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Sample records for self-evaluations job autonomy

  1. Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…

  2. Job characteristics, core self-evaluations, and job satisfaction: what's age got to do with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besen, Elyssa; Matz-Costa, Christina; Brown, Melissa; Smyer, Michael A; Pitt-Catsouphes, Martha

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between age and job satisfaction. To date, there is little research about how many well-known predictors of job satisfaction, specifically job characteristics and core self-evaluations, may vary with age. Using a multi-worksite sample of 1,873 employed adults aged 17 to 81, this study evaluated the extent to which several job characteristics and core self-evaluations varied in their relationships with job satisfaction for workers of different ages. Findings suggest that the positive relationships between job satisfaction and skill variety, autonomy, and friendship weaken as employee age increases, while the positive relationships between job satisfaction and dealing with others, task identity, task significance, feedback, and core self-evaluations did not vary with age. The findings extend previous research by examining how the factors important for job satisfaction vary for employees of different ages.

  3. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  4. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work

  5. Job Characteristics, Core Self-Evaluations, and Job Satisfaction: What's Age Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besen, Elyssa; Matz-Costa, Christina; Brown, Melissa; Smyer, Michael A.; Pitt-Catsouphes, Martha

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between age and job satisfaction. To date, there is little research about how many well-known predictors of job satisfaction, specifically job characteristics and core self-evaluations, may vary with age. Using a multi-worksite sample of 1,873 employed adults aged 17 to 81, this study evaluated the extent…

  6. How can core self-evaluations influence job burnout? The key roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Tian, Yu; Miao, Danmin; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Jiaxi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how core self-evaluations influenced job burnout and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A total of 583 female nurses accomplished the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The results revealed that core self-evaluations, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job burnout were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that core self-evaluations can significantly influence job burnout and are completely mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…

  8. Autonomy and job satisfaction for a sample of Greek teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios D; Karabatzaki, Despina; Kousteliou, Ioanna

    2004-12-01

    Analysing the relation between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy in a sample of 300 Greek teachers (114 men and 186 women, 28 to 59 years old) from primary and secondary schools, showed statistically significant positive correlations between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy. Particularly, Autonomy was correlated with Job Itself (.21), Supervision (.22), and the Organizational as a Whole (.27), aspects of Job Satisfaction. Findings are in line with previous studies conducted in different cultural contexts. Percent common variance accounted for is small.

  9. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Perceived autonomy support, motivation regulations and the self-evaluative tendencies of student dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Limited research has considered the social-environmental and motivational processes predictive of self evaluations and body-related concerns. Evidence suggests that low self-esteem, poor body evaluations, and associated anxieties are particularly prevalent among the student dance population. Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study examined the relationships among perceptions of autonomy support, motivation regulations, and self-evaluations of body-related concerns in the context of vocational dance. Three hundred and ninety-two dancers completed questionnaires regarding their perceptions of autonomy support in their dance school, reasons for engaging in dance, self-esteem, social physique anxiety (SPA), and body dissatisfaction. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that perceived autonomy support predicted intrinsic motivation (+) and amotivation (-). Extrinsic regulation positively predicted SPA. Amotivation mediated the associations between perceptions of autonomy support and dancers' self-esteem, SPA, and body dissatisfaction. The utility of SDT in understanding predictors of self-worth, physical evaluations, and associated concerns was supported. Moreover, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the applicability of SDT in dance contexts.

  11. Why job autonomy matters for young companies' performance: company maturity as a moderator between job autonomy and company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.O.; Jansen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive impact of job autonomy has been widely shown for individual-level employee outcomes, research on job autonomy and company-level outcomes has been surprisingly scarce. Therefore, among 3,311 companies in the Netherlands, we investigate the relationship between employees' job

  12. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A . de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  13. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G.; Verhoeven, Corine J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  14. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  15. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, J. de; Schellevis, F.; Verhoeven, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  16. Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Organizational and Community Embeddedness.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyler, Jennifer D.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends job embeddedness and job satisfaction theory in several notable directions. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that community embeddedness was a partial mediator of the relationship between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction. Contrary to job embeddedness theory, this study found that organizational embeddedness and job satisfaction were best represented by a single latent factor. Thus, organizational embeddedness did not act as a mediator of the ...

  17. Core Self-Evaluations and Job and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating and Moderated Mediating Role of Job Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Hsien; Huang, Jie-Tsuen

    2017-04-03

    This study examined the mediating role of job insecurity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction, while also investigating the moderating role of job insecurity in the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Survey data were collected from a sample of 346 full-time employees in Taiwan. We found that job insecurity partially mediated the CSE-job satisfaction relationship. Moreover, we found that job insecurity moderated not only the relationship between CSE and job satisfaction but also the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Specifically, both the CSE-job satisfaction relationship and the CSE-job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship became stronger when job insecurity was low. Our results emphasize the importance of raising employees' CSE, which is beneficial not only for diminishing their perceptions of job insecurity, but also for boosting their job and life satisfaction. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Longitudinal Relationships between Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Griffin, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Core self-evaluations (CSE) have been proposed as a static personality trait that influences individuals' work experiences. However, CSE can also be influenced by work experiences. Based on the corresponsive principle of personality development, this study incorporated both dispositional and contextual perspectives to examine longitudinal…

  19. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  20. Effective Autonomy, Organisational Relationships and Skilled Jobs in Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how the proportion of skilled jobs in subsidiaries is influenced by resource gaps created by subsidiary development. Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a range of propositions that connect the constructs of effective autonomy...... implications – The conceptual model can help parent company managers assess the likely effects of developments in effective autonomy and organisational relationships in their subsidiaries. Subsidiary managers can assess the possible impact of such factors as development of entrepreneurial activities......, specialization within the multinational corporation supply chain and enhancement of absorptive capacity on the proportion of skilled jobs. Originality/value – This paper is the first to describe subsidiary development from a skilled job perspective. It further develops the concept of autonomy and introduces...

  1. [Physician and autonomy: on time perception and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Is it true that haste is sneaking into medicine? In this article, it is argued that it mainly concerns the perception of being rushed, which is caused by a loss of autonomy of the modern physician. In the fifties, physicians were busy as well, but because they enjoyed a greater degree of autonomy compared to their contemporary colleagues, they did not experience this in a negative way. Due to increased bureaucracy and the introduction of market dynamics, the medical profession has lost autonomy, which in turn led to a loss of job satisfaction.

  2. Effects of core self-evaluations on the job burnout of nurses: the mediator of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xianmin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Chen, Wuying

    2014-01-01

    To explore the impact of Core self-evaluations on job burnout of nurses, and especially to test and verify the mediator role of organizational commitment between the two variables. Random cluster sampling was used to pick up participants sample, which consisted of 445 nurses of a hospital in Shanghai. Core self-evaluations questionnaire, job burnout scale and organizational commitment scale were administrated to the study participants. There are significant relationships between Core self-evaluations and dimensions of job burnout and organizational commitment. There is a significant mediation effect of organizational commitment between Core self-evaluations and job burnout. To enhance nurses' Core self-evaluations can reduce the incidence of job burnout.

  3. The nonlinear effects of job complexity and autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yan, Greg A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  4. Library Informational Technology Workers: Their Sense of Belonging, Role, Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…

  5. The mediating role of nurses' professional commitment in the relationship between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barać, Ivana; Prlić, Nada; Plužarić, Jadranka; Farčić, Nikolina; Kovačević, Suzana

    2018-05-11

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which it is possible to predict job satisfaction in hospital nurses based on core self-evaluation and the nurses' professional commitment. Psychological constructs of nurses' professional commitment could predict a level of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was applied. Data were collected between April 2016 and November 2016 from 584 nurses of the University Hospital Osijek. Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES), Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and Nurses' professional commitment scale (NPCS) were administrated to the study participants. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the validity of each questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the prediction of nurses' professional commitment and core self-evaluation on job satisfaction. Nurses' professional commitment is variable, which functions as a mediator between predictor (CSE) and criterion variable (JS). As a mediator, it explains what the effect is, provided that correlations between all variables are significant. The correlation analyses reveal significant positive correlations between job satisfaction and core self evaluation (r = 0.441, p > 0.001) and also between job satisfaction and nurses' professional commitment (r = 0.464, p > 0.001). Furthermore, core self evaluation significantly and positively correlates with nurses' professional commitment (r = 0.402, p > 0.001). The results showed that nurses' professional commitment mediates the relationship between core self evaluation and job satisfaction. Bootstrap analysis showed that core self evaluation partially mediated the relationship between nurses' professional commitment and job satisfaction ( β = 0.78, p core self evaluation on job satisfaction through nurses' professional commitment was also significant (β = 0.17, p < 0.001**). Nurses who are more committed to their work, regardless of the structure of personality, have greater satisfaction in their work. This

  6. Predicting Job Crafting From the Socially Embedded Perspective: The Interactive Effect of Job Autonomy, Social Skill, and Employee Status

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Li, Jie; Hosomi, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Job crafting represents the bottom-up process of change employees make in their work boundaries and plays an important role in the management of organizational change. Following the socially embedded perspective, we examine the roles of job autonomy, social skill, and employee status in predicting job crafting. Study 1 with a sample of 509 part-time employees found that job autonomy and social skill not only directly but also interactively influenced job crafting. Study 2 with a sample of 564...

  7. The Effects of Job Autonomy on Work Outcomes: Self Efficacy as an Intervening Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti Saragih

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between job autonomy and work outcomes (job performance, job satisfaction and job stress), self efficacy as a mediating variable. This research also investigated the impact of job satisfaction on job performance and job stress on job performance. Va-riables in this research were measured via a survey of 190 banking salespersons in D.I. Yogyakarta and Solo. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used to examine the effects of job au...

  8. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  9. How to Inspire University Librarians to Become "Good Soldiers"? The Role of Job Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Ping; Hwang, Shiuh-Nan; Wong, Jehn-Yih

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effect of job autonomy on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior for university librarians in Taiwan. Findings indicate that this relationship is stronger when job autonomy is high; we then discuss some implications for the librarianship…

  10. Autonomy and Job Satisfaction : The Moderating Effect of Perceived Supervisor Support A study on the Yemeni Context

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Marwani, Ahmed AbdulJalil Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Job autonomy has been recognized to be one of the main job characteristics in job design, leading to several favourable job outcomes such as job satisfaction. By definition, autonomy has been widely recognized to contain three main components. Yet, studies that address the three components individually are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between each one of the three components of job autonomy and job satisfaction. This study also aims to examine the cont...

  11. CORE SELF-EVALUATIONS, JOB SATISFACTION, TRANSFORMATIONAL AND SERVANT LEADERSHIP MODEL IN THE ROMAN CATHOLIC EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caroline N. Castano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Core self-evaluations, effective leadership styles and employee job satisfaction are essential factors for organizational success. This paper aims to determine the relationship of the leader’s core self-evaluations, transformational leadership and servant leadership styles to their follower’s job satisfaction in selected Parochial Schools in Manila, Philippines under the Roman Catholic Education System. The respondents were selected according to certain criteria. Descriptive correlational design was used. In total, 308 individuals from the teaching and non-teaching personnel participated. The data were collected using survey questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM. Research findings revealed that a positive relationship exists between leader’s core self-evaluations and transformational leadership; core self-evaluations to servant leadership; transformational leadership to job satisfaction; and servant leadership to job satisfaction. These relationships are statistically significant. The relationship of the leader’s core self-evaluations to the follower’s job satisfaction indicated a direct effect but were statistically non-significant on the basis of its p-value. The major contribution of the current study is to extend the limited literature regarding the antecedents of the four (4 selected variables. The researcher recommends to the school leaders to create a motivating environment through a more transformational and servant leadership behavior that will enhance their follower’s work satisfaction.

  12. The Paradox of Authentic Selves and Chameleons: Self-monitoring, Perceived Job Autonomy and Contextual Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe. Soda; Lorenzo. Bizzi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how self-monitoring combines with the degree of perceived job autonomy to affect contextual performance. We explore both a mediation model, built on theories on individual differences in the perception of job characteristics, and a moderation model, built on theories of the interaction between personality and perceived job situation. Empirical evidence suggests that self-monitoring and perceived job autonomy significantly predict contextual performance. In addition, an inter...

  13. Job design trade-offs between stability, clarity and autonomy in interdependent work systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuori, T.; Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that increasing the stability of demands, the clarity of work, and autonomy in individual jobs enhances motivation and well-being. However, jobs are often interconnected which makes it difficult to change one single job, without negatively influencing other jobs. Existing

  14. Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sisodia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to examine the effect of job autonomy upon organizational commitment of employees at different hierarchical level. A study was made on randomly selected 100 male employees who work in different organizations in Agra, who were administered Organizational Commitment Scale (by Allen & Meyer, 1990 and Job Autonomy Scale (by Das, Arora, & Singhal, 2000. On the basis of median of the job autonomy scores, the sample was divided into two groups (1 high job autonomy group and (2 low job autonomy group and on the basis of hierarchical level, the employees were divided into two groups (1 50 high hierarchical level employees’ including managers, etc. and (2 50 low hierarchical level employees, e.g. clerical staff, etc. The 2x2 factorial design was formed for this purpose and four groups of employees were formed (1 high hierarchy, high autonomy group (2 high hierarchy, low autonomy group(3 low hierarchy, high autonomy group and (4 low hierarchy, low autonomy group. A two-way analysis of variance was employed to compare the level of organizational commitment of each of the four groups. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees with high and low job autonomy (F = 4.670, p < .05. There is a significant difference found between job commitment of employees of high hierarchical group and those of low hierarchical group (F = 40.691, p < .01 and significant interaction effect found between job autonomy and hierarchical level upon organizational commitment of employees (F = 6.114, p < .05.

  15. Professional autonomy and job satisfaction: survey of critical care nurses in mainland Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Katerina K; While, Alison E

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe Greek critical care nurses' views on professional autonomy and its relationship with job satisfaction and other work-related variables. Professional autonomy is generally considered a highly desirable nursing attribute and a major factor in nurse job satisfaction. In the critical care environment, a high level of accountability, responsibility and autonomy are required to optimize outcomes of critically unstable patients. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of Greek critical care nurses (n = 431; response rate 70%) in 2007. Data were collected on professional autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity. Overall, nurses reported acting moderately autonomously. Younger nurses reported statistically significant lower levels of autonomy. Higher levels of autonomy were reported by female nurses. Multiple logistic regression revealed that appointment level, type of critical care unit and registration with a professional organization were independently associated with autonomy. A positive moderate association was found between reported autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity, but there was no relationship between job satisfaction and reported role conflict and role ambiguity. Further education, role enhancement and support are required for nurses working in critical care in Greece if they are to achieve the maximum potential of their professional role. Failure to address the perceptions of professional autonomy may have an impact on staff retention, because of job dissatisfaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The relationship of educational preparation, autonomy, and critical thinking to nursing job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurmehly, Joyce

    2008-10-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Relationships between educational preparation, autonomy, and critical thinking and job satisfaction were examined. A convenience sample of 140 registered nurses was drawn from medical-surgical, management, and home health nursing specialties. The nurses were asked to complete the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed to determine which explained the most variance in job satisfaction. Results indicated significant positive correlations between total job satisfaction and perceived autonomy, critical thinking, educational preparation, and job satisfiers. Significant negative correlations between job dissatisfiers and total job satisfaction were also found. Understanding nursing job satisfaction through critical thinking, educational level, and autonomy is the key to staff retention. Further research focusing on increasing these satisfiers is needed.

  17. Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: the role of self-concordance and goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Bono, Joyce E; Erez, Amir; Locke, Edwin A

    2005-03-01

    The present study tested a model explaining how the core self-evaluations (i.e., positive self-regard) concept is linked to job and life satisfaction. The self-concordance model, which focuses on motives underlying goal pursuit, was used as an explanatory framework. Data were collected from 2 samples: (a) 183 university students (longitudinal measures of goal attainment and life satisfaction were used) and (b) 251 employees (longitudinal measures of goal attainment and job satisfaction were utilized). In both studies, the core self-evaluations concept was positively related to goal self-concordance, meaning that individuals with positive self-regard were more likely to pursue goals for intrinsic and identified (value-congruent) reasons. Furthermore, in both studies, goal self-concordance was related to satisfaction (job satisfaction in Study 1 and life satisfaction in Study 2).

  18. Job autonomy in relation to work engagement and workaholism: Mediation of autonomous and controlled work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Diana; Tokarz, Aleksandra; Wardzichowska, Anna

    2018-02-07

    This study integrates the Self Determination Theory and the Job Demands-Resource model in explaining motivational antecedents of 2 forms of excessive work: work engagement and workaholism. It specifically examines the relationship between job autonomy, situational work motivation, work engagement, and workaholism. The sample comprised 318 full-time employees of an international outsourcing company located in Poland. The mediation analysis was used for testing hypotheses about the mediation of autonomous and controlled motivation in the relationship between job autonomy, work engagement, and workaholism. The results have confirmed that autonomous motivation mediates the relationship between job autonomy and work engagement. The assumption about the mediation role of controlled motivation in the relationship between job autonomy and workaholism has not been confirmed; however, external regulation (i.e., controlled motivation) is a significant predictor of workaholism. Giving employees more job autonomy might increase their intrinsic and identified regulation and may therefore lead to more energetic, enthusiastic, and dedicated engagement with their jobs. Workaholism may be predicted by external regulation, and work characteristics other than job autonomy may play an important role in enhancing this controlled type of motivation. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2014-02-01

    When studied separately, research shows that both teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are associated with adaptive motivational and emotional outcomes. This study tested whether teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are independently associated with engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. 2,569 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school (719 men, 1,850 women; M age = 45.0 yr., SD = 11.5) were administered the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, the Teacher Autonomy Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The analysis revealed that both teacher autonomy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. This study suggests that autonomy or decision latitude works positively but through different processes for teachers with high and low mastery expectations.

  20. Abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms, and deviance: Can job autonomy make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Maria João; Neves, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, interest in abusive supervision has grown (Tepper, 2000). However, little is still known about organizational factors that can reduce its adverse effects on employee behavior. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001), we predict that job autonomy acts as a buffer of the positive relationship between abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms and deviance. Therefore, when job autonomy is low, a higher level of abusive supervision should be accompanied by increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus lead to higher production deviance. When job autonomy is high, abusive supervision should fail to produce increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus should not lead to higher production deviance. Our model was explored among a sample of 170 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 4 organizations. The results of the moderated mediation analysis supported our hypotheses. That is, abusive supervision was significantly related to production deviance via psychosomatic symptoms when job autonomy was low, but not when job autonomy was high. These findings suggest that job autonomy buffers the impact of abusive supervision perceptions on psychosomatic symptoms, with consequences for production deviance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Relationships between School Autonomy Gap, Principal Leadership, Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Diya; Devos, Geert; Valcke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school autonomy gap, principal leadership, school climate, teacher psychological factors, teachers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment under the context of school autonomy reform. A path model has been developed to define the relationships between principal leadership and teachers' outcomes…

  2. The Effects of Classroom Autonomy, Staff Collegiality, and Administrative Support on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseter, Austin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of my dissertation is to determine which job-related factors are most likely to explain teachers' sense of satisfaction with their current job. Based on previous research (Fairchild et al., 2012; Lee, Dedrick, & Smith, 1991; Perie & Baker, 1997), I hypothesized that teachers' perceptions of classroom autonomy, staff…

  3. Job satisfaction and perceived autonomy for nurse practitioners working in nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, Ann Linguiti

    2013-04-01

    More primary care providers are needed to deliver health care to Americans living in poverty and those soon to be insured under the Affordable Care Act. Nurse practitioners (NPs) in nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs) are poised to meet this need. This research study examined the characteristics of NPs working in NMHCs and measured job satisfaction and perceived level of autonomy. No studies about job satisfaction or autonomy for NPs working in NMHCs had been previously reported. This descriptive, quantitative study surveyed primary care NPs working in NMHCs that are part of the National Nursing Centers Consortium (NNCC). NP e-mail addresses were obtained from NNCC center directors. Of 198 NPs invited to the electronic survey, 99 completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, demographic questionnaire, questions about perceived autonomy, and whether they would recommend working in an NMHC. Participants came from 16 states and 46 NMHCs. NPs working in NMHCs have job satisfaction, perceive their role as autonomous, and are satisfied with the autonomy they have. NMHCs can provide access to primary health care for many Americans. More NPs may choose employment in NMHCs for job satisfaction and autonomy. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. How important are autonomy and work setting to nurse practitioners' job satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, Erin K; Leslie, Mayri Sagady; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung; Falk, Nancy L; Pericak, Arlene; El-Banna, Majeda M; Greene, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) have reported aspects of their jobs that they are more and less satisfied with. However, few studies have examined the factors that predict overall job satisfaction. This study uses a large national sample to examine the extent to which autonomy and work setting predict job satisfaction. The 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners (n = 8311) was used to examine bivariate and multivariate relationships between work setting and three autonomy variables (independent billing practices, having one's NP skills fully utilized, and relationship with physician), and job satisfaction. NPs working in primary care reported the highest levels of autonomy across all three autonomy measures, while those working in hospital surgical settings reported the lowest levels. Autonomy, specifically feeling one's NP skills were fully utilized, was the factor most predictive of satisfaction. In multivariate analyses, those who strongly agreed their skills were being fully utilized had satisfaction scores almost one point higher than those who strongly disagreed. Work setting was only marginally related to job satisfaction. In order to attract and retain NPs in the future, healthcare organizations should ensure that NPs' skills are being fully utilized. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  6. Job autonomy, its predispositions and its relation to work outcomes in community health centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Tien-Tse

    2013-06-01

    It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations. This study examined employees' job autonomy in government-run community health centers, its predispositions and its relation to their work outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From 230 responding community health centers, 1380 staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that employees' job autonomy has positive work outcomes: greater work satisfaction, and less intent to transfer and intentions to leave. In addition, job autonomy was related to employees' higher education levels, medical profession, permanent employment and serving smaller populations. Moreover, employees' age, educational levels, medical profession and employment status were found to be related to their work satisfaction, intent to transfer and intent to leave.

  7. What’s Mine is Yours : the Crossover of Job-related Self-evaluations within Working Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem and self-efficacy have been shown to be important in employees’ working lives. Both constructs predict employees’ positive work-related behavior as well as their perceived well-being. This dissertation adds to research on sources of employees’ job-related self-evaluations by examining correlates of employees’ self-esteem and self-efficacy in the non-work domain. Specifically, the present dissertation focuses on the crossover of self-esteem and self-efficacy in dual-earner relation...

  8. Personality and leader effectiveness: a moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Yee; Ang, Soon; Chan, Kim-Yin

    2008-07-01

    The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy (LSE = leader's perceived capabilities to perform leader roles) in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation. Using K. J. Preacher, D. D. Rucker, and A. F. Hayes' (2007) moderated mediation framework, the authors tested the model (over a 2-year period) with matched data from 394 military leaders and their supervisors. Results showed that LSE mediated the relationships for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that LSE mediated the relationships for (a) all 3 personality variables for only those leaders with low job demands; (b) neuroticism and conscientiousness for only those leaders with high job autonomy; and (c) extraversion, regardless of a leader's level of job autonomy. Results underscore the importance of accounting for leaders' situational contexts when examining the relationships between personality, LSE, and effectiveness.

  9. [A pilot study of the professional autonomy, job satisfaction, and related factors of nurses at a regional hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Chu; Maa, Suh-Hwa; Chung, Tieh-Chi; Huang, Kuei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Chen, Chiung-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Professional autonomy often causes confusion in nursing staffs that limit their ability to perform to the best of their professional capabilities. Moreover, heavy and busy workloads reduce the energy available for work resulting in lower working efficiency and lower job satisfaction. This study explores the status and factors related to professional autonomy and job satisfaction in nurses. A cross-sectional design was used to target the nurses employed at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. Data on locus of control, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction were collected for analysis. Data were collected from 207 nurses, with 196 valid responses (response rate: 94.69%). One hundred and forty-six subjects (74.5%) were found to have an internal locus of control personality type. Scores for both professional autonomy and job satisfaction were above the "moderate" level (averages: 3.37 and 3.32, respectively, on a maximum scale of 5). Social demographic differences contributed to the variance in professional autonomy and job satisfaction among participants. Professional autonomy was found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. The findings of this study indicate that nurses with an internal locus of control personality exhibit higher professional autonomy and job satisfaction and that higher professional autonomy is associated with higher job satisfaction.

  10. Ethical leadership and followers' helping and initiative: The role of demonstrated responsibility and job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this multisource study, we investigated a mediated moderation model proposing the moderating role of job autonomy and the mediating role of responsibility in the relationship of ethical leadership (subordinate rated) with helping and initiative (supervisor rated). In line with expectations, a

  11. The Role of Perceived Autonomy Support in Principals' Affective Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yujin; Leach, Nicole; Anderman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations between principals' perceived autonomy support from superintendents, affective commitment to their school districts, and job satisfaction. We also explore possible moderation effects of principals' career experiences on these relations. Data were collected from K-12 public school principals in…

  12. Multi-Structural Relationships among Organizational Culture, Job Autonomy, and CTE Teacher Turnover Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Martens, Jon; McCharen, Belinda; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated structural relationships among the constructs of supportive learning culture, school innovative climate, task-related job autonomy, and teacher turnover intention in career and technical education. The study applied organizational concepts to a problem typically approached from the perspective of teacher characteristics and…

  13. Autonomy, Workload, Work-Life Balance and Job Performance among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yean Tan, Fee; Zulkarnain, Zati Iwani Tjik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of autonomy, workload, and work-life balance on job performance among teachers. A survey was carried out among teachers in public schools in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a quantitative approach to address the research…

  14. I won't let you down... or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M; Wrzesniewski, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Although core self-evaluations have been linked to higher job performance, research has shown variability in the strength of this relationship. We propose that high core self-evaluations are more likely to increase job performance for other-oriented employees, who tend to anticipate feelings of guilt and gratitude. We tested these hypotheses across 3 field studies using different operationalizations of both performance and other-orientation (prosocial motivation, agreeableness, and duty). In Study 1, prosocial motivation strengthened the association between core self-evaluations and the performance of professional university fundraisers. In Study 2, agreeableness strengthened the association between core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of initiative among public service employees. In Study 3, duty strengthened the association between core self-evaluations and the objective productivity of call center employees, and this moderating relationship was mediated by feelings of anticipated guilt and gratitude. We discuss implications for theory and research on personality and job performance. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia A; Prottas, David J

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 3,504) to investigate relationships among availability of formal organizational family support (family benefits and alternative schedules), job autonomy, informal organizational support (work-family culture, supervisor support, and coworker support), perceived control, and employee attitudes and well-being. Using hierarchical regression, the authors found that the availability of family benefits was associated with stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the availability of alternative schedules was not related to any of the outcomes. Job autonomy and informal organizational support were associated with almost all the outcomes, including positive spillover. Perceived control mediated most of the relationships. Copyright 2006 APA.

  16. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of research on leadership and improvement-oriented voice behavior, the amount of cross-lagged research on leadership that also incorporates more challenging forms of voice is sparse. This paper reports on a two-wave study of white-collar workers in a Norwegian...... medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  17. Nurse-physician teamwork in the emergency department: impact on perceptions of job environment, autonomy, and control over practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeigbe, David O; McNeese-Smith, Donna; Leach, Linda Searle; Phillips, Linda R

    2013-03-01

    Teamwork is essential to safety. Few studies focus on teamwork between nurses and physicians in emergency departments (EDs). The aim of this study was to examine differences between staff in the interventional group EDs (IGEDs) and control group EDs (CGEDs) on perception of job environment, autonomy, and control over practice. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the impact of teamwork on perceptions of job environment, autonomy, and control over practice by registered nurses and physicians (MDs) in EDs. Staff in the IGEDs showed significant differences compared with staff who worked in the CGEDs on staff perception of job environment, autonomy, and control over practice. Active teamwork practice was associated with increased perceptions of a positive job environment, autonomy, and control over practice of both nurses and physicians.

  18. Evaluation of a Multiple Mediator Model of the Relationship between Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction in Employed Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Kesselmayer, Rachel Friefeld; Peterson, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To test a meditation model of the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction in employed individuals with disabilities. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using Hayes's (2012) PROCESS macro for SPSS and multiple regression analysis. Two-hundred fifty-nine employed persons with disabilities were recruited…

  19. Relational trustworthiness: how status affects intra-organizational inequality in job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Castillo, Celeste; Ewoodzie, Kwesi

    2014-03-01

    Recent accounts of trustworthiness have moved away from treating it as a stable, individual-level attribute toward viewing it as a variable situated in a relational context, but have not been formalized or supported empirically. We extend status characteristics theory (SCT) to develop formal propositions about relational trustworthiness. We posit that members of task- and collectively oriented groups (non-consciously) infer three qualities from their relative status that are commonly used to determine an individual's trustworthiness: ability, benevolence, and integrity. We apply our formalization to clarify ambiguities regarding intra-organizational job autonomy inequality, thereby linking SCT to broader disparities rooted in job autonomy. We analyze data from a vignette experiment and the General Social Survey to test incrementally how well our propositions generalize across different settings and populations. Results generally support our proposed links between status and intra-organizational job autonomy. We discuss implications for SCT in understanding broader patterns of inequalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing the intrinsic work motivation of community nutrition educators: how supportive supervision and job design foster autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Dollahite, Jamie S; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-methods research investigated the work motivation of paraprofessional community nutrition educators (CNEs) delivering a long-running public health nutrition program. In interviews, CNEs (n = 9) emphasized "freedom," supportive supervision, and "making a difference" as key sources of motivation. Community nutrition educator surveys (n = 115) confirmed high levels of autonomy, which was associated with supervisors' delegation and support, CNE decision-making on scheduling and curricula, and job satisfaction. Supervisors (n = 32) rated CNEs' job design as having inherently motivating characteristics comparable to professional jobs. Supervisory strategies can complement job design to create structured, supportive contexts that maintain fidelity, while granting autonomy to paraprofessionals to enhance intrinsic work motivation.

  1. Can job autonomy attenuate the effect of depression on employees' well-being? It may depend on culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liman Man Wai

    2018-04-26

    Depression is one of the leading causes of work disability. Thus, it is important to explore possible ways to reduce its impact on employees. The current research examined whether promoting job autonomy would attenuate the detrimental effect of depression on employees' well-being. Study 1 included the data from 5974 full-time employees from China. Full-time employees living in India, a collectivistic culture, and the United States, an individualistic culture, were recruited online in Study 2. Study 1 revealed that job autonomy moderated the influence of depression on job strain and perceived control mediated this interaction effect. Specifically, job autonomy weakened the detrimental effect of depression on job strain via weakening the association between depression and perceived control. The data from the 258 full-time employees in Study 2 replicated the findings and found that job autonomy had a stronger attenuating effect on the influence of depression in India than it had in the United States. Job autonomy was found to be an effective way to reduce the negative impact of depression on employees' well-being, a finding that should be considered when organizations develop their work policies.

  2. The More, the Better? Curvilinear Effects of Job Autonomy on Well-Being From Vitamin Model and PE-Fit Theory Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Kovacs, Carrie

    2017-12-28

    In organizational psychology research, autonomy is generally seen as a job resource with a monotone positive relationship with desired occupational outcomes such as well-being. However, both Warr's vitamin model and person-environment (PE) fit theory suggest that negative outcomes may result from excesses of some job resources, including autonomy. Thus, the current studies used survey methodology to explore cross-sectional relationships between environmental autonomy, person-environment autonomy (mis)fit, and well-being. We found that autonomy and autonomy (mis)fit explained between 6% and 22% of variance in well-being, depending on type of autonomy (scheduling, method, or decision-making) and type of (mis)fit operationalization (atomistic operationalization through the separate assessment of actual and ideal autonomy levels vs. molecular operationalization through the direct assessment of perceived autonomy (mis)fit). Autonomy (mis)fit (PE-fit perspective) explained more unique variance in well-being than environmental autonomy itself (vitamin model perspective). Detrimental effects of autonomy excess on well-being were most evident for method autonomy and least consistent for decision-making autonomy. We argue that too-much-of-a-good-thing effects of job autonomy on well-being exist, but suggest that these may be dependent upon sample characteristics (range of autonomy levels), type of operationalization (molecular vs. atomistic fit), autonomy facet (method, scheduling, or decision-making), as well as individual and organizational moderators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Djurdjevic, Emilija; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Tan, James A

    2013-03-01

    Integrating implications from regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories, we present a framework wherein motivational orientations toward positive (approach motivation orientation) or negative (avoidance motivation orientation) stimuli interact with workplace success to mediate the relation of core self-evaluation (CSE) with job satisfaction. Using data collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads (Sample 1) and time-lagged data (Sample 2), we found that the results from two studies indicated that the interaction of workplace success and avoidance motivation orientation mediated relations of CSE with job satisfaction. Although approach motivation orientation did not interact with workplace success, it did mediate the CSE-job satisfaction relation on its own. Implications for the CSE and approach/avoidance literatures are discussed.

  4. Work-related health complaints in surgical residents and the influence of social support and job-related autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerjan, Martine; Bluyssen, Simone J M; Bleichrodt, Robert P; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; van Goor, Harry

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of job-related autonomy and social support provided by consultants and colleagues on the stress-related health complaints of surgical residents in the Netherlands. All (n = 400) Dutch residents in training in general surgery were sent validated self-report questionnaires. Odds ratios were calculated predicting health and exposure to long-term stress for gender, number of working hours, type of hospital, level of social support, job-related autonomy and training phase. The interactions between job-related autonomy and level of social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and all variables, were analysed. A total of 254 of 400 (64%) residents returned questionnaires that were eligible for analysis. Residents experienced more health complaints than the average member of the Dutch working population (4.0 versus 2.5; p = 0.000). Male and senior residents were significantly 'healthier' than female and junior residents, respectively. Social support by consultants was a strong predictor of health and social support by colleagues showed a significant interaction with gender. Women and residents in university hospitals experienced less social support by consultants than men and residents in general teaching hospitals. Residents working in university hospitals experienced lower levels of job-related autonomy and less support from colleagues in comparison with those working in general teaching hospitals. A working week of > 60 hours adversely affected health and job-related autonomy. Social support provided by consultants and colleagues, and job control, are important factors that interact with the work-associated, stress-related health of residents in training in general surgery. Residents report a greater number of health complaints than the average member of the working population, especially female and junior residents. General teaching hospitals seem to provide better support at work than

  5. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  6. Work-related health complaints in surgical residents and the influence of social support and job-related autonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerjan, M.; Bluyssen, S.J.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Goor, H. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of job-related autonomy and social support provided by consultants and colleagues on the stress-related health complaints of surgical residents in the Netherlands. METHODS: All (n = 400) Dutch residents in training in

  7. Physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians’ perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. Methods We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,083), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 638), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Results Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. Conclusions U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians. PMID:24330820

  8. Physicians' perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Palmer, Karen S; Solberg, Ingunn B; Voltmer, Edgar; Frank, Erica

    2013-12-15

    We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians' perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,213), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 657), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians' perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL LABOR ON JOB ATTITUDES OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES: MEDIATING AND MODERATING ROLES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND JOB AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nur IPLIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing competition among hotels, managing employees seems to be important issue in delivering services to customers effectively. This issue also affects the firms’ outcomes and incomes. Thus, hotels as service providing firms must be able to manage the emotions of employees in order to increase the quality of services and to create value for customers. Controlling emotions of employees also contribute to gain competitive advantage across rivals. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effects of emotional labor on job attitudes of hotel employees by considering the mediating and moderating roles of social support and job autonomy. To this end, a questionnaire was employed to employees of hotels operating in Antalya Province. Results of the analyses support that emotional labor has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion. Emotional labor also has a positive effect on job satisfaction. In addition mediating and moderating roles of job autonomy and social support between emotional exhaustion and emotional labor, and emotional labor and job satisfaction.

  10. Home‐care nursing staff in self‐directed teams are more satisfied with their job and perceive more autonomy over patient care: a nationwide survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, E.E.M.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Francke, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: (1) To examine whether working in a self-directed team is related to home-care nursing staff's job satisfaction; (2) To assess the mediating effect of self-perceived autonomy over patient care; (3) To investigate the moderating effect of educational level on the association between autonomy

  11. An Effective School Autonomy Model: Examining Headteachers' Job Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou Solomou, Galatia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly. The purpose of this paper is to explore this relation and to propose an effective school…

  12. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S M; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G

    2016-09-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices.

  13. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices. PMID:27536008

  14. Invited Reaction: Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this featured article (Joo, Jeung, & Yoon, 2010) respond to calls for further examination of how individual differences and workplace environment jointly impact organizational behavior. The authors integrate social psychology and management research to examine employee behavior and its relation to human resource development.…

  15. Do job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy improve employment relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R A Oeij

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether improving the employment relationship does more depend on negotiation selfefficacy or on task outonomy for a sample of employees from a Dutch telecom company. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation and the effect of integrative negotiation on psychological contract breach. Results indicate that employees negotiate more integratively when they have higher negotiation self-efficacy, compared to employees with more task autonomy. Empirical support was found for the prediction that higher negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy correlates with less psychological contract breach.

  16. Home-care nursing staff in self-directed teams are more satisfied with their job and feel they have more autonomy over patient care: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurits, Erica E M; de Veer, Anke J E; Groenewegen, Peter P; Francke, Anneke L

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) To examine whether working in a self-directed team is related to home-care nursing staff's job satisfaction; (2) To assess the mediating effect of self-perceived autonomy over patient care; (3) To investigate the moderating effect of educational level on the association between autonomy over patient care and job satisfaction. Self-directed teams are being introduced in home care in several countries. It is unknown whether working in a self-directed team is related to nursing staff's job satisfaction. It is important to gain insight into this association since self-directed teams may help in retaining nursing staff. A cross-sectional study based on two questionnaire surveys in 2014 and 2015. The study involved 191 certified nursing assistants and registered nurses employed in Dutch home-care organizations (mean age of 50). These were members of the Dutch Nursing Staff Panel, a nationwide panel of nursing staff working in various healthcare settings. Self-direction is positively related to nursing staff's job satisfaction. This relationship is partly mediated by autonomy over patient care. For certified nursing assistants and registered nurses with a bachelor's degree, a greater sense of autonomy over patient care in self-directed teams is positively related to job satisfaction. No significant association was found between autonomy over patient care and job satisfaction for registered nurses with an associate degree. This study suggests that home-care organizations should consider the use of self-directed teams as this increases nursing staff's job satisfaction and may therefore help to retain nursing staff in home care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  18. Procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance: the mediating role of need satisfaction and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Colombat, Philippe; Michinov, Estelle; Pronost, Anne-Marie; Fouquereau, Evelyne

    2013-11-01

    To test a model linking procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, need satisfaction, organizational support, work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Research in industrial and organizational psychology has shown that procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support lead to positive outcomes. However, very little research related to this subject has been conducted in healthcare settings. Moreover, few studies have examined mechanisms that could account for these positive relationships. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Convenience sampling was used and a sample of 500 nurses working in haematology, oncology and haematology/oncology units in France was surveyed in 2011. The final sample consisted of 323 nurses (64.6% response rate). The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modelling. Procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support significantly and positively influenced need satisfaction and perceived organizational support, which in turn positively predicted work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Organizations could deliver training programmes for their managers aimed at enhancing the use of fair procedures in allocating outcomes and developing their autonomy-supportive behaviours to improve nurses' work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  20. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.

  1. Satisfaction in terms of autonomy, competence and relatedness, and its importance in promoting job motivation in the Portuguese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Diogo Patricio Varandas da

    2010-01-01

    Degree of Master in Social and Organizational Psychology / PsycINFO Content Classification Code System: 3000 Social Psychology; 3660 Organizational Behavior Self-Determination Theory (SDT) argues that autonomy, competence and relatedness are three universally critical needs that, once satisfied, will promote self-determined types of motivation and more intrinscally motivated behaviours that yield positive effects on well-being. In contrast, researchers on cross-cultural differences argu...

  2. Core self-evaluations and work engagement: Testing a perception, action, and development path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    Full Text Available Core self-evaluations (CSE have predictive value for important work outcomes such as job satisfaction and job performance. However, little is known about the mechanisms that may explain these relationships. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to CSE theory by proposing and subsequently providing a first test of theoretically relevant mediating paths through which CSE may be related to work engagement. Based on approach/avoidance motivation and Job Demands-Resources theory, we examined a perception (via job characteristics, action (via job crafting, and development path (via career competencies. Two independent samples were obtained from employees working in Germany and The Netherlands (N = 303 and N = 404, respectively. When taking all mediators into account, results showed that the perception path represented by autonomy and social support played a minor role in the relationship between CSE and work engagement. Specifically, autonomy did not function as a mediator in both samples while social support played a marginally significant role in the CSE-work engagement relationship in sample 1 and received full support in sample 2. The action path exemplified by job crafting mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in both samples. Finally, the development path operationalized with career competencies mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in sample 1. The study presents evidence for an action and development path over and above the often tested perception path to explain how CSE is related to work engagement. This is one of the first studies to propose and show that CSE not only influences perceptions but also triggers employee actions and developmental strategies that relate to work engagement.

  3. Core self-evaluations and work engagement: Testing a perception, action, and development path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Core self-evaluations (CSE) have predictive value for important work outcomes such as job satisfaction and job performance. However, little is known about the mechanisms that may explain these relationships. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to CSE theory by proposing and subsequently providing a first test of theoretically relevant mediating paths through which CSE may be related to work engagement. Based on approach/avoidance motivation and Job Demands-Resources theory, we examined a perception (via job characteristics), action (via job crafting), and development path (via career competencies). Two independent samples were obtained from employees working in Germany and The Netherlands (N = 303 and N = 404, respectively). When taking all mediators into account, results showed that the perception path represented by autonomy and social support played a minor role in the relationship between CSE and work engagement. Specifically, autonomy did not function as a mediator in both samples while social support played a marginally significant role in the CSE–work engagement relationship in sample 1 and received full support in sample 2. The action path exemplified by job crafting mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in both samples. Finally, the development path operationalized with career competencies mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in sample 1. The study presents evidence for an action and development path over and above the often tested perception path to explain how CSE is related to work engagement. This is one of the first studies to propose and show that CSE not only influences perceptions but also triggers employee actions and developmental strategies that relate to work engagement. PMID:28787464

  4. Core self-evaluations and work engagement: Testing a perception, action, and development path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Akkermans, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Core self-evaluations (CSE) have predictive value for important work outcomes such as job satisfaction and job performance. However, little is known about the mechanisms that may explain these relationships. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to CSE theory by proposing and subsequently providing a first test of theoretically relevant mediating paths through which CSE may be related to work engagement. Based on approach/avoidance motivation and Job Demands-Resources theory, we examined a perception (via job characteristics), action (via job crafting), and development path (via career competencies). Two independent samples were obtained from employees working in Germany and The Netherlands (N = 303 and N = 404, respectively). When taking all mediators into account, results showed that the perception path represented by autonomy and social support played a minor role in the relationship between CSE and work engagement. Specifically, autonomy did not function as a mediator in both samples while social support played a marginally significant role in the CSE-work engagement relationship in sample 1 and received full support in sample 2. The action path exemplified by job crafting mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in both samples. Finally, the development path operationalized with career competencies mediated the relationship between CSE and work engagement in sample 1. The study presents evidence for an action and development path over and above the often tested perception path to explain how CSE is related to work engagement. This is one of the first studies to propose and show that CSE not only influences perceptions but also triggers employee actions and developmental strategies that relate to work engagement.

  5. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    This self-evaluation report, requested by the Pro-rector of Roskilde University, has been written by Jesper Simonsen. The report is presented in a dedicated template and describes and evaluates the strategic research initiative Designing Human Technologies (DHT). DHT was formally approved...... by the Rectorship in February 2013. DHT was funded by Roskilde University with a 3,000,000 DKK grant for the period of 2013– 2015. In 2015 this was extended to June 2016....

  7. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  8. How Self-Evaluation can make schools more effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Capperucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent European and North American government policies, implementing new systems of evaluation and accountability, have highlighted the use of performance data to inform judgments about schools and stimulate school improvement. This has led to the implementation of school self-evaluation considered as an effective means to increase school quality and effectiveness. Decentralization of education systems has promoted a broadening of educational evaluation methodologies and a conceptualization of theoretical approaches and research about school effectiveness and improvement.This study presents a self-evaluation model, called the ISSEMod, thought to improve school accountability, combining central control managed by public authorities (external control and the autonomy reserved for schools related to pedagogical, instructional and organizational practices (internal control. Using a sample of 58 Tuscan schools, an empirical and explorative model of school self-evaluation focused on a flexible system of areas and indicators to investigate and analyse school quality, is proposed here.

  9. Core Self-Evaluations and Individual Strategies of Coping with Unemployment among Displaced Spanish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkes, Tihana; Maslić Seršić, Darja; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2017-10-30

    Unemployment has negative but also positive effects on mental health and general well-being depending on which coping strategies the individual use. Our aim was to determine the contribution of core self-evaluations in explaining the coping strategies of job search and job devaluation, as well as to test the potential moderation effect of job search and mediation effect of job devaluation on the relationship between self core-evaluations and both positive and negative experience of unemployment. One hundred seventy-eight individuals who lost their jobs involuntarily for a longer period than one month completed a questionnaire while attending to employment office. Results show that there is a significant relation between core-self evaluations and job devaluation (.37**). Furthermore, core-self evaluations were positively related to positive experience of unemployment (r = .31; p unemployment (r = .60; p unemployment strategies (job devaluation; β = .26; p unemployment. But, individuals with a longer duration of the current period of unemployment and higher core self-evaluations had a more positive experience of unemployment, and job devaluation partially mediated this relation (SE = .002; p = .038). These results imply that programs interventions should include the improvement of core self-evaluations and the positive experience of unemployed people.

  10. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  11. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  12. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  13. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  14. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  15. A Comparison of General and Work-Specific Measures of Core Self-Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Wang, Qiang; Tang, Han Ying; Kennedy, Kellie D.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, considerable research attention has been given to core self-evaluations (CSEs). Although this research has found that CSE is related to several important work-related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, job performance), we believe that researchers' reliance on general rather than work-specific CSE has resulted in…

  16. Core self-evaluations and work engagement: Testing a perception, action, and development path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Akkermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    Core self-evaluations (CSE) have predictive value for important work outcomes such as job satisfaction and job performance. However, little is known about the mechanisms that may explain these relationships. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to CSE theory by proposing and

  17. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  18. Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    König, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The dissertation “Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality – Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy” addresses the main research question: Is flexibility the key to a less gendered labour market, or does it rather foster more traditional roles and gender inequality? In four empirical studies, different aspects in life were investigated in order to gain a holistic understanding of gender inequalities related to flexibility at work: the d...

  19. 45 CFR 1151.42 - Self evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self evaluation. 1151.42 Section 1151.42 Public... Self evaluation. (a) A recipient shall within six months of the effective date of this part: (1... Endowment upon request, for at least three years following completion of the self-evaluation: (i) A list of...

  20. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  1. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  2. 大學圖書館館員領導者與成員交換關係、工作自主性及組織公民行為之關係模式探析 A Study of the Relationship among Leader-Member Exchange, Job Autonomy and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the University Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Peng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 大學圖書館領導者需要激勵館員表現組織公民行為,以提升圖書館組織績效與服務品質。本研究採用問卷調查方式,運用結構方程模式(structural equation modeling, SEM,驗證大學圖書館館員之領導者與成員交換關係(LMX、工作自主性及組織公民行為之關係,研究結果顯示:(1館員認知的領導者與成員交換關係(LMX程度愈高,其工作自主性程度愈高;(2館員認知的工作自主性程度愈高,其組織公民行為程度愈高;(3工作自主性對領導者與成員交換關係(LMX及組織公民行為之關係,具有部分中介效果。本研究最後提出結論及建議。The directors of university libraries must inspire librarians to engage organizational citizenship behaviors to enhance organizational performance and service quality. Based on a structural equation modeling, this study examines the relationship among leader-member exchange, job autonomy and organizational citizenship behavior of the university librarians in Taiwan. Findings indicated that leader-member exchange is positively related to job autonomy, and job autonomy is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Job autonomy plays a partial mediating role in the relationship between leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, the study provides the conclusions and implications for the library profession.

  3. Critical self-evaluation for excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of critical self-evaluation of performance as a stimulus for excellence. Self-evaluation inherently provides acceptance and ownership of a problem, thereby motivating change. Some of the key elements of self-evaluation are discussed such as unbiased observations and appropriate performance standards. As circumstances change, an ongoing self-appraisal approach provides continuing feedback to maintain and further excellence. Two examples of critical self-evaluation in use at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) are discussed

  4. Job satisfaction and job content in Dutch dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković-Ćosić, K; van Offenbeek, M A G; van der Schans, C P

    2012-08-01

    This study compares the scope of practice of Dutch dental hygienists (DHs) educated through a 2- or 3-year curriculum ('old-style DHs') with that of hygienists educated through a new extended 4-year curriculum leading to a bachelor's degree ('new-style DHs'), with the aim to investigate whether an extended scope of practice positively affects perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. The questionnaires were obtained from old- and new-style DHs (n = 413, response 38%; n = 219, response 59%, respectively), in which respondents had recorded their dental tasks, perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. T -tests were used to analyse differences between old- and new-style DHs, and regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between scope of practice and skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. New-style DHs have a more extended scope of practice compared with old-style DHs. Despite their more complex jobs, which are theoretically related to higher job satisfaction, new-style DHs perceive lower autonomy and job satisfaction (P job satisfaction (β = 0.462), followed by autonomy (β = 0.202) and caries decisive tasks, the last affecting job satisfaction negatively (β = -0.149). Self-employment is the strongest significant predictor for autonomy (β = 0.272). The core business of DHs remains the prevention and periodontology services. New-style DHs combine these tasks with extended tasks in the caries field, which can lead to comparatively less job satisfaction, because of a lower experienced autonomy in performing these extended tasks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Autonomy as Aesthetic Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütticken, S.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines various conceptions of autonomy in relation to recent artistic practices. Starting from the apparent opposition between modernist notions of the autonomy of art and theorizations of political autonomy, the text problematizes the notion of the autonomy of art by using Jacques

  6. Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1978-06-01

    This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.

  7. University autonomy as sensemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  8. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  9. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  10. School self-evaluation and student achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.H.; Dijkstra, N.J.; Hofman, W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, educational systems have developed accountability policies in which schools maintain autonomy for their pedagogical, instructional, and organizational practices (internal control). At the same time, they are held accountable to public authorities (external control) for the

  11. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  12. Understanding critical care nurses' autonomy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian critical care nurses' experiences of autonomy in their clinical practice. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive correlational design was applied using a self-reported cross-sectional survey. A total of 110 registered nurses who met the eligibility criteria participated in this study. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Findings A majority of critical care nurses were autonomous in their decision-making and participation in decisions to take action in their clinical settings. Also, they were independent to develop their own knowledge. The study identified that their autonomy in action and acquired knowledge were influenced by a number of factors such as gender and area of practice. Practical implications Nurse's autonomy could be increased if nurses are made aware of the current level of autonomy and explore new ways to increase empowerment. This could be offered through classroom lectures that concentrate on the concept of autonomy and its implication in practice. Nurses should demonstrate autonomous nursing care at the same time in the clinical practice. This could be done through collaboration between educators and clinical practice to help merge theory to practice. Originality/value Critical care nurses were more autonomous in action and knowledge base. This may negatively affect the quality of patient care and nurses' job satisfaction. Therefore, improving nurses' clinical decision-making autonomy could be done by the support of both hospital administrators and nurses themselves.

  13. The Evolution of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it.I take the case of Kerrie Wooltorton as an illustration of how misplacedadherence to respect for patient autonomy can lead to tragic consequences.An analysis of autonomy based on the work of Rachel Haliburton isdescribed and applied to the role of autonomy in a recent bioethicaldebate--that arising from Savulescu's proposal that conscientious objection by health-care professionals should not be permitted in the NHS. Inconclusion, I suggest Kukla's concept of conscientious autonomy as onepromising pathway to circumvent both the limitations and adverse effectsof the dominance of current (mis)understandings of autonomy in biomedical ethics.

  14. Self-evaluated competence in trauma reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Svenningsen, Peter; Fabricius, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No formal training requirements exist for trauma teams in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the point prevalence level of training and the self-evaluated competence of doctors involved in trauma care. METHODS: On two nights, all doctors on call at departments involved...... in trauma care were interviewed and answered a structured questionnaire pertaining to their level of training and self-evaluated level of competence in relevant skills. These skills included the ability to perform diagnostics and interventions as mandated by the Advanced Trauma Life Support and Definitive...... surgeons (GS) were specialists. In terms of self-evaluated competence, 95% of AN felt competent performing damage control resuscitation, 82% of OS felt competent performing damage control surgery on extremities, whereas 55% of GS felt competent performing damage control surgery in the abdomen. A total...

  15. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Job Search: Not just whether, but also where

    OpenAIRE

    Josse Delfgaauw

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUsing survey data of public sector employees in the Netherlands, this paper shows that workers' satisfaction with various job domains not only affects whether but also where workers search for another job. An intuitive pattern emerges. Workers try to leave their current employer when their job search is instigated by dissatisfaction with an organisation-specific job domain, like management. Conversely, more job-specific problems, like a lack of autonomy, lead workers to opt for an...

  16. Effects of leadership characteristics on pediatric registered nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Turner, Reneé; Hinds, Pamela S; Nelson, John; Pryor, Juanda; Robinson, Nellie C; Wang, Jichuan

    2014-01-01

    Job satisfaction levels among registered nurses (RNs) influence RN recruitment, retention, turnover, and patient outcomes. Researchers examining the relationship between characteristics of nursing leadership and RN job satisfaction have treated RNs as a monolithic group with little research on the satisfaction of hospital-based pediatric RNs. This study assessed the relationship of transformational and transactional nursing leadership characteristics and RN job satisfaction reported by pediatric RNs. This single site study included 935 hospital-based pediatric RNs who completed validated survey items regarding nursing leadership and job satisfaction. A structural equation model (SEM) was applied to assess how autonomy (transformational leadership) and distributive justice (transactional leadership) influence RN job satisfaction, and how RN socio-demographic characteristics influence job satisfaction via autonomy and distributive justice. Findings revealed that both autonomy and distributive justice had significant positive effects on RN job satisfaction but the largest source of influence was autonomy.

  17. Self-Evaluation in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies examined one to five year olds' developmental changes in reaction to achievement-related outcomes. Results were used to formulate a three-stage model for the development of achievement-related self-evaluation. Concludes that a distinction between achievement standards and prescriptions for behavior is not meaningful with young…

  18. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  19. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  20. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  1. Autonomy of nurse practitioners in primary care: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min; De Gagne, Jennie C

    2016-03-01

    This integrative review of the existing literature was conducted to identify dimensions related to nurse practitioner (NP) autonomy and to recommend future areas of research related to the important topic of NP autonomy in this era of cost-conscious healthcare reform. Articles were identified from the following databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EBSCO. Over 24 articles were found; 12 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria of research conducted with NPs, physicians, and patients. The results revealed three categories of association with regard to NP autonomy: job satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and physician-NP collaboration. This review was undertaken to advance understanding of autonomy among NPs and the dynamics involved in their delivery of care. Further research into the associations between NP autonomy and its dimensions are necessary to indicate a future direction to the NP role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Self-evaluated competence in trauma reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Svenningsen, Peter; Fabricius, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: No formal training requirements exist for trauma teams in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the point prevalence level of training and the selfevaluated competence of doctors involved in trauma care. Methods: On two nights, all doctors on call at departments involved...... in trauma care were interviewed and answered a structured questionnaire pertaining to their level of training and self-evaluated level of competence in relevant skills. These skills included the ability to perform diagnostics and interventions as mandated by the Advanced Trauma Life Support and Definitive...... surgeons (GS) were specialists. In terms of self-evaluated competence, 95% of AN felt competent performing damage control resuscitation, 82% of OS felt competent performing damage control surgery on extremities, whereas 55% of GS felt competent performing damage control surgery in the abdomen. A total...

  3. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  4. The role of maternal control in the development of sex differences in child self-evaluative factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, E M; Ruble, D N

    1998-04-01

    The major goal of the present research was to examine the role of parental control in the development of sex differences in 2 pivotal self-evaluative factors in children: taking responsibility for failure and possessing strong standards. Parents were expected to use control with and without autonomy granting in specific domains differentially with girls and boys on a daily basis, and this was expected to foster sex differences in children's self-evaluative factors. Ninety-one mothers of elementary school children completed a daily checklist for 10 to 21 days. The checklist assessed mothers' everyday use of control and autonomy granting in 5 specific domains (helping, monitoring, decision making, praising, and disciplining). Children completed self-report measures assessing their tendency to take responsibility for failure and the strength of their standards. As anticipated, mothers were more likely to employ control without autonomy granting with girls than with boys, but were more likely to employ control with autonomy granting with boys than with girls. Significantly, this pattern of gender socialization partially mediated the tendency of girls to take greater responsibility for failure than boys. Although there were no sex differences in the strength of children's standards, the pattern of gender socialization was associated with the strength of children's standards as well.

  5. Costs and benefits of flexibility and autonomy in working time: The same for women and men?

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011), the author scrutinizes the relations between women´s and men´s flexibility and autonomy in working time and two central work outcomes: overtime and income. Previously, research on flexibility and autonomy in working time mostly applied crosssectional data ignoring individuals self-selection into jobs. Furthermore, the association between flexibility and autonomy in working time and income has gener...

  6. 10 CFR 4.510 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 4.510 Section 4.510 Energy NUCLEAR... Programs or Activities Conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission § 4.510 Self-evaluation. (a) The... representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both...

  7. 31 CFR 17.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 17.110 Section 17... § 17.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by two years after the effective date of this part... handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation process. (c) The agency shall, until three years following...

  8. 1 CFR 500.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 500.110 Section 500.110... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.110 Self-evaluation... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  9. 45 CFR 617.5 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 617.5 Section 617.5 Public... Self-evaluation. (a) Each recipient (including subrecipients) employing the equivalent of fifteen or more full-time employees shall complete a written self-evaluation of its compliance under this part...

  10. 44 CFR 16.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 16.110... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency... handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation...

  11. 22 CFR 711.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Self-evaluation. 711.110 Section 711.110 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current... participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency...

  12. 6 CFR 15.10 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 15.10 Section 15.10 Domestic... Self-evaluation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the Department shall, not... organizations representing individuals with disabilities, to participate in the self-evaluation process. (c) The...

  13. 49 CFR 807.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 807.110 Section 807.110... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD § 807.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its... participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency...

  14. 45 CFR 606.10 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 606.10 Section 606.10 Public... § 606.10 Self-evaluation. (a) The Foundation shall, within one year of the effective date of this part... with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and...

  15. 20 CFR 365.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 365.110 Section 365.110... § 365.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by December 27, 1989, evaluate its current policies and... self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency shall, until at...

  16. 22 CFR 530.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Self-evaluation. 530.110 Section 530.110 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The... representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both...

  17. 45 CFR 1156.12 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 1156.12 Section 1156.12 Public... Endowment Recipients § 1156.12 Self-evaluation. (a) Each recipient employing the equivalent of 15 or more full time employees may be required to complete a written self-evaluation, in a manner specified by the...

  18. 29 CFR 100.510 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 100.510 Section 100.510 Labor Regulations... § 100.510 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current policies and... participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency...

  19. 34 CFR 105.10 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 105.10 Section 105.10 Education... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.10 Self-evaluation. (a) The Department shall, within one year of the effective... organizations representing individuals with handicaps to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  20. 1 CFR 457.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 457.110 Section 457.110... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.110 Self-evaluation. (a... organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting...

  1. 19 CFR 201.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 201.110 Section 201.110 Customs... Commission § 201.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies... in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency shall...

  2. From Autonomy to Creativity: A Multilevel Investigation of the Mediating Role of Harmonious Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, we theorized about and demonstrated, through 2 multilevel field studies, the pivotal role of harmonious passion in translating organizational autonomy support and individual autonomy orientation into job creativity. Results based on 3-level data from 856 members in 111 teams within 23 work units of a porous…

  3. Entrepreneurial autonomy and its dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Founding and owning an independent business does not automatically provide the owner/founder with autonomy. Autonomy-motivated entrepreneurs must often make an effort to achieve and maintain autonomy. The aim of this research is to investigate the experience of autonomy, its variations over time,

  4. Factors Affecting job satisfaction of employees in Pakistani banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Imran, Hunjra; Muhammad Irfan, Chani; Sher, Aslam; Muhammad, Azam; Kashif-Ur, Rehman

    2010-01-01

    The job satisfaction has got tremendous attention in organizational research. The focus of this study is to determine the impact of various human resource management practices like job autonomy, team work environment and leadership behavior on job satisfaction. It also investigates the major determinants of job satisfaction in Pakistani banking sector. This study further evaluates the level of difference in job satisfaction among male and female employees. The sample of the study consisted of...

  5. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  6. Anagogy of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A L

    2000-07-01

    The philosophical and ethical concept of autonomy is herein examined, ex post facto, using an existential lens to examine the process of a personal friend's dying. Anagogy, defined as interpretation of a word, passage, or text that finds beyond the literal, allegorical, and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense, is intended to enlarge the understanding of the use of autonomy in this case. The idea of personhood linked inextricably to reason is, therefore, understood as empowering an individual to choose among various actions, to define and redefine life goals, and to give priority to selected values and moral tenants, which reveal a moral hermeneutic. Conditions and circumstances, existentially exposed, limit choice in unexpected ways, such that the predicted value of autonomy is vulnerable to misuse or misunderstanding. The intent to respect the dignity of every person is central to the philosophy of Respect for Persons ethics, and assumes that autonomy, as freedom of the moral agent, is a moral duty. Implicit reality of freedom is, in a practical sense, essential to being rational agents who can thereby exercise informed choice. The moral law, law of freedom, involves the autonomy of the will and an ultimate end to which all action is directed. Defined as the highest good, morality unites virtue and happiness by ascribing the ultimate end sought as God. The freedom to use rational will finds principles within its own rational nature. The ability to create maxims is autonomy of the will, which equates with the dignity of persons. My recent experience as a companion to a personal friend with a terminal illness inspired me to re-evaluate the concept of autonomy as it is too often interpreted in modern ethical discourse as a individualistic right of choice as opposed to the hermeneutic of dignity of person. This paper describes a shift of position in understanding the paradox of autonomy in this existential context.

  7. Autonomy and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.; Baehre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter for the development of hyperthyroidism was investigated. (1) In 171 of 426 consecutive patients high-resolution quantitative scintiscans showed signs suggestive of autonomy. With increasing 99mTc uptake by the thyroid their TT3 levels were found to rise progressively during suppression, while their pre-suppression TSH levels dropped progressively. This suggests global sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroid during suppression to be a useful indicator of the functional significance of autonomy. (2) Based on 326 patients with hyperthyroidism a system for differentiating between autonomy-related and immunogenic disease was developed and validated prospectively in another 162 patients with hyperthyroidism by assaying for thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TSAb was found to be present in 82% of the 77 patients diagnosed as having immunogenic hyperthyroidism and in only 8% of the 85 patients with autonomy-related hyperthyroidism. Our results support the assumption that autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter plays a major role in the development of hyperthyroidism, while autoimmune processes appear to be of secondary importance. (Author)

  8. Self-evaluative emotions and expectations about self-evaluative emotions in health-behaviour change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Engaging in a behaviour that has negative physical consequences is considered to be a threat to the self because it makes the self appear inadequate and non-adaptive. This self-threat is experienced as self-evaluative emotions. The self-threat can be removed by refraining from the unhealthy

  9. Time constraints and autonomy at work in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    Time constraints and job autonomy are seen as two major dimensions of work content. These two dimensions play a major role in controlling psychosocial stress at work. The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC) has asked NIA TNO to prepare a report on time

  10. Need Satisfaction at Work, Job Strain, and Performance: A Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Sara; Hofmans, Joeri; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-08-24

    We performed a daily diary study to examine the mediating role of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction in the relationships between job characteristics (i.e., job resources, challenge and hindrance demands) and strain and performance. For 10 consecutive working days, 194 employees reported on their daily job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, task performance, strain level, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and autonomy. Multilevel path modeling demonstrated that the within-person relationships between job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, and strain are mediated by autonomy need satisfaction, but not by competence need satisfaction. However, the relationships between job resources and hindrance demands, and performance are mediated by both competence and autonomy need satisfaction. Our findings show that organizations may benefit from designing jobs that provide employees with the opportunity to satisfy their basic needs for competence and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between 19 and 65 years ( M age = 41, SD = 14) indicated their job attraction for each of 40 hypothetical job descriptions in which the four job characteristics were systematically manipulated (in total, participants provided 3,280 ratings). Results of multilevel analyses showed that the positive effects of task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job were stronger for younger compared to older employees, whereas we did not find significant age-differential effects of job autonomy on job attraction. These findings are only partially consistent with propositions of Truxillo et al.'s (2012) lifespan perspective on job design.

  12. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  14. [What is patient autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillaume

    What does patient autonomy mean? If an autonomous choice is defined as an objective and rational choice, is the doctor's prescription not always the best route? Our contemporary democracies are marked by moral and religious pluralism which obliges society to respect a multiplicity of choices of existence. Three levels are important in terms of autonomy: a range of intellectual capacities, freedom with regard to constraints (external and internal), the capacity to be in control of one's existence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Job satisfaction among multiple sclerosis certified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June; Costello, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    Several studies document high levels of job satisfaction among certified nurses, but no study has examined job satisfaction and factors influencing job satisfaction of certified multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses. This study tested a theoretical model proposing that two organizational factors, colleague relationships and benefits, will predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was represented by four factors: autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency. Participants included MS nurses certified for 6 months or more practicing mostly in three countries (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States) who anonymously completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, an overall job satisfaction rating, and demographic information. Findings indicate that colleague relationships and benefits significantly estimated organization structure and that autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency significantly estimated job satisfaction; furthermore, organization factors such as colleague relationships and benefits significantly predict job satisfaction. Among the countries, several statistically significant differences were observed between job satisfaction factors as well as items in both organization and job satisfaction subscales. Average factor scores among the countries were mostly rated satisfactory. The International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis Nurses Executive Board plans to use the study findings to see how it needs to focus efforts as an organization toward enhancing and standardizing MS care and develop MS nurse professionalism worldwide.

  16. [Effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Tao, N; Jia, J M; Qin, X; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Liu, J W

    2016-04-20

    To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. The correlation of psychological stress with three subscales of job content was evaluated using the Pearson' s correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for psychological stress. The PEST score of young recruits was 49.98±9.98. Forty-five (7.68%)out of them had scores of ≥70 points and were diagnosed with high levels of psychological stress. When the subjects were grouped based on socio-demographic characteristics, a high level of psychological stress was significantly more frequent in subjects less than 20 years of age than in those not less than 20 years of age, in smoking subjects than in non-smoking subjects, and in urban residents than in rural residents (10.42% vs 5.03%, P0.05). In various job content domains that had impacts on psychological stress, subjects with a low score of social support had significantly higher PEST scores than those with a high score of social support (50.96±10.35 vs 48.49±9.22, Pautonomy and social support (r=-0.103, Pjob requirement and social support were influencing factors for psychological stress (OR=0.718, 95% CI= 0.718 (0.607~0.851), Pjob requirement subscale and social support subscale may be potential protective factor and risk factor for psychological stress, respectively.

  17. The Affective Consequences of Service Work: Managing Emotions on the Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Amy S.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 622 workers (83% in hospitals, 17% banks) showed that workers who perform emotional labor (requiring public contact and production of emotional state in customers) are no more likely to suffer emotional exhaustion, especially those with higher job autonomy. Women and those with high autonomy express more job satisfaction. Self-selection…

  18. Job insecurity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, P

    2000-01-01

    As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.

  19. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  20. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  1. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  2. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  3. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  4. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  5. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  6. The mediating role of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2009-08-01

    Past researchers have found that motivating job characteristics can increase employee display of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, the authors extended previous research by investigating the mediating process of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and OCB. The authors collected data from 323 employees and their supervisors from 7 companies in Taiwan. Results show that, through the mediating process of job involvement, the 3 job characteristics (i.e., task identity, task significance, and autonomy) positively influenced the display of an employee's OCB, whereas skill variety had a negative effect on OCB. The authors discuss implications of their findings, contributions, limitations, and future research directions.

  7. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  8. Relative pay and job satisfaction: some new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh; Taylor, Jim; Bradley, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The determinants of interest include actual pay, relative pay, hours of work, job autonomy and several personal characteristics. We also investigate the determinants of satisfaction with pay conditional on a worker's satisfaction with other domains of job satisfaction, such as satisfaction with job security. We find that relative pay is statistically significant but that i...

  9. 25 CFR 720.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 720.110 Section 720.110 Indians THE...-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by August 24, 1987, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  10. 17 CFR 200.610 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 200.610...-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the... handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation...

  11. Incorporating Library Provision in School Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, school libraries have been evaluated primarily in terms of library management; the impact they have on teaching and learning has rarely been a focus. For this reason, they have often been omitted from whole school self-evaluation. Self-evaluation can help schools to prepare for inspection, but more importantly to identify strengths…

  12. 34 CFR 1200.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 1200.110 Section 1200.110 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY... COUNCIL ON DISABILITY § 1200.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by November 28, 1994, evaluate its...

  13. 49 CFR 28.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 28.110 Section 28.110 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.110 Self-evaluation...

  14. Canadian nurse practitioner job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMarche, Kimberley; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    2009-01-01

    To examine the level of job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction characteristics among Canadian primary healthcare nurse practitioners (NPs). A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data on NPs' job satisfaction and on the factors that influence their job satisfaction. A convenience sample of licensed Canadian NPs was recruited from established provincial associations and special-interest groups. Data about job satisfaction were collected using two valid and reliable instruments, the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Survey and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to describe the results. The overall job satisfaction for this sample ranged from satisfied to highly satisfied. The elements that had the most influence on overall job satisfaction were the extrinsic category of partnership/collegiality and the intrinsic category of challenge/autonomy. These findings were consistent with Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. The outcomes of this study will serve as a foundation for designing effective human health resource retention and recruitment strategies that will assist in enhancing the implementation and the successful preservation of the NP's role.

  15. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored

  16. Law, autonomy and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben; Mathews, Ben

    2010-12-01

    The principle of autonomy underpins legal regulation of advance directives that refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The primacy of autonomy in this domain is recognised expressly in the case law, through judicial pronouncement, and implicitly in most Australian jurisdictions, through enactment into statute of the right to make an advance directive. This article seeks to justify autonomy as an appropriate principle for regulating advance directives and relies on three arguments: the necessity of autonomy in a liberal democracy; the primacy of autonomy in medical ethics discourse; and the uncontested importance of autonomy in the law on contemporaneous refusal of medical treatment. This article also responds to key criticisms that autonomy is not an appropriate organising principle to underpin legal regulation of advance directives.

  17. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  18. Autonomy and the emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tappolet, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Can actions caused by emotions be free and autonomous? The rationalist conception of autonomy denies this. Only actions done in the light of reflective choices can be autonomous and hence free. I argue that the rationalist conception does not make room for akratic actions, that is, free and intentional actions performed against the agent’s best judgement. I then develop an account inspired by Harry Frankfurt and David Shoemaker, according to which an action is autonomous when it is determined...

  19. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  20. Perspectives on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda

    2009-09-01

    This department, sponsored by the AONE, presents information to assist nurse leaders in shaping the future of healthcare through creative and innovative leadership. The strategic priorities of AONE anchor the editorial content. They reflect contemporary healthcare and nursing practice issues that challenge nurse executives as they strive to meet the needs of patients. This article describes how 9 Magnet-hospital, chief nursing officers perceive their autonomy and its importance in accomplishing their work.

  1. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  3. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  4. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    hiring nurses with rural connections, experience and preferences. Rural nurses considered lifestyle and personal life issues when choosing a job. Concepts like time away from work, rural lifestyle, recreation opportunities, climate and social activities influenced the intention to stay on the job. Rural nurses with the most job satisfaction preferred rural lifestyles and possessed rural backgrounds. Since the generalist nurse role requires autonomy and task variability, recruiting nurses who prefer these job characteristics might enhance nurse retention. Other findings were tied to rural health and nursing theories. It is unknown why the most dissatisfied nurses had 1-3 years of experience. Similar studies with larger samples are suggested.

  5. Autonomy and autonomy competencies: a practical and relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kim

    2006-10-01

    This essay will address a general philosophical concern about autonomy, namely, that a conception of autonomy focused on freedom of the will alone is inadequate, once we consider the effects of oppressive forms of socialization on individuals' formation of choices. In response to this problem, I will present a brief overview of Diana Meyers's account of autonomy as relational and practical. On this view, autonomy consists in a set of socially acquired practical competencies in self-discovery, self-definition, self-knowledge, and self-direction. This account provides a distinction between choices that express unreflectively internalized social norms and those that are the result of a critical 'self-reading'. I conclude that this practical conception of autonomy makes much higher demands upon nurses (and patients) than has previously been thought. In fact, if nurses are to be expected to genuinely promote autonomy, they are going to need specific training in counselling-type communication skills.

  6. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct a meas...

  7. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...

  8. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  9. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...

  10. Autonomy, Social Interactions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Annalisa; Navarra, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The present paper, using a social interactions model, studies the impact of culture on autonomy of immigrants. The results suggest that: (i) immigrants' autonomy is largely influenced by the autonomy of individuals living in a host country; (ii) some immigrants are better off in countries and regions with better institutional environments. The results are robust to sensitivity checks. The contributions of the paper are as follows. First, we estimate a social interactions model that models bot...

  11. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  12. Working-Class Jobs and New Parents' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Logan, Jade

    2011-01-01

    Little research has explored linkages between work conditions and mental health in working-class employed parents. The current study aims to address this gap, employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how levels of and changes in job autonomy, job urgency, supervisor support, and coworker support predicted parents' depressive…

  13. Work-related factors, job satisfaction and intent to leave the current job among United States nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationships of work-related factors (e.g., autonomy, work schedule, supervisory and peer support) to nurses' job satisfaction and intent to leave their current position. Low job satisfaction and high turnover of nurses are major problems for health care. To improve nurse retention, work-related factors associated with job satisfaction and intent to leave should be investigated. A cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Data were obtained in 2004 from Wave 3 of the Nurses' Worklife and Health Study. A random sample of 5000 actively licenced nurses in Illinois and North Carolina (two U.S. states) were sent the survey in wave 1, of which 1641 actively working bedside nurses participated in wave 3. We examined associations of various work-related factors with job satisfaction and intent to leave the current position. Nurses who were dissatisfied with their job reported significantly higher psychological demands and lower autonomy than nurses who were satisfied. Nurses were significantly less satisfied with their jobs when they worked longer hours with inadequate breaks or sick days. Lack of support from peers and supervisors was also related to significantly lower odds of job satisfaction. For intention to leave, nurses who said they planned to leave their current job reported significantly lower autonomy and less support from their peers than nurses who intended to stay. A variety of modifiable work-related factors were significantly related to job satisfaction and intention to leave the current job among nurses. Future research should focus on developing interventions that could mitigate these factors (e.g., by improving work schedules, increasing autonomy and/or nurse support). The impact of such interventions on job satisfaction and intention to leave the current position could then be evaluated. To increase nurse retention, improved schedules, autonomy and supportive work environments should be promoted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  15. The Effects of Firm Size on Job Quality: A Comparative Study for Britain and France

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Erhel, Christine; Salibekyan, Zinaïda

    2017-01-01

    Using linked employer-employee data from two comparable surveys this article examines the links between non-pecuniary job quality and workplace characteristics in Britain and France countries with very different employment regimes. The results show that job quality is better in Britain than it is in France, despite its minimalist regulatory regime. The difference is apparent for all dimensions of job quality (skill development, training participation, job autonomy, job insecurity, work-life b...

  16. Physician Job Satisfaction across Six Major Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Richard, George V.

    2006-01-01

    A random sample of 763 physicians was surveyed to examine the relation of 18 critical work-related factors to job satisfaction. On the whole, physicians reported that they were satisfied with their careers and believed that caring for patients, sense of accomplishment, continuity of care, autonomy, and personal time were the five most important…

  17. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  18. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    PODROUŽKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  19. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  20. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  1. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  2. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter-re...

  3. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  4. Teacher Autonomy: Power or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the issue of teacher autonomy in relation to its potential for freedom or control. It examines the concept of empowerment as applied to education, arguing that, although it is traditionally cast as a means of achieving autonomy, an alternative approach sees empowerment as part of the disciplinary apparatus of late modern…

  5. Job Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bravená, Helena

    2009-01-01

    This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.

  6. Intention, autonomy, and brain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2009-07-01

    Informed consent is the practical expression of the doctrine of autonomy. But the very idea of autonomy and conscious free choice is undercut by the view that human beings react as their unconscious brain centres dictate, depending on factors that may or may not be under rational control and reflection. This worry is, however, based on a faulty model of human autonomy and consciousness and needs close neurophilosophical scrutiny. A critique of the ethics implied by the model takes us towards a 'care of the self' view of autonomy and the subject's attunement to the truth as the crux of reasoning rather than the inner mental/neural state views of autonomy and human choice on offer at present.

  7. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture...... that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a holistic view of the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and, equally, pull in opposite directions. This holistic view is represented in a model of institutional university autonomy......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  8. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter......-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university......–university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  9. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  10. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  11. Cognitive autonomy among adolescents with and without hearing loss: Associations with perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Attias, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive autonomy is a skill which may help adolescents prepare for important decisions in adulthood. The current study examined the associations between cognitive autonomy and perceived social support among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Participants were 177 students: 55 were deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) and 122 were hearing. They completed the Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Evaluation Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and a demographic questionnaire. Significant positive correlations were found between some of the cognitive autonomy variables and some of the perceived social support variables. However, among the dhh group, they were fewer and weaker. Family support was found to be a significant predictor of three out of the five cognitive autonomy variables. In addition, significant differences were found between the dhh and hearing participants in some of the cognitive autonomy variables, but not in perceived social support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Core Self-Evaluations, life satisfaction, and sport satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Aluja

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between Core Self-Evaluations (CSE) and life and sport satisfaction to assess whether the Core Self-Evaluations scale was a better predictor of life satisfaction or sport satisfaction. The study included three hundred and thirteen athletes (231 men and 82 women; age range to 47 years (Mage=22.9 years, SDage=5.9 years)). Participants completed the French language version of the CSE scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Satisfaction with Sport Scale. A...

  13. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  14. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  15. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  16. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  17. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals how university autonomy may in practice prove to be restrictive for units within the university. The need to implement and interpret external regulations and protect the institution may, argued in the paper, lead to a risk averse, conservative approach which is experienced...... by departments as bureaucratic and hampering effective research. Thus autonomy has produced new internal tensions between the central management/administration and the departments which it is argued is counter-productive and not beneficial for research and could be seen as a perverse aspect of greater autonomy....... Indeed because university policy and ‘interference’ is much closer to the researcher than in former less autonomous times and the university may now exercise other direct incentives through resource allocation, promotion and salary enhancement, the department and the individual may view autonomy...

  18. Learning for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  19. An international perspective: job satisfaction among transplant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Van Gelder, Frank

    2008-03-01

    The high demand for transplant nurses across the world leads us to examine job design and job satisfaction because job satisfaction is linked to better outcomes for patients. To describe international transplant nurses' perspectives of job design and job satisfaction by using Herzberg's theory of motivation. Descriptive, correlational design. An electronic version of the Job Design and Job Satisfaction survey was mailed to all members of the International Transplant Nurses Society. A total of 331 members of the International Transplant Nurses Society responded to the survey. The mean age of respondents was 44.12 years, they had worked a mean of 19.12 years in nursing and 10.22 years in transplantation, and 50.6% of respondents were transplant nurse coordinators. Respondents were very satisfied overall with their jobs; they perceived that transplant nursing requires a high level of nonrepetitive, complex skills, autonomy in personal initiative and judgment, cooperation and collaboration with others, and that the job allows for completion of the work. Respondents were satisfied with pay, fringe benefits, and supervision. The feeling that the job could positively and significantly affect others was very strong. Results of this study provide empirical evidence supporting the perceived benefits and challenges of working in transplantation and support Herzberg's theory that motivators leading to job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. Transplant nursing includes many of these motivators and desirable characteristics, including autonomy and working with a multidisciplinary team on a clear, patient-centered goal.

  20. Career Commitment: Interplay of Core-Self-Evaluation and Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the joint influence of core self-evaluation (self efficacy, self-esteem, work locus of control and neuroticism) and reward system on carrer commitment of local government employees in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A total of 2,040 respondents were selected ...

  1. Physical threat and self-evaluative emotions in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Den Dijker, L

    Negative self-evaluative emotions (e.g., feeling dissatisfied with oneself, feeling stupid) are considered to indicate a threat to the self that can be caused by an external physical threat (e.g., smoking). A sample of 363 smokers was tested twice, with an interval of 8 months. Prospective analyses

  2. Core Self-Evaluation and Goal Orientation: Understanding Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…

  3. 22 CFR 218.23 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 218.23 Section 218.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR... the agency and to the public for a period of three years following its completion. ...

  4. 12 CFR 410.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 410.110 Section 410.110 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 410.110 Self...

  5. 45 CFR 2490.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by November 28...

  6. The undervalued self: social class and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun W

    2014-01-01

    Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one's own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

  7. Mothers' Self- Evaluation, Attribution in Parenting and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mother's self- evaluation, attribution in parenting and coping strategies on children's (age 2-6 years) externalizing behaviour. Two hundred (200) nursing mothers with a mean age of 30.25, (SD 10.67) years were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using ...

  8. Who or What is School Self-Evaluation For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Contrasts the "English model" of school self-evaluation with another used by seven other European countries. Whereas the English model may be characterized as instrumentalist, action-oriented, rationalistic, and managerial, it lacks several important elements: the ethical; affective; non-rational; and democratic modes of thinking.…

  9. 45 CFR 1706.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the effects thereof...

  10. 45 CFR 1181.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES § 1181.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the...

  11. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors' Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.

  12. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  13. Job Resources, Physician Work Engagement, and Patient Care Experience in an Academic Medical Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lases, Lenny S. S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether workengaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision

  14. In the Quest to Improve Schools, Have Teachers Been Stripped of Their Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Ulrich; Hanna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an ever-growing chorus of those who grumble that teachers are unhappy with their lack of control and freedom and have grown to deeply dislike their jobs. This article asks if teachers really lack autonomy and freedom, and wonders if as a nation, whether or not we have reached the right balance of…

  15. High School Principals in the Vortex: Accountability, Autonomy, and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Holly

    2013-01-01

    As schools across Arizona worked to meet NCLB's AYP requirement in 2010-2011, they were also labeled and sanctioned by AZ Learns. This phenomenological study focused on six effective high school principals in two Arizona school districts to ascertain how accountability policies impacted the principals' job responsibilities, autonomy, and ability…

  16. General Introduction: Autonomy and Heteronomy of the Judiciary in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Judges and the judiciary have always been a subject of debate. The questions of legitimacy, activism v self-restraint; appointment or selection, accountability, the rise of alternatives to formal justice, ADR, are at the heart of the discussion. However, the law-job of dispute resolution is not actually done by the judges on their own, nor in isolation; judges have many different sorts of collaborators and some of these can develop some scope for autonomy. At the same time the judiciary claims to be an independent power, but it is also a basic public service to the citizens; how can the public administration be involved in securing-facilitating this service? Finally, when deciding and interpreting the law judges often need to take into account norms belonging to different but coordinated legal systems and find coherence between them, and it can be questioned whether the method of conform interpretation they resort to might enhance or diminish their autonomy.

  17. THE CHALLENGE OF AUTONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF AUTONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi IFTENE

    2009-01-01

    There are various dimensions of autonomy (policy, financial, structural, personnel, legal, institutional) as different scholars demonstrated (Christensen 2001, Verhoest et. al. 2004). In the present paper we will focus only on political and financial autonomy. As Yesilkagit and van Thiel demonstrated there is a difference between formal and de facto autonomy. They found that formal autonomy does not reinforce de facto autonomy and that organizations with less autonomy report higher levels of ...

  18. Design of the DIRECT-project : interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, E.M.B.; Jonge, de J.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still

  19. Bilateral effects of hospital patient-safety procedures on nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Karima, R; Harada, K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how hospital patient-safety procedures affect the job satisfaction of hospital nurses. Additionally, we investigated the association between perceived autonomy and hospital patient-safety procedures and job satisfaction. Recently, measures for patient safety have been recognized as an essential requirement in hospitals. Hospital patient-safety procedures may enhance the job satisfaction of nurses by improving the quality of their work. However, such procedures may also decrease their job satisfaction by imposing excessive stress on nurses because they cannot make mistakes. The participants included 537 nurses at 10 private hospitals in Japan (The surveys were collected from March to July 2012). Factors related to hospital patient-safety procedures were demonstrated using factor analysis, and the associations between these factors and nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction were examined using structural equation modelling. Five factors regarding hospital patient-safety procedures were extracted. Additionally, structural equation modelling revealed statistically significant associations between these factors and the nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction. The findings showed that nurses' perceived autonomy of the workplace enhanced their job satisfaction and that their perceptions of hospital patient-safety procedures promoted their job satisfaction. However, some styles of chief nurses' leadership regarding patient safety restrict nurses' independent and autonomous decision-making and actions, resulting in a lowering of job satisfaction. This study demonstrated that hospital patient-safety procedures have ambiguous effects on nurses' job satisfaction. In particular, chief nurses' leadership relating to patient safety can have a positive or negative effect on nurses' job satisfaction. The findings indicated that hospital managers should demonstrate positive attitudes to improve patient safety for

  20. CSR organisational taxonomy and job characteristics on performance: SME case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanalechumy Seeramulu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the CSR of organizational structure and job characteristics that influence employee job performance in the Malaysian context. Hence, it is important to study and analyze these two factors within the CSR taxonomy describing how these factors significantly influence employee job performance and to make recommendations how performance can be promoted among employees. This paper is based on a quantitative research approach where responses were gathered from the working population within Malaysia SMEs. The results from this study will help to point out the influence of these factors on the employee job performance and provide guidance to an organization for which these aspects should be emphasized in order to increase employees’ job performance to align performance with organizational goals. The analysis includes two dimensions of CSR taxonomy of organizational structure namely, centralization and formalization, as well as a set of five dimensions of job characteristics, such as task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy and feedback. The results of these findings show that job characteristics such as task significance, autonomy, feedback, and skill variety, positively influence job performance with autonomy having highest predictive power on job performance. The results of these findings reveal that the organizational structure does not contribute to the prediction of job performance even though a significant positive correlation exists between the structure and job performance in the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Therefore, this study will enrich the existing knowledge in the area of human resource management by focusing on job performance management.

  1. Nursing Assistants' Job Commitment: Effect of Nursing Home Organizational Factors and Impact on Resident Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E.; Weinberg, Dana Beth; Leutz, Walter; Dossa, Almas; Pfefferle, Susan G.; Zincavage, Rebekah M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are more committed to nursing home jobs when they perceive their jobs as enhanced (greater autonomy, use of knowledge, teamwork), and (b) whether CNA job commitment affects resident satisfaction. Design and Methods: A qualitative exploration of…

  2. Regular versus cutback-related change: the role of employee job crafting in organizational change contexts of different nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.; Demerouti, E.; Xanthopoulou, D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses how job characteristics (e.g., autonomy, workload, and their interaction) relate to employee job crafting (i.e., seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands), and whether job crafting relates to employee work-related well-being (i.e., work engagement and

  3. Physician Assistant Job Satisfaction: A Narrative Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo; Everett, Christine M

    2015-12-01

    To examine physician assistant (PA) job satisfaction and identify factors predicting job satisfaction and identify areas of needed research. With a global PA movement underway and a half-century in development, the empirical basis for informing employers of approaches to improve job satisfaction has not received a careful review. A narrative review of empirical research was undertaken to inform stakeholders about PA employment with a goal of improved management. The a priori criteria included published studies that asked PAs about job satisfaction. Articles addressing PA job satisfaction, written in English, were reviewed and categorized according to the Job Characteristics Model. Of 68 publications reviewed, 29 met criteria and were categorized in a Job Characteristics Model. Most studies report a high degree of job satisfaction when autonomy, income, patient responsibility, physician support, and career advancement opportunities are surveyed. Age, sex, specialty, and occupational background are needed to understand the effect on job satisfaction. Quality of studies varies widely. Employers may want to examine their relationships with PAs periodically. The factors of job satisfaction may assist policymakers and health administrators in creating welcoming professional employment environments. The main limitation: no study comprehensively evaluated all the antecedents of job satisfaction. PAs seem to experience job satisfaction supported by low attrition rates and competitive wages. Contributing factors are autonomy, experienced responsibility, pay, and supportive supervising physician. A number of intrinsic rewards derived from the performance of the job within the social environment, along with extrinsic rewards, may contribute to overall job satisfaction. PA job satisfaction research is underdeveloped; investigations should include longitudinal studies, cohort analyses, and economic determinants.

  4. What Do We Learn From Self-Evaluations of Training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai

    of the courses. This finding suggests that either learning has no weight in the employees. subjective evaluations or subjective evaluations cannot be trusted. At this stage, we cannot fully ascertain whether subjective valuations can be used as a substitute for econometric or experimental program evaluations...... analyze how subjective assessments of satisfaction with training compare to objective measures based on differences in test scores before and after training. I find a complete lack of correspondence between the objective measure of learning and 11 subjective measures of satisfaction with aspects......Self-evaluations of program impact, notably subjective evaluations of the e¤ects of training, are wide-spread in both the public and the private sector . probably because self-evaluations o¤er an easy and low-cost alternative to rigorous experimental or econometric evaluations. In this paper, I...

  5. Computer Graphics Animation for Objective Self-Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yoko; Sato, Katsumi; Watabe, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    The increased number of students enrolling in dance classes in Japan has resulted in a shortage of qualified instructors, leaving classes to be taught by instructors who are not trained in dance. The authors developed a system specifically designed to help nonqualified dance instructors teach dance using motion capture and animation. The goal is to allow dancers to easily self-evaluate their own performances by comparing it to a standard example.

  6. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  7. The Undervalued Self: Social Class and Self-Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Kraus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one’s own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing rank vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

  8. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  9. Job crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Peeters, M.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity of self-managing teams, re-engineering and other organizational innovations, coupled with the increased flexibility in work arrangements made possible by advances in information technology, has considerably expanded the complexity of professional jobs. Consequently, each

  10. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  12. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities.

  13. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    ...) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events...

  14. The importance of autonomy support and the mediating role of work motivation for well-being: testing self-determination theory in a Chinese work organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Chua, Bee Leng; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ryan, Richard M; Chan, Wai Yen

    2015-08-01

    We examine relations between perceived organisational autonomy support and different types of work motivation and well-being outcomes in 266 teachers from two government schools in China. We hypothesised that greater autonomy support would be associated with more autonomous forms of employee motivation, and that teacher motivation would in turn mediate the effects of autonomy support on indicators of work well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, work stress and physical ill symptoms). Results generally supported the hypothesised relations between perceived autonomy support and SDT's five types of motivations. Findings also showed that perceived autonomy support predicted job satisfaction directly and indirectly through the mediating roles of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation and external regulation. Perceived autonomy support predicted work stress directly and indirectly through the mediating roles of external regulation and amotivation. Autonomy support also predicted illness symptoms via the mediating roles of intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation and amotivation. The current findings highlight how perceived organisational support for autonomy relates to motivational differences in a Chinese work context, and the potential relevance of autonomy support for employee well-being. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  17. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  18. Psychological Flexibility as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Demands and Resources and Occupational Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Vladimir Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Valentini, Felipe

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the relations of job demands (work overload) and job resources (social support and autonomy) with subjective job well-being (job satisfaction, positive affects, negative affects), as well as the moderating role of personal resources (psychological flexibility at work) in such relationships. The sample consisted of 4,867 Brazilian workers, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 67 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the work overload was negatively associated with job satisfaction (β = -.06; p autonomy was positively associated with satisfaction (β = .08; p autonomy with positive affects (β = -.06; p job demands-resources theory, especially with respect to the relevance of personal resources for the promotion of occupational well-being.

  19. Student Perceptions of Their Autonomy at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, D. C.; Morrell, L. J.; Scott, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students' self-perceived autonomy during a period of two academic years using the Autonomous Learning Scale. Our analysis suggests…

  20. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  1. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  2. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  3. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  4. Designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Alavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing the organizational creativity based on job characteristics and job involvement among physical education employees of Technology University. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all employees, experts, and physical education units’ managers. The statistical samples were 389 people reduced to 338 employees after eliminating the incomplete and useless questionnaires. The research method of the present study was descriptive-correlative. Three questionnaires of job characteristics, job involvement, and organizational creativity were used to evaluate the research variables which were distributed and gathered among research samples after translation and comparison with research samples via face validity (views of 12 sport management experts and construct validity. The research results were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS and showed that the best predictor of job involvement among physical education units’ employees of Technology University was problem solving (ES= 0.41. However, the job characteristics of autonomy (0.26 and job feedback (.024 had more effects on employees’ creativity. Other results showed that managers reported lower scores of job characteristics and creativity than sport employees. According to research findings, in order to achieve creativity in the workplace within physical education units of Technology University, the managers should stimulate the autonomy and feedback characteristics. Of course, it should not be neglected that this mechanism would be facilitated by creating the problem solving in job.

  5. Job Satisfaction in Pharmacies Staffed Predominantly with Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    educational experience a reality. I thank God for giving me the ability and opportunity to grow as a professional and as a person . I thank my classmate...1980). Hygines . Factors that prevent the development of job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include salary, status, and job security, quality of work...self-expression and self- actualization. Includes responsibility, variety, skill, autonomy, opportunities for personal growth and development, and

  6. The Use of School Self-Evaluation Results in the Netherlands and Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Vanhoof, Jan; van Petegem, Peter; Visscher, Adrie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies on the use of school self-evaluation in the Netherlands and Flanders. It focuses on which forms of instrumental use of school self-evaluation results can be found in schools, and how differences in self-evaluation use between schools can be explained. Results show that the instrumental use of…

  7. Nurses' exhaustion: the role of flow at work between job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the job demands-resources model, this study aimed to detect the mediating role of flow at work between job demands and job resources on one side, and exhaustion on the other. In a historical period where it is necessary to reduce the abandonment of nursing profession, flow is a useful tool to investigate the factors that can promote work motivation and prevent psychological distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital, and 279 nurses completed a questionnaire. Analyses conducted are descriptive statistics, alphas, correlations and a structural equations model that considers the mediating role of flow at work. Findings show both the central role of job resources in determining flow at work, and the mediating role of flow at work in decreasing exhaustion, starting from job resources, and in decreasing the effect of job demands on exhaustion. Moreover, flow at work directly decreases exhaustion. Results show the relevance of containing job demands and provide job resources to promote positive experiences at work. To promote flow at work, organizations should offer specific resources, such as supervisors' support, job autonomy, and psychological support to manage the emotional charge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Balancing self-management and standardization to improve learning, autonomy and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Holt, Helle

    Back to Karasek’s construction of the Demand Control model learning and autonomy in work has been an important factor in conceptualization of health and wellbeing (Karasek 1979). To promote learning and autonomy in work it was suggested to create teamwork, job-enrichment, and influence at work...... potentials for increased control in work (the employees control over how and what to do), however, boundarylessness threaten the frontiers from where the employees could defend their interests, and by that boundarylessness reduce employees’ control of their work. The erosion of boundaries is studied in two...

  9. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Measurement of self-evaluative motives: a shopping scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Theresa A; Kolbe, Richard; Hu, Michael Y; Cui, Annie Peng

    2008-08-01

    To develop measures of consumers' self-evaluative motives of Self-verification, Self-enhancement, and Self-improvement within the context of a mall shopping environment, an initial set of 49 items was generated by conducting three focus-group sessions. These items were subsequently converted into shopping-dependent motive statements. 250 undergraduate college students responded on a 7-point scale to each statement as these related to the acquisition of recent personal shopping goods. An exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors, accounting for 57.7% of the variance, three of which corresponded to the Self-verification motive (five items), Self-enhancement motive (three items), and Self-improvement motive (six items). These 14 items, along with 9 reconstructed items, yielded 23 items retained and subjected to additional testing. In a final round of data collection, 169 college students provided data for exploratory factor analysis. 11 items were used in confirmatory factor analysis. Analysis indicated that the 11-item scale adequately captured measures of the three self-evaluative motives. However, further data reduction produced a 9-item scale with marked improvement in statistical fit over the 11-item scale.

  11. Integrating Self-Determination and Job Demands-Resources Theory in Predicting Mental Health Provider Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreison, Kimberly C; White, Dominique A; Bauer, Sarah M; Salyers, Michelle P; McGuire, Alan B

    2018-01-01

    Limited progress has been made in reducing burnout in mental health professionals. Accordingly, we identified factors that might protect against burnout and could be productive focal areas for future interventions. Guided by self-determination theory, we examined whether supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion predict provider burnout. 358 staff from 13 agencies completed surveys. Higher levels of supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion were predictive of lower burnout, even after accounting for job demands. Although administrators may be limited in their ability to reduce job demands, our findings suggest that increasing core job resources may be a viable alternative.

  12. Well Being and Job Satisfaction Among Call Centre Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegman, Inger Marie; Mathiesen, Karen; Møller, Niels

    2004-01-01

    A survey among 774 agents in four large Danish companies in house call centres shows that working in a call center is stressfull. Lack of control and autonomy, lack of potentiality and challenges, conflict between qualitative and quantitative demands and monitoring all have an adverse effect on job...

  13. Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

  14. Person-job fit applied to teamwork : a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Nauta, A.; Jehn, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of team task autonomy on the relationship between the mean level of three personality traits in a team - conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience - and two individual outcomes - job satisfaction and learning. Questionnaire data were

  15. Relations between task delegation and job satisfaction in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Nexøe, Jørgen; Videbæk Le, Jette

    2016-01-01

    positive issue contributing to their job satisfaction, primarily due to perceived autonomy in the work. However, because of the small sample size comprising only qualitative studies, and due to the heterogeneity of these studies, we cannot draw unambiguous conclusions although we point towards tendencies....

  16. Person-job fit applied to teamwork - A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E; Nauta, A; Jehn, KA

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of team task autonomy on the relationship between the mean level of three personality traits in a team-conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience-and two individual outcomes-job satisfaction and learning. Questionnaire data were

  17. The Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit

    2001-01-01

    Examines principals' leadership style (transformational or transactional), decision-making process (autocratic or participative), and teachers' occupation perceptions on teacher job satisfaction in Israel. Finds that teacher perceptions of occupational prestige, self-esteem, autonomy at work, and professional self-development contribute the most…

  18. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Bester

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to higher levels of job satisfaction, job involvement , and productivity, a match or fit should be established between the dominant career anchor associated with a specific occupation and that of the employee. A career anchor is an individual’s set of self-perceived talents, abilities, motives, needs and values that form the nucleus of one’s occupational self-concept. Psychologists have always been part of the service orientated careers and therefore one would expect that it is likely that their dominant career anchor would be service orientation. If this is the case, psychologists with service as their dominant career anchor are supposed to have greater job satisfaction and job involvement compared to those with different career anchors. However, according to literature, this assumption is not necessarily correct. The primary goals of the current study were to determine whether in fact service is the dominant career anchor of psychologists in the Free State and whether there are significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement between psychologists with and without service as their dominant career anchor. A third goal was to determine whether psychologists with different dominant career anchors differ significantly from one another regarding job satisfaction and job involvement. Questionnaires measuring career orientations, job satisfaction and job involvement were sent to 165 of the 171 registered psychologists in the Free State region. Only 75 psychologists (45,5% responded which exceeded the traditional return rate of 20 to 30%. Due to the small sample of respondents, a nonparametric statistical test, namely the Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine possible differences. An analysis of the data showed that 21 respondents had entrepreneurship as their dominant career orientation while 12 fell in the technical/functional, 12 in the challenging, 9 in the service and 8 in the autonomy

  19. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, C L; Mouton, T

    2006-08-01

    In order to contribute to higher levels of job satisfaction, job involvement and productivity, a match or fit should be established between the dominant career anchor associated with a specific occupation and that of the employee. A career anchor is an individual's set of self-perceived talents, abilities, motives, needs and values that form the nucleus of one's occupational self-concept. Psychologists have always been part of the service orientated careers and therefore one would expect that it is likely that their dominant career anchor would be service orientation. If this is the case, psychologists with service as their dominant career anchor are supposed to have greater job satisfaction and job involvement compared to those with different career anchors. However, according to literature, this assumption is not necessarily correct. The primary goals of the current study were to determine whether in fact service is the dominant career anchor of psychologists in the Free State and whether there are significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement between psychologists with and without service as their dominant career anchor. A third goal was to determine whether psychologists with different dominant career anchors differ significantly from one another regarding job satisfaction and job involvement. Questionnaires measuring career orientations, job satisfaction and job involvement were sent to 165 of the 171 registered psychologists in the Free State region. Only 75 psychologists (45,5%) responded which exceeded the traditional return rate of 20 to 30%. Due to the small sample of respondents, a nonparametric statistical test, namely the Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine possible differences. An analysis of the data showed that 21 respondents had entrepreneurship as their dominant career orientation while 12 fell in the technical/functional, 12 in the challenging, 9 in the service and 8 in the autonomy categories of dominant

  20. Job Satisfaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers'. Perception in ... doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several ... community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. ..... study found important differences about attractors to ... their work, work-life balance, bureaucracy.

  1. JOB SATISFACTION OF MIDWIVES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nedvědová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the literature review were to identify and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction of midwives. Design: A literature review. Methods: Included in the literature review were full texts of papers published in English language from 1990 to 2014. The search for relevant data was performed using the electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. From a total of 43 studies found, 11were analyzed as quantitative studies that fulfilled the specified criteria. Results: Job satisfaction of midwives is affected by a lack of support from the management of healthcare facilities, low salary, understaffing, insufficient time for professional activities, work-family imbalance, high workload, physical demands, inadequate professional development, working environment, stress and low autonomy at work. Midwives showed signs of exhaustion, fatigue, hostility and depression, contributing to job turnover. Conclusion: The literature review presents the factors influencing job satisfaction of midwives. This is affected by many variable determinants, which create a feeling of job satisfaction of midwives, but can also lead to job dissatisfaction and, consequently, high turnover. Keywords: midwives, job satisfaction.

  2. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kelly

    2008-06-01

    The gestational surrogate--and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular--is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy.

  3. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  4. Autonomy and the akratic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, C J

    1993-01-01

    I argue that the distinction which is current in much writing on medical ethics between autonomous and non-autonomous patients cannot cope comfortably with weak-willed (incontinent) patients. I describe a case involving a patient who refuses a blood transfusion even though he or she agrees that it would be in his or her best interests. The case is discussed in the light of the treatment of autonomy by B Brody and R Gillon. These writers appear to force us to treat an incontinent patient either as autonomous, just like a rational agent whose decisions are in accordance with his beliefs or as non-autonomous, like comatose patients or children. Though neither is entirely satisfactory I opt for describing such patients as autonomous but point out that in cases like this the principle of respect for autonomy does not give a determinate answer about how the patient ought to be treated. PMID:8308874

  5. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive autonomy (RA has been challenged by the availability of genetic information, disability and the ethics of selective reproduction. Utilitarian and rights-based approaches, as well as procreative beneficence (PB fail to provide compelling reasons for infringing RA, and may even be likened to dangerous eugenics. Parents are not morally obliged to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Society should rather adopt inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile lives.

  6. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  7. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  8. The Impact of Job Characteristics on Burnout Among Chinese Correctional Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaohong; Sun, Ivan Y; Jiang, Shanhe; Wang, Yongchun; Wen, Shufang

    2018-02-01

    Job burnout has long been recognized as a common occupational hazard among correctional workers. Although past studies have investigated the effects of job-related characteristics on correctional staff burnout in Western societies, this line of research has largely been absent from the literature on community corrections in China. Using data collected from 225 community correction workers in a Chinese province, this study assessed the effects of positive and negative job characteristics on occupational burnout. Positive job characteristics included job autonomy, procedural justice, and role clarity. Negative characteristics included role conflict, job stress, and job dangerousness. As expected, role clarity tended to reduce burnout, whereas role conflict, job stress, and job dangerousness were likely to produce greater burnout among Chinese community correction workers. Male correctional officers were also subjected to a higher level of burnout than their female coworkers. Implications for future research and policy were discussed.

  9. [Relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue-Hui; Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2010-04-01

    Children of the so-called "net generation" began joining the nurse workforce from the mid-1990s. Studies on the characteristics of this generation have been done primarily outside of Taiwan, and results may not adequately reflect conditions in Taiwan due to cultural differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses. This study employed a cross-sectional design. A randomized sample of 370 nurses born between 1977 and 1985 working in a medical center or a community hospital in Southern Taiwan accepted our invitation to join this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. (1) Variables including work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership qualities, job structure and opportunities for in-service education all correlated significantly with job involvement. (2) Regression analysis showed work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership and religious belief to be significant predictors of job involvement, explaining 22.6% of the variance. This study provides insights that may be of potential value to nursing administrators. We suggest that administrators adopt democratic management practices, build diverse learning methods, strengthen autonomy, completeness, and feedback, and provide appropriate work guidance for nurses to increase job involvement.

  10. Breaking psychological contracts with the burden of workload: a weekly study of job resources as moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Hofmans, Joeri; Polat, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    This intra-individual study examined relationships over time of job demands and resources with employee perceptions of psychological contract breach and violation, or the emotional impact of breach. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we expected job demands to increase the susceptibility of experiencing contract breach and violation over time, and we expected this relationship to be moderated by available job resources. In particular, autonomy and social support were expected to buffe...

  11. Computerised self-evaluation of performance in professional English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the focus of this article is to explore self-evaluation of performance in professional English that students have to do in university studies. It is clear that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and vocabulary. Speaking and listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Speaking and listening skills have been known to be more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. At the university level, students study professional English, also called English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Students will need it for their future profession, so it is important for them to be able to evaluate their achievements in learning.Methodology/approach – the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of computerized self-evaluation of various activities was administered to students of three different specializations. Students‘ perceptions of success or failure in their performance were analyzed.Findings. The results indicated that attitudes to computerized self-evaluation depended on the difficulty of tasks and chosen future specialization. The findings show that respondents of three investigated specializations encounter similar difficulties, but to a different degree. There are no specific problems in performance due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are good correlational relationships within each specialization. The ratings of Psychology (PS students reveal higher mean values and lower scattering of Standard Deviations in Moodle tasks than the ratings of Internet Management and Communication (IMC students.Research limitations. The investigated samples contain the limited number of respondents, which might

  12. Factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of numerical competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-04-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression analyses, revealed that undergraduates exhibiting greater confidence in their mathematical and numeracy skills, as evidenced by their higher self-evaluation scores and their higher scores on the confidence sub-scale contributing to the measurement of attitude, possess more cohesive, rather than fragmented, conceptions of mathematics, and display more positive attitudes towards mathematics/numeracy. They also exhibit lower levels of mathematics anxiety. Students exhibiting greater confidence also tended to be those who were relatively young (i.e. 18-29 years), whose degree programmes provided them with opportunities to practise and further develop their numeracy skills, and who possessed higher pre-university mathematics qualifications. The multiple regression analysis revealed two positive predictors (overall attitude towards mathematics/numeracy and possession of a higher pre-university mathematics qualification) and five negative predictors (mathematics anxiety, lack of opportunity to practise/develop numeracy skills, being a more mature student, being enrolled in Health and Social Care compared with Science and Technology, and possessing no formal mathematics/numeracy qualification compared with a General Certificate of Secondary Education or equivalent qualification) accounted for approximately 64% of the variation in students' perceptions of their numerical competence. Although the results initially suggested that male students were significantly more confident than females, one compounding variable was almost certainly the students' highest pre-university mathematics or numeracy qualification, since a higher

  13. Live as we choose: The role of autonomy support in facilitating intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    According to Self-determination Theory (SDT), autonomy is a basic psychological need, satisfaction of which may lead to enhanced intrinsic motivation and related beneficial outcomes. By manipulating the opportunity to choose between tasks of equal difficulty, throughout the motivational process, the effect of autonomy support was examined both behaviorally and electrophysiologically. More negative stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and an enlarged FRN loss-win difference wave (d-FRN) indicated an enhanced expectation toward the positive outcome (during the anticipation stage) as well as intensified intrinsic motivation toward the task (during the outcome appraisal stage) when choice was available. Taken together, results of the present study suggest d-FRN upon feedback as a real-time electrophysiological indicator of intrinsic/autonomous motivation and illustrate the important role of autonomy-supportive job design in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationshipbetweenjob satisfactionwith general healthand job burnout workers inanautomotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Material and Method: This study was a descriptive - analytical study conducted among. 120 workers in an automobile manufacturing industry in Tehran.the samples were selected using simple sampling method. Data were collected using, job satisfaction questionnaire Barry field, GHQ-28 and self-evaluation scale questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. . Result: In this study 95% of individuals had low job satisfaction and moderated. In addition, 73/6% significant of people were likely to burnout, and 55% were people with mental health disorders. There was Inverse relationship between job satisfaction and general health the whole item. The direct correlation between the variables of general health and burnout, and there was a significant variable. The inverse relationship between job satisfaction and burnout, there was significant. . Conclusion: Given the obvious relationship between burnout and job satisfaction with public health, industry executives need to learn and improve incentive programs to promote employment, human relations and feelings of efficacy and bring into force.

  15. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; Belschak, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.

  16. When are workload and workplace learning opportunities related in a curvilinear manner? The moderating role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Ruysseveldt (Joris); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBuilding on theoretical frameworks like the Job Demands Control model and Action Theory we tested whether the relationship between workload and employees’ experiences of opportunities for workplace learning is of an inverted u-shaped nature and whether autonomy moderates this

  17. Teachers' Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Considering the Roles of Their Work Engagement, Autonomy and Leader-Member Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runhaar, Piety; Konermann, Judith; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demands that schools are confronted with recently, require teachers' commitment and contribution to school goals, regardless of formal job requirements. This study examines the influence of teachers' work context, in terms of autonomy and leader-membership exchange (LMX), on the relationship between their work engagement and…

  18. When Are Workload and Workplace Learning Opportunities Related in a Curvilinear Manner? The Moderating Role of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dijke, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Building on theoretical frameworks like the Job Demands Control model and Action Theory we tested whether the relationship between workload and employees' experiences of opportunities for workplace learning is of an inverted u-shaped nature and whether autonomy moderates this relationship. We predicted that--at moderate levels of…

  19. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.L.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Boeschoten, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these

  20. Teachers' organizational citizenship behaviour: Considering the roles of their work engagement, autonomy and leader–member exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Konermann, J.; Sanders, K.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demands that schools are confronted with recently, require teachers' commitment and contribution to school goals, regardless of formal job requirements. This study examines the influence of teachers' work context, in terms of autonomy and leader–membership exchange (LMX), on the

  1. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior

  2. Steve Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Julie Sophie; Nielsen, Jonas; Mørk, Maj Keum Ji Helweg; Mammen, Diana; Kristiansen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Welch, Nadia Guldbæk

    2013-01-01

    Apple is perhaps today one of the most successful technological brands on the market. This company has introduced various products to the consumers, which in a relatively short time has managed to establish a world wide trend based on a functional and aesthetic design. In this project, the primary interest lies in how Apple has achieved this kind of success revolved around the late founder Steve Jobs, who undoubtedly appears as one of the central figures in creating the status that Apple has ...

  3. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self...

  4. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  5. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  6. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  7. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Zito

    Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  8. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507

  9. Turnover intentions in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.

  10. The Future of Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josephine; Zacharias, Rachel L

    2017-12-01

    In a project The Hastings Center is now running on the future of prenatal testing, we are encountering clear examples, both in established law and in the practices of individual providers, of failures to respect women's reproductive autonomy: when testing is not offered to certain demographics of women, for instance, or when the choices of women to terminate or continue pregnancies are prohibited or otherwise not supported. But this project also raises puzzles for reproductive autonomy. We have learned that some clinicians and patients do not discuss the fact that prenatal testing can lead to a decision about whether to terminate a pregnancy-they just don't talk about it. And while the decision whether to agree to prenatal screening and diagnostic testing is to be made with women's free and informed consent, many screening tests have been routinized in such a way that some women do not even recall agreeing to testing, while others feel that agreeing to testing is what their clinicians expect of them or that the testing is necessary to protect themselves and their families from the significant financial hardship of raising a child with a disability. In the face of these pressures, can one really say that women are freely choosing to undergo testing or are freely choosing to continue or terminate a pregnancy following receipt of test results? The reality of these pressures is requiring us to consider expanding the scope of our investigation beyond the clinical encounter to the broader context-to think harder about what reproductive autonomy means and how best to enhance it. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  11. Adolescents, Graduated Autonomy, and Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy takes many shapes. The concept of “graduated autonomy” is conceived as comprising several unique features: (1 it is incremental, (2 it is proportional, and (3 it is related to the telos of the life stage during which it occurs. This paper focuses on graduated autonomy in the context of genetic testing during adolescence. Questions can be raised about other life stages as well, and some of these questions will be addressed by discussing a possible fourth characteristic of graduated autonomy, that is, its elasticity. Further scholarship and analysis is needed to refine the concept of graduated autonomy and examine its applications.

  12. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines several characteristics of foreign subsidiaries with low autonomy. Data derived from a survey of 381 MNC subsidiaries located in Denmark, Germany and the UK demonstrate that low-autonomy subsidiaries are highly embedded in their respective MNC networks and that they establish ...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  13. An intercultural nursing perspective on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on an empirical study regarding ethical challenges in intercultural nursing. The focus is on autonomy and disclosure. Autonomy is a human capacity that has become an important ethical principle in nursing. Although the relationship between autonomy and patients' possibly harmful choices is discussed, the focus is on 'forced' autonomy. Nurses seem to equate respect with autonomy; it seems to be hard to cope with the fact that there are patients who voluntarily undergo treatment but who actively participate neither in the treatment offered nor in making choices regarding that treatment. Nurses' demand for patients to be autonomous may in some cases jeopardize the respect, integrity and human worth that the ethical principle of autonomy is meant to ensure. Even though respect for a person's autonomy is also respect for the person, one's respect for the person in question should not depend on his or her capacity or aptitude to act autonomously. Is autonomy necessarily a universal ethical principle? This article negates this question and, through the issues of culture, individualism versus collectivism, first- and second-order autonomy, communication and the use of family interpreters, and respect, an attempt is made to explain why.

  14. Job satisfaction of registered dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, L; Spencer, A J; Jones, K; Teusner, D

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to measure job satisfaction among registered clinical dentists so as to identify issues which may influence recruitment and retention of dentists in active clinical practice. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of job satisfaction was mailed to a stratified random sample of 80 private and 80 public sector dentists selected from the 1999 Victorian Dental Register. An adjusted response rate of 60 per cent was achieved (n = 87). Analyses showed significant differences (ANOVA; p satisfaction for various dimensions of job satisfaction by gender, age group and practice type. Differences in job satisfaction between male and female dentists related to the personal time dimension. Differences in satisfaction between dentists of different age groups were attributable to six dimensions: relationships with colleagues, relationships with patients, relationships with staff, personal time, community and administrative responsibilities. Differences between levels of satisfaction among private and public dentists related to the autonomy, relationships with patients, pay and resources dimensions. There are various dimensions of job satisfaction that may be pertinent to issues influencing recruitment and retention of dentists. Differences that exist between levels of job satisfaction among private and public sector dentists, between male and female dentists and dentists of different age groups need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention rates of dentists in active clinical practice in different sectors of the dental care system.

  15. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  16. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  17. The moderating role of job resources in the relationship between job demands and interleukin-6 in an Italian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alessandra; Dal Corso, Laura; Girardi, Damiano; De Carlo, Alessandro; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    In this study we examined the association between job demands (JD), job resources (JR), and serum levels of a possible biomarker of stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). According to the buffer hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we expected that job resources-defined as job autonomy and social support from supervisor-might buffer the relationship between job demands, defined as emotional demands and interpersonal conflict with colleagues, and IL-6. Data from 119 employees in an Italian public healthcare organization (acute care hospital) were analyzed using multiple regression. In predicting IL-6, the interactions between emotional demands and JR and between interpersonal conflict with colleagues and job autonomy (but not social support) were significant, after controlling for the effect of age and gender. The association between JD and IL-6 was stronger for individuals with low levels of JR, so that levels of IL-6 were highest when JD were high and JR were low. Overall, these results are consistent with the buffer hypothesis of the JD-R model and also extend previous research, showing that the exposure to stressful situations at work, measured as high JD and low JR, is associated with higher levels of IL-6 in hospital employees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  19. Individual autonomy in work teams : the role of team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Task autonomy is long recognized as a means to improve functioning of individuals and teams. Taking a multilevel approach, we unravelled the constructs of team and individual autonomy and studied the interplay between team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support in determining individual

  20. University Reform and Institutional Autonomy: A Framework for Analysing the Living Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Peter; Gornitzka, Åse; Fumasoli, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss recent university reforms aimed at enhancing university autonomy, highlighting various tensions in the underlying reform ideologies. We examine how the traditional interpretation of university autonomy has been expanded in the reform rationales. An analytical framework for studying how autonomy is interpreted and used…

  1. Job satisfaction of neonatal intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katie; Rubarth, Lori Baas; Miers, Linda J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the job satisfaction of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in the Midwestern United States. The factors explored in job satisfaction were monetary compensation (pay), job stress, caring for patients in stressful situations, level of autonomy, organizational support, level of knowledge of the specialty, work environment, staffing levels, communication with physicians, communication with neonatal nurse practitioners, interdisciplinary communication, team spirit, and the amount of required "floating" to other nursing units. Participants were 109 NICU nurses working as either staff nurses (n = 72) or advanced practice nurses (n = 37). Of the participants, 96% worked in a level 3 NICU. A descriptive, correlational design was used to study job satisfaction among NICU nurses. Nurses were recruited at 2 regional NICU conferences in 2009 and 2010. The questionnaire was a researcher-developed survey consisting of 14 questions in a Likert-type response rating 1 to 5, with an area for comments. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the resulting data. The majority of participants were moderately satisfied overall in their current position and workplace (mean ranking = 4.07 out of 5.0). Kendall's Tau b (TB) revealed that the strongest positive correlations were between organizational support and team spirit with overall job satisfaction (TB = 0.53). : The individual factors with the highest mean scores were caring for patients in a stressful situation, level of autonomy, and communication between nurses and neonatal nurse practitioners. This indicates that our population of NICU nurses feels most satisfied caring for patients in stressful situations (m = 4.48), are satisfied with their level of autonomy (M = 4.17), and are satisfied with the interdisciplinary communication in their units (m = 4.13). Nurses in the NICU are relatively satisfied with their jobs. The small sample size (n = 109) of Midwest NICU

  2. Doing good buffers against feeling bad : prosocial impact compensates for negative task and self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Adam M.; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that negative task and self-evaluations are associated with emotional exhaustion, little research has examined factors that buffer against these affects. We propose that perceived prosocial impact, the experience of helping others, compensates for negative task and self-evaluations by focusing attention on positive outcomes for others. In Study 1, perceived prosocial impact attenuated the associations of low intrinsic motivation and core self-evaluations with emotio...

  3. Job satisfaction among public health nurses: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth A; Glacken, Michele

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing interest in nurses' job satisfaction relatively few studies have investigated job satisfaction among public health nurses. To establish current level of job satisfaction among public health nurses and identify the main contributing variables/factors to job satisfaction among this population. Quantitative descriptive design. A simple random sample of 1000 public health nurses was conducted yielding a response rate of 35.1% (n = 351). Data was collected using the Index of Work Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were deployed. Low levels of job satisfaction among public health nurses emerged. Professional status, interaction and autonomy contributed most to job satisfaction while pay and task-related activities contributed least. Age and tenure were the only biographic factors that correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Public health nurse managers/leaders need to find creative ways of improving the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and address robustly those factors that result in low job satisfaction. The critical issue for public health nurse managers is to determine how job satisfaction can be improved. Greater collaboration and consultation between managers and public health nurses can be regarded as a useful way to begin this process, especially if contemporary nursing is to embrace a responsive approach within the profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The teacher benefits from giving autonomy support during physical education instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Yu, Tae Ho; Jang, Hue Ryen

    2014-08-01

    Recognizing that students benefit when they receive autonomy-supportive teaching, the current study tested the parallel hypothesis that teachers themselves would benefit from giving autonomy support. Twenty-seven elementary, middle, and high school physical education teachers (20 males, 7 females) were randomly assigned either to participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (experimental group) or to teach their physical education course with their existing style (control group) within a three-wave longitudinal research design. Manipulation checks showed that the intervention was successful, as students perceived and raters scored teachers in the experimental group as displaying a more autonomy-supportive and less controlling motivating style. In the main analyses, ANCOVA-based repeated-measures analyses showed large and consistent benefits for teachers in the experimental group, including greater teaching motivation (psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and intrinsic goals), teaching skill (teaching efficacy), and teaching well-being (vitality, job satisfaction, and lesser emotional and physical exhaustion). These findings show that giving autonomy support benefits teachers in much the same way that receiving it benefits their students.

  5. Agency is Distinct from Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cummins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both autonomy and agency play central roles in the emerging enactive vocabulary. Although some treat these concepts as practically synonymous, others have sought to be more explicit about the conditions required for agency over and above autonomy. I attempt to be self-conscious about the role of the observer (or scientist in such discussions, and emphasise that the concept of agency, in particular, is deeply entwined with the nature of the observer and the framing of the observation. This is probably well known to enactivists, but runs the risk of being badly misunderstood if it is not made explicit. A heightened awareness of the role of the observer in the attribution of agency may allow us to make advances in questions in which progress is hindered by assuming a single split between subject and object. I argue that human experience is characterized by our embedding in webs of meaning arising from our participation in systems of many sorts, and that this richness demands a corresponding lightness of touch with respect to the identification of agentive subjects.

  6. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine......’s philosophy. She argues that a focus on the self-organization of the living being implies not only a distinct move towards an ontology of radical physis in Castoriadis’s later work, but also, along with it, a revised version of his project of autonomy. Autonomy, like autology and the other theme of this issue...

  7. Career patterns and job satisfaction of Canadian nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M C; Goldenberg, D; Faux, S

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the career patterns and job satisfaction of Ontario university and college nurse educators. A descriptive survey design was employed using mailed questionnaires. The sample comprised 60 nurse educators, 30 from three universities and 30 from three colleges. Forty-four returned the completed questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73%. The variables about the career patterns and goals of the nurse educators included their past and present job satisfaction. Career patterns were described as stable, double-track, interrupted and unstable. Similarities and differences were compared and described in relation to these factors. Significant differences in job satisfaction were found between university and college faculty on nine of the 36 job characteristics (for example, leadership style, independence, autonomy and salary). There were no significant differences in job satisfaction for each of the career patterns and the selected demographic variables of age, years in nursing education, educational level and salary between the university and college faculty.

  8. Job satisfaction as a matter of time, team, and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Support and variety regarding work, autonomy, organizational constraints, and promotion opportunities are factors contributing to job satisfaction or lack thereof among hospital nurses together with self-perceived health, education and career orientation. The aim of this study was to explore public...... hospital nurses’ experiences of job satisfaction. This qualitative study was undertaken in a caring theory context. Ten proficient Danish hospital nurses were interviewed twice and data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. The analysis revealed that time, team, and trust were essential components...... in job satisfaction. Time, team and trust helped the nurses collaborate with patients, care for relatives, and work in teams with other hospital staff members. Lack of job satisfaction occurred when time was to short or quality care was threatened, when the nurses felt alone and had to finish their job...

  9. A social media self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin J; Huiskes, Florian; Korevaar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of medical practitioners and medical students are using online social and business-related networking websites such as Facebook, Doc2doc and LinkedIn. These rapidly evolving and growing social media have potential to promote public health by providing powerful instruments for communication and education. However, evidence is emerging from studies, legal cases, and media reports that the use of these new technologies is creating several ethical problems for medical practitioners as well as medical students. Improper online activities may harm not only individual reputations and careers, but also the medical profession as a whole, for example by breach of patient confidentiality, defamation of colleagues and employers, undisclosed conflict of interests that bias the medical practitioner's medical advice, posting of advice/information without an evidence base, and infringement of copyright. We developed a self-evaluation checklist for medical practitioners using social media. The checklist addresses three key elements in the use of social media: personal information and accessibility, connections, and postings. It contains questions specifically formulated to evaluate a medical practitioner's social media profile, to prevent unintended, improper online activities and to promote professional online behaviour.

  10. Board self-evaluation: the Bayside Health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Marr, Alison; Duckett, Stephen J

    2005-08-01

    Board evaluation is a critical component of good governance in any organisation. This paper describes the board self-evaluation process used by Bayside Health, a public health service in Melbourne. The question of how governing boards can assess their performance has received increasing attention over the past decade. In particular, the increasing demand for accountability to shareholders and regulators experienced by corporate sector Boards has resulted in greater scrutiny of board performance, with the market and the balance sheet providing some basis for assessment. Performance evaluation of governing boards in the public sector has been more challenging. Performance evaluation is complex in a sector that is not simply driven by the bottom line, where the stakeholders involve both government and the broader community, and where access to, and the quality and safety of the services provided, are often the major public criteria by which performance may be judged. While some practices from the corporate sector can be applied successfully in the public sector, this is not always the case, and public sector boards such as the Board of Directors of Bayside Health have been developing ways to evaluate and improve their performance.

  11. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  12. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  13. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  14. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  15. On the Compatibility of Autonomy and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relation of autonomy to naturally occurring social interactions in two studies: the first investigated college students' interactions with parents, and the second examined interactions across all relationships. Autonomy was significantly related to more positive and naturally occurring interaction, whereas control related more to…

  16. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  17. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  18. Progress in medicine: autonomy, oughtonomy and nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I argue that we need a new perspective in the debate on autonomy in medicine, to understand many of the problems we face today - dilemmas that are situated at the intersection of autonomy and heteronomy, such as why well informed and autonomous people make unhealthy lifestyle choices. If people do not choose what they want, this is not simply caused by their lack of character or capability, but also by the fact that absolute autonomy is impossible; autonomous individuals are 'contaminated' by heteronymous aspects, by influences from 'outside'. Consequently, there are many good reasons to question the widely accepted hierarchical opposition of autonomy (progress) versus heteronomy (paternalism) in medicine. In an earlier article an analysis is made of the neologism 'oughtonomy' to support the thesis that when it comes down to human existence, autonomy and heteronomy are intertwined, rather than being merely opposites. In this article, I reflect upon how social conditions might improve our 'choice architecture', what Thaler & Sunstein have called 'nudging': how to change individual health choices without being paternalistic? I explore the extent to which both oughtonomy and nudging are able to challenge the question of autonomy in today's medicine. Autonomy may and should be a shared target in today's medicine, but we should never forget that it is always intertwined with heteronomy. Starting from this perspective, progress in medicine demands far more than the increase of autonomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  20. Perceptions of organizational support and its impact on nurses' job outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe Petitte, Denise M; Leocadio, Michael C; Van Bogaert, Peter; Tsaras, Konstantinos

    2018-04-25

    Strong organizational support can promote a sense of well-being and positive work behaviors in nurses. However, despite the importance of organizational support in nursing, this topic remains unexplored in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of organizational support perceptions on nurses' work outcomes (organizational commitment, work autonomy, work performance, job satisfaction, job stress, and turnover intention). A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was adopted in this study to collect data from one hundred eighty (180) nurses in the Philippines during the months of September 2015 to December 2015. Seven standardized tools were used: the Job Satisfaction Index, the Job Stress Scale, the Burnout Measure Scale, the Work Autonomy Scale, the Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance, the Turnover Intention Inventory Scale, and the Perception of Organizational Support Scale. Nurses employed in government-owned hospitals perceived low levels of organizational support as compared to private hospitals. Significant correlations were identified between perceived organizational support (POS), hospital bed capacity, and nurses' work status. No significant correlations were found between perceived organizational supportand the six outcomes perceived by nurses in the Philippines (organizational commitment, work performance, job autonomy, job satisfaction, job stress, and turnover intention). Perceptions of organizational support were low in Filipino nurses compared to findings in other international studies. Perceived organizational support did not influence job outcomes in nurses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A diary study on the happy worker: how job resources generate positive emotions and generate personal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthopoulou, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    This diary study tests the broaden-and-build theory in the work context and expands it by examining job resources as potential antecedents of positive emotions on a daily basis. We hypothesized that general perceptions of job resources (autonomy, supervisory coaching, and the psychological climate

  2. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  3. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  4. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  6. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  7. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  8. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  9. [Is autonomy ground of human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Alvarez-Valdés, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conditions of autonomy if this is to be the foundation of human dignity. Since Kant Modernity has dissociated nature from morality and has tried to support autonomy in its purely formal aspect. To forget nature has voluntarist consequences that affect the way in which autonomy is understand. But autonomy does not consist of not having links, but of knowing how to assume one's own links freely and to be conscious of one's own limits. Autonomy and liberty are the very thing of the rational being, capable of discerning good and bad, and this must direct our actions. Reason directs as and distances us from reality to recognize the advisable thing in the human being.

  10. Nurses' Job satisfaction: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.

  11. Effective means of planning for and implementing autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehof, Lars Adam

    1991-01-01

    Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights......Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights...

  12. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  13. Physicians' Job Satisfaction.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AmL

    doctors and retention of the existing doctors, in addition to the ... an employee's well-being Examples of job resources are job ..... increase physician job satisfaction for ensuring the .... both pay and benefits physicians at private hospitals.

  14. Second Job Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenert, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Current Population Survey reveal characteristics of second-job entrepreneurs, occupations in which these workers hold their second jobs, and the occupational and earnings relationships between their second and primary jobs. (Author)

  15. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  17. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  18. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    This book introduces four evaluation studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. For the purpose of these evaluation studies, a research methodology was developed by the EUniAM project team and used by the Task Force teams to collect and analy...... in Moldova. Preliminary findings of the evaluation studies were presented at the International Conference on “A Quest to (Re)define University Autonomy” organized by the EUniAM project. At the same time, these findings had an impact on the context of the new Code of Education....... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...

  19. Employment Condition, Economic Deprivation and Self-Evaluated Health in Europe: Evidence from EU-SILC 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Silvia; Pigini, Claudia; Seracini, Marco; Minelli, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The mixed empirical evidence about employment conditions (i.e., permanent vs. temporary job, full-time vs. part-time job) as well as unemployment has motivated the development of conceptual models with the aim of assessing the pathways leading to effects of employment status on health. Alongside physically and psychologically riskier working conditions, one channel stems in the possibly severe economic deprivation faced by temporary workers. We investigate whether economic deprivation is able to partly capture the effect of employment status on Self-evaluated Health Status (SHS). Methods: Our analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey, for a balanced sample from 26 countries from 2009 to 2012. We estimate a correlated random-effects logit model for the SHS that accounts for the ordered nature of the dependent variable and the longitudinal structure of the data. Results and Discussion: Material deprivation and economic strain are able to partly account for the negative effects on SHS from precarious and part-time employment as well as from unemployment that, however, exhibits a significant independent negative association with SHS. Conclusions: Some of the indicators used to proxy economic deprivation are significant predictors of SHS and their correlation with the employment condition is such that it should not be neglected in empirical analysis, when available and further to the monetary income. PMID:28165375

  20. Employment Condition, Economic Deprivation and Self-Evaluated Health in Europe: Evidence from EU-SILC 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Silvia; Pigini, Claudia; Seracini, Marco; Minelli, Liliana

    2017-02-03

    Background : The mixed empirical evidence about employment conditions (i.e., permanent vs. temporary job, full-time vs. part-time job) as well as unemployment has motivated the development of conceptual models with the aim of assessing the pathways leading to effects of employment status on health. Alongside physically and psychologically riskier working conditions, one channel stems in the possibly severe economic deprivation faced by temporary workers. We investigate whether economic deprivation is able to partly capture the effect of employment status on Self-evaluated Health Status (SHS). Methods : Our analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey, for a balanced sample from 26 countries from 2009 to 2012. We estimate a correlated random-effects logit model for the SHS that accounts for the ordered nature of the dependent variable and the longitudinal structure of the data. Results and Discussion : Material deprivation and economic strain are able to partly account for the negative effects on SHS from precarious and part-time employment as well as from unemployment that, however, exhibits a significant independent negative association with SHS. Conclusions : Some of the indicators used to proxy economic deprivation are significant predictors of SHS and their correlation with the employment condition is such that it should not be neglected in empirical analysis, when available and further to the monetary income.

  1. [Self-acceptance as adaptively resigning the self to low self-evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, T

    1996-10-01

    In past studies, the concept of self-acceptance has often been confused with self-evaluation or self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to distinguish these concepts, and operationally define self-acceptance as Carl Rogers proposed: feeling all right toward the self when self-evaluation was low. Self-acceptance as adaptive resignation, a moderating variable, therefore should raise self-esteem of only those people with low self-evaluation. Self-acceptance was measured in the study as affirmative evaluation of own self-evaluation. Two hundred and forty college students, 120 each for men and women, completed a questionnaire of self-evaluative consciousness and self-esteem scales. Results of statistical analyses showed that among subjects with low self-evaluation, the higher self-acceptance, the higher the person's self-esteem. The same relation was not observed among those with high self-evaluation. Thus, it may be concluded that self-acceptance was adaptive resignation, and therefore meaningful to only those with low self-evaluation.

  2. Plaidoyer pour l'auto-evaluation (Avocating Student Self-Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec, Henri

    1981-01-01

    Advocates student self-evaluation as a practice that can impart new vigor to language courses and benefit both student and teacher as well as their relationship. Cautions, however, that self-evaluation procedures must be learned and that students must acquire a clear perception of the relevant criteria and objectives. (MES)

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of September 29... action and self-evaluation. 101-4.110 Section 101-4.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 4-NONDISCRIMINATION...

  4. 31 CFR 28.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within... self-evaluation. 28.110 Section 28.110 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  5. 45 CFR 618.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 618.110 Section 618.110 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...

  6. 45 CFR 2555.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 2555.110 Section 2555.110 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...

  7. 40 CFR 5.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of September 29... self-evaluation. 5.110 Section 5.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  8. 24 CFR 3.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... self-evaluation. 3.110 Section 3.110 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  9. 34 CFR 106.3 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 106.3 Section 106.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR.... (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of the effective...

  10. 13 CFR 113.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... and self-evaluation. 113.110 Section 113.110 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... GOVERNMENT AND SBA ADMINISTRATOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1317.110 Section 1317.110 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  12. 15 CFR 8a.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of September 29... self-evaluation. 8a.110 Section 8a.110 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  13. 29 CFR 36.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 36.110 Section 36.110 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a...

  14. 36 CFR 1211.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action and self-evaluation. 1211.110 Section 1211.110 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a...

  15. 38 CFR 23.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264. (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall... action and self-evaluation. 23.110 Section 23.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  16. 10 CFR 5.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 5.110 Section 5.110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a recipient...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of February 20, 2001... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1042... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1042...

  18. [Job satisfaction in an Italian university: difference between academic and technical-administrative staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Molino, Monica; Zito, Margherita; Curzi, Ylenia; Fabbri, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the academic world led to an increase in job demands and a decrease in the available job resources. In recent years, the positive image of work in academia has gradually blurred. The present study, within the theoretical framework of the job demands-resources model, aimed to analyse the relationship between some job demands (workload, work-family conflict and emotional dissonance) and some job resources (autonomy, supervisors' support and co-workers' support) and job satisfaction in a medium-sized Italian University, by observing the differences between the academic staff (professors and researchers) and the technical-administrative staff The research was conducted by administering a self-report questionnaire which allowed to detect job satisfaction and the mentioned variables. Respondents were 477 (177 from academic staff and 300 from technical-administrative staff). The analysis of variance (independent samples t-test) showed significant differences in variables of interest between academic staff and technical-administrative staff. Multiple regression pointed out that job autonomy is the main determinant of job satisfaction in the academic staff sample, whereas supervisor support is the main determinant of job satisfaction in the technical-administrative staff sample. This research represents one of the first Italian studies on these topics in the academic context and highlights the importance of further in-depth examinations of specific job dynamics for both teaching and technical-administrative staff. Among practical implications, the importance of keeping high levels of job autonomy for academic staff and of fostering an effective leadership development for technical-administrative staff emerged.

  19. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  20. Moving Away from Exhaustion: How Core Self-Evaluations Influence Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Penghu; Sun, Yunfeng; Ji, Zhigang; Li, Hanzhong; Peng, Jiaxi

    2014-01-01

    Background Academic burnout refers to students who have low interest, lack of motivation, and tiredness in studying. Studies concerning how to prevent academic burnout are rare. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the impact of core self-evaluations on the academic burnout of university students, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of life satisfaction. Methods A total of 470 university students accomplished the core self-evaluation scale, Satisfaction with Life, and academic burnout scale. Results Both core self-evaluations and life satisfaction were significantly correlated with academic burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that life satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic burnout. Conclusions Core self-evaluations significantly influence academic burnout and are partially mediated by life satisfaction. PMID:24489857

  1. Moving away from exhaustion: how core self-evaluations influence academic burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghu Lian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Academic burnout refers to students who have low interest, lack of motivation, and tiredness in studying. Studies concerning how to prevent academic burnout are rare. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of core self-evaluations on the academic burnout of university students, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of life satisfaction. METHODS: A total of 470 university students accomplished the core self-evaluation scale, Satisfaction with Life, and academic burnout scale. RESULTS: Both core self-evaluations and life satisfaction were significantly correlated with academic burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that life satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Core self-evaluations significantly influence academic burnout and are partially mediated by life satisfaction.

  2. Moving away from exhaustion: how core self-evaluations influence academic burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Penghu; Sun, Yunfeng; Ji, Zhigang; Li, Hanzhong; Peng, Jiaxi

    2014-01-01

    Academic burnout refers to students who have low interest, lack of motivation, and tiredness in studying. Studies concerning how to prevent academic burnout are rare. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of core self-evaluations on the academic burnout of university students, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of life satisfaction. A total of 470 university students accomplished the core self-evaluation scale, Satisfaction with Life, and academic burnout scale. Both core self-evaluations and life satisfaction were significantly correlated with academic burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that life satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic burnout. Core self-evaluations significantly influence academic burnout and are partially mediated by life satisfaction.

  3. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  4. Shared decision-making and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.

  5. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  6. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Heijmans, Monique; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W

    2010-07-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N = 166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was low, the average autonomy levels were only moderate, and the average self-esteem level was rather high. On the whole, positive illness and treatment perceptions were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem, but not with labour participation. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness and treatment perceptions explained 18 to 27% of the variance in autonomy and self-esteem. Perceptions of personal control, less impact of the illness and treatment, and less concern were important predictors. Our results indicate that dialysis patients' beliefs about their illness and treatment play an important role in their perceived autonomy and self-esteem. Stimulating positive (realistic) beliefs and altering maladaptive beliefs might contribute to a greater sense of autonomy and self-esteem, and to social participation in general. Interventions focusing on these beliefs may assist patients to adjust to ESRD.

  7. On-the-job-training, job search and job mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Zweimüller; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of formal training on worker mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey, we find that both general and specific training significantly affects on-the-job search activities. The effect of training on actual job mobility differs between searchers and non-searchers. In line with human capital theory, we find that specific (general) training has a negative (positive) impact on job mobility for previous non-searchers. For individuals who have been looking...

  8. Crafting in context: Exploring when job crafting is dysfunctional for performance effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Jensen, Jaclyn M

    2018-05-01

    Job crafting theory purports that the consequences of revising one's work role can be simultaneously beneficial and detrimental. Previous research, however, has almost exclusively emphasized the beneficial outcomes of job crafting. In the current study, we proposed dysfunctional consequences of crafting for performance-related outcomes in the form of a U-shaped relationship between job crafting and performance effectiveness (managerial ratings of job proficiency and peer ratings of citizenship behavior). We further predicted that elements of the task context (autonomy and ambiguity) and the social context (interdependence and social support) moderate these curvilinear relationships. Consistent with previous research, job crafting displayed positive and linear effects on work-related attitudes (job satisfaction and affective commitment). Consistent with our predictions, moderate levels of crafting were associated with dysfunctional performance-related outcomes and features of work context either exacerbated or dissipated these dysfunctional consequences of job crafting for individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Work Volition as a Critical Moderator in the Prediction of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Webster, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Psychology of Working Framework, the current study explored the extent to which work volition functioned as a moderator in the relation between positive affect, core self-evaluations, perceived organizational support (POS), and work self-efficacy to job satisfaction. In a diverse sample of 206 employed adults, work volition was…

  10. Oppression, Autonomy and the Impossibility of the Inner Citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of autonomy that takes social oppression seriously without sapping autonomy of its valuable focus on individual self-direction. Building on recent work in relational accounts of autonomy, the paper argues that current conceptions of autonomy from liberal, feminist and critical theorists do not adequately account…

  11. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  12. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  14. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  15. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  16. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    current system of decentralisation entrenches the financial autonomy of urban ..... of the UCA to deploy auditors to inspect the accounts of urban councils ..... Act; the payment of compensation; the liquidation of the principal monies owing on.

  17. Working conditions, work style, and job satisfaction among Albanian teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos

    1994-03-01

    For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.

  18. Futility, autonomy, and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, J M

    1994-03-01

    If clinicians deem a treatment medically futile, is it appropriate to mention such a treatment to patients? Do healthcare professionals violate informed consent if they do not offer patients an opportunity to decline futile treatments? The notion of futility involves an assessment of patient best interest--both short-term and long-term therapeutic benefit for a patient and the community in which he or she intends to survive and flourish. Although survival interests may be construed as long term, a treatment that offers survival without any promise of flourishing is not the goal of medicine and is futile. Flourishing requires some cognitive and affective function. The goal of informed consent practices is to ensure that patients accept the benefits of treatment with cognizance of the burdens and risks. Given the impact of illness on the emotional and psychological states of patients and their families and their resultant vulnerability, the omission of futile options from treatment plans is logical and exemplifies the best of paternalistic behavior. The claim that requests for futile treatment must be honored is based on a perverse understanding of patient autonomy. Rational medicine demands that patients' requests be reasonable from a clinical perspective, as well as from a subjective one. The practice of informed consent can be implemented as a balance between these two interests.

  19. The importance of work conditions and health for voluntary job mobility: a two-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changing jobs is part of modern working life. Within occupational health, job mobility has mainly been studied in terms of employees’ intentions to leave their jobs. In contrast to actual turnover, turnover intentions are not definite and only reflect the probability that an individual will change job. The aim of this study was to determine what work conditions predict voluntary job mobility and to examine if good health or burnout predicts voluntary job mobility. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from 792 civil servants. The data were analysed using logistic regressions. Results Low variety and high autonomy were associated with increased voluntary job mobility. However, the associations between health and voluntary job mobility did not reach significance. Possible explanations for the null results may be that the population was homogeneous, and that the instruments for measuring global health are too coarse for a healthy, working population. Conclusions Voluntary job mobility may be predicted by high autonomy and low variety. The former may reflect that individuals with high autonomy have stronger career development motives; the latter may reflect the fact that low variety leads to job dissatisfaction. In contrast to our results on job content, global health measurements are not strong predictors of voluntary job mobility. This may be because good health affects job mobility through several offsetting channels, involving the resources and ability to seek a new job. Future work should use more detailed measurements of health or examine other work settings so that we may learn more about which of the offsetting effects of health dominate in different contexts. PMID:22909352

  20. The importance of work conditions and health for voluntary job mobility: a two-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reineholm Cathrine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing jobs is part of modern working life. Within occupational health, job mobility has mainly been studied in terms of employees’ intentions to leave their jobs. In contrast to actual turnover, turnover intentions are not definite and only reflect the probability that an individual will change job. The aim of this study was to determine what work conditions predict voluntary job mobility and to examine if good health or burnout predicts voluntary job mobility. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from 792 civil servants. The data were analysed using logistic regressions. Results Low variety and high autonomy were associated with increased voluntary job mobility. However, the associations between health and voluntary job mobility did not reach significance. Possible explanations for the null results may be that the population was homogeneous, and that the instruments for measuring global health are too coarse for a healthy, working population. Conclusions Voluntary job mobility may be predicted by high autonomy and low variety. The former may reflect that individuals with high autonomy have stronger career development motives; the latter may reflect the fact that low variety leads to job dissatisfaction. In contrast to our results on job content, global health measurements are not strong predictors of voluntary job mobility. This may be because good health affects job mobility through several offsetting channels, involving the resources and ability to seek a new job. Future work should use more detailed measurements of health or examine other work settings so that we may learn more about which of the offsetting effects of health dominate in different contexts.

  1. Evaluating Pharmacists' Motivation and Job Satisfaction Factors in Saudi Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place.

  2. Relations between task delegation and job satisfaction in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Nexøe, Jørgen; Videbæk Le, Jette

    2016-01-01

    practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction appears to be sparse even though job satisfaction is acknowledged as an important factor associated with both patient satisfaction and medical quality of care. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was 1) to review the current research on the relation between...... task delegation and general practitioners' and their staff's job satisfaction and, additionally, 2) to review the evidence of possible explanations for this relation. METHODS: A systematic literature review. We searched the four databases PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, and Scopus systematically. The immediate...... attitude towards task delegation was positive and led to increased job satisfaction, probably because task delegation comprised a high degree of work autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: The few studies included in our review suggest that task delegation within general practice may be seen by the staff as an overall...

  3. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  4. Professional autonomy and work setting as contributing factors to depression and absenteeism in Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Victoria; Currie, Shawn; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major depression in Canadian nurses is double the national average for working women. The present study sought to delineate the role of professional autonomy, health care setting, and work environment characteristics as risk factors for depression and absenteeism in female nurses. A cross-sectional, secondary analysis was conducted on a large representative sample of female nurses working in hospitals and other settings across Canada (N = 17,437). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test the hypothesis that work environment factors are significant determinants of major depression and absenteeism in female nurses after accounting for other risk factors. Experiencing a major depressive episode in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower autonomy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93), higher job strain (OR = 2.2), being a licensed practical nurse (OR = 0.82), and working in a nonhospital setting (OR = 1.5). Higher absenteeism was associated with the same variables as well as having less control over one's work schedule. Efforts to increase autonomy of nurses and reduce job strain may help to address the high prevalence of major depression in this professional group. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joseph T.F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights ...

  6. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  7. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...

  8. Construction Professionals Job Performance and Characteristics: A Comparison of Indigenous and Expatriate Construction Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2011-06-01

    Job performance is considered one of the most important constructs in human resources management because it helps to explain the value and utility that each employee adds to the organisation. The professionals in the Nigerian construction companies are not exception to the perceived low job performance rate within the industry. Extant literature points to the fact that job characteristics of employees can account for variance in their job performance rate.This study compares the job performance rate and job characteristics of construction professionals in indigenous and expatriate construction companies with a view to establish a relationship between job performance and job characteristics of construction professionals. A total of 762 questionnaires were collected and used for the study.  Eighty one (81 construction companies, 50 (62% indigenous and 31 (38% expatriate were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using mean item score, spearman rank correlation, linear regression analysis where appropriate. Findings of the study revealed that the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of construction professionals in construction companies in Nigeria is positive but low and the correlation coefficient is higher in expatriate construction companies. Based on the above finding, the study recommends that construction companies in Nigeria should endeavour and improve on their current core job dimensions (task significance, skill variety, task identity, autonomy and feedback inherent in various jobs designed within their respective organizations as this will constitute as one of the variants that will improve the job performance rate of construction professionals.

  9. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  10. Autonomy and informed consent: a mistaken association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur

    2007-09-01

    For decades, the greater part of efforts to improve regulatory frameworks for research ethics has focused on informed consent procedures; their design, codification and regulation. Why is informed consent thought to be so important? Since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1979, the standard response has been that obtaining informed consent is a way of treating individuals as autonomous agents. Despite its political success, the philosophical validity of this Belmont view cannot be taken for granted. If the Belmont view is to be based on a conception of autonomy that generates moral justification, it will either have to be reinterpreted along Kantian lines or coupled with a something like Mill's conception of individuality. The Kantian interpretation would be a radical reinterpretation of the Belmont view, while the Millian justification is incompatible with the liberal requirement that justification for public policy should be neutral between controversial conceptions of the good. This consequence might be avoided by replacing Mill's conception of individuality with a procedural conception of autonomy, but I argue that the resulting view would in fact fail to support a non-Kantian, autonomy-based justification of informed consent. These difficulties suggest that insofar as informed consent is justified by respect for persons and considerations of autonomy, as the Belmont report maintained, the justification should be along the lines of Kantian autonomy and not individual autonomy.

  11. The inner workings of performance management in danish job centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses how a central Performance Management system in the Danish job centers affects the employees’ perception of accountability, autonomy, common goals and dialogue. Dysfunctional behavioral effects are explored in qualitative analyses based on 4 case studies. Results indicate...... that the expected positive effects of performance management do not materialize at the Danish job centers because focus in the implementation process gradually shifts from results to process goals. This is related to a series of dysfunctional behavioral effects which instead of creating commitment frustrate...

  12. Attrition, burnout, job dissatisfaction and occupational therapy managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeger, M M; Walker, K F

    1992-01-01

    At a time when there is growing concern about the person-power shortages in occupational therapy, there is a need to address reasons why therapists leave the job market. Two job-related reasons for attrition are burnout and job dissatisfaction. The burnout phenomenon occurs as a result of personnel shortages, high-stress demands on therapists, the severity and complexity of client's problems, and the therapist's own ''worker personality.'' Bureaucratic constraints, limited advancement, issues related to a profession which is made up predominantly of women, lack of autonomy, and type of management and supervision are factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction. Occupational therapy managers can consider the causes of burnout and job dissatisfaction and initiate resources to retain therapists. Managers can increase the job benefits, such as flexible working hours, take steps to reduce stress in the workplace, offer career laddering opportunities, and promote staff development. By identifying the causes for attrition and by addressing those causes, the threat of losing therapists from the work force may be averted. Respondents (n = 106) to a survey of occupational therapy managers indicated that job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition of registered occupational therapists were not major problems in their settings. They reported a variety of strategies to reduce job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition. When these problems were present, managers cited bureaucratic red tape, lack of opportunity for advancement, and increasing role demands as contributing factors.

  13. Factors Related to Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil SEYREK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction of employees in any type of organization is important both for the employee and for the organization he/she works for. There are several factors researchers studied that are related to employee satisfaction. Even though there are several common factors for the job satisfaction of employees, there can be differences based on the personal and job characteristics. Information Technology (IT workers are important for current information economy and therefore factors related to their job satisfaction is an important research topic. In this study, based on survey data collected from 455 IT workers from different industries, the factors related to IT worker job satisfaction are investigated. As a result of analyses, it was found that demographic factors like gender, sector (public vs. private, work experience, and wage are not related to the job satisfaction of the worker. On the other hand, the results show that feel of belonging, feel of acceptance, job autonomy, burnout, role clarity and fairness of rewards are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  14. Barriers to intensive care unit nurses' autonomy in Iran: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Nik, Ahmadreza Yazdan; Abbasi, Saeed; Gholizadeh, Leila

    The acute nature of the intensive care unit (ICU) environment necessitates that urgent clinical decisions are frequently made by the health care team. Therefore, it is important that critical care nurses have the authority to make decisions about their patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived barriers to the practice of professional autonomy from the perspectives of ICU nurses in Iran. In this qualitative study, 28 critical care nurses were interviewed using a semistructured in-depth interview method. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis led to identification of two main themes and five subthemes: (a) the profession-related barriers with two associated subthemes of "lack of capacity to exercise autonomy" and "lack of strong professional bodies"; (b) organizational barriers with the associated subthemes of "role ambiguity," "a directive rather than supportive workplace," and "lack of motivation." ICU nurses in Iran may face many challenges in gaining professional autonomy. The identified inter- and intraprofessional barriers to the exercise of autonomy need to be addressed to promote critical thinking, job satisfaction, and motivation of ICU nurses, which can in turn lead to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived autonomy in the first semester of mathematics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liebendörfer, Michael; Hochmuth, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We focus on the perceived autonomy of mathematics students in their first semester at university. According to self-determination theory by Deci and Ryan (1985), students have to satisfy their need for autonomy in order to develop intrinsic motivation. Using two facets of autonomy, we analyse interview data to explore which situations foster or hinder the students' perceived autonomy. The main factors affecting students' autonomy are briefly discussed.

  16. Relationship Of Core Job Characteristics To Job Satisfaction And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...

  17. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance at the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...

  18. Thinspiration: Self-Improvement Versus Self-Evaluation Social Comparisons with Thin-Ideal Media Portrayals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated negative impacts of idealized-body imagery exposure on body satisfaction. Yet, paradoxically, media with such imagery attract mass audiences. Few studies showed women's body satisfaction increased due to thin-ideal exposure. The kind of social comparison women engage in (self-evaluation vs. self-improvement) may explain these inconsistent findings and the paradoxical attraction to thin-ideal messages. Across 5 days, thin-ideal messages were presented to 51 women; self-evaluation and self-improvement social comparisons as well as body satisfaction were measured each day. A linear positive change in body satisfaction emerged. Greater self-improvement social comparisons increased this change, whereas greater self-evaluation social comparisons reduced it. Extent of both social comparison types changed during the prolonged exposure. A greater tendency to compare one's body with others' improved body satisfaction through self-improvement social comparisons and fostered weight-loss behaviors through self-evaluation social comparisons.

  19. Weather integration in TMC operations : a self-evaluation and planning guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This flyer describes how Traffic Management Centers (TMC) can integrate weather information into their daily operations, and is based on the Road Weather Management Program publication, Self-Evaluation and Planning Guide (FHWA-JPO-08-057). The Guide ...

  20. The impact of resident- and self-evaluations on surgeon's subsequent teaching performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates how residents' evaluations and self-evaluations of surgeon's teaching performance evolve after two cycles of evaluation, reporting, and feedback. Furthermore, the influence of over- and underestimating own performance on subsequent teaching performance was investigated. In a

  1. 49 CFR 25.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 25.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the...

  2. 22 CFR 146.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the...

  3. Pre-dialysis patients’ perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation: associations with illness perceptions and treatment perceptions: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.L.; Grootendorst, D.C.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Kaptein, A.A.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Dekker, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compared to healthy people, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) participate less in paid jobs and social activities. The aim of the study was to examine a) the perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation of patients in the pre-dialysis phase, b) pre-dialysis patients'

  4. What do people want from their jobs? : the Big Five, core self-evaluations and work motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.

    2010-01-01

    If people are differentially motivated on the basis of individual differences, this implies important practical consequences with respect to staffing decisions and the selection of the right motivational techniques for managers. In two different samples (students facing graduation vs full-time

  5. Autonomia outorgada e apropriação do trabalho Granted autonomy and work appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara L. Rosenfield

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir o significado da autonomia outorgada enquanto corolário organizacional de uma demanda de mobilização subjetiva. O trabalho vive a contradição entre a apologia da autonomia e uma organização do trabalho crescentemente normalizada, onde ser autônomo é a regra. O conceito de autonomia no trabalho lança mão de duas questões: a dimensão operacional e a dimensão identitária. A transformação do trabalho em um bem cuja possessão exige sacrifícios e a transformação do emprego em um privilégio culminam em uma sujeição da própria pessoa do trabalhador, sem se colocar realmente a questão da reapropriação do trabalho, o que a priori acompanharia a autonomia no trabalho. A questão central, no entanto, não pode se diluir neste paradoxo entre autonomia real e autonomia outorgada: a busca de autonomia situa-se fora da lógica econômica e dentro de uma lógica de valores e de conquista de sentido, enquanto que a autonomia outorgada inscreve-se em uma lógica instrumental.This work is aimed at debating the meaning of granted autonomy as the organizational corollary of a subjective mobilization demand. Labor in undergoing the contradiction between the eulogy to autonomy and an increasing normalized labor organization, where being autonomous is the rule. The concept of labor autonomy resorts to two issues: the operational dimension and the identity dimension. The transformation of labor into a good whose possession demands sacrifices and the transformation of the job into a privilege culminate at subjection of the worker's very person, without really raising the issue of labor re-appropriation, which a priori follows labor autonomy. The core issue, however, cannot be diluted into this paradox between real autonomy and granted autonomy: the search for autonomy is placed out of the economic logic and within a logic of values and achievement of meaning, while granted autonomy is part of an

  6. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a...

  7. Adolescents own perceptions of self-evaluation: Self esteem, self efficacy and life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Águeda Parra; Mª del Carmen Reina; Alfredo Oliva

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyse the relationships between three variablesof self-evaluations, being self esteem, self efficacy and life satisfaction. Moreover, we study the evolution of these three aspects during adolescence paying attention to gender differences. The sample was made up of 2400 teenagers aged between 12 and 17 years old taken from 20 high schools in Western Andalusia. In this study we also analyse the relationship between teenager self evaluation and parenting style. Our results sho...

  8. Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals' Schema for District Control and School Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label "controlled autonomy"--a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable…

  9. Autonomy, trajectories and knowledge of workers and students of Adults and Adolescents Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Livindo de Senna Corrêa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the construction of autonomy, life trajectories and the work, as well as the knowledge of self-employed workers and students of Adult and Adolescents Education (EJA of Colégio de Aplicação from UFRGS. The study also tries to find reasons that made these individuals return to school. The data collecting was done through questions and a semi structured interview. The obtained results were: a the reasons for returning to school were knowledge, personal improvement and job upward; b the autonomy is relative to work conditions and decision making; c the trajectories were fragmented throughout child labor and school exclusion; d the knowledge experience is constituted by the observation, daily relationships and by the autonomously search for information and knowledge.

  10. The German Physical Society in the Third Reich physicists between autonomy and accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This is a history of one of the oldest and most important scientific societies, the German Physical Society, during the Nazi regime and immediate postwar period. When Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Physical Society included prominent Jewish scientists as members, including Fritz Haber and Albert Einstein. As Jewish scientists lost their jobs and emigrated, the Society gradually lost members. In 1938, under pressure from the Nazi Ministry of Science, Education, and Culture, the Society forced out the last of its Jewish colleagues. This action was just the most prominent example of the tension between accommodation and autonomy that characterized the challenges facing physicists in the society. They strove to retain as much autonomy as possible, but tried to achieve this by accommodating themselves to Nazi policies, which culminated in the campaign by the Society’s president to place physics in the service of the war effort.

  11. Service with a smile: do emotional intelligence, gender, and autonomy moderate the emotional labor process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hazel-Anne M; Spector, Paul E

    2007-10-01

    This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomy were significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal outcomes of emotional exhaustion, affective well-being, and job satisfaction. Females were more likely to experience negative consequences when engaging in surface acting. Autonomy served to alleviate negative outcomes for individuals who used emotional labor strategies often. Contrary to our hypotheses, emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between the emotional labor strategies and personal outcomes. Results demonstrated how the emotional labor process can influence employee well-being. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between core self-evaluations, views of god, and intrinsic/extrinsic religious motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, James W; Walker, Alan G

    2015-04-01

    Core self-evaluations refer to a higher-order construct that subsumes four well-established traits in the personality literature: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, (low) neuroticism, and (internal) locus of control. Studies that have examined the relationship between various measures of religiosity and individual components of core self-evaluations show no clear pattern of relationships. The absence of a clear pattern may be due to the failure of most previous studies in this area to use theory to guide research. Therefore, theories related to core self-evaluations, religious motivation, and views of God were used to develop and test four hypotheses. 220 adults completed measures of four religious attitudes (intrinsic religious motivation, extrinsic religious motivation, viewing God as loving, and viewing God as punitive), general religiosity, and core self-evaluations, separated by 6 weeks (with the order of measures counterbalanced). Multivariate multiple regression, controlling for general religiosity, showed that core self-evaluations were positively related to viewing God as loving, negatively related to viewing God as punitive, and negatively related to extrinsic religious motivation. The hypothesis that core self-evaluations would be positively related to intrinsic religious motivation was not supported.

  13. Fractal dynamics in self-evaluation reveal self-concept clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander E; Vallacher, Robin R; Nowak, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    The structural account of self-esteem and self-evaluation maintains that they are distinct constructs. Trait self-esteem is stable and is expressed over macro timescales, whereas state self-evaluation is unstable and experienced on micro timescales. We compared predictions based on the structural account with those derived from a dynamical systems perspective on the self, which maintains that self-esteem and self-evaluation are hierarchically related and share basic dynamic properties. Participants recorded a 3-minute narrative about themselves, then used the mouse paradigm (Vallacher, Nowak, Froehlich, & Rockloff, 2002) to track the momentary self-evaluation in their narrative. Multiple methods converged to reveal fractal patterns in the resultant temporal patterns, indicative of nested timescales that link micro and macro selfevaluation and thus supportive of the dynamical account. The fractal dynamics were associated with participants' self-concept clarity, suggesting that the hierarchical relation between macro self-evaluation (self-esteem) and momentary self-evaluation is predicted by the coherence of self-concept organization.

  14. Testing causal models of job characteristics and employee well-being : a replication study using cross-lagged structural equation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doest, ter L.; Jonge, de J.

    2006-01-01

    This study re-evaluated causal relationships between job characteristics (demands, autonomy, social support) and employee well-being (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion) in a methodological replication of De Jonge et al.'s (2001) two-wave panel study. The principal difference was the 2-year time

  15. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Tarja; Mäntynen, Raija; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-10-02

    Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is a complex, continuously changing work

  16. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, D.L.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Boeschoten, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N¼166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was ...

  17. Work engagement and financial returns : a diary study on the role of job and personal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthopoulou, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources (autonomy, coaching, and team climate) are related to employees' levels of personal resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism), work engagement, and financial returns. Forty-two employees working in three branches of a

  18. Relation of Organizational Structure to Job Satisfaction, Anxiety-Stress, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevich, John M.; Donnelly, James H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the relationship between organizational shape or structure (tall, medium, and flat) and job satisfaction, anxiety-stress, and performance. Indicates that salesmen in flat organizations perceive more autonomy and more satisfaction with respect to self-actualization, perceive lower amounts of anxiety-stress, and perform more efficiently.…

  19. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  20. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The development of autonomy in children's education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of autonomy in the education of the child and focuses on the analysis of empirical data collected in some services for children in North and South of Italy (Trento, Bologna, Caltagirone, through the administration of semi-structured interviews with educators of the nursery and kindergarten teachers. The returned responses were read in the light of the phenomenological paradigm that permitted to highlight two major kinds of considerations: the one refers to as "parents support and encourage the development of the autonomy of their child more in words than deeds"; the other to as the educators and teachers interviewed showed an explicit difficulty to attribute a clear meaning to the concept of adult autonomy. The incoming in this set of considerations first of all emphasize the important role of adult education and its path of reflexivity and growth.

  2. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  3. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  4. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  5. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  6. Mobility into favourable jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos

    2005-01-01

    Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These

  7. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  8. Job satisfaction of the oral health labour force in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, L; Spencer, A J

    2011-03-01

    Job satisfaction among registered clinical dentists in Australia was measured to identify issues influencing recruitment and retention. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 2202 dentists, stratified by state and gender, selected from the 2005 Australian Dental Association directory. A total of 61.9% of dentists responded. Analyses showed significant differences in levels of satisfaction for various dimensions of job satisfaction by gender, age group, practice type and geographic area. Differences in satisfaction between male and female dentists related to the relationships with colleagues and administrative responsibilities dimensions. Dentists of different age groups differed on eight dimensions: relationships with colleagues, patients, staff; personal time; intrinsic satisfaction; community; administrative responsibilities and resources. Differences among private and public dentists related to autonomy, relationships with patients, staff, community, compensation and resources dimensions. Dentists working in different geographic areas differed on relationships with staff and community dimensions. Differences existed between private and public dentists, metropolitan and non-metropolitan dentists, male and female dentists and dentists of different ages. Such differences should be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention rates of dentists. Workplaces that offer job autonomy, competitive pay, flexible working hours and minimal administrative burden may improve dentist job satisfaction. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  9. [Job Satisfaction: a quality indicator in nursing human resource management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vera Thânia Alves; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2012-02-01

    This descriptive study addresses the job satisfaction of nurse managers and clinical nurses working at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Services of a public hospital in São Paulo. The study objectives were to identify the factors that caused job satisfaction among nurse managers and clinical nurses, and support the results in the development of indicators to evaluate the quality of nursing human resource management. The components of the study were: autonomy, interaction, professional status, job requirements, organizational norms and remuneration. Participants were 44 nurses. Data were collected using a Job Satisfaction Index (JSI) questionnaire. In conclusion, this study permitted the identification of the clinical nurse group, which was the most satisfied, with a JSI of 10.5; the managerial group scored 10.0. Regarding the satisfaction levels in regards to the current activity, 88.9% of the nurse managers reported feeling satisfied, as did 90.9% of clinical nurses. For both groups, autonomy was the component with the highest level of professional satisfaction.

  10. [Effects of reading difficulties on scholastic self-evaluation and mental health in elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of reading difficulties on scholastic self-evaluation and mental health in elementary school students. Following guidelines for diagnosing reading disorders in elementary school students, we administered reading test batteries consisting of single sounds, single words, and single sentences to 41 fifth-grade elementary school students in Japan. The students' levels of scholastic self-evaluation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were assessed using self-rating questionnaires. By evaluating students' reading speed and the number of reading errors they made, we found that six students (14.6%) had reading difficulties (RD group) as per the guidelines for diagnosing reading disorders. The scholastic self-evaluation scores of this RD group were significantly lower than that of the non-RD group. No significant differences were found between the groups on self-esteem or depressive symptoms scores, which we considered to be indicators of mental health, Speed in reading single sounds and single words, and the number of reading errors in reading single sounds had significant negative correlations with scholastic self-evaluation scores. We found that reading difficulties might result in decreased scholastic self-evaluation in elementary school students; however, reading difficulties did not directly influence self-esteem or depression.

  11. Attachment and self-evaluation in Chinese adolescents: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and self-evaluation was measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale. Consistent with findings with Western samples, our analyses revealed (a) lower parent-child relationship quality in middle (compared to early) adolescence, (b) a significant association of parental and peer attachment with self-evaluation, and (c) gender differences in attachment to peers, with females reporting stronger attachment than males. Chinese females reported stronger maternal attachment than did males, and for females the quality of maternal attachment was more strongly related to self-evaluation than any other attachment relationship. During high school, peer attachment quality - rather than parental - was preeminently associated with self-evaluation. The findings of this study indicate that in a context of considerable consistency of findings with Western studies, parent-child attachment in Chinese adolescents is also influenced by culture-specific practices that influence parent-youth relationships and their meaning to the child.

  12. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  13. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  14. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  15. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  16. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  17. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  18. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  19. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  20. Autonomy in the case of enthyreotic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-01-01

    To identify, quantify, and exclude thyroidal autonomy, under enthyreotic conditions (positive TRH-test), the in-vivo diagnosing with radionuclides is the only method available to assess the thyroidal trap in connection with the suppression test. Its application is urgently necessary for any goiter patient in the iodine lacking region, the methodical proceeding depends on the individual circumstances. (orig.) [de

  1. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and

  2. How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-06-01

    Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.

  3. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  4. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  5. Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque

    2008-01-01

    Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…

  6. Agility and adaptive autonomy in networked organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der

    2010-01-01

    In any multi-actor environment, there is an inevitable trade-off between achieving global coordination of activities and respecting the autonomy of the actors involved. Agile and resilient behavior demands dynamic coordination capabilities, but task and resource allocation quickly becomes

  7. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and

  8. Autonomy and the Working-Class Freelance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In taking into account the realities of the writing process in the ways teachers organize their classrooms, they inescapably find themselves involved with the notion of student autonomy. Some guidelines for supporting independent-minded adolescents in the classroom suggest themselves, and this article provides other suggestions for planning…

  9. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  10. Autonomy under threat: a revised Frankfurtian account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called ‘coercive threats’ cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I

  11. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  12. Patient autonomy: a view from the kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhkamp, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in the material and technological context of care, in arrangements of health care institutions, in the physical training of people with disabilities, as well as in the concrete activities of care-giving. This move from conversations in the consultation room to other sites and situations in the practice of care takes seriously the empirical reality of medical care and intends to show that patient autonomy is practically realised in a much richer and more creative way than most ethical theory seems to assume.

  13. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  14. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility...

  15. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  16. Construction of a Personal Autonomy Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpfer, D. J. W.

    The inventory contains three factural scales: independence of judgement, moral relativism, and adventurousness. The item pool was based upon descriptions of the need for autonomy (positive) and for independence (negative). The preliminary English form included the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and was completed by 233 English-speaking…

  17. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  18. Family Resources and Flourishing at Work: The Role of Core Self-Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Maria David Gabardo-Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract: According to the Work-Home Resources Model, contextual family resources increase personal resources, which, in turn, improve work outcomes. The present study investigated the direct effects of two contextual family resources (work- family enrichment and perceived social support from family and one personal resource (core self-evaluations on a work outcome (flourishing at work. The mediational role of core self-evaluations in these relationships was also investigated. The sample was composed of 519 Brazilian psychologists of both sexes. The Structural Equation Modeling showed that the contextual family resources and the personal resource predicted flourishing at work and that core self-evaluations mediated the relationships between contextual resources and flourishing at work. It was concluded that the acquisition of resources within the family and the positive evaluation of one’s own life can promote flourishing at work.

  19. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and work experience with job satisfaction. ... were more likely to perceive the appraisal as unfair and inappropriate (Desai and ... Working freedom, salary and fringe benefits are the major factors ..... Men, women and attitudinal commitment:.

  20. Autonomy and Interests: The Social Life of a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddiford, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the arguments that students should determine their own curriculum. Reviews the case for student autonomy based on philosophical anarchism and Immanuel Kant's views on autonomy. Argues that curriculum should be a result of the shared autonomy of students and teachers. (CFR)

  1. Fathers' Autonomy Support and Social Competence of Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…

  2. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  3. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  4. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  5. Charter School Autonomy: The Mismatch between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2007-01-01

    In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…

  6. Industry growth, work role characteristics, and job satisfaction: a cross-level mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D

    2012-10-01

    The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.

  7. Physicians’ Perceptions of Autonomy across Practice Types: Is Autonomy in Solo Practice a Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians’ autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked “spell” data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996–2005) (n=16,519) I examine how physicians’ perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. PMID:24444835

  8. Physicians' perceptions of autonomy across practice types: Is autonomy in solo practice a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians' autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked "spell" data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996-2005) (n = 16,519) I examine how physicians' perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. Copyright © 2013

  9. [Influence of education level on self-evaluation and control of patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.

  10. You and me: Investigating the role of self-evaluative emotion in preschool prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Josephine

    2017-03-01

    Self-evaluative emotions depend on internalized social standards and motivate social action. However, there is a lack of empirical research documenting the impact of self-evaluative emotion on 3- and 4-year-olds' prosociality. Extant research relates children's experiences of guilt to empathetic concern and making amends. However, the relationship between guilt and both concern and making amends is potentially reductive. Empathetic concern involves similar bodily expressions to guilt, and amend making is used to distinguish guilt from shame in children. This is the first study to relate the development of both positive and negative self-evaluative emotions to empathetic concern and prosocial choice (making amends and spontaneous help). Results confirm that the broad capacity for self-evaluative emotion is established during the preschool years and relates to empathetic concern. Moreover, these social emotions can be used to predict prosocial choice. Making amends was best predicted by empathetic concern and by children's responses to achievement (pride following success and lack of shame following failure). Alongside moral pride, pride in response to achievement and resilience to shame was also the best predictor of spontaneous help. The data support the idea that young children's prosocial choices may be partially driven by the affective drive to maintain an "ideal" self. Psychologists have emphasized that in order to be adaptive, self-evaluative emotion should be guilt oriented rather than shame oriented. However, the adaptive role of pride has been neglected. We call on future research to redress the focus on negative self-evaluation in moral development and further explore the prosocial potential of pride. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. LEARNER AUTONOMY IN THE INDONESIAN EFL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA.  Therefore, it is very essential  to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development.  After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by  the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English.  LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to

  12. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  13. Examining the relationships between span of control and manager job and unit performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Elliott-Miller, Pat; Laschinger, Heather; Cuddihy, Michael; Meyer, Raquel M; Keatings, Margaret; Burnett, Camille; Szudy, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the combination of frontline manager (FLM) personal characteristics and span of control (SOC) on their job and unit performance outcomes. Healthcare downsizing and reform have contributed to larger spans for FLMs in Canadian hospitals and increased concerns about manager workload. Despite a heightened awareness of SOC issues among decision makers, there is limited empirical evidence related to the effects of SOC on outcomes. A non-experimental predictive survey design was used to examine FLM SOC in 14 Canadian academic hospitals. Managers (n = 121) completed an online survey of work characteristics and The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) SOC tool. Unit turnover data were collected from organisational databases. The combination of SOC and core self-evaluation significantly predicted role overload, work control and job satisfaction, but only SOC predicted unit adverse outcomes and neither significantly predicted unit turnover. The findings contribute to an understanding of connections between the combination of SOC and core self-evaluation and manager job and unit performance outcomes. Organisational strategies to create manageable FLM SOC are essential to ensure exemplary job and unit outcomes. Core self-evaluation is a personality characteristic that may enhance manager performance in the face of high spans of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Autonomy and dementia Part II: autonomy and representation: a possible combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, Natalie

    2011-06-01

    This paper, based on a critical review of the medico-social literature, questions the representation of patients with dementia in relation to the autonomy perspectives presented in a previous article. In the canonical perspective of autonomy (defined as a rational decision-making by a stand alone self), the surrogate is the spokeperson of the subject's wills when he was competent because he knows these wills through advance directives or assuming them via substituted judgment. Best patient's interest is then depreciated because it is focused on the present incompetent self. In the relational perspective, where autonomy is constructed through a dialogue with others, the surrogate is the present interlocutor, making the decisions with the patient and care-givers in a way varying with the disease process. He represents the subject with dementia as he was before the disease but also as he has become. Therefore, there is a continuum between autonomy and representation. Autonomy and well being are both the surrogate aims. The relational perspective allows care continuity of patients with dementia even when considered as incompetent. It offers a more balanced perspective on the patient autonomy since it is embedded in all others, and opens a richer view on what good life is, untill the end of dementia.

  15. Measurement of nurse practitioner job satisfaction in a Midwestern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacel, Barbara; Millar, Mary; Norris, Diane

    2005-01-01

    To describe the current level of job satisfaction of nurse practitioners (NPs) in one Midwestern state. This study utilized descriptive correlation design to examine factors that lead to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among a randomized sample of licensed NPs from a Midwestern state. The sample of 147 NPs (63% return rate) completed self-administered questionnaires about various characteristics of their jobs. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the data. The theoretical foundation for the study was Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction of NPs was minimally satisfied to satisfied. NPs were most satisfied with intrinsic factors and least satisfied with extrinsic factors of their jobs. Factors NPs were most satisfied with were sense of accomplishment, challenge in work, level of autonomy, patient mix, and ability to deliver quality care. NPs were least satisfied with time off to serve on professional committees, reward distribution, amount of involvement in research, opportunity to receive compensation for services outside normal duties, and monetary bonuses available in addition to salary. NPs with 0-1 year practice experience were the most satisfied with their jobs, but satisfaction scores fell steadily with each additional year of experience, reaching a plateau between the 8th to 11th years of practice. Improving job satisfaction for NPs is critical to recruit and retain advanced practice nurses to enhance access to quality, cost-effective care for all patient populations. Satisfied NPs can potentially reduce healthcare costs associated with employee turnover. Employers must look at extrinsic factors such as compensation and opportunities for professional growth to enhance NP job satisfaction.

  16. Supervisor leadership in relation to resident job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Martha A; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Scheele, Fedde; Schripsema, Nienke R; Jaarsma, A Debbie C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-08-01

    Research from outside the medical field shows that leadership behaviours influence job satisfaction. Whether the same is true for the medical training setting needs to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of residents' overall appreciation of their supervisor's leadership and observation of specific supervisor leadership behaviours on job satisfaction. We invited residents (N = 117) to rate how often they observed certain task and relation-oriented leadership behaviours in their supervisor and overall appreciation of their supervisor's leadership. Furthermore, they rated their satisfaction with 13 different aspects of their jobs on a 10-point scale. Using exploratory factor analysis we identified four factors covering different types of job satisfaction aspects: personal growth, autonomy, affective, and instrumental job satisfaction aspects. Influence of overall appreciation for supervisor leadership and observation of certain leadership behaviours on these job satisfaction factors were analysed using multiple regression analyses. The affective aspects of job satisfaction were positively influenced by overall appreciation of leadership (B = 0.792, p = 0.017), observation of specific instructions (B = 0.972, p = 0.008) and two-way communication (B = 1.376, p = 0.008) and negatively by mutual decision-making (B = -1.285, p = 0.007). No effects were found for the other three factors of job satisfaction. We recommend that supervisors become more aware of whether and how their behaviours influence residents' job satisfaction. Especially providing specific instructions and using two-way communication seem important to help residents deal with their insecurities and to offer them support.

  17. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  18. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  19. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.

  20. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...