaire; Gaydos, Charlotte; Peel, Sheila; Ndembi, Nicaise; Baral, Stefan D; Ake, Julie; Charurat, Man E
STIs including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) potentiate HIV acquisition and transmission especially among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the influence of sexual network composition on incident rectal NG and/or CT infections among Nigerian MSM. TRUST/RV368 is a cohort of MSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. MSM respondents (egos) provided STI risk factors and demographic information for up to five of their most recent sexual partners (alters) within their sexual networks. Egos were tested for HIV, NG and CT every 3 months. Log-binomial regression was used to assess associations between alter characteristics and incident NG and/or CT. Between March 2013 and October 2015, 492 MSM were longitudinally screened for STIs, of which 28.0% (n=138) were positive for incident rectal STI (61 NG only, 42 CT only and 35 NG and CT). Among egos, condom use was associated with STIs (half of the time vs never (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8), always/almost always vs never (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0)). Incident STIs were associated with having a younger alter ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0), HIV infection (aRR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.4 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) among regular alters and age ≤19 versus 30 years (aRR 0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6), HIV infection (aRR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) and engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol (aRR 1.2 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) among casual alters. Given the centrality of sexual partner characteristics as risks for incident STIs among Nigerian MSM, there is a need to move beyond individual interventions and syndromic surveillance and get 'out there' in the STI management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Knight, Rod; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Salway, Travis; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean
Globally, young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) continue to experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs). As such, there are strong public health imperatives to evaluate innovative prevention, treatment and care interventions, including online interventions. This study reviewed and assessed the status of published research (e.g. effectiveness; acceptability; differential effects across subgroups) involving online interventions that address HIV/STBBIs among young gbMSM. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar to identify relevant English-language publications from inception to November 2016. Studies that assessed an online intervention regarding the prevention, care, or treatment of HIV/STBBIs were included. Studies with gay and bisexual men; four studies did not assess sexual identity. Two studies reported including both HIV+ and HIV- participants, and all but one study included one or more measure of socio-economic status. Few studies reported on the differential intervention effects by socio-economic status, sexual identity, race or serostatus. While online interventions show promise at addressing HIV/STBBI among young gbMSM, to date, little emphasis has been placed on assessing: (i) potential differential effects of interventions across subgroups of young gbMSM; (ii) effectiveness studies of interventions in the dissemination phase; and (iii) on some "key" populations of young gbMSM (e.g. those who are: transgender, from low-income settings and/or HIV positive). Future research that unpacks the potentially distinctive experiences of particular subgroups with "real world" interventions is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.
McRee, Annie-Laurie; Shoben, Abigail; Bauermeister, Jose A; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D; Reiter, Paul L
Effective interventions to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are needed, particularly among populations at increased risk of HPV-related disease. We developed and pilot tested a web-based intervention, Outsmart HPV, to promote HPV vaccination among young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). In 2016, we recruited a national sample (n = 150) of YGBM ages 18-25 in the United States who had not received any doses of HPV vaccine. Participants were randomized to receive either standard HPV vaccination information (control) or population-targeted, individually-tailored content (Outsmart HPV intervention). We assessed between group differences in HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs immediately following the intervention using multiple linear regression. There were no differences in HPV vaccination attitudes, beliefs and intentions between groups at baseline. Compared to participants in the control group, intervention participants reported: greater perception that men who have sex with men are at higher risk for anal cancer relative to other men (b = 0.34); greater HPV vaccination self-efficacy (b = 0.15); and fewer perceived harms of HPV vaccine (b = -0.34) on posttest surveys (all p HPV intervention (all > 4.4 on a 5-point scale). Findings from this study provide preliminary support for a brief, tailored web-based intervention in improving HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs among YGBM. An important next step is to determine the effects of Outsmart HPV on HPV vaccine uptake. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02835755. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.
Harding, R; Bensley, J; Corrigan, N; Franks, L; Stratman, J; Waller, Z; Warner, J
This paper presents the first outcome evaluation of multi-session groupwork for HIV prevention among gay men in the UK. This community-based RCT recruited 50 men, of whom 42% were HIV-positive or untested, and 32% reported status unknown or serodiscordant UAI in the previous 12 months. No knowledge, skills, attitudinal or behavioural differences were detected between intervention and control at baseline. At eight weeks, those attending the group reported significant gains over their control in making sexual choices, physical safety, HIV and STI transmission knowledge, and sexual negotiation skills. At 20 weeks, significant differences remained for HIV and STI transmission knowledge and comfort with sexual choices. Although no behavioural differences were detected, the aims of the National Prevention Strategy were met. This pilot RCT is appraised in the light of modest sample size and attrition, and recommendations for establishing behavioural outcomes are presented. This study has demonstrated that high-risk community samples can be recruited to multi-session interventions, and has provided feasibility data for future rigorous evaluation designs.
Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and condomless sexual behaviors The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the past 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by Minority Stress Theory and Syndemic Theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health, CSB and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878
Parent, Mike C.; Torrey, Carrie; Michaels, Matthew S.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new cases of HIV infection in the United States. Yet, many MSM are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Consistent with research indicating that gender role conformity impacts health behaviors, this study examined how masculine norms may influence HIV testing among MSM in the United…
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…
Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim
Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it, or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black men aged 20–44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges, in particular, provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of ‘feminine-identifying’ men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either ‘masculine’ or as ‘both masculine and feminine’. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex socio-sexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033
Blain, Leah M; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has been limited in the literature. The present study aimed to examine the uniqueness of the association of CSA with CSB as compared to other experiences of child maltreatment; the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in CSB symptoms for individuals reporting CSA; and clinical differences between individuals with and without histories of CSA. Hypotheses were tested using data from a sample of 182 gay and bisexual men reporting CSB symptoms. CSA prevalence was high in the tested sample (39%). CSA severity was a unique predictor of CSB symptoms, above child physical and emotional abuse, and poly-victimization status was not significantly related to CSB symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, PTSD symptoms did not significantly mediate the role of CSA severity, although PTSD symptoms explained additional variance in CSB symptoms, with the final model accounting for over a quarter of the variance in CSB symptoms (27%). Finally, men with a history of CSA reported more CSB, depressive, and anxious symptoms than those without a history of CSA. Findings from the present study support the hypothesis that CSA may be uniquely related to CSB symptoms, above other forms of child maltreatment, and indicate that men with a CSA history are likely to present more severe clinical comorbidities. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gay men have been implicated in neoliberal urban development strategies (e.g. the creative city) as a ‘canary’ population that forecasts growth. Paradoxically, both neoliberal re-development of North American inner-cities and the ways in which gay men become neoliberalised as individuals contribute to the dissolution of urban gay communities. In contrast to discourses of homonormativity, which suggest that gay men’s declining attachments to gay communities stem from new equalities and consequ...
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.
Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A
This study analyzed event-level partnership data from a computer-assisted survey of 719 gay and bisexual men (GBM) enrolled in the Momentum Health Study to delineate potential linkages between anal sex roles and the so-called "sex drugs," i.e., erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), poppers, and crystal methamphetamine. Univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized linear mixed models with logit link function with sexual encounters (n = 2514) as the unit of analysis tested four hypotheses: (1) EDD are significantly associated with insertive anal sex roles, (2) poppers are significantly associated with receptive anal sex, (3) both poppers and EDD are significantly associated with anal sexual versatility, and (4) crystal methamphetamine is significantly associated with all anal sex roles. Data for survey respondents and their sexual partners allowed testing these hypotheses for both anal sex partners in the same encounter. Multivariable results supported the first three hypotheses. Crystal methamphetamine was significantly associated with all anal sex roles in the univariable models, but not significant in any multivariable ones. Other multivariable significant variables included attending group sex events, venue where first met, and self-described sexual orientation. Results indicate that GBM sex-drug use behavior features rational decision-making strategies linked to anal sex roles. They also suggest that more research on anal sex roles, particularly versatility, is needed, and that sexual behavior research can benefit from partnership analysis.
Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos
We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW.
Cook, Stephanie H; Valera, Pamela; Calebs, Benjamin J; Wilson, Patrick A
The present study examined the moderating effect of adult attachment on the association between childhood traumatic experiences, (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and being bullied), age of childhood traumatic experience, and young adult depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Self-report measures of attachment, childhood traumatic experiences, and depression symptoms were collected from a community-based sample of YBGBM living in New York City (n = 228). Regression analyses were conducted to address the study goals. Findings indicated that YBGBM who were more anxious in their adult attachment style and experienced being bullied or physically abused by a non-family member during childhood experienced greater depression in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less anxious in their adult attachment style. In addition, we found that being bullied later in childhood was associated with greater depression symptoms than being bullied earlier. Lastly, we found that YBGBM who were more avoidant and bullied later in adolescence reported more depression symptoms in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less avoidant in their attachment style. The findings suggest that it may be important to utilize an attachment perspective that is sensitive to age of traumatic experience when creating mental health and trauma interventions for YBGBM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Goedel, William C; Duncan, Dustin T
Geosocial-networking apps like Grindr have been used increasingly among men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet anonymous partners. These mobile dating apps employ global positioning system technology to facilitate connections with other users based on their current location. These new technologies have generated quicker and easier modes for men who have sex with men to meet potential partners based on attraction and physical proximity. The aim of this study is to describe geosocial-networking app use and recent sexual behaviors of MSM in the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area. Our sample was recruited from Grindr, the most commonly used of these mobile apps among MSM, using broadcast advertising. Advertisements were displayed over the course of a 72-hour period and participants were directed to a Web-based survey. In total, 604 men clicked through the advertisement, and 92 users completed the survey. One-third (38.0%) of the men reported using these mobile apps to meet new sexual partners, and one-fifth (18.5%) used them to "kill time" when bored. Men reporting currently being in a relationship were less likely to report using these mobile apps to meet other MSM to date or to find a boyfriend or romantic partner, but more likely to report using these mobile apps to meet other MSM to have sex, X (2) 24=12.1, P=.016. Respondents had current accounts on 3.11 mobile apps (SD 1.84) on average, with Grindr being the most common (100%), followed by Scruff (52.5%), and Jack'd (45.7%). Most men were most active in the late night (40.2%), and on weekdays (64.1%). Each day, on average, men reported opening these mobile apps 8.38 times (SD 8.10) and spent 1.31 hours (SD 1.15) on these mobile apps. The age respondents began using these mobile apps was associated with the age at their first instance of insertive anal sex (r80=.527, Pmobile apps and spend significant time on them. For these reasons, HIV prevention interventions could be delivered on these mobile apps.
van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin
This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…
Kus, Robert J
.... Addiction and Recovery is a vital resourcefor anyone providing servicesfor gay, lesbian, and bisexualclients. Rik Isensee,LCSW Author, LOVE BEIWEEN MEN, and GROWING UP GAY IN A DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILYMore pre-publication REVIEWS,COMMENTARIES, EVALUATIONS . .. "A ddiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons" is an excellentcollection of multifa...
Salway, Travis; Gesink, Dionne; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Ferlatte, Olivier; Rhodes, Anne E; Brennan, David J; Marchand, Rick; Trussler, Terry
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual men. This disparity is commonly interpreted using minority stress theory; however, specific pathways from antigay stigma to suicidal behavior are poorly understood. We aimed to estimate associations between multiple constructs of stigma and suicide attempts among adult GBM, and to measure the proportion of these associations mediated by distinct suicide risk factors, thus identifying proximal points of intervention. Data were drawn from a Canadian community-based survey of adult GBM. Structural equation modeling was used to compare associations between three latent constructs-enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination, harassment), anticipated prejudice (worry about encountering antigay/bisexual prejudice), and sexuality concealment-and self-reported suicide attempts (last 12 months). Coefficients were estimated for direct, indirect, and total pathways and evaluated based on magnitude and statistical significance. The proportion of associations mediated by depression, drug/alcohol use, and social isolation was calculated using indirect paths. Among 7872 respondents, 3.4% reported a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. The largest total association was observed for enacted stigma, and this association was partially mediated by depression and drug/alcohol use. The total association of anticipated prejudice was relatively smaller and mediated by depression and social isolation. Concealment had an inverse association with suicide attempts as mediated by depression but was also positively associated with suicide attempts when mediated through social isolation. Multiple constructs of antigay stigma were associated with suicide attempts; however, mediating pathways differed by construct, suggesting that a combination of strategies is required to prevent suicide in adult GBM.
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L.; Grov, Christian
Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups—Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD—that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures—temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition—as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits. PMID:25750052
Lachowsky, Nathan J; Saxton, Peter J W; Hughes, Anthony J; Dickson, Nigel P; Milhausen, Robin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair J S
Background Condom promotion remains a cornerstone of HIV/STI control, but must be informed by evidence of uptake and address disparities in use. This study sought to determine the prevalence of, and demographic, behavioural and relational factors associated with, condom use during insertive and receptive anal intercourse with casual partners among younger gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) in New Zealand. The 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data for YMSM aged 16-29 years was pooled. Separately for each sexual position, frequent (always/almost always) versus infrequent condom use was regressed onto explanatory variables using manual backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three-quarters of YMSM reported frequent condom use during insertive (76.0%) and receptive (73.8%) anal intercourse. YMSM who were exclusively insertive were more likely to report frequent condom use than versatile YMSM. Factors positively associated with frequent condom use, irrespective of sexual position were: in-person versus web-based recruitment, testing HIV negative versus never testing or testing HIV positive, having no recent sex with women, reporting two to five versus one male sexual partner in the past 6 months, reporting no current regular partner, but if in a regular relationship, reporting a boyfriend-type versus fuckbuddy-type partner, and frequent versus infrequent regular partner condom use. Pacific ethnicity and less formal education were negatively associated with frequent condom use only during receptive anal intercourse. The findings from this study demonstrate that condom norms can be actively established and maintained among YMSM. Condom promotion efforts must increase YMSM's capacity, agency and skills to negotiate condom use, especially for the receptive partner.
Effects of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying in childhood on depression, anxiety, and physical pain in emerging adulthood and the moderating effects of social support among gay and bisexual men in Taiwan
Full Text Available Chien-Chuan Wang,1,2 Huang-Chi Lin,2,3 Mu-Hong Chen,4,5 Nai-Ying Ko,6,7 Yu-Ping Chang,8 I-Mei Lin,9 Cheng-Fang Yen2,3 1Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate Institute of Medicine and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 4Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 7Nursing Department and Center for Infection Control, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 8School of Nursing, The State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 9Department of Psychology, College of Humanities and Social Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: This study examined the differences in the current levels of depression, anxiety, and physical pain in emerging adulthood among gay and bisexual men with various experiences of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying based on gender role nonconformity and sexual orientation and the moderating effects of family and peer support.Methods: A total of 500 gay or bisexual men (age 20–25 years in Taiwan were recruited from August 2015 to July 2017. The levels of depression, anxiety, and physical pain among gay or bisexual men who had experienced both traditional and cyber homophobic bullying (n=109, only traditional or cyber bullying (n=173, and neither traditional nor cyber bullying during childhood (n=218 were compared. The moderating effects of family and peer support on the effects of homophobic bullying victimization on depression, anxiety, and physical pain
Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.
Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T
Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.
Thériault, Nathanaelle; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet E; Nor, Mahdi
Continuous prevention efforts for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are recommended among those men who have sex with men (MSM). Creative use of e-technologies coupled with a better understanding of social networks could lead to improved health interventions among this risk population. The aims of the study were to (1) compare the impact of various advertising strategies on recruiting MSM participants to an online HIV/AIDS survey, and (2) explore the feasibility of using a social network service (SNS) for study advertising. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in 2009. South Australian men over 18 years were invited to participate if they had had sexual intercourse with men in the previous year. A short questionnaire was used to collect demographics and information on sexual behavior, HIV history, use of the Internet for dating purposes, and sources of health information. The survey was promoted in community settings and online, including advertisements through social networks. A total of 243 men completed the online survey during the 8-week data collection period. Online advertisements recruited 91.7% (220/240) of the sample. Conversely, traditional advertisements in the community recruited only 5.8% (14/240) of the sample. Ten volunteers were asked to advertise on their personal SNS application, but only 2 effectively did so. Only 18/240 (7.5%) of the respondents reported having learned of our study through the SNS application. In this sample, 19.3% (47/243) of participants had never been tested for HIV. Among the participants who had been tested, 12.8% (25/196) reported being HIV-positive. Regarding Internet use, 82.3% (200/243) of participants had dated online in the previous 6 months. Among the participants who had dated online, most (175/200, 87.5%) had found an Internet sexual partner and two-thirds (132/200, 66.0%) had had anal sex with these partner(s). Among men who had anal sex with an Internet
Alexander, Christopher J
...: parenting, coming out processes of lesbians, gay men's self-image, adolescence as a homosexual, parental guidance of homosexual children, eating disorders, aging, dual needs of ethnic homosexuals...
Surkan, Pamela J; Li, Ying; Jacobson, Lisa P; Cox, Christopher; Silvestre, Anthony; Gorbach, Pamina; Teplin, Linda; Plankey, Michael
The aim of this study was to determine the association between psychosocial determinants of unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) and unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI). Data from 417 HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from April 1999 to March 2012 were analyzed and adjusted odds were calculated. It was found that 66% (n = 277) and 72% (n = 299) reported any UIAI or URAI over follow-up, respectively. Cumulative cART-years (median = 5.30 years) was associated with 33 and 47% increases in UIAI and URAI, respectively. Not having reduced concern about HIV transmission (UIAI: OR 0.37, p-value = 0.0004; URAI: OR 0.57, p-value = 0.04), increased safe sex fatigue (UIAI: OR 2.32, 95% p-value = 0.0002; URAI: OR 1.94, p-value = 0.003), and sexual sensation seeking (UIAI: OR 1.76, p-value = 0.002; URAI: OR 1.56, p-value = 0.02) were associated with UIAI and URAI. Serosorting was associated with UIAI (OR 6.11, p-value < 0.0001) and URAI (OR 6.80, p-value < 0.0001). Findings suggest that negative attitudes about HIV transmission are sustained among older men who have sex with men.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" are peripheral vasodilators which, since the beginning of the epidemic, have been known to increase risk for acquiring HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, few studies in recent years have characterized use. From 1999 to 2004, new HIV diagnoses among MSM in British Columbia increased 78%, prompting us to examine the prevalence and correlates of this modifiable HIV risk factor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed between October 2002 and May 2004 as part of an open cohort study of HIV-seronegative young MSM. We measured nitrite inhalant use during the previous year and use during sexual encounters with casual partners specifically. Correlates of use were identified using odds ratios. Results Among 354 MSM surveyed, 31.6% reported any use during the previous year. Nitrite inhalant use during sexual encounters was reported by 22.9% of men and was strongly associated with having casual partners, with greater numbers of casual partners (including those with positive or unknown serostatus and with anal intercourse with casual partners. Nitrite inhalant use was not associated with non-use of condoms with casual sexual partners per se. Conclusion Contemporary use of nitrite inhalants amongst young MSM is common and a strong indicator of anal intercourse with casual sexual partners. Since use appears to increase the probability of infection following exposure to HIV, efforts to reduce the use of nitrite inhalants among MSM should be a very high priority among HIV prevention strategies.
Hammoud, Mohamed A; Jin, Fengyi; Lea, Toby; Maher, Lisa; Grierson, Jeffrey; Prestage, Garrett
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) use oral erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) often with little evidence of medical indication necessitating their use. To investigate the prevalence, contexts, and motivations for oral EDM use and its relation to sexual risk behavior. A total of 2,250 Australian GBM completed an online survey of licit and illicit drug use and their associated behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with use of EDMs in the previous 6 months and, for those who had used EDMs, factors associated with use on a weekly basis. Any EDM use and at least weekly use in the previous 6 months. The median age of the sample was 33.0 years (range = 16-81). Two thirds (67.7%) reported no lifetime history of EDM use. Approximately 1 in 10 participants (11.1%) had last used an EDM more than 6 months previously. In the previous 6 months, 11.5% reported using EDMs less than monthly, 5.3% reported using EDMs approximately monthly, and 4.5% reported using EDMs at least weekly. Of men who had used EDMs in the previous 6 months, common reasons cited for its use were to maintain an erection for longer (73.3%), to make it easier to "get hard" (67.3%), and difficulty in attaining or maintain an erection (53.5%). Use of EDMs in the previous 6 months was associated with illicit drug use and higher rates of sexual risk behavior. Weekly users were more likely to have severe anxiety than less frequent users. The use of EDMs in the context of intensive sex partying, with the associated potential for increased risk of HIV transmission and illicit drug use, indicates a need to consider the use of EDMs among GBM in HIV prevention and minimizing harm. This large-scale study of drug use among GBMs includes comprehensive detailed data on their history of use and rationales for use. Our online methodology potentially decreases social desirability bias in reporting illegal or stigmatized behaviors. This volunteer online convenience sample might not
Monterrubio, J. Carlos
The present article aims to contribute to the recognition of two relevant aspects in gay travel; identity and sex. The paper explores the existing published work related to the relationships between tourism, gay men and identity. It concludes that the issue of identity commonly plays a crucial role as a travel reason in gay tourism. Also, it analyses the research evidence to suggest that sex is a frequently-present phenomenon in gay travel. By critically analysing the available research, the ...
Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Ghani, Mansur A; Nogg, Kelsey; Winder, Terrell J A; Soto, Juliana K
Biomedical HIV prevention strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), represent new opportunities to reduce critically high HIV infection rates among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We report results of 24 dyadic qualitative interviews (N=48), conducted in Los Angeles, CA, exploring how YBMSM and their friends view PrEP and PEP. Interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants had widely divergent levels of knowledge about these prevention methods. Misconceptions and mistrust regarding PrEP were common, and concerns were expressed about PrEP-related stigma and the potential for gossip among peers who might assume a person on PrEP was HIV-positive. Yet participants also framed PrEP and PEP as valuable new options within an expanded "tool kit" of HIV prevention strategies that created possibilities for preventing new HIV infections, dating men with a different HIV status, and decreased anxiety about exposure to HIV. We organized themes around four main areas: (1) information and misinformation about biomedical HIV prevention; (2) expectations about PrEP, sexual behavior, and stigma; (3) gossip, disclosure, and "spreading the word" about PrEP and PEP; and (4) the roles of PrEP and PEP in an expanded HIV prevention tool kit. The findings suggest a need for guidance in navigating the increasingly complex array of HIV-prevention options available to YBMSM. Such "prevention navigation" could counter misconceptions and address barriers, such as stigma and mistrust, while helping YBMSM make informed selections from among expanded HIV prevention options.
Closson, K; Lachowsky, N J; Cui, Z; Shurgold, S; Sereda, P; Rich, A; Moore, D M; Roth, E A; Hogg, R S
To determine factors associated with age-disparate sexual partners among Vancouver gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). Sexually active GBM aged ≥16 years were recruited from February 2012 to February 2014. Participants self-completed a questionnaire on demographics, attitudes and sexual behaviour and substance use at last sexual event with five most recent partners. Two generalised linear mixed models identified factors associated with: (1) 'same-age' (referent), 'younger' or 'much-younger' and (2) 'same-age' (referent), 'older' or 'much-older' partners. Statistical interactions between age and HIV status were tested. Participants (n=719) were predominantly gay (85.1%), White (75.0%), HIV-negative/unknown status (72.9%) with median age of 33 years (Q1,Q3: 26,47). A minority of sexual events were reported with much-older/much-younger partners (13.7%). In the multivariable models, GBM reporting older partners were more likely to be Asian or Latino, have greater Escape Motivation scores, report their partner used erectile dysfunction drugs (EDDs) and have received something for sex; compared with condom-protected insertive anal sex, participants with older partners were more likely to report condomless insertive anal sex with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner or no insertive anal sex. GBM reporting older partners were less likely to be bisexual-identified, have given something for sex and report event-level alcohol and EDD use. GBM reporting younger partners were more likely to have annual incomes >$30 000 and have met their partner online. As per significant statistical interactions, age-disparate relations were more common for younger HIV-positive and older HIV-negative GBM. Differences among age-disparate partners highlight important targets for health promotion and future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Despite the significance for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) control in East Asia, few studies have examined the relationship between high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. We investigated how three sexually vulnerable groups for STDs show differences in condom use behaviors (CUBs) depending on their STD infection. The source of data came from the National Survey for STD Prevalence Rate and Sexual Behavior of the High-Risk Sexual Community. The effects of behavioral determinants on CUBs were estimated by using path analysis models. An 11-item questionnaire assessing subjects' health risk behaviors, sexual beliefs, sexual risk behaviors, and condom use. Condom use was higher for men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 108) when they were bisexuals and had high self-efficacy, for Johns (Johns; n = 118) when they had experience of STD infection, and for female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,083) when they had high self-efficacy, did not engage in drunken sex, and were anxious about infection. Regardless of whether they were infected with STDs, FSWs always used condom when they had high sexual beliefs. On the contrary, Johns exhibited a negative relationship between sexual risk behavior and condom use when they had experience of STD infection. The variable commonly significant to all three groups was the number of sex partners; but it exhibited a positive relationship with MSMs and Johns, and a negative one with FSWs. CUBs were related to sexual beliefs as well as sexual risk behavior. At the same time, the experience of STD infection mediated the relationship between the two. Therefore, we need to draw social attention to promote safer sex among STD-vulnerable groups.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the significance for sexually transmitted diseases (STD control in East Asia, few studies have examined the relationship between high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. We investigated how three sexually vulnerable groups for STDs show differences in condom use behaviors (CUBs depending on their STD infection. METHODS: The source of data came from the National Survey for STD Prevalence Rate and Sexual Behavior of the High-Risk Sexual Community. The effects of behavioral determinants on CUBs were estimated by using path analysis models. An 11-item questionnaire assessing subjects' health risk behaviors, sexual beliefs, sexual risk behaviors, and condom use. RESULTS: Condom use was higher for men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 108 when they were bisexuals and had high self-efficacy, for Johns (Johns; n = 118 when they had experience of STD infection, and for female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,083 when they had high self-efficacy, did not engage in drunken sex, and were anxious about infection. Regardless of whether they were infected with STDs, FSWs always used condom when they had high sexual beliefs. On the contrary, Johns exhibited a negative relationship between sexual risk behavior and condom use when they had experience of STD infection. The variable commonly significant to all three groups was the number of sex partners; but it exhibited a positive relationship with MSMs and Johns, and a negative one with FSWs. CONCLUSIONS: CUBs were related to sexual beliefs as well as sexual risk behavior. At the same time, the experience of STD infection mediated the relationship between the two. Therefore, we need to draw social attention to promote safer sex among STD-vulnerable groups.
Hirshfield, Sabina; Downing, Martin J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Grov, Christian; Gordon, Rachel J; Houang, Steven T; Scheinmann, Roberta; Sullivan, Patrick S; Yoon, Irene S; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) accounted for 67% of new US human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in 2012; however, less than 40% of HIV-positive GBMSM are virally suppressed. Preventing transmission from virally unsuppressed men who have condomless anal sex (CAS) with serodiscordant partners is a public health imperative. New HIV infections in GBMSM are attributed in part to online access to sex partners; therefore, low-cost eHealth interventions are a unique opportunity to reach men where they meet partners. To describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial evaluating whether video-based messaging delivered online may lead to reductions in serodiscordant CAS and increased HIV disclosure. Sex Positive!([+]) is a two-arm, phase III, video-based randomized controlled trial delivered online to GBMSM living with HIV. Participants in the intervention arm receive 10 video vignettes grounded in social learning and social cognitive theories that are designed to elicit critical thinking around issues of HIV transmission and disclosure. Participants in the attention control arm receive 10 video vignettes that focus on healthy living. All videos are optimized for mobile viewing. The study protocol includes five online assessments conducted over a 1-year period among 1500 US white, black, or Hispanic/Latino GBMSM living with HIV who report suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence or a detectable viral load in the past 12 months and recent CAS (past 6 months) with HIV-negative or unknown status male partners. Compared to the control arm, we hypothesize that men who watch the intervention videos will report at 12-month follow-up significantly fewer serodiscordant CAS partners, increased HIV disclosure, and improved social cognition (eg, condom use self-efficacy, perceived responsibility). Participant recruitment began in June 2015 and ended in December 2015. This protocol describes the underlying theoretical framework and
Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.
Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, S X; Shoptaw, S; Reback, C J; Yadav, K; Nyamathi, A M
A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners. A deconstructive cost analysis approach was utilized to capture direct costs associated with the delivery of both interventions. Based on an analysis of activity logs and staff interviews, specific activities and the time required to complete each were analyzed as follows: a) NCM + CM only; b) SE + CM only; c) time to administer/record vaccines; and d) time to receive and record CM visits. Cost comparison of the interventions included only staffing costs and direct cash expenditures. The study outcomes showed significant over time reductions in all measures of drug use and multiple sex partners, compared to baseline, although no significant between-group differences were detected. Cost analysis favored the simpler SE + CM intervention over the more labor-intensive NCM + CM approach. Because of the high levels of staffing required for the NCM relative to SE, costs associated with it were significantly higher. Findings suggest that while both intervention strategies were equally effective in achieving desired health outcomes, the brief SE + CM appeared less expensive to deliver. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Ronald A; Landovitz, Raphael J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Lieber, Eli; Lee, Sung-Jae; Barkley, Thomas W
The objective of this mixed methods study was to examine current sexual risk behaviors, acceptability and potential adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, and sexual behavior intentions with PrEP adoption among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men (GBM) in HIV serodiscordant relationships. A multiracial/ethnic sample of 25 HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships completed a qualitative interview and a brief interviewer-administered survey. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify key themes relating to acceptability and future adoption of PrEP. Participants reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. Participants also reported a high level of acceptability for PrEP and willingness to adopt PrEP for HIV prevention. Qualitative themes explaining future PrEP adoption included: (1) the opportunity to engage in sex using a noncondom HIV prevention method, (2) protection from HIV infection, and (3) less anxiety when engaging in sex with an HIV-positive partner. Associated with the future adoption of PrEP, a majority (64%) of participants indicated the likelihood for an increase in sexual risk behaviors and a majority (60%) of participants also indicated the likelihood for a decrease or abandonment of condom use, both of which are in contrast to the findings from the large iPrEx study. These findings suggest that the use of PrEP by HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships carries with it the potential for risk compensation. The findings suggest that PrEP only be offered as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy that includes ongoing risk reduction counseling in the delivery of PrEP to help moderate risk compensation.
Scheim, Ayden I; Travers, Robb
Transgender men who have sex with men (trans MSM) may be at elevated risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and therefore require access to HIV and STI testing services. However, trans people often face stigma, discrimination, and gaps in provider competence when attempting to access health care and may therefore postpone, avoid, or be refused care. In this context, quantitative data have indicated low access to, and uptake of, HIV testing among trans MSM. The present manuscript aimed to identify trans MSM's perspectives on barriers and facilitators to HIV and STI testing. As part of a community-based research project investigating HIV risk and resilience among trans MSM, 40 trans MSM aged 18 and above and living in Ontario, Canada participated in one-on-one qualitative interviews in 2013. Participants described a number of barriers to HIV and other STI testing. These included both trans-specific and general difficulties in accessing sexual health services, lack of trans health knowledge among testing providers, limited clinical capacity to meet STI testing needs, and a perceived gap between trans-inclusive policies and their implementation in practice. Two major facilitators were identified: access to trusted and flexible testing providers, and integration of testing with ongoing monitoring for hormone therapy. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for enhancing access to HIV and STI testing for this key population.
Petersen, Michael Nebeling
Based on eight interviews with Danish gay male couples and one gayman, who had or were planning to become fathers through transnationalcommercial surrogacy, I examine the ways the men form familysubjectivities between traditional kinship patterns and fundamentally newforms of kinship and family....... Arguing that class, mobility, and privilegeshould also be understood as relational and negotiated positions, I showthat gay men engaged in surrogacy must be understood as more flexibleand differentiated. Second, I show how kinship as synonymous withbiogenetic relatedness is supplemented by notions...
Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Goedel, William C; Kreski, Noah T; Morganstein, Jace G; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Chaix, Basile
Recent studies have examined sleep health among men who have sex with men (MSM), but no studies have examined associations of neighborhood characteristics and sleep health among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighborhood safety and sleep health among a sample of MSM in Paris, France. We placed broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM in October 2016 to recruit users in the Paris (France) metropolitan area (n = 580). Users were directed to complete a web-based survey, including previously used items measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, validated measures of sleep health, and socio-demographics. Modified Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between perceived neighborhood safety and the following outcomes: (1) poor sleep quality, (2) short sleep duration, and (3) self-reported sleep problems. Poor sleep health was common in our sample; e.g., 30.1% reported poor sleep quality and 44.7% reported problems falling asleep. In multivariate regression models, perceived neighborhood safety was associated with poor sleep quality, short sleep duration, and having sleep problems. For example, reporting living in a neighborhood perceived as unsafe during the daytime (vs. safe) was associated with poor sleep quality (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01, 2.52), short sleep duration (aRR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26, 2.94), problems falling asleep (aRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17, 2.11), and problems staying awake in the daytime (aRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05, 4.43). Interventions to increase neighborhood safety may improve sleep health among MSM.
Duncan, Dustin T; Goedel, William C; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Palamar, Joseph J; Hagen, Daniel; Jean-Louis, Girardin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of poor sleep health (ie, poor sleep quality and short sleep duration) in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). In addition, this study examined whether poor sleep health was associated with depressive symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors in this sample. Cross-sectional survey. Broadcast advertisements were placed on a popular smartphone application for MSM in January 2016 to recruit users in the London metropolitan area (n=202) to complete a Web-based survey, which included validated measures of sleep quality and duration. Poor sleep quality was defined based on self-report as very or fairly bad. Short sleep duration was defined as less than 7 hours each night. Regression models were used to assess associations between sleep variables and self-reported depressive symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. About one-third (34.6%) of the respondents reported poor sleep quality and almost half (43.6%) reported sleeping less than 7 hours every night. Several poor sleep health variables were independently associated with depressive symptoms, substance use (eg, use of alcohol or marijuana), and condomless anal intercourse. For example, typical nightly sleep duration of less than 7 hours was associated with condomless receptive anal intercourse with a higher number of sexual partners (incidence rate ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval: 1.63-4.30; PSleep health promotion interventions should be developed for MSM, which may promote positive mental health as well as reduce substance use and sexual risk behaviors in this population. Copyright \\© 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Study of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Abuse, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men in a Sample of Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Application Users.
Duncan, Dustin T; Goedel, William C; Stults, Christopher B; Brady, William J; Brooks, Forrest A; Blakely, Jermaine S; Hagen, Daniel
Geosocial-networking smartphone applications ("apps") are widely used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and facilitate connections between users based on proximity and attraction. MSM have sexual encounters and relationships of varying degrees of emotional and physical intimacy with app-met individuals, potentially placing them at risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of the current study was to utilize a geosocial-networking application to investigate relationships between experiences of IPV victimization as it relates to substance use and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of MSM. Participants ( n = 175) were recruited by means of broadcast advertisements on an application widely used by MSM (Grindr) to seek sexual partners. Multivariable regression models were fit to examine associations between IPV, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors. Lifetime experiences of IPV victimization were common, where 37.7% of respondents reported having experienced at least one form of IPV. While a marginally significant positive association between IPV and substance abuse was detected in multivariable models ( p = .095), individual forms of IPV were strongly associated with substance abuse. For example, sexual IPV victimization was associated with an increase in substance abuse in the preceding month ( p = .004). Experiences of IPV victimization were associated with higher numbers of partners for both condomless receptive and insertive anal intercourse ( p < .05). Given the relatively high prevalence of IPV victimization and its associations with substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors, these findings suggest that IPV screening and prevention programs may reduce substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors in this population.
Fantus, Sophia; Souleymanov, Rusty; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Brennan, David J
Mobile applications and socio-sexual networking websites are used by outreach workers to respond synchronously to questions and provide information, resources, and referrals on sexual health and STI/HIV prevention, testing, and care to gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GB2M). This exploratory study examined ethical issues identified by online outreach workers who conduct online sexual health outreach for GB2M. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted between November 2013 and April 2014 with online providers and managers (n = 22) to explore the benefits, challenges, and ethical implications of delivering online outreach services in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analyses were conducted, and member-checking, analyses by multiple coders, and peer debriefing supported validity and reliability. Four themes emerged on the ethical queries of providing online sexual health outreach for GB2M: (a) managing personal and professional boundaries with clients; (b) disclosing personal or identifiable information to clients; (c) maintaining client confidentiality and anonymity; and (d) security and data storage measures of online information. Participants illustrated familiarity with potential ethical challenges, and discussed ways in which they seek to mitigate and prevent ethical conflict. Implications of this analysis for outreach workers, researchers, bioethicists, and policy-makers are to: (1) understand ethical complexities associated with online HIV prevention and outreach for GB2M; (2) foster dialogue to recognize and address potential ethical conflict; and (3) identify competencies and skills to mitigate risk and promote responsive and accessible online HIV outreach.
Chesebro, James W., Ed.
In a departure from previous statistical studies, this book focuses on the social responses to homosexuality rather than on homosexual behavior itself. The essays in the book maintain that communication--how gay men and lesbians relate to one another as well as to heterosexuals--is the major factor that determines public opinion about…
Patel, Viraj V; Masyukova, Mariya; Sutton, Desmond; Horvath, Keith J
Urban young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women continue to experience high rates of new HIV infections in the USA, yet most of this population is not reached by current prevention interventions. The rate of Internet and social media use among youth is high. However, continually updated understanding of the associations between social media access and use and HIV risk behaviors is needed to reach and tailor technology-delivered interventions for those most vulnerable to HIV-racially and ethnically diverse urban YMSM and transgender persons. Thus, we conducted an in-person, venue-based cross-sectional survey among young gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals at locations primarily visited by Black and Latino gay and bisexual and transgender individuals in New York City to understand social media use and how it may relate to HIV risk behaviors to inform social media-based interventions. Among 102 primarily Black and Latino gay and bisexual men (75.5 %) and transgender women (19.6 %), over 90 % were under 30 years of age, 18.6 % reported homelessness in the past 6 months, and 10.8 % reported having HIV. All participants used social media, most accessed these platforms most often via a mobile device (67.6 %) and most logged on multiple times per day (87.3 %). Participants used social media to seek sex partners (56.7 %), exchange sex for money or clothes (19.6 %), and exchange sex for drugs (9.8 %). These results confirm prior studies demonstrating the feasibility of using social media platforms to reach at-risk, urban youth. Of particular concern is the association between recent STI and exchanging sex for money/clothes and drugs. Interventions using social media for young, urban minority MSM and transgender populations should incorporate risk reduction modules addressing exchange partners and promote frequent and regular HIV/STI testing.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.
Full Text Available Se reportan los resultados de un estudio sobre las actitudes implícitas de jóvenes universitarios chilenos hacia los hombres homosexuales (N = 117, obtenidas por medio del Implicit Association Test (IAT. Se comparan las actitudes implícitas de hombres y mujeres con las obtenidas por medio de una medida explícita, la Escala de Actitudes hacia Hombres Gay (ATG. Los hombres muestran actitudes explícitas más desfavorables hacia los homosexuales que las mujeres. Las diferencias desaparecen cuando se mide la actitud implícita, mostrando que hombres y mujeres tienen una actitud implícita negativa hacia los hombres homosexuales, lo que indicaría que la aparente disminución del prejuicio que puede constatarse en auto-reportes, o asociada a ciertos grupos, podría encubrir el hecho que las actitudes automáticas pudieran no haber cambiado.The article reports Chilean college students' implicit attitudes toward homosexual men (N = 117, measured through the Implicit Association Test (IAT.The study compared young men a