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Sample records for self-esteem trait anxiety

  1. Self-esteem and trait anxiety in relation to drug misuse in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Najjar, M; Clarke, D D

    1996-05-01

    This study was designed to document knowledge about Kuwaiti drug users and to investigate whether or not there is an association between their poor self-concept and high level of anxiety. One hundred and seven incarcerated drug users, 107 individuals serving prison terms for offenses other than drug use, and 107 "normal" individuals were included in this pilot study. The Arabic version of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the subjects' self-esteem and state-trait anxiety, respectively. The results documented revealed that there is a relationship between levels of self-esteem and anxiety in Kuwaiti drug user behavior.

  2. Childhood parental bonding affects adulthood trait anxiety through self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Akiyoshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Murakoshi, Akiko; Ono, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    The association between trait anxiety and parental bonding has been suggested. However, the mechanism remains uncertain and there is no study focused on general adult population. We investigated the association and the mechanism between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety in the general adult population. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2014 with 853 adult volunteers from the general population. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) were self-administered. Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. Childhood parental bonding affected adulthood trait anxiety indirectly mediated by self-esteem. Trait anxiety was decreased by parental care and increased by parental overprotection through self-esteem. This model explained 51.1% of the variability in STAI-Y trait anxiety scores. This study suggests an important role of self-esteem as a mediator between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Body dissatisfaction, trait anxiety and self-esteem in young men

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    Czeglédi Edit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Body image dissatisfaction has recently been described as 'normative' for both men and women. Despite intense theoretical interest in a multidimensional concept of male body image, comprehensive models have rarely been assessed empirically. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between body image and self-esteem among men in a multivariate model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional questionnaire study were 239 male university students (mean age: 20.3 years, SD=2.78 years, range: 18-39 years. Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, weightlifting activity, importance of appearance, perceived weight status, satisfaction with body height, Body Shape Questionnaire - Short form, Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: Structural equation modeling showed that after controlling for age, BMI, weightlifting activity, the importance of appearance, and trait anxiety, only muscle dissatisfaction predicted lower self-esteem (β=-0.11, p=0.033. Neither height dissatisfaction nor weight dissatisfaction showed significant association with selfesteem. Muscle dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and self-esteem (β=-0.04, p=0.049, R2=0.05. The model explained 50.4% of the variance in selfesteem. Conclusions: The results emphasize that trait anxiety might be a background variable in the relationship between males' body dissatisfaction and self-esteem, which should be considered in future studies and in the course of therapy.

  4. EXAMINING HOW WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND MOTIVATION LEVELS IMPACT ON THEIR STATE AND TRAIT ANXIETY LEVELS

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    Hakan Kolayis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.

  5. Self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, resilience, trait anxiety and their relation to self-handicapping tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Török, Lilla; Szabó, Zsolt Péter; Boda-Ujlaky, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Jones and Berglas (1978) define self-handicapping as any action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and to internalize (reasonably accept credit for) success (p. 406). The present study examined the role of potential precursors in the self-handicapping process. A total of 626 undergraduates from various Hungarian universities completed measures of dispositional self-handicapping, self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, trait anxiety,...

  6. Regular extra curricular sports practice does not prevent moderate or severe variations in self-esteem or trait anxiety in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsinger, Caroline; Laure, Patrick; Ambard, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Department (east France) during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 %) and 956 girls (53.4 %), in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation). 722 pupils (40.3 %) reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group), whereas, 195 (10.9 %) pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group). The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale) and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale) of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation) of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation "or less than "mean - two standard deviations") was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities. Key PointsA regular extra-curricular sports practice is associated to better levels of self-esteem and

  7. Body dissatisfaction, trait anxiety and self-esteem in young men

    OpenAIRE

    Czeglédi Edit; Probst Michel; Babusa Bernadett

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Body image dissatisfaction has recently been described as 'normative' for both men and women. Despite intense theoretical interest in a multidimensional concept of male body image, comprehensive models have rarely been assessed empirically. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between body image and self-esteem among men in a multivariate model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional questionnaire study were 239 male university student...

  8. REGULAR EXTRA CURRICULAR SPORTS PRACTICE DOES NOT PREVENT MODERATE OR SEVERE VARIATIONS IN SELF-ESTEEM OR TRAIT ANXIETY IN EARLY ADOLESCENTS

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    Caroline Binsinger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is often presented as an effective tool to improve self-esteem and/or to reduce anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of a regular extra curricular sports practice on self-esteem and anxiety. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which has included all of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade in the Vosges Department (east France during the school year 2001-2002 and followed during three years. Data were collected every six months by self-reported questionnaires. 1791 pupils were present at each of the six data collection sessions and completed all the questionnaires, representing 10,746 documents: 835 boys (46.6 % and 956 girls (53.4 %, in November 2001, the average age was 11.1 ± 0.5 years (mean ± standard deviation. 722 pupils (40.3 % reported that they had practiced an extra-school physical activity in a sporting association from November 2001 to May 2004 (ECS group, whereas, 195 (10.9 % pupils had not practiced any extra-school physical activity at all (NECS group. The average global scores of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Scale and trait anxiety (Spielberger's Scale of the ECS pupils were, respectively, higher and lower than those of the NECS group. However, the incidence density (number of new cases during a given period / total person-time of observation of moderate or severe decrease of self-esteem (less than "mean - one standard deviation" or less than "mean - two standard deviations" was not significantly different between the two groups, a finding that was also evident also in the case of trait anxiety. Finally, among ECS pupils, the incidence density of severe decrease of self-esteem was lower at the girls'. Practitioners and physical education teachers, as well as parents, should be encouraged to seek out ways to involve pupils in extra-school physical activities

  9. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

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    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  10. FEATURES OF INTERCONNECTION OF SELF-ESTEEM AND ANXIETY IN THE YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Калюжна, Євгенія; Шевергіна, Марія

    2015-01-01

     The article is devoted the phenomenology of anxiety and self-esteem of personality and the nature their interconnection in the younger school age. Is emphasized that self-esteem and anxiety are complex personal formations, which belong to basic personality traits. The importance of self-esteem as a component of core of personality and the important regulator of social activity. Substantiated the thesis that self-esteem is the result of comparing the person’s qualities with social relevant st...

  11. Perceived appraisals by others, self-esteem, and anxiety.

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    Lundgren, D C; Schwab, M R

    1977-11-01

    Questionnaire data from 595 male and female college students were used to test four hypotheses regarding interpersonal sources of anxiety--i.e., that high anxiety occurs as a function of (a) low subjective public-esteem (perceived negative appraisals of self by others); (b) low self-esteem; (c) discrepancies where subjective public-esteem is more negative than self-esteem; and (d) absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem, regardless of evaluative direction. The results suggested that level of self-esteem and absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem are important and relatively independent factors in anxiety.

  12. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Es...

  13. Self-Esteem and the Acute Effect of Anxiety on Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

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    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.

  14. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

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    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...

  15. Associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge.

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    Quiles, Clélia; Prouteau, Antoinette; Verdoux, Hélène

    2015-12-15

    This study explored in a non-clinical sample the associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression symptoms and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge. Higher metacognitive awareness scores measured during the neuropsychological tasks were positively associated with higher depression scores in the social cognition test. Metacognitive knowledge score measured independently of ongoing neuropsychological tasks was positively associated with lower self-esteem, higher anxiety (state or trait) and depression scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-esteem and the acute effect of anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, pself-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481

  17. Differences among Adult COAs and Adult Non-COAs on Levels of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Anxiety.

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    Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…

  18. Anxiety and Self-Esteem as Mediators of the Relation between Family Communication and Indecisiveness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, Valentina; Guzzo, Giovanni; Pace, Francesco; Pace, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored the unique and common contributions of anxiety, self-esteem, and family communication on indecisiveness among adolescents. Three hundred and fifty pupils from 13 to 16 years of age completed self-report measures on indecisiveness, quality of family communication, trait anxiety, and self-esteem. The findings in this study…

  19. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

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    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem. Materials and Methods: This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014–2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model. Results: The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = −0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self-esteem (P self-esteem was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women's sexual self-esteem variance. Conclusions: The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling. PMID:27186198

  20. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem. This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014-2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model. The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = -0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self-esteem (P self-esteem was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women's sexual self-esteem variance. The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling.

  1. Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem

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    Cheung, Hoi-Yan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

  2. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings.

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    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-11-01

    The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  3. Evaluation of Achievement, Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety Levels in Children who Preparing for College Examination

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    Cemaliye DIREKTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem, depression and state-trial anxiety of children who were preparing for college examination. 285 students who were preparing for college examination were recruited in Northern Cyprus. All data were obtained by using Sociodemographical Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Childhood Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, during 15-23 October 2016. It has been found that male students have a higher academic achievement and self-esteem levels than female students’. There was a significant negative correlation between students’ self-esteem and depression levels. Results showed that self-esteem and depression predicted academic achievement. Also on the area of child education, extensive studies should be carried out on examination, how the national examinations affect psychological problems. Obtained results were discussed in the light of literature

  4. Self-esteem in depression and anxiety : low, unstable, and discrepant?

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    van Tuijl, Lonneke

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the role of low self-esteem in depression and anxiety disorders. Low self-esteem could be both a cause and a consequence of depression and anxiety. Moreover, residual low self-esteem in people who have recovered from depression and/or anxiety might set them at risk for recurrence.

  5. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

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    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Failure causes fear: the effect of self-esteem threat on death-anxiety.

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    Routledge, Clay

    2012-01-01

    According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.

  7. Images of the Self and Self-Esteem: Do Positive Self-Images Improve Self-Esteem in Social Anxiety?

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    Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia

    2012-01-01

    Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697

  8. Religious and spiritual beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Nicolaou, Panagiotis; Tsiga, Evangelia; Christoforou, Theodora; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2014-06-01

    Research of the role of religious belief and/or spirituality has been conducted on a wide range of health-related topics, across many disciplines, and in many countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in nursing students in Cyprus. One hundred and twenty-three nursing students were asked to complete a survey consisting of four self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The lowest levels of depression were observed in the third and fourth study year. Normal self-esteem levels were found in the majority of the students (71.3%) and most of them perceived current stress at mild levels. No significant differences on the basis of sex were observed. The vast majority (98.2%) of the students stated a strong religious and/or a spiritual belief that was strongly positively correlated with increased self-esteem and negatively correlated with depression, current stress, and stress as personality trait. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

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    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  11. The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael K; Pidgeon, Aileen M

    2011-03-01

    The current study investigated relationships between dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, and social anxiety using self-report measures. Correlational data were collected from 205 Australian undergraduate students who completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Mindfulness significantly predicted high levels of self-esteem and low levels of social anxiety. Mediation analysis supported the role of self-esteem as a partial mediator between mindfulness and social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Social anxiety, depression and self-esteem in obese adolescent girls with acanthosis nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN.

  13. An inquiry into self-esteem within a given range of clients with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Najbrtová, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the issue of self-esteem in clients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. While this condition belongs to the most common mental illnesses, the role of the patient's self-esteem has not been sufficiently researched. The aim of the thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the relation between anxiety and self-esteem, and to examine whether clients with so called Other Anxiety Disorder manifest specific differences in their level of self-esteem. In the theoretical ...

  14. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases 1

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcal?

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paul...

  15. The Focus of Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety: Communication Skills or Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Terence V.

    2017-01-01

    Social skills training is a long-standing intervention for adolescents with social anxiety, while self-esteem is often ignored. However, there is little evidence suggesting that those with social anxiety require social skills training or interventions associated with self-esteem. The aim of the research was to investigate whether social skills and…

  16. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Social Anxiety in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Saira

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the relationship between self-esteem, parenting style and social anxiety in girls. A sample of 100 female students selected from different schools. For data collection Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scales were used together with demographic sheet.…

  17. Self-esteem and anxiety: key issues in an abused women's support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, M L

    1989-01-01

    A support group was organized for women who sought help to cope with physical and emotional abuse from their male partners. Women who have lived through the cycle of violence may experience a stress response that includes fear, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. High anxiety can interfere with problem solving and with developing new coping patterns. Low self-esteem can accompany depression and intensify the sense of helplessness and powerlessness abused women feel. A descriptive study was conducted to determine to what extent women in the group experienced high anxiety and low self-esteem. Results indicated that high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem were present in the group. Anxiety reduction strategies and techniques to enhance self-esteem were developed.

  18. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, P J; Sportel, B E; de Hullu, E; Nauta, M H

    2012-03-01

    Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit self-esteem would reflect deliberate self-evaluative processes whereas implicit self-esteem would reflect simple associations in memory. Previous research suggests that low explicit self-esteem is involved in both social anxiety and depression whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. We tested whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression can indeed be explained by low explicit self-esteem, whereas low implicit self-esteem is only involved in social anxiety. Adolescents during the first stage of secondary education (n=1806) completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) to measure symptoms of social anxiety and depression, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to index explicit self-esteem and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-esteem. There was a strong association between symptoms of depression and social anxiety that could be largely explained by participants' explicit self-esteem. Only for girls did implicit self-esteem and the interaction between implicit and explicit self-esteem show small cumulative predictive validity for social anxiety, indicating that the association between low implicit self-esteem and social anxiety was most evident for girls with relatively low explicit self-esteem. Implicit self-esteem showed no significant predictive validity for depressive symptoms. The findings support the view that both shared and differential self-evaluative processes are involved in depression and social anxiety.

  19. The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, M L; Katch, V L; Roth, R S; Garcia, A W; Portner, T I; Glickman, S G; Haslanger, S; Wilkins, E G

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms and self-esteem of breast cancer survivors. Experimental, crossover. Midwestern university town. Twenty-four breast cancer survivors (mean time following surgery 41.8 months; ranging from 1 to 99 months) recruited via mail and cancer support groups. The mean age of the sample was 48.9 years. Subjects were assigned randomly into exercise (EX), exercise-plus-behavior modification (EX + BM), and control groups. EX and EX + BM groups exercised aerobically four days/week at > or = 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 10 weeks. Data were collected pretest, post-test, and crossover (12 weeks following post-test). Because pretest or post-test scores showed no statistical differences between EX and EX + BM groups, data were combined to form one group. Aerobic exercise (four days/ week; 30-40 minutes/session), depression, (Beck Depression inventory), anxiety (Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory). Pre- to post-test analyses revealed that women who exercised had significantly less depression and state and trait anxiety over time compared to controls. After the crossover, the control group demonstrated comparable improvements in both depressive and state anxiety scores. Self-esteem did not change significantly. Subjects who received exercise recommendations from their physicians exercised significantly more than subjects who received no recommendation. Mild to moderate aerobic exercise may be of therapeutic value to breast cancer survivors with respect to depressive and anxiety symptoms but not to self-esteem. A physician's recommendation to exercise appears to be an important factor in a patient's exercise adherence. To Improve depressive and anxiety symptoms following breast cancer surgery, healthcare professionals should consider recommending mild to moderate exercise.

  20. Narcissistic Traits and Explicit Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Implicit Self-view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Di Pierro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Whilst the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem has been studied for a long time, findings are still controversial. The majority of studies investigated narcissistic grandiosity, neglecting the existence of vulnerable manifestations of narcissism. Moreover, recent studies have shown that grandiosity traits are not always associated with inflated explicit self-esteem. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, distinguishing between grandiosity and vulnerability. Moreover, we consider the role of implicit self-esteem in qualifying these associations.Method: Narcissistic traits, explicit and implicit self-esteem measures were assessed among 120 university students (55.8% women, Mage = 22.55, SD = 3.03.Results: Results showed different patterns of association between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, depending on phenotypic manifestations of narcissism. Narcissistic vulnerability was linked to low explicit self-evaluations regardless of one’s levels of implicit self-esteem. On the other hand, the link between narcissistic grandiosity and explicit self-esteem was qualified by levels of implicit self-views, such that grandiosity was significantly associated with inflated explicit self-evaluations only at either high or medium levels of implicit self-views.Discussion: These findings showed that the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem is not univocal, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. Finally, the study suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider the relevant role of implicit self-views in conditioning self-esteem levels reported explicitly by individuals with grandiose narcissistic traits.

  1. Narcissistic Traits and Explicit Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Implicit Self-View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Rossella; Mattavelli, Simone; Gallucci, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Whilst the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem has been studied for a long time, findings are still controversial. The majority of studies investigated narcissistic grandiosity (NG), neglecting the existence of vulnerable manifestations of narcissism. Moreover, recent studies have shown that grandiosity traits are not always associated with inflated explicit self-esteem. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, distinguishing between grandiosity and vulnerability. Moreover, we consider the role of implicit self-esteem in qualifying these associations. Method: Narcissistic traits, explicit and implicit self-esteem measures were assessed among 120 university students (55.8% women, Mage = 22.55, SD = 3.03). Results: Results showed different patterns of association between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, depending on phenotypic manifestations of narcissism. Narcissistic vulnerability (NV) was linked to low explicit self-evaluations regardless of one’s levels of implicit self-esteem. On the other hand, the link between NG and explicit self-esteem was qualified by levels of implicit self-views, such that grandiosity was significantly associated with inflated explicit self-evaluations only at either high or medium levels of implicit self-views. Discussion: These findings showed that the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem is not univocal, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between NG and NV. Finally, the study suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider the relevant role of implicit self-views in conditioning self-esteem levels reported explicitly by individuals with grandiose narcissistic traits. PMID:27920739

  2. Narcissistic Traits and Explicit Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Implicit Self-View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Rossella; Mattavelli, Simone; Gallucci, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Whilst the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem has been studied for a long time, findings are still controversial. The majority of studies investigated narcissistic grandiosity (NG), neglecting the existence of vulnerable manifestations of narcissism. Moreover, recent studies have shown that grandiosity traits are not always associated with inflated explicit self-esteem. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, distinguishing between grandiosity and vulnerability. Moreover, we consider the role of implicit self-esteem in qualifying these associations. Method: Narcissistic traits, explicit and implicit self-esteem measures were assessed among 120 university students (55.8% women, M age = 22.55, SD = 3.03). Results: Results showed different patterns of association between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem, depending on phenotypic manifestations of narcissism. Narcissistic vulnerability (NV) was linked to low explicit self-evaluations regardless of one's levels of implicit self-esteem. On the other hand, the link between NG and explicit self-esteem was qualified by levels of implicit self-views, such that grandiosity was significantly associated with inflated explicit self-evaluations only at either high or medium levels of implicit self-views. Discussion: These findings showed that the relationship between narcissistic traits and explicit self-esteem is not univocal, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between NG and NV. Finally, the study suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider the relevant role of implicit self-views in conditioning self-esteem levels reported explicitly by individuals with grandiose narcissistic traits.

  3. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Gonzales Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022. Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020. More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001 and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042. The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem.

  4. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.

  5. The effects of trait self-esteem and death cognitions on worldview defense and search for meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

    2014-01-01

    Terror management theory asserts that attaining self-esteem by adhering to the standards of meaning-providing worldviews helps manage death concerns. Research has shown that mortality salience (MS) increases worldview defense, however, there are conflicting results concerning how trait self-esteem moderates this effect. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that MS increases worldview defense for high, but not low, trait self-esteem individuals. These studies raised the question as to whether those with low trait self-esteem engage in efforts to find meaning in response to MS. Study 3 showed that MS increased the search for meaning for low, but not high, trait self-esteem individuals.

  6. Internet addiction and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Effects of anxiety, depression and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Özlem; Demirci, Esra Özdemir

    2018-06-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Behavioral disinhibition, poor neurocognitive skills and immediate reward preference in children with ADHD have been suggested as risk factors for Internet addiction (IA). The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the relationship between IA and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents with ADHD, and to identify the features of Internet use that predict IA. We studied 111 patients with ADHD aged 12-18 years, and 108 healthy controls. The ADHD patients and controls were asked to complete a sociodemographic data form, the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Children's Depression Inventory, Childhood Screening Scale for Anxiety in Children, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. IAS total score in the adolescents with ADHD was significantly higher than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the ADHD group depression scale score was significantly higher, and self-esteem score significantly lower (P self-esteem score. The relationship between IA scale score and depression, anxiety and self-esteem scale scores were similar in the ADHD and the control group. In addition, IAS subscale and total scores were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the control group, even after controlling for the effects of self-esteem, depression and anxiety scores. Thus, ADHD is thought to be an independent risk factor for depression, anxiety and self-esteem, and, hence, for IA. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  8. Association of parental self-esteem and expectations with adolescents' anxiety about career and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Seyed-Hossein; Mirzamani, Seyed-Mahmoud; Shahiri-Tabarestani, Mostafa

    2005-06-01

    The views of students in their last year of high school on the effects of parental expectations on students' anxiety about education and a career were studied with 214 boys and girls from six single-sex high schools. Participants were asked to reply to two questionnaires, the Educational and Career Anxiety Questionnaire and the Parent's Self-esteem and Expectancy Questionnaire as well as to respond to a personal informational form. Analysis yielded negative significance for relations between parental self-esteem and expectations and students' anxiety about education and career. Moreover, the study showed that adolescent girls had significantly higher self-esteem than boys. In addition, comparing adolescents' views by their fathers' education showed that fathers with high education were more likely to have children with high parental self-esteem and rational expectations and lower anxiety about education and careers than those whose fathers had only primary education.

  9. Trait self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping motives in sports situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Berjot, Sophie; Rosnet, Elisabeth; Cleveland, Christena; Tice, Dianne M

    2012-12-01

    We examined the relationship between physical self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping among athletes by taking motives into consideration. In Study 1, 99 athletes were asked to report their tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for self-protective and self-enhancement motives (trait measures). Low self-esteem athletes reported a higher tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for these two motives compared with high self-esteem athletes. Neither low nor high self-esteem athletes reported a preference for one motive over the other. In Study 2, 107 athletes participated in a test that was ostensibly designed to assess high physical abilities - and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-enhancement motives (success-meaningful condition) - or to assess low physical abilities, and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-protective motives (failure-meaningful condition). Before starting the test, athletes were given the opportunity to claim handicaps that could impair their performance. Low self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high self-esteem athletes in both conditions. Findings suggest that low physical self-esteem athletes engage more in claimed handicapping regardless of motives, relative to high physical self-esteem athletes.

  10. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one’s own personality traits and of others’ opinion about one’s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one’s own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback. PMID:26842975

  11. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-04

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one's own personality traits and of others' opinion about one's own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one's own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback.

  12. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hamidah; Putri Teesa Santoso; RM Haryadi Karyono

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP), in the Faculty of Medicine, Univers...

  13. Does verruca vulgaris affect social anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan

    2017-05-24

    Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.

  14. The community feeling versus anxiety, self-esteem and well-being – introductory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kałużna-Wielobób Alina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the concept of A. Adler (1933/1986 - the community feeling is an individual characteristic which is relatively stable throughout life. It refers to an inner relationship of one person with other people: a feeling of unity with others or separation from others. People with high community feeling are motivated in their actions by striving towards the common good, whereas people with low community feeling intend to exhibit their superiority over others in their actions, which would allow them to compensate for their inner feeling of inferiority. On the basis of the Adler concept the following hypotheses were formulated: There is a negative connection between the community feeling and anxiety. The community feeling is positively connected with self-esteem and psychological well-being. A slight increase in the community feeling can be observed with age. The community feeling increases in the age of middle adulthood. 585 people between 20 to 65 years of age were examined. Methods: Community Feeling Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The hypotheses assumed were verified.

  15. Effects of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and health behaviour on neonatal outcomes in a population-based Hungarian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sándor, János

    2011-01-01

    To investigate possible associations of maternal antenatal depression, anxiety and self-esteem with negative neonatal outcomes controlling for the effects of demographic covariates and health behaviour in a Hungarian sample. A population-based monitoring system was established in 10 districts of health visitors in Szombathely, Hungary, covering every woman registered as pregnant between February 1, 2008 and February 1 2009. Three hundred and seven expectant women in the early stage of their pregnancy were surveyed using the Short Form of Beck Depression Inventory for the measurement of depression and the Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory for the measurement of anxiety. Self-esteem was evaluated by the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. At the end of the follow-up period, data on 261 mothers and their singleton neonates were available. The relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables (birth weight, length, chest circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar score) was tested in girls and boys separately by multiple linear regression analysis (Forward method). Categorical variables were used as "dummy variables". Maternal depression, anxiety and health behaviour did not show any association with neonatal outcomes. Higher level of maternal self-esteem was associated with higher birth weight and birth length in boys and higher birth length in girls. Maternal education positively correlated with birth length, gestational age and chest circumference in boys, and with birth length in girls. In girls, maternal socioeconomic status showed a positive association with birth weight and gestational age, while common law marriage had a negative effect on birth weight and chest circumference. Lower level of maternal self-esteem possibly leads to a higher level of maternal stress which may reduce fetal growth via physiologic changes. Gender differences in associations between demographic factors and neonatal outcome measures indicate differences in fetal

  16. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  17. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  18. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  19. Codevelopment in personality : the interplay between big five traits, self esteem, and satisfaction in couples and families

    OpenAIRE

    Weidmann, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    Big Five traits and self-esteem play a crucial role in explaining satisfaction in couples. Moreover, no clear answer exists whether similarity in Big Five traits and self-esteem predict couple satisfaction. Further, little evidence exists showing whether relationship satisfaction predicts Big Five traits and self-esteem. These personality constructs have rarely been studied conjointly and no research is available to give some indication of how family members impact each other in Big Five trai...

  20. The impact of dental appearance and anxiety on self-esteem in adult orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maroto, M; Santos-Puerta, N; González Olmo, M J; Peñacoba-Puente, C

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between different dimensions of dental appearance impact and self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, with special attention to the possible mediating role of anxiety. A quasi-experimental design was used with a matched control group (without orthodontic treatment). In each group (experimental and control), there were 85 patients. The impact of dental appearance was measured using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). State anxiety was assessed with the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and self-esteem with Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. In both groups (experimental and control), self-esteem correlates negatively, ranging between 0.26 and 0.43, with all dimensions of dental appearance impact (except for the positive dental self-confidence dimension, where all correlations were positive). Anxiety correlates positively, ranges between 0.35 and 0.44, with social impact, psychological impact and aesthetic concern, although it maintains no significant correlations with dental self-confidence. Nevertheless, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, anxiety plays a mediating role between dental impact dimensions and self-esteem, whilst for the control group anxiety only plays a mediator role between psychological impact and self-esteem. Anxiety plays a fundamental role in the effect of perceived dental impact on self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. These results have important practical implications for the design of bio-psycho-social intervention programs that contemplate cognitive-affective variables as an essential part of orthodontic treatment in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hopelessly mortal: The role of mortality salience, immortality and trait self-esteem in personal hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisman, Arnaud; Heflick, Nathan A

    2016-08-01

    Do people lose hope when thinking about death? Based on Terror Management Theory, we predicted that thoughts of death (i.e., mortality salience) would reduce personal hope for people low, but not high, in self-esteem, and that this reduction in hope would be ameliorated by promises of immortality. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience reduced personal hope for people low in self-esteem, but not for people high in self-esteem. In Study 3, mortality salience reduced hope for people low in self-esteem when they read an argument that there is no afterlife, but not when they read "evidence" supporting life after death. In Study 4, this effect was replicated with an essay affirming scientific medical advances that promise immortality. Together, these findings uniquely demonstrate that thoughts of mortality interact with trait self-esteem to cause changes in personal hope, and that literal immortality beliefs can aid psychological adjustment when thinking about death. Implications for understanding personal hope, trait self-esteem, afterlife beliefs and terror management are discussed.

  3. Understanding the link between state and trait aspects of self-esteem in a social context

    OpenAIRE

    中嶋, 夕湖; 下斗米, 淳; 岡本, 祐子

    2015-01-01

    As people experience various events in everyday life, their assessment of emotion and of self-changes. In recent years, research has increasingly focused on individual fluctuation of short-term emotions as a means of explaining changes in self-esteem. In this study, an association between trait self-esteem (TSE), i.e., self-esteem as a characteristic, and state self-esteem (SSE), the type of self-esteem that is alterable by daily events were examined. Every day for one week, 61 students (23 m...

  4. Relaxation therapy and anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation among adults with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who completed 10 sessions of relaxation therapy, and a control group (CG, 15 subjects), who were on a waiting list. The method used is the pretest and posttest. Variables were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. We found that in the RG, relaxation significantly reduced state anxiety, t(14, 15) = 17.8***, d = -0.72, and improved self-esteem, t(14, 15) = -7.7***, d = 1.03, and cognitive reappraisal, t(14, 15) = -6.3***, d = 1.3, while the CG showed no change for these variables. We conclude that relaxation seems to be an interesting therapeutic option for reducing anxiety in people with ID in a supported employment setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Anxiety and depression mediate the role of low self-esteem and low self-directedness in the development of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloi, Matteo; Segura-García, Cristina

    2016-10-14

    Low self-esteem and low self-directedness (SD) are considered a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem and low SD lead to a higher risk for EDs through the mediation of anxiety and depression. Seventy-seven female teenagers answered the Eating Disorder Inventory 3 (EDI-3), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). To test the hypothesis, a structural equation model (SEM) was used. According to the EDI3-EDRC scores, 23/77 (29.9%) participants demonstrated positive results in the screening. Participants who had positive results in the screening had significantly higher scores on trait and state anxiety, depression, and IU, and lower means of self-esteem and SD. The SEM demonstrated good fit indices and all paths were significant in the predicted directions, confirming the hypothesized model. The current results confirm the role of self-esteem and SD in the development of an ED among adolescent females through the mediating action of IU, anxiety, and depression.

  6. Illness appraisals and self-esteem as correlates of anxiety and affective comorbid disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Gumley, Andrew; Power, Kevin; O'Grady, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is common. This study investigated the hypothesis that greater negative beliefs about illness and lower self-esteem will be significantly associated with the presence of anxiety or affective comorbidity in a sample of persons (n = 138) diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale; the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were all completed for each participant. Of the total sample, 62 (44.9%) had a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder. Logistic regression revealed that those with a comorbid anxiety or affective disorder had significantly lower levels of functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning), more negative appraisals of entrapment in psychosis (Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire), and lower levels of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Although further research is required, the strong association between personal beliefs about self and illness and comorbidity suggests that negative beliefs about psychotic experiences and self-esteem may be linked to the development and maintenance of anxiety and affective comorbid conditions among people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or the like.

  7. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship betw...

  8. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluation of social anxiety, self-esteem, life quality in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dilek; Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin

    2016-08-05

    Acne vulgaris is a visible skin disease commonly seen in adolescence. As it affects the appearance, it is likely to bring stress to the adolescent's life regarding sensitivity about their appearance. The aim of the study was to investigate the social anxiety level, acne-specific life quality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acne vulgaris. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between these parameters, clinical severity, and sociodemographic data. One hundred and two adolescents with acne vulgaris, aged 12-17 years without any psychiatric or medical comorbidity were recruited. The control group consisted of 83 adolescents in the same age range, who had neither psychiatric disease nor acne. Sociodemographic form (SDF), Capa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (CSPSCA), and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) were applied to both groups. Additionally, the severity of acne was determined with Global Acne Grading System (GAGS), and life quality of the patients was evaluated with Acne Quality of Life Scale (AQOL). There was no significant difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the study and control groups. Life quality impairment and high social anxiety levels, as well as low self-esteem, were found to be associated regardless of the clinical severity. Clinicians should be aware of the psychiatric comorbidities when treating adolescents with acne vulgaris. Especially, low self-esteem and life quality impairment should warn clinicians to predict high social anxiety levels in adolescent acne patients.

  10. Preschool attachment, self-esteem and the development of preadolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between preschool attachment patterns, the development of anxiety and depression at preadolescence and the mediational role of self-esteem. Child-mother attachment classifications of 68 children (33 girls) were assessed between 3-4 years of age (M = 3.7 years, SD = 4.4 months) using the Separation-Reunion Procedure. At age 11-12 (M = 11.7 years, SD = 4.3 months), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Dominic Interactive Questionnaire), and self-esteem (Self-Perception Profile for Children) were also evaluated. Preadolescents who had shown disorganized attachment at preschool age scored higher on both anxiety and depression and lower on self-esteem than those who had shown secure and insecure-organized attachment strategies. Self-esteem was a partial mediator of the association between preschool disorganization and symptoms of preadolescent depression, but the model was not supported for anxiety. These findings support the idea that early attachment and self-esteem should be central themes in prevention programs with young children.

  11. #Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more – both overall and at night – and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and h...

  12. On the context dependency of implicit self-esteem in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas S; Steffens, Melanie C; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction. We measured implicit self-esteem with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Implicit self-esteem differed significantly between SAD and NC groups under the speech condition but not under the no-speech condition. The SAD group showed lower implicit self-esteem than the NC group under the speech-condition. State anxiety was significantly higher under the speech condition than under the no-speech condition in the SAD group but not in the NC group. Mediation analyses supported the idea that for the SAD group, the effect of experimental condition on state anxiety was mediated by implicit self-esteem. The causal relation between implicit self-esteem and state anxiety could not be determined. The findings corroborate hypotheses derived from cognitive models of SAD: Automatic self-evaluations were negatively biased in individuals with SAD facing social threat and showed an inverse relationship to levels of state anxiety. However, automatic self-evaluations in individuals with SAD can be unbiased (similar to NC) in situations without social threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attachment, Self-Esteem and Test Anxiety in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…

  14. Self esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  16. Effect of Yoga on anxiety, depression and self-esteem in orphanage residents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejvani, Ravishankar; Metri, Kashinath G; Agrawal, Jyotsna; Nagendra, H R

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in a number of orphanages and children living in orphanages in last few years. The children living in orphanages often have psychological problems among which anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are considered to be most prominent. Yoga is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and safe intervention among complementary and alternative medicine which is known to have a positive impact on psychological problems. The present pilot study intended to assess the effect of a two week Yoga intervention on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of adolescents and young adults living in an orphanage. Adolescent and young adults participants who were the permanent residents of an orphanage ( n = 34; males = 27, females = 7) between age ranges of 12-20 years underwent 2 week of Yoga intervention. Yoga intervention comprised Asana (Yogic postures), Pranayama (Yogic breathing practices), and Dharana-Dhyana (Yogic relaxation techniques) for 1 h daily over 15 days. Hospital anxiety and depression and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were administered at baseline and after the intervention to assess anxiety, depression, and self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant reduction ( P = 0.001) in anxiety, depression, and significant improvement in self-esteem ( P = 0.001) at the end of 2 weeks Yoga intervention. This pilot study suggests that 2 weeks of Yoga practice potentially reduced anxiety and depression and improved self-esteem of orphanage adolescents and young adults. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.

  17. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  19. Analyzing Musical Self-Esteem and Performance Anxiety Levels of Students Receiving Professional Music Education at Different Institutions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gürsen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish which variables cause the interrelations between musical self-esteem and performance-anxiety levels of students receiving professional music education at different institutions to vary. In relation to this framework, "musical self-esteem" and "performance anxiety" scores of students…

  20. The effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of female college students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwuy Bun; Cohen, Susan M; Oh, Hye Kyung; Sok, Sohyune R

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of female college students in Korea. The effects of meridian exercise on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem were statistically significant (t = -7.982, P= .000; t= -8.814, P = .000; t = 9.649, P = .000) between the experimental and control group.

  1. Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in Spanish Families with Blind Children. A Change in Psychological Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…

  2. Relationship of self-esteem, manifest anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness to personal habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C E

    1993-10-01

    75 women and 64 men responded to the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, the Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Maudsley Obsessional-compulsive Inventory in addition to responding to a questionnaire on personal habits. The results indicated that more frequent hair-pullers and nervous twitchers scored lower on self-esteem and higher on anxiety. People who giggled and those who bit their fingernails more often scored higher on obsessive-compulsiveness. Self-reported gigglers were higher on manifest anxiety. If the criterion of self-assessed seriousness of the behavior problem was used, people who bit their nails, picked their noses, pulled their hair, chewed on objects, giggled, ground their teeth, twitched nervously, and picked at scabs scored lower on self-esteem. Higher manifest-anxiety scores were found among the people who regarded their nail-biting, hair-pulling, object-chewing, nervous twitching, or giggling as serious problems. Finally, people who regarded their nail-biting as more serious tended to have higher obsessive-compulsive scores. The results in general suggest that the frequency of several of these behaviors is anxiety-related and that it is the person's assessments of these behaviors as problems rather than simply their frequency that is related to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem.

  3. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.

  4. The Predictive Power of Undergraduates' Personality Traits and Self-Esteem Regarding Their Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S. Barbaros; Kavakli, Mehmet; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the undergraduates' personality traits and self-esteem predict their forgiveness. Methods: The study was conducted using a descriptive research designed as a relational survey method. The study group consists of 323 undergraduates, of whom 250 (77.2 %) are female and 73 (22.5%) are…

  5. [Psychological impact of ostomy on the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients: Role of body image, self-esteem and anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubrun En Famille Diant, Laury; Sordes, Florence; Chaubard, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Surgery accounts for an important part of the therapeutic arsenal of colorectal cancer treatment. In digestive cancers, ostomy devices induce the loss of anal function and control. This medical appliance generates changes affecting all aspects of patients' lives. This study explores, on the one hand, the psychological impact of colostomy on colorectal cancer patients' quality of life and on the other hand, it analyzes the correlational links between body image, self-esteem and anxiety during the stoma. Thirty-five patients with colorectal cancer participated in the study, divided into 2 subgroups: 23 were carriers of a definitive stoma and the 12 others with a temporary stoma. All completed the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy (FACT-C), the Body Image Scale (BIS), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) and the Self Esteem Scale (ETES). Analysis revealed the quality of life of temporary ostomates is more affected than that of the definitive ones. All three of them, body image, self-esteem and anxiety negatively affect the quality of life regardless of the type of stoma. This study highlights the prevalence of physical self-esteem for temporary ostomy; the role of a good body image and substantial emotional self-esteem for the permanent ostomy. Future studies are required to explore the underlying causes of the acceptance of this equipment and the mediating role of care devices. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Violent peer influence: The roles of self-esteem and psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Van Zalk, Nejra

    2015-11-01

    Evidence for the risks of psychopathic personality traits for adolescent antisocial behavior are well documented in the literature. Little is known, however, about who the peers of adolescents with these traits are and to what extent they influence one another. In the current study, three dimensions of psychopathic traits were distinguished: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. A dynamic social network approach was used with three waves of longitudinal data from 1,772 adolescents (51.1% girls, M age = 13.03 at first measurement). Results showed that adolescents with grandiose-manipulative and callous-unemotional traits formed peer relationships with adolescents who had low self-esteem. Furthermore, peers' violence predicted stronger increases in violence for adolescents with low self-esteem than for other adolescents, and peers' violence predicted stronger increases in adolescent violence for peers with high psychopathic traits than for other peers. Thus, findings indicate that adolescents with low self-esteem are vulnerable to deviant peer influence from peers with psychopathic traits.

  7. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Kenny, David A; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Lucas, Richard E; Conger, Rand D

    2012-12-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development.

  8. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development. PMID:23180899

  9. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F; Campbell, W Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-03-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

  10. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Petra

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.

  11. Aromatherapy with ylang ylang for anxiety and self-esteem: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if the use of ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application or inhalation alters the anxiety and self-esteem perception and physiological parameters as blood pressure and temperature. Method : A pilot study with 34 professionals from a nursing group randomized in three groups: one received the ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application, the second received through inhalation and the third (placebo received the ylang ylang essence through cutaneous application. The assessment was done by an Anxiety Inventory (IDATE and the Dela Coleta self-esteem scale, applied on baseline, after 30, 60 and 90 days and after 15 days post-intervention (follow up. Results : In the pre and post-intervention intergroup analysis, there was a significant difference in self-esteem for the three groups (p values: G1=0.014; G2=0.016; G3=0.038. There were no differences in the analysis between groups for anxiety or for physiological parameters. Conclusion : It was found significant alterations only to the intergroup perception of self-esteem for the three groups.

  12. A Multifaceted Program To Improve Self-Esteem and Social Skills while Reducing Anxiety in Emotionally Handicapped Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Lynn

    A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…

  13. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence : differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P. J.; Sportel, B. E.; de Hullu, E.; Nauta, M. H.

    Background. Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit

  14. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  15. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Skorek

    Full Text Available Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five, self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  16. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18–21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems. PMID:25375238

  17. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-est...

  18. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-08-31

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17-56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 57.5% of the sample had clinically low self-esteem. The RSES had good internal consistency (α =   .89), and factor analysis identified four factors, which differed from those found previously in other populations. Multiple regression analysis revealed anxiety was differentially predicted by "Self-Worth" and "Self-Efficacy", R 2  =   .44, F(4, 58) =   9, p Self-Regard", R 2  =   .38, F(4, 58) =   9, p self-esteem after ABI. Self-esteem after ABI is multidimensional and differs in structure from self-esteem in the general population. A multidimensional model of self-esteem may be helpful in development of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural accounts of adjustment.

  19. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...

  20. Self-esteem mediates associations of physical activity with anxiety in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Matthew P; O'Connor, Patrick J; Dishman, Rodney K

    2014-10-01

    Why physically active people report lower anxiety than those who are inactive is not well understood. This study examined whether physical self-concept and self-esteem would mediate associations of self-reported physical activity with anxiety disorder symptoms in young women, a population with elevated risk for developing an anxiety disorder. College women (N = 1036, mean ± SD = 19.7 ± 2.9 yr) completed a physical activity recall, the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire, and the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Physical activity had inverse, indirect associations with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder that were expressed through its positive association with specific and global physical self-concept and self-esteem. The results were independent of similar relations with symptoms of major depressive disorder as well as the estimates of body fatness and use of psychotropic medications. These correlational findings provide initial evidence to warrant experimental efficacy trials of whether physical activity will reduce the risk of anxiety disorders in young women by positive influences on physical self-concept and self-esteem.

  1. The influence of the absence of fathers and the timing of separation on anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Wang, L-G; Gao, W-B

    2012-09-01

    Many rural children in China have been experiencing life without fathers since the 1990s, when their fathers left the rural areas for the urban areas to find a job that would allow them to continue to support their family. However, to date, knowledge and understanding of the effects of the absence of fathers and timing of separation on the mental health of adolescents are limited. A total of 2233 students, ranging in age from 11 to 23 years, from five provinces of China, including 1024 adolescents who experienced the absence of their fathers, were recruited for this study. The data were collected using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which were self-report questionnaires. Findings from a structured questionnaire showed that the subjects who experienced life without fathers have increased state-anxiety (t=-5.80, P self-esteem (t= 39.54, P state-anxiety scores [F(3,992) = 2.26, P= 0.05], and post test also revealed that the self-esteem of female scores in the 0-2 timing group was higher than other timing group's [F(3,992) = 4.58, P= 0.004]. The influence of the absence of fathers on the anxiety and self-esteem of adolescents seems to be more serious than our expectation, and the influence will be different according to the timing of father absence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and test anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Orrie; Raz, Sivan

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of adult ADHD with test anxiety (TA) has not been previously reported. This comorbidity can potentially affect clinical and academic interventions among individuals with ADHD. The present study investigated the relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and three subscales of TA among young adults: Cognitive Obstruction, Social Derogation, and Tenseness. A total of 25 female participants diagnosed with ADHD and 30 female controls without ADHD of comparable age and education completed an Online Continuous Performance Test, an ADHD questionnaire, a self-esteem inventory, and a TA questionnaire. Participants with ADHD exhibited significantly higher levels of TA on all three subscales and lower levels of self-esteem compared with controls. Self-esteem served as a partial mediator between ADHD and cognitive obstruction TA and as a full mediator between ADHD and social derogation TA, but had no mediation effect in the relationships between ADHD and tenseness TA. The findings of this study suggest that TA, well known to affect success on tests, is correlated with ADHD. Therefore, interventions for ADHD should include components aimed at reducing TA. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  3. Relationship Between Big Five Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzia Nazir, AnamAzam, Muhammad Rafiq, Sobia Nazir, Sophia Nazir, ShaziaTasleem

    2015-01-01

    The current research study was on the “Relationship between Big Five Personality Traits & Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among the College Students”. This work is based on cross sectional survey research design. The convenience sample was used by including 170 female Students studying at government college kotla Arab Ali khan Gujrat, Pakistan, degree program of 3rd year and 4th year. The study variables were measured using Big Five Inventory Scale by Goldberg (1993), Emotional Intell...

  4. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  5. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    Full Text Available Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113 completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.The results indicated that (i anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  6. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  7. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Valizade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and self esteem scales. Results: According to this research, there was meaningful correlation between social physical anxiety (r=-0.326, body image concern (r=0.466 and self-esteem (r=0.349 with eating disorders and these variables were explained the 0.27 variance in eating disorders. Conclusion: Results are corresponding with previous studies and have important implications in attention to the predicting variables of eating disorders in athletes’ women

  8. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17–56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Sca...

  9. Children of the closet: a measurement of the anxiety and self-esteem of children raised by a non-disclosed homosexual or bisexual parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Paul D; McClintock, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This research examined whether a parent's non-disclosure of his or her homosexual or bisexual orientation within the family unit negatively affects self-esteem and anxiety in children, as measured in adulthood. Thirty-six subjects indicated that they had not known of their parent's sexual orientation until an average age of sixteen for the children of lesbian or bisexual mothers, and twenty-two for the children of gay or bisexual fathers. This group's scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirabilty Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale were compared to scores obtained by sixty-three participants who did not have a homosexual/bisexual parent. The number of years a secretive environment surrounded the child was measured, as were participants' attitudes about the secret sexual identity. Although the study did not find that adults previously raised with a closeted parent had significantly higher levels of anxiety or lower levels of self-esteem, results indicated that those who had been raised as children with non-disclosed lesbian mothers showed a significantly higher level of self-esteem than participants with heterosexual parents. Implications of the findings for the targeted population are discussed.

  10. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L.; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F.; Campbell, W. Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem’s moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications—suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks. PMID:22611304

  11. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  12. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letitre, Sarah L; de Groot, Eric P; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paul L P

    2014-08-01

    Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Dedicated asthma clinic in a general hospital. 70 patients with mostly well-controlled asthma and 70 matched healthy controls. Comprehensive asthma education, management and follow-up for asthma patients. Validated Dutch versions of the Childhood Depression inventory (CDI), Revised Fear Survey for Children (RFSC), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPC-C) and Adolescents (SPC-A) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Asthma control assessed by asthma control questionnaire. No significant differences were found in total scores between asthmatics and controls (95% CI for difference -0.2 to 2.9 for CDI, -5.9 to 11.2 for RFSC, -19.9 to 6.3 for SPC-C, -24.1 to 5.0 for SPC-A and -2.7 to 0.01 for STAIC). There were also no significant differences between asthmatics and controls in the prevalence of scores exceeding cut-off levels for clinically relevant anxiety (13.3 vs 13.0%, p=0.605), depression (12.9 vs 5.7%, p=0.243) or low self-esteem (21.4 vs 12.9%, p=0.175). A significant correlation was found between poorer asthma control and CDI (p=0.012) and anxiety trait symptoms (pChildren with well-controlled asthma enrolled in a comprehensive asthma management programme do not have an increased risk of anxiety, depression and poor self-esteem. Earlier reports of psychological comorbidity in asthma may have been related to inadequately controlled asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Effects of self-esteem on state and trait components of interpersonal dependency and depression in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Yukihiro; Sakata, Masatsugu; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2011-09-01

    This longitudinal study was undertaken to clarify the relationships among self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and depression, focusing on a trait and state component of interpersonal dependency and depression. In a sample of 466 working people, self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, job stressor, and depression were assessed at 2 points of time. A structural equation model (SEM) was created to differentiate the trait component of interpersonal dependency, depression and the state component of interpersonal dependency, depression. The model revealed that self-esteem influenced trait interpersonal dependency and trait depression but not state interpersonal dependency or depression. Setting a latent variable as a trait component to differentiate trait and state in interpersonal dependency and depression in SEM was found to be effective both statistically and clinically. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda Dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá

    2016-11-28

    to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022). Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020). More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem. analisar as relações entre os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, resiliência e autoestima com as características sociodemográficas e clínicas; correlacionar resiliência e autoestima com a idade e o tempo da doença; analisar associações entre ansiedade e depressão com as medidas de resiliência e autoestima em indivíduos com doenças cardiovasculares. estudo correlacional, realizado em Hospital de Ensino de grande porte do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A população era constituída por pacientes adultos internados com doenças cardiovasculares. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída por 120 pacientes. As variáveis de interesse foram avaliadas

  15. Anxiety, happiness and self-esteem of western Chinese left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qian; Chu, Rong-Xuan

    2016-08-24

    China's unprecedented economic boom has led a massive number of children left-behind by their peasant parents who have immigrated to urban areas in search of work. In current study, we explored how being left behind is associated with children's positive emotions and negative psychological traits by examining the differences in levels of happiness, self-esteem and anxiety between left-behind children (LBC) and non-LBC. A total of 448 students (aged 7-16) from three schools in Sichuan Province in China responded to the questionnaire. Fourteen teachers of LBC were invited to one-to-one interviews for in depth responses to LBC's behaviors and psychological well-being. The results revealed that non-LBC showed a higher level of happiness (t=-0.21, df=258, pchildren. Among LBC, low grade children (primary school grades 3 and 4) reported a lower level of happiness (t=-0.73, df=216, pself-esteem (t=-0.24, df=191, p<0.01) than their older counterparts (primary school grades 5 and 6). The teachers' accounts confirmed the statistical results that LBC suffered from the deprivation of parental care. According to the teachers, as LBC grew older, they developed an understanding of their own circumstances and came to appreciate their parents' decisions. With appropriate and adequate support provided to both LBC and the caretakers around them such as relatives and teachers, it may be possible to reduce the adverse impacts of parental deprivation on LBC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  17. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-verification and social anxiety: preference for negative social feedback and low social self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiner, David P; Skowronski, John J; McGrath, Patrick B; Smith, Sarah A; Renner, Kerry A

    2011-10-01

    A self-verification model of social anxiety views negative social self-esteem as a core feature of social anxiety. This core feature is proposed to be maintained through self-verification processes, such as by leading individuals with negative social self-esteem to prefer negative social feedback. This model is tested in two studies. In Study 1, questionnaires were administered to a college sample (N = 317). In Study 2, questionnaires were administered to anxiety disordered patients (N = 62) before and after treatment. Study 1 developed measures of preference for negative social feedback and social self-esteem, and provided evidence of their incremental validity in a college sample. Study 2 found that these two variables are not strongly related to fears of evaluation, are relatively unaffected by a treatment that targets such fears, and predict residual social anxiety following treatment. Overall, these studies provide preliminary evidence for a self-verification model of social anxiety.

  19. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  20. Level of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Quality of Life among the Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous disease and many symptoms are seen with varying degrees. The aim of the present study was to determine which symptoms increased such problems as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and social worry by classifying PCOS according to symptoms. Methods. The study was carried out with two groups. The first group consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS and the second group consisted of 47 healthy volunteers. Liebowitz’ Social Anxiety Scale, Rosenberg’ Self-Esteem Scale, Short-Form 36, Quality of Life Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to each volunteer. Results. Depression scores of infertile group were higher while anxiety scores of the obese group were bigger than other groups. It was the obesity group that received the smallest score in self-esteem and trust in people and the highest score in sensitiveness to criticism. The most affected group was oligomenorrhea-hirsutism group in terms of physical functioning, physical role function, pain, social functioning, emotional role function, and emotional well-being. Conclusion. We suggest that not only gynecologist but also a multidisciplinary team may examine these patients.

  1. Associations between trait emotional intelligence and loneliness in Chinese undergraduate students: mediating effects of self-esteem and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jilin

    2014-06-01

    Prior studies indicate that trait emotional intelligence (EI) is associated negatively with loneliness. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship are not clear. This study assessed whether both self-esteem and social support mediated the associations between trait EI and loneliness. 469 Chinese undergraduate participants whose age ranged from 18 to 23 years (208 women) were asked to complete four self-report questionnaires, including the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Analyses indicated that self-esteem and social support fully mediated the associations between trait EI and loneliness. Effect contrasts indicated that the specific indirect effect through social support was significantly greater than that through self-esteem. Moreover, a multiple-group analysis indicated that no path differed significantly by sex. These results suggest that social support is more important than self-esteem in the association between trait EI and loneliness. Furthermore, both sexes appear to share the same mechanism underlying this association.

  2. The mediating effect of self-esteem, depression and anxiety between satisfaction with body appearance and problematic internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronczai, Beatrix; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert; Kun, Bernadette; Pápay, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-07-01

    Given that dissatisfaction with bodily appearance can sometimes lead to the avoidance of personal contacts and the increase of internet use, this study examines this relationship. The direct role of dissatisfaction with bodily appearance along with the possible mediation effects of depression, anxiety and self-esteem were tested. A total of 694 participants completed an online questionnaire (58.5% male, mean age 21.5 years), containing measures on problematic internet use, depression and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and satisfaction with body image. Path analyses were used to test direct and indirect effects. Satisfaction with body appearance had a significant negative direct effect on problematic internet use among both sexes. Though, satisfaction with body appearance had a positive effect on self-esteem and negative on anxiety, neither self-esteem nor anxiety had a direct significant effect on problematic internet use. The effect of dissatisfaction with body appearance was mediated via the self-esteem-depression path toward problematic internet use. Dissatisfaction with physical appearance seems to have a significant role in individuals' immersing themselves in internet use.

  3. Explicit and implicit self-esteem within a given range of clients with anxiety disorders: quantitative and qualitative analysis with emphasis on Rorschach method

    OpenAIRE

    Najbrtová, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the issue of self-esteem in clients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. While this condition belongs to the most common mental illnesses, the role of the patient's self-esteem has not been sufficiently researched. The aim of the thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the relation between anxiety and self-esteem, and to examine whether clients with so called Other Anxiety Disorder manifest specific differences in their level of self-esteem. In the theoretical ...

  4. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…

  5. Longitudinal tests of competing factor structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: traits, ephemeral artifacts, and stable response styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Self-esteem, typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychology. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that a simple unidimensional factor model, consistent with the original design and typical application in applied research, does not provide an adequate explanation of RSE responses. However, there is no clear agreement about what alternative model is most appropriate-or even a clear rationale for how to test competing interpretations. Three alternative interpretations exist: (a) 2 substantively important trait factors (positive and negative self-esteem), (b) 1 trait factor and ephemeral method artifacts associated with positively or negatively worded items, or (c) 1 trait factor and stable response-style method factors associated with item wording. We have posited 8 alternative models and structural equation model tests based on longitudinal data (4 waves of data across 8 years with a large, representative sample of adolescents). Longitudinal models provide no support for the unidimensional model, undermine support for the 2-factor model, and clearly refute claims that wording effects are ephemeral, but they provide good support for models positing 1 substantive (self-esteem) factor and response-style method factors that are stable over time. This longitudinal methodological approach has not only resolved these long-standing issues in self-esteem research but also has broad applicability to most psychological assessments based on self-reports with a mix of positively and negatively worded items.

  6. Critical thinking, self-esteem, and state anxiety of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.

  7. Suppression of negative affect in cancer patients. Trauma and defensiveness of self-esteem as predictors of depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila-Jankowska Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the work show that the relatively small differences in declared, negative emotional states (such as depression or anxiety between people suffering and not suffering from cancer can be explained by the suppression of negative affect in the former. It was assumed that the suppression is related to a compensation of an automatic, affective self-assessment - i.e. implicit self-esteem, lower in cancer patients. The results confirmed that the connection of cancer and depression (similarly cancer and anxiety became significantly stronger while the self-esteem defensiveness and past stress are statistically controlled.

  8. Does Low Self-Esteem Predict Depression and Anxiety? A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or…

  9. INTERNET OUT OF CONTROL: THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PERSONALITY TRAITS IN PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Sideli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Young people seem particularly likely to develop pathological Internet use (PIU with the use of social networks, chat, and videos. Sensation-seeking, neuroticism, introversion, and low self-esteem are personality features frequently associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to replicate and to extend previous findings by exploring the combined effect of personality traits and self-esteem on PIU. Method: A sample of 652 male students attending vocational technical schools in Palermo (Southern Italy was assessed using the following measures: the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to evaluate personality traits; the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale to assess self-esteem; the Tech Style Behavior to investigate PIU. Results: Pathological Internet Use was associated to age, feelings of low self-esteem and inadequate competence, impulsivity/sensation seeking, aggression-hostility, and sociability. However, in a multiple linear regression model, only sociability, aggression-hostility, competence, and age demonstrated a significant effect in the prediction of PIU. Conclusions: Expanding previous research, the findings suggest that low self-esteem, high aggression-hostility, and high sociability are significant risk factors for PIU. Therefore, primary prevention programmes should include interventions aimed at promoting self-competence, enhancing emotional skills, and developing effective coping strategies.

  10. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  11. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. Methods In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. Results The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. Conclusion The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre. PMID:27247595

  12. Correlations among Social Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Impulsivity, and Game Genre in Patients with Problematic Online Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Young-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of online game addiction have suggested that social interaction and impulsivity are critical factors for the etiology and progress of online game addiction. We hypothesized that the genre of the online game is associated with impulsivity and sociality in individuals with online game addictions. In total, 212 patients with problematic online game playing were divided into four groups by game genre: 1) massive multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), 2) real-time strategy (RTS), 3) first-person shooter (FPS), and 4) other. Their symptoms and characteristics were assessed using 8 scales and 2 tests to estimate self-esteem, impulsiveness, comorbidity, social interaction status, and cognitive function. The mean social anxiety score was highest in the MMORPG group and lowest in the FPS group. The mean self-esteem score was highest in the RTS group. Social anxiety score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the MMORPG group, and the self-esteem score was positively correlated with Internet addiction score in the RTS group. The genre of online game was not associated with impulsivity, but social anxiety status varied significantly with game genre, and differences in social anxiety were especially pronounced in patients playing the MMORPG (highest social anxiety) and FPS (lowest social anxiety) game genres. In addition, self-esteem was highest in the RTS game genre.

  13. Self perception score from zero to ten correlates well with standardized scales of adolescent self esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders risk, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.

  14. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary Symptoms of Dyslexia: A Comparison of Self-Esteem and Anxiety Profiles of Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita, Shally

    2016-01-01

    The secondary symptoms of individuals with dyslexia, such as high anxiety and low self-esteem, have aroused various debates not only in the educational, but also in the clinical context. Since pro and contra arguments are supported by a more or less equal number of empirical findings, no final conclusion could be drawn for this specific…

  16. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letitre, Sarah L.; de Groot, Eric P.; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paulus

    Objective Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Setting

  17. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  18. The Effectiveness of Psychological Services of Rehabilitation Period on Addictions’ Negative Self Concept, Anxiety, Depression and Self Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Bavi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Psychological services of rehabilitation period on negative self concept, anxiety, depression and self esteem of T.C. addicts of Ahwaz city in 1386-1387. Method: The research design was semi experimental namely: pretest-posttest with one group. Population was all self reported addicts that accepted in Ahwaz T.C. center for 4 months period. The sample was 50 addicts who were selected by available sampling. Before psychological services pre test was administered. The questionnaires were administered in this research were Rogers's self concept, Cattle’s anxiety, Beck's depression and Copper Smith's self esteem questionnaire. Results: the results showed that the psychological services were effective on reduction of addicts’ negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of their self esteem. Conclusion: The results showed that participation of T.C. and using of psychological services can be affected on reduction of negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of self esteem.

  19. Influence of sad mood induction on implicit self-esteem and its relationship with symptoms of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke; Verwoerd, Johan; de Jong, Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Implicit self-esteem (ISE) refers to the valence of triggered associations when the self is activated. Despite theories, previous studies often fail to observe low ISE in depression and anxiety. It is feasible that sad mood is required to activate dysfunctional

  20. [Sense of guilt in sexually abused children : Mediating role of avoidance coping on anxiety and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested self-blame and sense of guilt as important elements associated with the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult survivors (Cantón-Cortés, Cantón, Justicia & Cortés, 2011). However, few studies have explored the potential impact of the sense of guilt on outcomes in child victims. This study examines the mediating role of avoidance coping on the relationship between sense of guilt and outcomes (anxiety and self-esteem) in sexually abused children. The sample consisted of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys) aged 6 to 12. Path analysis indicated that children with higher feelings of guilt about the abuse showed more anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem. Indirect effects also indicated that sense of guilt predicted avoidance coping, which in turn contributed to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem. This model, which fits the data well for both girls and boys, explains 24.4 % of the variance in anxiety and 11.2 % of the variance in self-esteem. Results suggest that sense of guilt is an important target for clinical intervention with sexually abused children.

  1. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activations of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and thalamus during agentic self-evaluation are negatively associated with trait self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Wu, Shi; Shi, Zhenhao; Liu, Mingyan; Peng, Maoying; Shen, Yang; Yang, Juan

    2018-08-01

    Individual self-esteem is dominated more by agency than by communion. However, prior research has mainly focused on one's agentic/communal self-evaluation, while little is known about how one endorses others' agentic/communal evaluation of the self. The present study investigated the associations between trait self-esteem and fundamental dimensions of social cognition, i.e. agency vs. communion, during both self-evaluation and endorsement of others' evaluation of oneself. We also investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the relationship between trait self-esteem and agentic self-evaluation. Behavioral results revealed that self-esteem was positively correlated with the agentic ratings from self-evaluation and endorsement of others' evaluation of the self, and that the agentic self-evaluation was a significant full mediator between self-esteem and endorsement of others' agentic evaluation. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that self-esteem was negatively correlated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral thalamic response to agentic self-evaluation. A possible interpretation is that low self-esteem people both hold a more self-critical attitude about the self and have less certainty or clarity of their self-concepts than high self-esteem people do. These findings have important implication for understanding the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying self-esteem's effect on one's agentic self-evaluations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in anxiety, depression and self-esteem: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Giulio; Aria, Massimo; Cepeda-Valdes, Rodrigo; Garcia-Garcia, Sandra Cecilia; Moreno Trevino, Maria Guadalupe; Salas-Alanís, Julio Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The psychological aspect in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is poorly documented. We sought to determine the role of DEB in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 27 DEB patients and 26 healthy individuals. DEB patients and healthy controls completed three different psychometric scales for anxiety and depression and one scale for self-esteem. DEB patients and healthy controls were homogeneous for age and sex (P > 0.05), but not for employment, marital status and economic level (P depression (P = 0.037) and slightly significant for Zung Scale for anxiety (P = 0.048) with no difference between DEB patients with dominant versus recessive form in all scales (P > 0.05). Among DEB patients, only employment showed a significant difference in all scales (P depression, whereas self-esteem seemed to be affected by marriage (P = 0.04) and education (P = 0.016). DEB patients apparently are not more anxious and/or depressed and do not have less self-esteem than healthy individuals. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Firoozi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling.

  5. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. Relating shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, and anxiety with weight and perceived physical health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamody, Rebecca C; Thurston, Idia B; Decker, Kristina M; Kaufman, Caroline C; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health. Three profiles emerged: (1) High Shape/Weight Influence (HSWI); (2) Low Shape/Weight, Depression, & Anxiety Influence (LSWDAI); and (3) High Depression & Anxiety Influence (HDAI). The HSWI profile had significantly higher BMI than the LSWDAI and HDAI profiles, and significantly lower perceived physical health than the LSWDAI profile. Over emphasis on shape/weight, regardless of depression and anxiety, is associated with elevated weight and negative internalized health views. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. State-trait decomposition of Name Letter Test scores and relationships with global self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Enrico; Alessandri, Guido; Donnellan, M Brent; Łaguna, Mariola

    2018-06-01

    The Name Letter Test (NLT) assesses the degree that participants show a preference for an individual's own initials. The NLT was often thought to measure implicit self-esteem, but recent literature reviews do not equivocally support this hypothesis. Several authors have argued that the NLT is most strongly associated with the state component of self-esteem. The current research uses a modified STARTS model to (a) estimate the percentage of stable and transient components of the NLT and (b) estimate the covariances between stable/transient components of the NLT and stable/transient components of self-esteem and positive and negative affect. Two longitudinal studies were conducted with different time lags: In Study 1, participants were assessed daily for 7 consecutive days, whereas in Study 2, participants were assessed weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires including global self-esteem, positive affect, and negative affect. In both studies, the NLT showed (a) high stability across time, (b) a high percentage of stable variance, (c) no significant covariance with stable and transient factors for global self-esteem, and (d) a different pattern of correlations with stable and transient factors of affect than global self-esteem. Collectively, these results further undermine the claim that the NLT is a valid measure of implicit self-esteem. Future work is needed to identify theoretically grounded correlates of the NLT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A

    2017-03-31

    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  10. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  11. [Study of stutter originating from the frustrated clinging instinct and its relation to anxiety and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Beáta Erika; Józsa, Tamás

    2016-05-22

    The analytic and family therapeutic theories connected to the topic of stutter have to be actualized. The aim of this work was to point out connections which originate from the instinct of frustrated clinging, however, these can be interpretated in new ways these days. Two questionnaires in 48 subjects suffering from stutter were used; Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale measured the children's self representation, while the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children measured the degree of their anxiety. At first the subjects had to anwser the questions as themselves, for the second time they had to anwser as an ordinary person without a speech disorder. The hypothesis of the authors was verified: stutterers attributed a significant role to the speech disorder of the subjects in connection with their self-esteem. According to this a significant amount of their anxiety is based on their deficit. An unexpected result was that girls and boys estimated ordinary people's level of anxiety similarly. There was no significant difference between boys and girls regarding the level of other's self-esteem. Based on the thesis of evolutionary psychology, the adequate use of speech is more important to women who have a connecting role in the family. This results that they see stutter as a major problem.

  12. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating attitudes, health-risk behaviors, self-esteem, and anxiety among adolescent females in a suburban high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Schneider, M; Pegler, C; Napolitano, B

    1991-07-01

    In order to determine whether adolescent females with abnormal eating attitudes display lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety than their peers, and whether these adolescents participate in health-risk behaviors to a greater or lesser degree than their peers, we administered a series of questionnaires to the females attending a suburban high school in New York State. The questionnaires, completed by 268 students (mean age, 16.2 years), included data on health-risk behaviors and weight attitudes, an Eating Attitudes Test, a self-esteem scale, and an anxiety inventory. Results indicated that almost two-thirds of the students described themselves as overweight, almost three-quarters felt they were above the healthiest weight for their age and height, and almost four-fifths were above the weight at which they would be most happy; 18% of the students scored 30 or more on the Eating Attitudes Test, a score suggestive of an eating disorder. Use of Spearman-rank correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis revealed that those with more unhappiness with their weight and higher scores on the eating attitudes test were more likely to have lower self-esteem and higher anxiety and to participate more in health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and sexual activity with more total partners. The data from this study further corroborate the growing belief that health-risk behaviors tend to cluster together in vulnerable adolescents and demonstrate that abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors may be part of this cluster, especially in females with low self-esteem and high levels of anxiety.

  14. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  15. Anxiety in close relationships is higher and self-esteem lower in patients with irritable bowel syndrome compared to patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Sjöberg, Klas; Candamio, Martina; Lerman, Annie; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested an interaction between personality factors and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We therefore aimed to elucidate differences in psychological and coping functioning between patients with IBD and IBS, and to assess the relationship of disease activity with these functions. Seventy-four patients with IBD (mean age 43±17 years, range 18-82 years) and 81 patients with IBS (mean age 37±12 years, range 21-66 years) completed the questionnaires; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Toronto Alexithymia, Experiences in Close Relationships, and Sense of Coherence. Disease activity was evaluated either by the Harvey-Bradshaw index, the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, or the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The study revealed that patients with IBS had higher degree of anxiety in close relationships than patients with IBD (p=0.003), and lower self-esteem (p=0.001). No other statistical differences between the whole groups IBS and IBD or between subgroups were seen. The fact that patients with IBS seem to have higher levels of anxiety in relationships and lower self-esteem could influence the way the patient deal with the disease and how the communication with health care professionals works out. A higher awareness of the importance of past negative life events should be taken into consideration. Whether the disease or the personal traits are the primary event should be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Method Effects on an Adaptation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Greek and the Role of Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P; Koutsogiorgi, Chrystalla; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale is a balanced, 10-item scale designed to be unidimensional; however, research has repeatedly shown that its factorial structure is contaminated by method effects due to item wording. Beyond the substantive self-esteem factor, 2 additional factors linked to the positive and negative wording of items have been theoretically specified and empirically supported. Initial evidence has revealed systematic relations of the 2 method factors with variables expressing approach and avoidance motivation. This study assessed the fit of competing confirmatory factor analytic models for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale using data from 2 samples of adult participants in Cyprus. Models that accounted for both positive and negative wording effects via 2 latent method factors had better fit compared to alternative models. Measures of experiential avoidance, social anxiety, and private self-consciousness were associated with the method factors in structural equation models. The findings highlight the need to specify models with wording effects for a more accurate representation of the scale's structure and support the hypothesis of method factors as response styles, which are associated with individual characteristics related to avoidance motivation, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety.

  17. Anxiety disorders, gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem in sexual minority adolescents: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbeygail; Robinson, Emily; Oginni, Olakunle; Rahman, Qazi; Rimes, Katharine A

    2017-11-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual youth using a computerised structured clinical interview and explores the influence of gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem. Participants were 4,564 adolescents (2,567 girls and 1,996 boys) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between sexual orientation at 15.5 years and the presence of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years. Covariates including maternal occupation, ethnicity, mother-reported childhood gender nonconformity at 30, 42 and 57 months, child-reported gender nonconformity at 8 years, child-reported bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years were added sequentially to regression models. Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. those not exclusively heterosexual) had higher early childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), lower self-esteem and reported more bullying than adolescents identifying as 100% heterosexual. Minority sexual orientation at 15.5 years was associated with increased risk of an anxiety disorder at 17.5 years for girls (OR 2.55, CI 1.85-3.52) and boys (OR 2.48, CI 1.40-4.39). Adjusting for ethnicity, maternal occupation, mother-reported and child-reported CGN had minimal impact on this association. Adjusting for bullying between 12 and 16 years and self-esteem at 17.5 years reduced the strength of the associations, although the overall association remained significant for both sexes (girls OR 2.14 and boys OR 1.93). Sexual minority youth are at increased risk of anxiety disorders relative to heterosexual youth at 17.5 years. Bullying between 12-16 years and lower self-esteem

  18. Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety: a longitudinal study in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; de Hullu, Eva; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-03-01

    A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations. This longitudinal study aimed to test the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and symptoms of adolescent depression and social anxiety disorder. Two complementary models were tested: the vulnerability model and the scarring effect model. Participants were 1641 first and second year pupils of secondary schools in the Netherlands. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale were completed to measure explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem and symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), respectively, at baseline and two-year follow-up. Explicit self-esteem at baseline was associated with symptoms of MDD and SAD at follow-up. Symptomatology at baseline was not associated with explicit self-esteem at follow-up. Implicit self-esteem was not associated with symptoms of MDD or SAD in either direction. We relied on self-report measures of MDD and SAD symptomatology. Also, findings are based on a non-clinical sample. Our findings support the vulnerability model, and not the scarring effect model. The implications of these findings suggest support of an explicit self-esteem intervention to prevent increases in MDD and SAD symptomatology in non-clinical adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attachment insecurities and women's sexual function and satisfaction: the mediating roles of sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Audrey; Dupuy, Emmanuelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    We examined the potential role of three mediators--sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness--of the association between romantic attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and two aspects of women's sexual functioning: sexual function and sexual satisfaction. A sample of 556 women aged 18 to 30 agreed to complete an online series of validated questionnaires assessing attachment insecurities and several aspects of sexual functioning. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety mediated the associations between attachment anxiety and lower sexual function and satisfaction. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety also partially mediated the links between attachment-related avoidance and the two sexual functioning variables. Sexual assertiveness, however, did not mediate these associations. A significant interaction between attachment anxiety and avoidance was also found to predict sexual satisfaction, with women high in avoidance and low in anxiety being the least satisfied. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and clinical implications.

  20. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  1. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  2. Influence of sad mood induction on implicit self-esteem and its relationship with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Verwoerd, Johan R L; de Jong, Peter J

    2018-02-13

    Implicit self-esteem (ISE) refers to the valence of triggered associations when the self is activated. Despite theories, previous studies often fail to observe low ISE in depression and anxiety. It is feasible that sad mood is required to activate dysfunctional self-associations. The present study tested the following hypotheses: i) ISE is lower following a sad mood induction (SMI); ii) the relationship between ISE and level of depression/anxiety symptoms is relatively strong when ISE is measured during sad mood; iii) individuals with higher levels of depression/anxiety symptoms will show a relatively large decrease in ISE following a SMI. In this mixed-designed study, university students completed the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT) either at baseline (control condition; n = 46) or following a SMI (experimental condition; n = 49). To test the third hypothesis, a SMI and IAT were also given in the control condition. Both conditions completed self-report measures of explicit self-esteem (ESE), and symptoms of depression and anxiety. There was no support for the first two hypotheses, but some support that symptoms of anxiety correlated with larger decreases in ISE following a SMI which partly supported the third hypothesis. This disappeared when controlling for multiple testing. Results are limited to non-clinical participants. While ISE was robust against increases in sad mood, there was some tentative support that symptoms of anxiety were related to larger decreases in ISE following a SMI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Childhood trauma in the lives of substance-dependent patients: The relationship between depression, anxiety and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Suat; Kandemir, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    High levels of childhood traumatic experiences have been observed among substance abusers. There has been insufficient study of the effects of childhood trauma in adulthood. The aim of this study is to research the relationship between childhood trauma, self-esteem, and levels of depression and anxiety in substance-dependent (SD) people. This study took place between March 2012 and April 2013, at Balıklı Rum Hospital (Istanbul) substance dependency clinic. It included 50 patients diagnosed as substance dependent according to the criteria of DSM-IV as compared with 45 healthy controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID-I) was used to identify Axis I disorders. All other data was collected using a semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The total scores of the SD group on the CTQ and on its Emotional Abuse/Emotional Neglect (EA/EN), Physical Abuse (PA) and Sexual Abuse (SA) subscales were statistically significant. In relation to the healthy controls, the SD group scored higher on the RSES, BDI and BAI. A correlation was observed between the total scores of SD individuals on the CTQ and their scores on the RSES, BDI and BAI. This study showed high levels of childhood traumatic experiences for SD people and indicates that there may be a relationship between these experiences and their levels of self-esteem, depression and anxiety.

  4. Metacognition in schizophrenia: the relationship of mastery to coping, insight, self-esteem, social anxiety, and various facets of neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Erickson, Molly; Ringer, Jamie; Buck, Kelly D; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Deficits in metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking, are common in schizophrenia and associated with functional impairment. Unknown are what elements of function are affected by what aspects of metacognition. DESIGN. This study explored whether participants with differing capacities for Mastery, a domain of metacognition that reflects the ability to use knowledge about mental states to respond to psychological challenges, had difficulties in different elements of daily function. METHODS. Participants were 98 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a non-acute phase, classified into three groups on the basis of ratings of their capacity for metacognitive Mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale: low Mastery (those unable to plausibly represent psychological challenges), Intermediate Mastery (those able to plausibly represent psychological problems but cope primarily through passive measures or avoidance), and high Mastery (those able to cope with plausible problems through cognitive means). Participants completed assessments of coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety. RESULTS. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the high-Mastery group had a greater preference for coping with stressors by thinking and talking about them, and greater insight than all other groups, and higher levels of feeling accepted by peers than the intermediate-Mastery group. The intermediate-Mastery group reported higher levels of resignation when facing stressors and more social phobia than the other two groups. These findings of Mastery group differences in self-esteem and anxiety persisted when neurocognition was controlled for in an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). CONCLUSIONS. Mastery appears linked to coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety in a generally non-linear manner. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Dorsch, Kim D; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-03-01

    This study examined gender differences on body image measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys). Multi-group invariance analyses indicated that the measurement and structural models were partially invariant for boys and girls, allowing for gender comparisons. Results indicated that boys reported significantly lower drive for thinness and SPA, and higher drive for muscularity and self-esteem compared to girls. The measurement and structural models were an adequate fit for the total sample. Findings supported the proposed sequence in which self-esteem significantly influenced SPA, and SPA significantly influenced the drives for muscularity and thinness. Interventions aimed at decreasing SPA, by promoting self-esteem, may be helpful in decreasing adolescent boys' and girls' drive for muscularity and thinness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  7. Eating attitudes, self-esteem and social physique anxiety among Iranian females who participate in fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargari, B P; Khadem-Haghighian, M; Taklifi, E; Hamed-Behzad, M; Shahraki, M

    2010-03-01

    Today, women's participation in sports has substantially increased. This growth has been accompanied by concerns about health risks, as eating disorders, and psychological features, as self-esteem (SE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this study was to determine disordered eating attitudes and their relation to SE, SPA, as well as body weight, and body mass index (BMI), in Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. Subjects were 250 females, aged 14-51 years, who participated in fitness programs. Eating attitude test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg's self esteem scale (RSES), and social physique anxiety scale (SPAS), were used. Body weight and height were measured, and then Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. According to BMI cut-offs, 36% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28.4% and 19.6% of subjects were disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26>or=20) and low self-esteem (RSES<15), respectively. Disordered eating attitude subjects had lower SE and higher SPA, body weight and BMI than normal subjects (P<0.05). The low SE group had higher SPAS than normal one (P<0.02). In bivariate analysis, EAT-26 score was correlated negatively with RSES (r=-0.13, P<0.04) and positively with body weight, BMI, and SPAS (r=0.40, 0.42, and 0.47, respectively, P<0.001). SPAS had positive correlation with body weight and BMI (r=0.22, 0.19, It can be concluded that disordered eating attitudes are prevalent among Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. In this group, high SPA, body weight and BMI, and low SE accompany disordered eating attitudes.

  8. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Farah; Halawi, Ghinwa; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.

  9. Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.

  10. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  11. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE “scar” that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder. Method In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60), AD (n = 111), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71), remitted MDD (n = 41), AD (n = 29), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14), recovered MDD (n = 136) and AD (n = 98), and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382). The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE. Results Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE) was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE. Limitations Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences. Conclusion Findings

  12. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke A van Tuijl

    Full Text Available Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE. It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders (AD. Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE "scar" that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder.In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60, AD (n = 111, and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71, remitted MDD (n = 41, AD (n = 29, and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14, recovered MDD (n = 136 and AD (n = 98, and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382. The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE.Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE.Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences.Findings suggest a prominent role for ESE in MDD and AD, while

  13. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Tendeiro, Jorge N; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE "scar" that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder. In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60), AD (n = 111), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71), remitted MDD (n = 41), AD (n = 29), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14), recovered MDD (n = 136) and AD (n = 98), and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382). The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE. Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE) was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE. Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences. Findings suggest a prominent role for ESE in MDD and AD, while

  14. The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship of living environment, anxiety, and depression of underprivileged children: A path analysis in Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xican; Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships of living environment, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression of children in poverty. A sample of 1314 children (grades 4-9) was collected by a school-based survey in Xiushui city, Mainland China. Structural equation modeling was adopted to analyze the data and verify the hypothesized model. Results showed that living environment was negatively correlated with poor children's anxiety and depression levels, and self-esteem had a mediating effect on the relationship between living environment and the mental health of underprivileged children. Based on these findings, we proposed relevant theoretical and practical implications.

  15. How Low Self-Esteem Affects Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)

  16. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Younes

    Full Text Available Internet addiction (IA could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1 Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2 Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem.Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES.The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79% and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003, with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%. Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001; ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA.Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.

  17. [Effect of Adolescents' Abuse Experience on Suicidal Ideation: Focused on Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on Depression and Anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyunghee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating mediation effect of self-esteem on the relations among adolescents' abuse experiences, depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The participants were selected using secondary data from a population in the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Survey (KOWEPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SPSS Macro, and bootstrapping and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze multilevel models. First, analysis of the mediating effect of the adolescents' abuse showed that there was significant mediating influence between suicidal ideation and depression and anxiety. Second, hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem had significant mediation effect on depression and anxiety in adolescents' suicidal ideation. Third, SPSS Macro showed that self-esteem also significantly moderated the mediating effect of adolescents' abuse experiences on suicidal ideation through depression and anxiety. The study results suggest that in future research on adolescent's abuse experience, the risk of suicide in depression and anxiety scores should be selected through evaluation of each individual's self-esteem scale. Coping strategies with immediate early intervention should be suggested.

  18. Brief aikido training versus karate and golf training and university students' scores on self-esteem, anxiety, and expression of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Y A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if aikido training for 10 weeks for 69 beginning students is effective in improving selected aspects of personality. The hypothesis was that subjects' scores would significantly increase on self-esteem but decrease on anxiety and anger expression. Change in means from pre- to posttest did not support the hypothesis.

  19. A Comparison between Anxiety and Self-esteem amongst High School Freshman Students(Male and Female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Karim Afzali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to investigate and compare the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem amongst high school freshman students (male and female with Amblyopia in Gachsaran city. To this end, all the male and female freshman students (1st Grade in high school suffering from Amblyopia in Gachsaran participated in the study as the research statistical population among which 80 students, including 40 girls and 40 boys, were selected based on Simple Random Sampling Method. Materials and tools used in this research included Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Cooper-smith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI and Snellen chart. In order to analyze results obtained from the present research, t-student test and correlation coefficient were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Accordingly, the results indicated that: there is a statistically significant relationship between anxiety and self-esteem in students with Amblyopia (P˂0.000. Statistically significant difference in anxiety between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.05 was observed. The results also showed that there is no any statistically significant difference in self-esteem between male and female students with Amblyopia (P˂0.66.

  20. The efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of wife besides the phenomenon of aging could cause some psychological disorders and may shorten the duration of this stage of life. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The study population included All 60 to 80 year old men living in Meshginshahr; among whom, 34 participants were selected using convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control. The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Anxiety Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariable covariance analysis in SSPS-19. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.MANCOVA results showed that the treatment positively affected the variables of self-esteem and anxiety in old widowed men (p<0.001.The reminders of life therapy with emphasis on integrative reminiscence may enhance self-esteem and reduce anxiety in widowed old men. This treatment gives better results compared to the traditional treatments and it is recommended to be implemented in nursing homes.

  1. Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents' self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranøyen, Ingunn; Stenseng, Frode; Klöckner, Christian A; Wallander, Jan; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13-18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for

  2. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  3. The possible antecedents and consequences of matching of food intake:Examining the role of trait self-esteem and interpersonal closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eHirata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 minutes interaction. For each dyad the matching score was calculated, as well as both individual’s trait self-esteem scores and interpersonal closeness with their eating partner. The overall degree of matching within dyads was high, replicating the findings of previous research. No relationship, however, was found between trait self-esteem and the degree of matching. Furthermore, there was no effect of matching on perceived interpersonal closeness with or liking of the other person. These results suggest that self-esteem might not be a robust predictor of matching and that matching of food intake may not result in increased perceived interpersonal closeness or liking among eating partners.

  4. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake: Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Lodder, Gerine M A; Kühnen, Ulrich; Lippke, Sonia; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 min interaction. For each dyad the matching score was calculated, as well as both individual's trait self-esteem scores and interpersonal closeness with their eating partner. The overall degree of matching within dyads was high, replicating the findings of previous research. No relationship, however, was found between trait self-esteem and the degree of matching. Furthermore, there was no effect of matching on perceived interpersonal closeness with or liking of the other person. These results suggest that self-esteem might not be a robust predictor of matching and that matching of food intake may not result in increased perceived interpersonal closeness or liking among eating partners.

  5. Moving beyond the trait conceptualization of self-esteem: the prospective effect of impulsiveness, coping, and risky behavior engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Gardiner, Casey K

    2012-10-01

    Past research has largely focused on examining self-esteem as an independent as opposed to a dependent variable. At the same time, research suggests that during adolescence, self-esteem is subject to yearly, monthly, as well as daily change, and consequently, it is important to identify underlying vulnerability factors and behaviors, which shape self-esteem lability. In the current multi-wave, longitudinal study, 142 adolescents between the ages of 12-18 completed monthly assessments across 4 months. At the initial assessment, adolescents provided self-report data pertaining to impulsiveness, maladaptive coping, risky behavior engagement, and self-esteem. At each of the follow-up assessments, adolescents provided information about risky behavior engagement and self-esteem. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel mediation analyzes indicated that risky behavior engagement mediated the relationship between impulsiveness/maladaptive coping and subsequent low self-esteem. Critically, when included in the same model, impulsiveness was significant above and beyond maladaptive coping. Additionally, the reverse model with self-esteem as the predictor and risky behavior included as the dependent variable was not significant suggesting that our effect was unidirectional. As a whole, these findings suggest that impulsive youth may engage in behaviors, which ultimately precipitate negative self-evaluations and transient declines in self-esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal Tests of Competing Factor Structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Traits, Ephemeral Artifacts, and Stable Response Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Scalas, L. Francesca; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Self-esteem, typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychology. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that a simple unidimensional factor model, consistent with the original design and typical application in applied research, does not provide an adequate explanation of RSE…

  7. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders : The NESDA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Tendeiro, Jorge N; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and

  8. Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...

  9. Effects of 4 Weeks of Horseback Riding on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is no report on the effects of horseback riding on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of horseback riding on anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder in children with ADHD. Material and Methods: Subjects comprised a convenience sample of 10 children aged 10-12 years with ADHD and 10 children without ADHD. Horseback riding sessions were performed 2 times (40 minutes/day per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the horseback riding program, we measured the children’s anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: After participating in the 4-week horseback riding program, anxiety (p = 0.013, depression (p = 0.007, attention (p < 0.001, and learning disorder (p < 0.001 were significantly improved in the ADHD group compared to the control group. However, self-esteem was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.096. Conclusion: These results indicate that the 4-week horseback riding program used in this study was very effective for significantly improving anxiety, depression, and attention in children with ADHD.

  10. Low implicit self-esteem and dysfunctional automatic associations in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Vroling, Maartje S.; de Jong, Peter J.; Lange, Wolf-Gero; de Keijser, Jos

    Background and Objectives: Negative automatic associations towards the self and social cues are assumed to play an-important role in social anxiety disorder. We tested whether social anxiety disorder patients (n = 45) showed stronger dysfunctional automatic associations than non-clinical controls (n

  11. Low implicit self-esteem and dysfunctional automatic associations in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glashouwer, K.A.; Vroling, M.S.; Jong, P.J. de; Lange, W.G.; Keijser, J. de

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Negative automatic associations towards the self and social cues are assumed to play an important role in social anxiety disorder. We tested whether social anxiety disorder patients (n = 45) showed stronger dysfunctional automatic associations than non-clinical controls (n

  12. Maternal self-esteem after successful treatment for infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sara Jane; Glazebrook, Cris; Sheard, Charlotte; Ndukwe, George; Oates, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    To [1] investigate self-esteem during pregnancy after previous infertility and [2] establish the relationship among self-esteem, anxiety during pregnancy, and parenting self-efficacy. Limited prospective study. A regional infertility clinic and antenatal clinic. Seventy women who had conceived through assisted reproductive technology and 111 women who had conceived naturally. Measures of self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Women who had conceived through IVF treatment did not differ in terms of self-esteem during pregnancy from those who had conceived naturally. All of the women in the present study displayed levels of self-esteem that were within the normal range. Self-esteem increased as pregnancy progressed. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with anxiety during pregnancy. As self-esteem increased, anxiety decreased. Self-esteem at the start of pregnancy (18 weeks) and anxiety in the early stages of parenthood (6 weeks postpartum) predicted parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem in the early stages of pregnancy, for both women who conceived through IVF and women who conceived naturally, is related to self-reported levels of parenting efficacy. Coaching and mentoring through antenatal clinics in the early stages of pregnancy should be tailored to incorporate advice regarding self-esteem in addition to management of pregnancy and psychological well-being.

  13. Separating narcissism from self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-esteem,” “inflated self-esteem,” and “defensive high self-esteem.” We review research that challenges this belief by showing that narcissism differs m...

  14. Exploring the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-esteem: The roles of self-objectification and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine E; Tyler, James M; Calogero, Rachel; Lee, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Previous work has shown that both an appearance-contingent self-worth (i.e., staking one's overall self-evaluation on one's physical appearance) and self-objectification are associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower self-esteem among women. Although prior evidence separately links both appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification to these negative outcomes, no work has examined the mediating processes that may underlie this relationship. With the current project, we examined the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification, and the degree to which this relationship is associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower overall self-esteem. We hypothesized that appearance-contingent self-worth would be positively associated with self-objectification; in turn, we expected self-objectification to be related to higher appearance anxiety, and ultimately, lower self-esteem. Across two studies, one cross-sectional (N=208) and one short-term longitudinal (N=191), we found compelling support for this hypothesis. These findings have practical and theoretical significance for both the self-objectification and contingent self-worth literatures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Measuring self-esteem with games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.; Hutchinson, K.; Khan, J.V.; Markopoulos, P.

    Self-esteem is a personality trait utilized to support the diagnosis of several psychological conditions. With this study we investigate the potential that computer games can have in assessing self-esteem. To that end, we designed and developed a platformer game and analyzed how in-game behavior

  16. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  17. The neural basis of trait self-esteem revealed by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weigang; Liu, Congcong; Yang, Qian; Gu, Yan; Yin, Shouhang; Chen, Antao

    2016-03-01

    Self-esteem is an affective, self-evaluation of oneself and has a significant effect on mental and behavioral health. Although research has focused on the neural substrates of self-esteem, little is known about the spontaneous brain activity that is associated with trait self-esteem (TSE) during the resting state. In this study, we used the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to identify TSE-related regions and networks. We found that a higher level of TSE was associated with higher ALFFs in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and lower ALFFs in the left cuneus/lingual gyrus and right lingual gyrus. RSFC analyses revealed that the strengths of functional connectivity between the left vmPFC and bilateral hippocampus were positively correlated with TSE; however, the connections between the left vmPFC and right inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus were negatively associated with TSE. Furthermore, the strengths of functional connectivity between the left cuneus/lingual gyrus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex were positively related to TSE. These findings indicate that TSE is linked to core regions in the default mode network and social cognition network, which is involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory and social cognition. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Stability and change of personality traits, self-esteem, and well-being: Introducing the meta-analytic stability and change model of retest correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusic, Ivana; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The stability of individual differences is a fundamental issue in personality psychology. Although accumulating evidence suggests that many psychological attributes are both stable and change over time, existing research rarely takes advantage of theoretical models that capture both stability and change. In this article, we present the Meta-Analytic Stability and Change model (MASC), a novel meta-analytic model for synthesizing data from longitudinal studies. MASC is based on trait-state models that can separate influences of stable and changing factors from unreliable variance (Kenny & Zautra, 1995). We used MASC to evaluate the extent to which personality traits, life satisfaction, affect, and self-esteem are influenced by these different factors. The results showed that the majority of reliable variance in personality traits is attributable to stable influences (83%). Changing factors had a greater influence on reliable variance in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and affect than in personality (42%-56% vs. 17%). In addition, changing influences on well-being were more stable than changing influences on personality traits, suggesting that different changing factors contribute to personality and well-being. Measures of affect were less reliable than measures of the other 3 constructs, reflecting influences of transient factors, such as mood on affective judgments. After accounting for differences in reliability, stability of affect did not differ from other well-being variables. Consistent with previous research, we found that stability of individual differences increases with age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishvaei, Malihe; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Loss of wife besides the phenomenon of aging could cause some psychological disorders and may shorten the duration of this stage of life. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men. This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The study population included All 60 to 80 year old men living in Meshginshahr; among whom, 34 participants were selected using convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Anxiety Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariable covariance analysis in SSPS-19. Statistical significance was set at Pself-esteem and anxiety in old widowed men (pself-esteem and reduce anxiety in widowed old men. This treatment gives better results compared to the traditional treatments and it is recommended to be implemented in nursing homes.

  20. Efficacy of Management Skills Group Training for Mothers on Self-Esteem and Anxiety of Their Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narguesse Saliminia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has a profound impact on lives of thousands of children and their families. Objectives Aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of training for mothers, on these children. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental research, 30 mothers were randomly divided into control and experimental groups and the experimental group received Barkley management skills training in 9 sessions. Results Findings showed that anxiety in children of trained mothers was decreased and self-esteem was increased. Conclusions The training program for mothers can be an effective method for treatment of psychological disorders in children with ADHD.

  1. Balance Treatment Ameliorates Anxiety and Increases Self-Esteem in Children with Comorbid Anxiety and Balance Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…

  2. Aesthetic self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2015-01-01

    The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.

  3. Impaired responsibility dimension of self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Nathália F; Oliveira, Fernando L B B; de Souza, Elisabete Abib Pedroso

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy and Brazilian adolescents without this condition and the correlations between self-esteem of these adolescents with depression and anxiety symptoms. Study participants were 101 adolescents of both sexes, aged 10-19years old, from elementary and high school education. Fifty patients diagnosed with uncomplicated epilepsy attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital composed the case group. The other fifty-one adolescents without this diagnosis were attending public schools in Campinas-SP region. The instruments used were: identification card with demographics and epilepsy data, Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety - IDATE. A statistically significant result was found in the Responsibility Self-esteem Dimension favoring the control group. Significant correlations between self-esteem scores and anxiety and depression symptoms were also found. The development of a chronic disease such as epilepsy leads to a change in the way the individual perceives himself and the social environment he is inserted, influencing his behavior. The way people with epilepsy experience their seizures is a subjective measure that will control his/her well-being. Childhood and adolescence form the basis for a healthy emotional development; thus, our results show the importance of studying how subjective variables relate to the physical aspects of a chronic disease in these life stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Home Access to Active Videogames on Child Self-Esteem, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Anxiety Related to Electronic Games: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.

  5. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Situated Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigman, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…

  7. Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…

  8. Justified Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…

  9. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  10. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  11. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  12. The Unanticipated Benefits of Behavioral Assessments and Interviews on Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Depression Among Women Engaging in Transactional Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Roth, Alexis M; Center, Katherine E; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-11-01

    Women engaging in transactional sex have disproportional mental health co-morbidity and face substantial barriers to accessing social services. We hypothesized that participation in a longitudinal research study, with no overt intervention, would lead to short-term mental health improvements. For 4-weeks, 24 women disclosed information about their lives via twice daily cell-phone diaries and weekly interviews. We used t tests to compare self-esteem, anxiety, and depression at baseline and exit. Tests were repeated for hypothesized effect modifiers (e.g., substance abuse severity; age of sex work debut). For particularly vulnerable women (e.g., less educated, histories of abuse, younger initiation of sex work) participation in research conferred unanticipated mental health benefits. Positive interactions with researchers, as well as discussing lived experiences, may explain these effects. Additional studies are needed to confirm findings and identify mechanisms of change. This work contributes to the growing body of literature documenting that study participation improves mental health.

  13. Story on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Kids / Self-Esteem Print en español Sobre la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...

  14. Self-esteem in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Frank M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Franko, Debra L; Padgett, Justina; Bean, Judy A

    2006-10-01

    Self-esteem is a major "predictor" of satisfaction with life. This longitudinal study examined mean and individual changes in self-esteem, and how self-esteem is affected by race and body mass. Girls were recruited at ages 9 and 10 years, and followed to age 22 years. The Harter Self-Perception Profile was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the Global Self-Worth Scale, by age or developmental phase: ages 9-12 (I), 13-16 (II), and 17-22 (III). Regression modeling included main effects and interactions between age/phase, race, and body mass index (BMI). Self-worth was greater in black than white women, and greater with lower BMI in both races. In the model with age ("traditional model") (with race and BMI), significant variables included BMI (inverse relationship) and the interactions between age and race, race and BMI, and the triple interaction between age, race, and BMI. In the model with phase ("transitional model") (with race and BMI), BMI, and the interactions between BMI and race, and race and phase, were significant. For example, self-worth was generally lower in Phase II (middle adolescence) for white women. Self-esteem tracked significantly (correlation 0.22, p self-esteem in adolescent girls, race and BMI are important predictors of self-esteem. Self-esteem is consistent across the phases of adolescence, and comparable with other personality traits. As noted by others, lower levels of self-esteem may increase the vulnerability of adolescents to risky behaviors.

  15. Long-term Consequences of Childhood Bullying in Adults who Stutter: Social Anxiety, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Self-esteem, and Satisfaction with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M

    2016-12-01

    Psychosocial disorders have been reported in adults who stutter, especially social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety has been linked to childhood victimization. It is possible that recalled childhood victimization could be linked to psychosocial problems reported in some adults who stutter. Participants were 36 adults who stutter and 36 adults who do not stutter (mean age=21.9 years). The Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire was completed for primary school, secondary school and university environments for physical, verbal, relational and cyber bullying. Participants were categorized into one of five groups (bully, victim, bully-victim, bystander and uninvolved) based ontheir responses. Participants completed four psychosocial scales: social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, self-esteem and satisfaction with life scales. The two groups differed with adults who stutter having higher social interaction anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and satisfaction with life. Analyses of variance revealed that victims had the highest scores among both groups on all four scales. Adults who recalled being victimized during childhood were more likely, regardless of whether they stutter or did not stutter, to have poorer psychosocial scale scores. These results show the lingering effects of childhood victimization, common in some children who stutter, may contribute to the reported psychosocial problems in adulthood. The need for early intervention for children who are bullied and future research with larger samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Taiwanese Secondary Students' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between psychosocial factors and self-esteem for 1,672 Taiwanese senior high school students (779 boys, 893 girls). Students from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, completed a Chinese version of the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), which measures self-esteem, depression, anxiety, stereotyped thinking,…

  17. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  18. A masked negative self-esteem? : Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-01-01

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on

  19. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Wagner, Jenny; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2015-09-01

    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal belonging. The getting-ahead perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of getting ahead in the social world, while regarding low anxiety/neuroticism as a sociometer of getting along with others. The 3 perspectives make contrasting predictions on the relation between the Big Five personality traits and self-esteem across cultures. We tested these predictions in a self-report study (2,718,838 participants from 106 countries) and an informant-report study (837,655 informants from 64 countries). We obtained some evidence for cultural norm fulfillment, but the effect size was small. Hence, this perspective does not satisfactorily account for self-esteem's function. We found a strong relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem, but no such relation between Agreeableness and self-esteem. These 2 traits are pillars of interpersonal belonging. Hence, the results do not fit the interpersonal-belonging perspective either. However, the results closely fit the getting-ahead perspective. The relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem is consistent with this perspective, because Extraversion is the Big Five driver for getting ahead in the social world. The relation between Agreeableness and lower neuroticism is also consistent with this perspective, because Agreeableness is the Big Five driver for getting along with others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Accuracy of Self-Esteem Judgments at Zero Acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Schmukle, Stefan C; Krause, Sascha; Back, Mitja D; Egloff, Boris

    2018-04-01

    Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Ninety-nine target participants (77 female; M age  = 23.5 years) were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged targets' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M = 23s, SD = 7.7). Results showed that both self-reported (r = .31, p = .002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r = .21, p = .040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Separating narcissism from self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled

  2. Separating Narcissism From Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled

  3. Self-esteem in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandell, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the ......-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions....

  4. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  5. What Is Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branden, Nathaniel

    By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…

  6. Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.

  8. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  9. Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Authors have long noted the human penchant for self-esteem. Experimental research has revealed that this desire for self-esteem has wide-ranging effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Terror management theory explains that this desire for self-esteem results from a fundamental need for psychological security, which is engendered by humans' awareness of their own vulnerability and mortality. A large body of evidence has supported this explanation. Specifically, substantial lines of research have shown that self-esteem buffers anxiety and reduces defenses against death and that reminders of mortality increase efforts to defend and bolster self-esteem. Complementary findings have helped clarify the role of culture in self-esteem striving and the ways in which people can vary in their level, stability, and sources of self-esteem. I conclude by briefly considering how this contemporary knowledge regarding the quest for self-esteem informs current events and daily life. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. Terror management theory and self-esteem revisited: the roles of implicit and explicit self-esteem in mortality salience effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-05-01

    Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O

    2008-03-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.

  12. [Self esteem : concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.

  13. Ergenlerin Benlik Saygısı ve Sosyal Kaygı Düzeyleri Arasındaki İlişki ve Kişisel Değişkenlerin Etkileri The Relation Between Self-Esteem And Social Anxiety Levels Of Adolescents And The Effects Of Personal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin ERİŞ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of adolescents. Besides, the effects of gender, perceived self-image, perceived school success, attending leisure time activities, having a peer group, having a special friend were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 adolescents, 152 girl, 148 boy by random sampling method. Data were collected by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Social Anxiety Scale with a questionnaire developed by the researchers to gather personal information. Data were analysed by using SPSS 15 statistical programme, with non-parametric techniques as Mann – Whitney U ve Kruskal – Wallis H and Spearman Brown correlation test. Results showed that there is a negative medium level relation between the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of the adolescents. According to the results, the self-esteem and the social anxiety levels of the adolescents don’t differ according to gender and having a special friend. Perceived self-image is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels, general social anxiety levels of adolescents and also is found to be effective on social avoidance, being criticized anxiety and worthlessness levels. Perceived school success is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels of the adolescents. Attending leisure time activities is found to be effective on general social anxiety levels of the adolescents and also is found to be effective on social avoidance and being criticized anxiety levels of the adolescents. Having a peer group is found to be effective on the self-esteem levels of adolescents and also is found to be effective on general social anxiety levels, on the social avoidance and worthlessness levels of adolescents.

  14. Social acceptance and self-esteem: tuning the sociometer to interpersonal value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Danu B; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V

    2007-06-01

    The authors draw on sociometer theory to propose that self-esteem is attuned to traits that garner others' acceptance, and the traits that garner acceptance depend on one's social role. Attunement of self-esteem refers to the linkage, or connection, between self-esteem and specific traits, which may be observed most clearly in the association between self-esteem and specific self-evaluations. In most roles, appearance and popularity determine acceptance, so self-esteem is most attuned to those traits. At the same time, interdependent social roles emphasize the value of communal qualities, so occupants of those roles have self-esteem that is more attuned to communal qualities than is the general norm. To avoid the biases of people's personal theories, the authors assessed attunement of self-esteem to particular traits indirectly via the correlation between self-esteem and self-ratings, cognitive accessibility measures, and an experiment involving social decision making. As hypothesized, self-esteem was generally more attuned to appearances than to communal qualities, but interdependent social roles predicted heightened attunement of self-esteem to qualities like kindness and understanding. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Decomposing global self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Milne, Alan B

    2002-08-01

    We argue in this paper for distinguishing two dimensions of global self-esteem, self-competence and self-liking. Studies 1 and 2 identify a corresponding pair of factors in Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale. Studies 3 and 4 examine the predictive value of the two-dimensional approach to self-esteem as reflected in the unique associations of self-competence and self-liking with negative life events and word recognition.

  16. Self-Esteem in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón; José Alfonso Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The present article gives a panoramic view about self-esteem as a characteristic of the human psyche, and as a social product which is developed in man-world interaction. It also presents some derived results of the researches carried out by the authors about the impact that self-esteem has in the work with individual's self-esteem in the pedagogic contexts.

  17. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  18. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  19. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Advanced Vocational College Students’ Self-esteem and Their English Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem is one of personality traits in the process of language learning.There is a close relationship between the level of self-esteem and language learning achievements.The purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship between EFL self-esteem and English achievements in the process of their English learning.The study also shows that EFL self-esteem can influence English achievements.On the other hand,English achievements can influence EFL self-esteem too.Based on the research,some methods are proposed to help strengthen students’ EFL self-esteem and improve their English achievement.

  1. Body dissatisfaction and psychological distress in adolescents: Is self-esteem a mediator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Annie-Pier; Dion, Jacinthe; Lalande, Daniel; Bégin, Catherine; Émond, Claudie; Lalande, Gilles; McDuff, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    This brief report tests the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A sample of 409 adolescents (females = 58.4%) aged between 14 and 18 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Overall, results for the indirect effects analysis were significant for both anxiety and depression, which confirmed the mediating role of self-esteem. Thus, a negative perception of one's body image has the effect of lowering self-esteem, which in turn increases psychological distress.

  2. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake : Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Lodder, Gerine M.A.; Kühnen, Ulrich; Lippke, Sonia; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching.

  3. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake: Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirata, E.; Lodder, G.M.A.; Kühnen, U.; Lippke, S.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching.

  4. Validation of two conceptualizations of fragile self-esteem: Contingent high self-esteem and incongruent high self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža Bojana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...

  5. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…

  7. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  8. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  9. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake: Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, E.; Lodder, G.M.A.; Kühnen, U.; Lippke, S.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 ...

  10. Relationships between paranoid thinking, self-esteem and the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, R.; Rowse, G.; Slade, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecuti...

  11. Improving Self-Esteem in General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Mara E.

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…

  12. Self-esteem in children after traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Children with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulties in adjusting to their injury and altered abilities, and may be at risk of low self-esteem and loss of confidence. However, few studies have examined self-esteem in this client group. The current study measured the self-esteem of a group of children who were, on average, two years post-TBI and compared this to their performance on other psychometric measures. Participants were 96 children with TBI and 31 peer controls, their parents and teachers. Self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI). CSEI scores were compared with performance on Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-III), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); Children's Memory Scale (CMS), Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and Parental Stress Index (PSI). Self-esteem was highly correlated with IQ; HADS anxiety and depression; and parental stress (pChildren with TBI had significantly lower self-esteem than controls and population norms (p=0.015). Many children with TBI demonstrate low self-esteem and this is closely linked with anxiety and depression. This may hamper academic performance and could lead to further psychosocial problems. It is recommended that self-esteem is routinely assessed after brain injury and rehabilitation strategies implemented to promote a sense of self-worth.

  13. Irish nursing students' changing self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation during their preregistration programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cecily M; White, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    Studies on Irish nursing and midwifery professions have demonstrated that stress and bullying are frequent problems that may lead to depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem is linked to social anxiety and is therefore related to fear of negative evaluation. It is important to study nursing students' feelings about self-esteem and negative evaluation, and to assess whether or not both these constructs change as students progress through their preregistration education programme. This study explored nursing students' perceived levels of self-esteem and their fear of negative evaluation prior to, and nearing the completion of, their 3-year preregistration programme. A descriptive, quantitative, comparative survey design was used. All students in the first intake of 1995 in two general nursing schools in Southern Ireland agreed to take part (n = 72). A questionnaire developed from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Watson and Friend Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale was used to collect data at the start of their programme and again 2 months before completion. In general, students' reported self-esteem rose as they neared the end of their education programme and their fear of negative evaluation decreased; however, their overall self-esteem levels at their highest were only average. Many of the studies examining self-esteem have produced contradictory results. An examination of the organizational factors that contribute to self-esteem may increase our understanding of the phenomenon. Self-esteem is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. While there is no single factor that can increase or decrease a person's self-esteem, this study has explored the potential impact of the fear of negative evaluation on self-esteem. Nursing students' self-esteem might be increased by expansion of intrinsic job characteristics, improving their job satisfaction and providing frequent positive feedback.

  14. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  15. A Study on the Self Esteem and Academic Performance among the Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laveena D'Mello

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of self-esteem is to feel and imagine that people nurtured in their mind over time about their self. In simple words, self-esteem is self-assessment; this perception and evaluation can be positive or negative and pleasant or unpleasant. Children with high self-esteem, usually feel good about themselves and better able to resolve their conflicts with other children and are resistant to deal with problems. One of the most important human traits to achieve objectives is self-esteem. ...

  16. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  17. Resilience, self-esteem and self-compassion in adults with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, M R; Dorstyn, D S

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine factors that may enhance and promote resilience in adults with spina bifida. Community-based disability organisations within Australia. Ninety-seven adults with a diagnosis of spina bifida (SB) completed a survey comprising of demographic questions in addition to standardised self-report measures of physical functioning (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 10 item), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale) and psychological distress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, 21 item). The majority (66%) of respondents reported moderate to high resilience. Physical disability impacted on coping, with greater CD-RISC 10 scores reported by individuals who were functionally independent in addition to those who experienced less medical co-morbidities. Significant correlations between resilience and psychological traits (self-esteem r=0.36, Pself-esteem and self-compassion. It follows that cognitive behavioural strategies with a focus on self-management may, in part, contribute to the process of resilience in this group. Further large-scale and longitudinal research will help to confirm these findings.

  18. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positive outcomes and benefits-an assumption that is critically evaluated in this review. Appraisal of the effects of self-esteem is complicated by several factors. Because many people with high self-esteem exaggerate their successes and good traits, we emphasize objective measures of outcomes. High self-esteem is also a heterogeneous category, encompassing people who frankly accept their good qualities along with narcissistic, defensive, and conceited individuals. The modest correlations between self-esteem and school performance do not indicate that high self-esteem leads to good performance. Instead, high self-esteem is partly the result of good school performance. Efforts to boost the self-esteem of pupils have not been shown to improve academic performance and may sometimes be counterproductive. Job performance in adults is sometimes related to self-esteem, although the correlations vary widely, and the direction of causality has not been established. Occupational success may boost self-esteem rather than the reverse. Alternatively, self-esteem may be helpful only in some job contexts. Laboratory studies have generally failed to find that self-esteem causes good task performance, with the important exception that high self-esteem facilitates persistence after failure. People high in self-esteem claim to be more likable and attractive, to have better relationships, and to make better impressions on others than people with low self-esteem, but objective measures disconfirm most of these beliefs. Narcissists are charming at first but tend to alienate others eventually. Self-esteem has not been shown to predict the quality or duration of relationships. High self-esteem makes people more willing to speak up in groups and to criticize the group's approach. Leadership does not stem

  19. Does Self-Esteem Have an Interpersonal Imprint Beyond Self-Reports? A Meta-Analysis of Self-Esteem and Objective Interpersonal Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jessica J; Granger, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Self-esteem promises to serve as the nexus of social experiences ranging from social acceptance, interpersonal traits, interpersonal behavior, relationship quality, and relationship stability. Yet previous researchers have questioned the utility of self-esteem for understanding relational outcomes. To examine the importance of self-esteem for understanding interpersonal experiences, we conducted systematic meta-analyses on the association between trait self-esteem and five types of interpersonal indicators. To ensure our results were not due to self-esteem biases in perception, we focused our meta-analyses to 196 samples totaling 121,300 participants wherein researchers assessed interpersonal indicators via outsider reports. Results revealed that the association between self-esteem and the majority of objective interpersonal indicators was small to moderate, lowest for specific and distal outcomes, and moderated by social risk. Importantly, a subset of longitudinal studies suggests that self-esteem predicts later interpersonal experience. Our results should encourage researchers to further explore the link between self-esteem and one's interpersonal world.

  20. Self-esteem as a predictor of psychological distress after severe acquired brain injury: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Evans, Samantha; Alderman, Nick; Knight, Caroline; Oddy, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of severe acquired brain injury (ABI) on self-esteem. A within-subjects design investigated 22 severe ABI survivors' self-reported responses on measures of self-esteem, mood and awareness of deficit. Data on cognitive ability and awareness of degree of executive impairment were included in the analysis. Self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg) and psychological distress by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Self-esteem was found to be consistent over a two-week interval. Participants reported that their self-esteem had suffered following ABI when contrasting their current self-esteem with their retrospective perceptions. Self-esteem was highly correlated with psychological distress. More intact cognitive functioning and awareness of deficit were associated with lower self-esteem. The paradoxical finding that survivors who were more impaired cognitively and/or less aware of their deficits reported higher self-esteem poses an ethical dilemma for clinicians. It is hoped that this finding, along with the consistency of self-esteem ratings sparks further debate about how best to address issues of self-esteem among severe ABI survivors, particularly in the context of psychological distress, during rehabilitation.

  1. Characteristics of High and Low Self-Esteem in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathleen I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined background and personality characteristics associated with low and high self-esteem in the elderly by studying 250 men and women age 65 and older. Results indicated the low self-esteem group had poorer self-reported health, higher scores on depression, anxiety, somatization, and a more external locus of control orientation. (Author)

  2. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...

  3. Compensating, resisting, and breaking: a meta-analytic examination of reactions to self-esteem threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Campbell, W Keith; Hoyle, Rick H; Bradfield, Erin K

    2011-02-01

    Much research has identified how people react to receiving threatening information about the self. The purpose of this article is to discuss such experiences in the context of a model of state self-esteem regulation. The authors propose that people engage in one of three regulatory responses to threat: compensation, resistance, and breaking. They conduct a meta-analysis aimed to examine when people engage in each of these three responses to threat and how trait self-esteem affects the selection and success of selecting each regulatory response. Furthermore, the authors test six theoretical models that might explain why responses to ego threat vary across level of trait self-esteem. The models for differences between people with low and high trait self-esteem that fit the data best suggest that (a) self-esteem serves as a resource and (b) there is a self-verification motivation.

  4. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  5. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  6. Coping skills: role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott; Hodge, Ken

    2004-04-01

    The current research assesses relationships among coping skills, trait sport confidence, and trait anxiety. Two samples (n=47 and n=77) of international competitors from surf life saving (M=23.7 yr.) and touch rugby (M=26.2 yr.) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Sport Anxiety Scale. Analysis yielded significant correlations amongst trait anxiety, sport confidence, and coping. Specifically confidence scores were positively associated with coping with adversity scores and anxiety scores were negatively associated. These findings support the inclusion of the personality characteristics of confidence and anxiety within the coping model presented by Hardy, Jones, and Gould, Researchers should be aware that confidence and anxiety may influence the coping processes of athletes.

  7. Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and alexithymia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Anne; Luminet, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD. Two studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Ruminative Responses Scale, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory, and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale. In the main study, 124 women additionally completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The main study population was divided into 2 subgroups: women in the first year post-partum (n = 74) and those in the second year post-partum (n = 50). In the pilot study performed 1-month post-partum, brooding rumination and low self-esteem were significant predictors of the PPD symptom intensity. Neuroticism, brooding rumination, and low maternal self-esteem were also significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the first year post-partum. Lastly, ruminative thoughts and alexithymia were significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the second year post-partum. Our results suggest that alexithymia may be an important predictor of the incidence of this condition. The observation of differences in the PPD models as a function of the post-partum period may open up opportunities for developing novel PPD prevention/treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of a music-creation programme on the anxiety, self-esteem, and quality of life of people with severe mental illness: A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Beh-Huan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Beckstead, Jason W; Yang, Chiu-Yueh

    2018-06-01

    Many studies have shown that music therapy improves patients' symptoms. However, interventions using music creation as their core await further development for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). The current study investigated the effect of a music-creation programme on the anxiety, self-esteem, and quality of life of patients with SMI. A quasi-experimental design using convenience sampling was adopted to recruit patients with SMI from a psychiatric day care centre. Participants were grouped based on their willingness to undergo an intervention (26 patients in the experimental group and 23 patients in the control group). The control groups participated in conventional mental rehabilitation therapy activities. The experimental group participated in a music-creation session for 90 min every week over a 32-week period. The outcome indicators before and after the intervention were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, the intervention effect was determined using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After 32 weeks of intervention activities, the experimental group showed significant improvements in their HAM-A total scores (P < 0.001) and RSES total scores (P = 0.005). Regarding quality of life, the improvements of the experimental group in terms of the psychological (P = 0.016) and social relationship domains (P = 0.033) were superior to those of the control group. Music-creation programmes are recommended for inclusion in the routine rehabilitation activities of patients with SMI. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.

  10. The development and validation of the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, S M; Sheeran, P

    1999-11-01

    To develop a visual analogue measure of self-esteem and test its psychometric properties. Two correlational studies involving samples of university students and aphasic speakers. Two hundred and forty-three university students completed multiple measures of self-esteem, depression and anxiety as well as measures of transitory mood and social desirability (Study 1). Two samples of aphasic speakers (N = 14 and N = 20) completed the Visual Analogue Self-Esteem Scale (VASES), the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and measures of depression and anxiety. (Study 2). Study 1 found evidence of good internal and test-retest reliability, construct validity and convergent and discriminant validity for a 10-item VASES. Study 2 demonstrated good internal reliability among aphasic speakers. The VASES is a short and easy to administer measure of self-esteem that possesses good psychometric properties.

  11. Connection between dimensions of partner affective attachment and the global self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubić Ivana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research refers to a possible link between the dimensions of partner affective attachment (avoidance and anxiety, operationalized by questionnaire PAV, and the global self-esteem measured by The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Research was conducted on a sample of 120 students of the University of Nis. Results show the statistically significant low negative correlation between global self-esteem and dimension avoidance, and the statistically significant medium negative correlation between global self-esteem and dimension anxiety. The results also show that respondents with secure attachment pattern and dismissing pattern (positive inner working model of self have a higher degree of global self-esteem than respondents with disorganized pattern and preoccupied pattern (negative inner working model of self. .

  12. Narcissistic self-esteem or optimal self-esteem? A Latent Profile Analysis of self-esteem and psychological entitlement

    OpenAIRE

    Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...

  13. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week, have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.

  14. Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: self-esteem matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Rudich, Eric A; Gregg, Aiden P; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl

    2004-09-01

    Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health. Specifically, narcissism is (a) inversely related to daily sadness and dispositional depression, (b) inversely related to daily and dispositional loneliness, (c) positively related to daily and dispositional subjective well-being as well as couple well-being, (d) inversely related to daily anxiety, and (e) inversely related to dispositional neuroticism. More important, self-esteem fully accounted for the relation between narcissism and psychological health. Thus, narcissism is beneficial for psychological health only insofar as it is associated with high self-esteem. Explanations of the main and mediational findings in terms of response or social desirability biases (e.g., defensiveness, repression, impression management) were ruled out. Supplementary analysis showed that the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and psychological health were preponderantly linear. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  15. Self-esteem and suicide risk

    OpenAIRE

    perrot, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...

  16. Self-esteem and Individual Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...

  17. Benarkah Self Esteem Mempengaruhi Prestasi Akademik?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Satrio Budi

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem determines a person's overall mental development, it can even affect human behavior. The debate arose when researchers try to explain, whether student achievement is influenced by self-esteem? The author conducted a meta-analysis studies in attempt to clarify the relationship between the variables of self-esteem with academic achievement variable. This research analyzed over sixteen research journals, in which there are 29 studies that examine a relationship between self-esteem an...

  18. Cognitive and emotional reactions to daily events: the effects of self-esteem and self-complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J D; Chew, B; Scratchley, L S

    1991-09-01

    In this article we examine the effects of self-esteem and self-complexity on cognitive appraisals of daily events and emotional lability. Subjects (n = 67) participated in a 2-week diary study; each day they made five mood ratings, described the most positive and negative events of the day, and rated these two events on six appraisal measures. Neither self-esteem nor self-complexity was related to an extremity measure of mood variability. Both traits were negatively related to measures assessing the frequency of mood change, although the effect of self-complexity dissipated when self-esteem was taken into account. Self-esteem (but not self-complexity) was also related to event appraisals: Subjects with low self-esteem rated their daily events as less positive and as having more impact on their moods. Subjects with high self-esteem made more internal, stable, global attributions for positive events than for negative events, whereas subjects low in self-esteem made similar attributions for both types of events and viewed their negative events as being more personally important than did subjects high in self-esteem. Despite these self-esteem differences in subjects' views of their daily events, naive judges (n = 63) who read the event descriptions and role-played their appraisals of them generally did not distinguish between the events that had been experienced by low self-esteem versus high self-esteem diary subjects.

  19. Relationships between paranoid thinking, self-esteem and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rosalind; Rowse, Georgina; Slade, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecution, negative self-esteem, anxiety and depression were higher and positive self-esteem was lower than at mid-cycle. A greater proportion of women experienced persecution as deserved at the paramenstrual phase. This was associated with higher depression and negative self-esteem scores. Increased levels of deservedness significantly strengthened the relationship between persecution and negative, but not positive, self-esteem. These findings suggest that the paramenstrual phase is a time of vulnerability to increased paranoid experiences, an increased likelihood that feelings of persecution will feel deserved and lowered self-esteem. The findings support the view that interpersonal sensitivities may be key to menstrual cycle symptoms and have an impact on relationships. Further, the study illustrated that ideas developed for psychosis could make a valuable contribution to understanding and managing this aspect of menstruation-related distress.

  20. The Educational Importance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkany, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…

  1. Self-Esteem: Justifying Its Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn

    1998-01-01

    The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…

  2. A Brief Primer on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…

  3. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  4. Self-Esteem and Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; Thomas, M. Duane

    1975-01-01

    According to the subscale of the Coopersmith Inventory specifically related to school self-esteem, college students with low self-esteem (1) say less in class, (2) contribute a smaller portion of their thoughts to class discussion, and (3) sit farther back in the classroom than the students with high self-esteem. (RC)

  5. Androgyny, Masculinity, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Allan; Rosenberg, Judy A.

    1987-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Bem Sex Role Inventory to 194 adults. Found androgyny scale emphasizing masculinity was most predictive of self-esteem, due to strong correlation found between masculinity and self-esteem. Found no effects due to femininity, interaction of femininity and masculinity, or sex. (Author/NB)

  6. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Lazarević, Dušanka; Orlić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES), Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are modera...

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the general health questionnaire-12 and Rosenberg self-esteem scale in Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkova, M.; Nagyova, I.; Katreniakova, Z.; Geckova, A.M.; Orosova, O.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) were evaluated in samples of Hungarian and Slovak early adolescents. The principal component analyses support the two-factor solution for GHQ-12 with subscales "depression/anxiety" and "social dysfunction". Similarly, the RSE appears to be an instrument with a two-factor structure with subscales "negative self-esteem" and "positive self-esteem" in both samples. Reliab...

  10. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.

  11. The influence of individual, group, and relative self-esteem on outcome for patients undergoing group cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas J; Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoff R

    2013-11-01

    Despite a strong association between individual self-esteem and treatment outcome in group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT), no study has investigated how patient outcomes might be influenced by an individual's self-esteem relative to other group members. The study comprised a retrospective examination of patients' data and used a multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Patients' pre-treatment self-esteem scores were assessed on a continuum and assigned to be low, medium, or high. Therapy groups were assigned to be either low, balanced or high self-esteem groups based on averaged self-esteem scores of participants. In this study, 3,878 patients who had completed a 10-day intensive cognitive behavioural group therapy programme at a private psychiatric facility were included in the study. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem measure was chosen to assess self-esteem. The three subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were used as the outcome measures. Patient outcomes were influenced by pre-treatment self-esteem scores, such that higher initial self-esteem was associated with better treatment outcomes. Low group self-esteem was predictive of significantly better outcomes for depression, relative to higher self-esteem groups. Additionally, the combined influence of high individual self-esteem and low group self-esteem was associated with significantly enhanced depression improvement. High self-esteem patients perform better on outcome measures following completion of GCBT. Low self-esteem groups show greater improvement in depression symptoms. Similar results for depression are achieved when patients with high self-esteem complete treatment in low self-esteem groups. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Self-esteem fluctuations and cardiac vagal control in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R; Scheel, Sophie-Marie

    2012-03-01

    It has been proposed that self-esteem buffers threat-responding. The same effect is ascribed to the vagus nerve, which is a primary nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. Consequently, it has been suggested that self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone are interconnected on a trait, as well as on a state, level. In this study, we examined the relationship of vagal cardiac control and self-esteem fluctuations across a single day using ecological momentary assessment. Eighty-four participants were recruited, and self-esteem, negative affect, and vagal tone were recorded throughout a 22-hour period. Men provided higher self-esteem ratings than women, but the negative relationship between self-esteem and negative affect was stronger in women. Moreover, controlling for potential confounds (e.g., age, BMI, depressive symptoms, smoking status, regular physical activity), we observed that for men, self-esteem was significantly positively associated with cardiac vagal tone, whereas for women it was not. These findings suggest that the relationship between self-esteem and vagal innervation of the heart during daily life is sex-specific and might involve different central-autonomic pathways for men and women, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Kindt

    Full Text Available Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  14. Self-esteem, general and sexual self-concepts in blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar

    2015-10-01

    People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-concept using Eysenck self-esteem and Rogers' self-concept questionnaires. The correlation between above two variables was measured using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software by Pearson correlation test. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 30.9 ± 8 years. The mean (±SD) of general self-concept score was 11 ± 5.83. The mean (±SD) of self-esteem score was 16.62 ± 2.85. Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and general self-concept (r = 0.19, P = 0.025). The mean of sexual self-concept scores in five subscales (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear, and sexual depression) were correspondingly 11 ± 4.41, 19.53 ± 4.53, 12.96 ± 4.19, 13.48 ± 1.76, and 5.38 ± 2.36. Self-esteem and self-concept had significant positive correlation with sexual anxiety (r = 0.49; P Self-esteem and self-concept had significant correlation with sexual anxiety and sexual fear; and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy and sexual-esteem.

  15. [Self-esteem Saves Brain and Health: Evidence from a Follow-up Investigation after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Self-esteem plays a crucial role in mental health status. Past studies have revealed higher self-esteem as one of the most important traits of resilience in the context of stressful life events. In fact, our recent studies demonstrated that high self-esteem is a predicting factor for the recovery from brain volume reduction due to the post-earthquake distress. In this article, we introduce structural brain magnetic resonance imaging research with respect to self-esteem as well as past investigations about psychological and physiological backgrounds of tolerance to psycho-social stressors in individuals with high self-esteem. Finally, we discuss effective methods for improving self-esteem to manage unusual events like natural disaster.

  16. Applied Explanatory Style, Self-Esteem, and Early-Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: An Informational Website for Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 2.6 million students are diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) in the United States. There are many negative psychological and psychosocial consequences that can be attributed to having a LD, including a decrease in self- esteem. Low self-esteem has been shown to be liked to depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety. Early…

  17. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  18. Self-esteem: its application to eating disorders and athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, A K

    1994-09-01

    Self-esteem, a hierarchical and multifactorial perception, can be described as the extent to which a person feels positive about himself or herself. Social factors such as life satisfaction, sex, age, and strongly held values can affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a well-recognized trait of those with eating disorders and may be associated with a heightened self-awareness. Body dissatisfaction, common among women in Western society, may enhance this awareness. Athletes, especially those with eating disorders, are perfectionists and have acute body awareness and a sense of loss of control. Control is a crucial issue with these athletes. Before any nutrition counseling starts, readiness to listen should be assessed in conjunction with a mental health professional. Various tools are available to assess the eating disordered athlete's self-esteem, body image, and eating behavior. Nutrition counseling can help the athlete overcome an eating disorder by clarifying misconceptions and focusing on the role of nutrition in promoting health and athletic performance.

  19. SELF SYSTEMS, ANOMIE AND SELF ESTEEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as

  20. The Paradox of Japanese Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Self-Esteem, both high and low, has been linked with a wide variety of desirable and undesirable conditions and consequences, including happiness, mental health, and even physiological functioning in general.Most studies have been conducted in North America, and the few that have been conductedelsewhere tend to yield anomalous results. Specifically, measurements of Japanese samples invariably indicate low self-esteem. The present essay argues that apparently low Japanese self-esteem is the re...

  1. Self-Esteem And Self-Estimates Of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…

  2. Peculiarities of college students' self - esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Goštautas, Antanas; Grigaitė, Bronislava; Klasavičienė, Rima

    2004-01-01

    Self-esteem of college students of Lithuania was examined inadequately. Three researches were made and data of 228 students' answers were analyzed, 170 females and 58 males. It was found out that reduced self-esteem dominates among the female as well as male students. Having made the factorial analysis of the data, five main factors of self-esteem of males and females were found out. The legalized and not legalized drugs are used among males irrespectively of self-esteem. Females with low sel...

  3. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  4. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.

  5. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem

  7. Self-Esteem, Internalizing Symptoms, and Theory of Mind in Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, James B; Harris, Michelle A; Zajic, Matthew C; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay E; Oswald, Tasha; McIntyre, Nancy; Trzesniewski, Kali; Mundy, Peter; Solomon, Marjorie

    2017-10-19

    Self-esteem is a potent indicator of mental health in typically developing (TYP) individuals. It is surprising that there have been few comprehensive investigations of self-esteem in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), given that they are at high risk for comorbid mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to assess how youth with ASD rate their self-esteem compared to age-matched TYP youth and to examine how self-esteem relates to internalizing psychopathology and theory of mind in the two groups. Seventy-three children and adolescents, ages 9 to 17, were administered a battery of questionnaires assessing self-esteem and internalizing symptoms, as well as tasks designed to measure theory of mind. Results indicated that youth with ASD rated their self-esteem significantly lower than did TYP youth. Self-esteem was strongly related to depression in both groups but was negatively related to theory of mind only for youth with ASD. These results may provide important insights into how individuals with ASD form evaluations of their own self-worth and illustrate how increasing self-awareness in individuals with ASD is not without risks.

  8. Original article Validation of the Polish version of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róża Bazińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this article is to present research on the validity and reliability of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES for the Polish population. The CSES is a measure of individual differences in collective self-esteem, understood as the global evaluation of one’s own social (collective identity. Participants and procedure Participants from two samples (n = 466 and n = 1,009 completed a paper-pencil set of questionnaires which contained the CSES and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and subsets of participants completed scales related to a sense of belonging, well-being and psychological distress (anxiety and depression. Results Like the original version, the Polish version of the CSES comprises 16 items which form the four dimensions of collective self-esteem: Public collective self-esteem, Private collective self-esteem, Membership esteem and Importance of Identity. The results confirm the four-factor structure of the Polish version of the CSES, support the whole Polish version of the CSES as well as its subscales, which represent satisfactory reliability and stability, and provide initial evidence of construct validity. Conclusions As the results of the study indicate, the Polish version of the CSES is a valid and reliable self-report measure for assessing the global self-esteem derived from membership of a group and has proved to be useful in the Polish context.

  9. Structural integrity of frontostriatal connections predicts longitudinal changes in self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2017-06-01

    Diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions are marked by a diminished sense of positive self-regard, and reductions in self-esteem are associated with risk for these disorders. Recent evidence has shown that the connectivity of frontostriatal circuitry reflects individual differences in self-esteem. However, it remains an open question as to whether the integrity of these connections can predict self-esteem changes over larger timescales. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography, we demonstrate that the integrity of white matter pathways linking the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum predicts changes in self-esteem 8 months after initial scanning in a sample of 30 young adults. Individuals with greater integrity of this pathway during the scanning session at Time 1 showed increased levels of self-esteem at follow-up, whereas individuals with lower integrity showed stifled or decreased levels of self-esteem. These results provide evidence that frontostriatal white matter integrity predicts the trajectory of self-esteem development in early adulthood, which may contribute to blunted levels of positive self-regard seen in multiple psychiatric conditions, including depression and anxiety.

  10. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, V; Nicolaisen-Sobesky, E; Collado, E; Horta, S; Rey, C; Rivero, M; Berriolo, P; Díaz, M; Otón, M; Pérez, A; Fernández-Theoduloz, G; Cabana, Á; Gradin, V B

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an attitude formed by self-evaluation based on positive and negative aspects of oneself. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders and is especially associated with social difficulties. Recently, behavioral economics has allowed the quantitative study of social interactions. We investigated the association between self-esteem and interpersonal problems and whether self-esteem modulates behavior and emotions during an economic task, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task participants accept or reject fair/unfair monetary offers from others. Low (LSE, n=40) and high (HSE, n=45) self-esteem participants were assessed in their interpersonal problems and psychiatric symptoms using self-reported questionnaires, and were compared on their decision making and emotional response during the UG. LSE was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. In addition, LSE was associated with interpersonal problems, especially in the domains of socially inhibited, nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing and cold/distant. During the UG, LSE women reported more anger towards unfair offers than HSE women. Our findings suggest that low self-esteem individuals experience high distress by interpersonal problems in several domains. Importantly, low self-esteem in women seems to be associated with an accentuated emotional response to unfair social exchanges. These results may contribute to treat social difficulties in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Existential neuroscience: self-esteem moderates neuronal responses to mortality-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    According to terror management theory, self-esteem serves as a buffer against existential anxiety. This proposition is well supported empirically, but its neuronal underpinnings are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present neuroimaging study, our aim was to test how self-esteem affects our neural circuitry activation when death-related material is processed. Consistent with previous findings, the bilateral insula responded less to death-related stimuli relative to similarly unpleasant, but death-unrelated sentences, an effect that might reflect a decrease in the sense of oneself in the face of existential threat. In anterior parts of the insula, this 'deactivation' effect was more pronounced for high self-esteem individuals, suggesting that the insula might be of core importance to understanding the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem. In addition, low self-esteem participants responded with enhanced activation to death-related over unpleasant stimuli in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that regulating death-related thoughts might be more effortful to these individuals. Together, this suggests that the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem might be implemented in the brain in the form of both insula-dependent awareness mechanisms and prefrontal cortex-dependent regulation mechanisms. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  13. Self-esteem and alcohol dependence as predictors of contemplation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and alcohol dependence was ... Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in self-esteem decreased the ...

  14. Influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity on oral health related quality of life in patients with partial tooth loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-01-01

    NA would be associated with worse OHRQoL.Methods: OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), self-esteem measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), NA measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), global oral rating of oral comfort and controlling......To meaningfully interpret oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures, the influence of personality traits must be investigated. Objectives:To investigate and quantify the influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity (NA) on OHRQoL. It was hypothesized that low self-esteem and high...... and clinically significantly higher and self-esteem was statistically significantly lower in patients reporting worse oral comfort. Conclusion: NA had the strongest and most clinically meaningful influence, but both NA and self-esteem was found to influence OHRQoL; low self-esteem and high NA was associated...

  15. Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety : A longitudinal study in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A.; de Jong, Peter J.; Sportel, B. Esther; de Hullu, Eva; Nauta, Maaike H.

    Background and Objectives: A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations.

  16. Parenting and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…

  17. The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Park, Lora E.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and…

  18. Should We Raise Pupils' Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that the teacher is not well served by relying on the construct of self-esteem. Although an important idea in psychological health, self-esteem is not of direct importance to the teacher. More useful constructs would be those of self-concept and self-efficacy; both of which can be related directly to academic achievement.

  19. Self-Esteem and Service Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)

  20. Self-Esteem and Sexual Permissiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)

  1. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  2. The Politics of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)

  3. An Indian Perspective of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)

  4. Self-Esteem and Couples Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisi, Anthony T.

    1992-01-01

    The components of the self system include self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Learning that adds to identity augments self-concept. Learning that leads to self-appraisal relates to self-esteem. Learning that leads to prediction of achievement belongs to self-efficacy. Courage to persist when confronted by a "Gulp!" experience…

  5. Adolescent Self-Esteem and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Keith B.

    This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…

  6. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  7. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  8. Factorial Structure of the French Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Alaphilippe, Daniel; Bailly, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Ten different confirmatory factor analysis models, including ones with correlated traits correlated methods, correlated traits correlated uniqueness, and correlated traits uncorrelated methods, were proposed to examine the factorial structure of the French version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). In line with previous studies…

  9. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  10. Self-esteem and counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, N J; Olson, J M

    1993-07-01

    Two studies examined the relation between self-esteem and counterfactual thinking (consideration of "might-have-been" alternatives to reality). Ss imagined themselves in scenarios with another actor that resulted in either success or failure. Ss then "undid" the outcome by altering events that preceded the outcome. Following success, high self-esteem (HSE) Ss were more likely than low self-esteem (LSE) Ss to mutate their own actions. Following failure, LSE Ss were more likely than HSE Ss to mutate their own actions. Also, the structure of counterfactuals was influenced by outcome valence but not by self-esteem: Subtractive structures (in which antecedents are removed) were elicited by success, whereas additive structures (in which antecedents are added) were elicited by failure. The importance of the self and individual differences in self-esteem to counterfactual thinking is discussed.

  11. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  12. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...

  13. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  14. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...

  15. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Molavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Results: Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R2 of self-esteem in the model (P < 0.001, F4,195 = 46.717. Three out of the four predictor variables including somatic signs, anxiety/insomnia, and depression, significantly predicted the self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression aspects of health in older patients' self-esteem. Conclusions: The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients' self-esteem.

  16. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  17. Alternate Forms of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Anthony J.; Kubis, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    Alternate forms of the state anxiety (A-State) and trait anxiety (A-Trait) scales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were constructed by dividing the 20 items of each scale into two briefer forms having 10 items each. The alternate forms and item statistics are presented. (Author/BW)

  18. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  19. Self-esteem, personality, and gender self-perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: No significant difference was found between males in the high and low market value conditions either on explicit self-perceived gender (t(26 = -.418, p = .679 or on visual SPG (t(26 = .390, p = .700. Nor did females in the market value conditions differ significantly (explicit SPG: t(64 = -.365, p = .716; visual SPG: t(64 = .684, p = .497. Relationships between SPG, self-esteem, and personality measures were reported. Conclusions: Self-esteem and particular personality traits are possible mediators in shifting an observer’s self-perceived gender. However, no definitive demonstration of these relationships was found with this study. Suggestions for future work were explored in light of these results.

  20. Self-reported quality of life and self-esteem in sad and anxious school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-09-13

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self-esteem

  1. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  3. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  4. The relationship between stroke survivors' perceived identity and mood, self-esteem and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadatu, Irina; Morris, Reg

    2017-01-11

    To examine change in identity after stroke and to elucidate its relationship with mood and quality of life. To test Higgins' theory of the impact of identity (self-discrepancy) on anxiety and depression. To examine the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationship between identity and outcomes. Sixty-five community-living first-time stroke survivors, mean age 61.58 and time since stroke 5.60 years, were recruited from stroke charities. A cross-sectional study used the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (adapted) and the Barthel Index. Identity was rated more negatively after stroke than before (t(64) = 6.46, p identity was associated with anxiety (r = .38, p self-esteem (r = -.48, p identity after stroke predicted outcomes even better than discrepancy. The association between discrepancy and mood and quality of life was mediated by self-esteem (β = .30, p relationships with anxiety and depression as predicted. Identity changes after stroke and identity and self-esteem are associated with important outcomes for stroke survivors.

  5. Obesity, Self-esteem and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Naci H. Mocan; Erdal Tekin

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with serious health problems, and it can generate adverse economic outcomes. We analyze a nationally-representative sample of young American adults to investigate the interplay between obesity, wages and self-esteem. Wages can be impacted directly by obesity, and they can be influenced by obesity indirectly through the channel of obesity to self-esteem to wages. We find that female wages are directly influenced by body weight, and self-esteem has an impact on wages in ca...

  6. The relationships between self-esteem, emotional reactions and quality of life in pediatric locomotory trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonovska, Suzana; Jengić, Vesna Sendula; Zupancić, Bozidar; Klarić, Miro; Klarić, Branka; Marinović, Marin; Stemberger, Cristophe; Kozomara, Davorin; Martinović, Zeljko

    2009-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to establish the relationships between several psychosocial characteristics in children and adolescents differently treated for isolated long tubular bones' fractures. Examined variables were: self-esteem, basic emotional reactions toward illness or injury including depression and anxiety, as well as perception of quality of life and social support during the treatment. Whole sample comprehends 135 patients, both gender, 10-18 years of age, treated for mentioned fractures in period 2003-2005 at the Departments of Pediatric Surgery of 3 hospitals: University Hospital Centre in Rijeka and Clinical Children's Hospital in Zagreb, both in Croatia and University Hospital in Mostar, BiH. 73 patients were treated conservatively (CT), 40 of them underwent Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) and 22 of them underwent other surgical techniques (OST). Basic methods of work were: interview to collect data for half-structured socio-demographical questionnaire, evaluation of medical records and self-reported questionnaires including: Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS), Children Depression Inventory (CDI), Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Test of Perception of Social Support (TPSS). RSS, CDI and STAI were administered to the patients at baseline and after 6 months of the trauma, while SF-36 and TPSS after 1 month of the trauma. Results of this study point to close and strong relationships between examined variables, mostly statistically significant at level p self-esteem increased and depression and anxiety decreased during the time in all patients (with different dynamics regarding the type of treatment); higher perception of social support enhanced that effect. Perception of quality of life in whole sample in summary measures was statistically significant at level p self-esteem and negatively with depression and anxiety, thus connection with perception of social support was statistically

  7. Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: how implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2005-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that high self-esteem is heterogeneous. Recent research suggests that individuals who report having high self-esteem (i.e., have high explicit self-esteem) behave more defensively to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The current studies test whether individuals with high explicit self-esteem are more likely to discriminate ethnically, as a defensive technique, to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The results support this prediction. Among participants with high explicit self-esteem, all of whom were threatened by negative performance feedback, those with relatively low implicit self-esteem recommended a more severe punishment for a Native, but not a White, student who started a fist-fight. In Study 2, this pattern was not apparent for participants with relatively low explicit self-esteem.

  8. The Influence of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem on the Interpersonal and Inter-group Evaluations of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 236 Japanese college students evaluated themselves, two in-groups, and two outgroups,on five positive and five negative traits. They also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scaleand two subscales of the Luhtanen & Crocker Collective Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed thatthe personal and collective self-esteem of Japanese college students is unaffected by perceptions of interpersonal or inter-group superiority or inferiority. It is therefore inferred that personal or group e...

  9. Self-esteem Is Mostly Stable Across Young Adulthood: Evidence from Latent STARTS Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    How stable is self-esteem? This long-standing debate has led to different conclusions across different areas of psychology. Longitudinal data and up-to-date statistical models have recently indicated that self-esteem has stable and autoregressive trait-like components and state-like components. We applied latent STARTS models with the goal of replicating previous findings in a longitudinal sample of young adults (N = 4,532; Mage  = 19.60, SD = 0.85; 55% female). In addition, we applied multigroup models to extend previous findings on different patterns of stability for men versus women and for people with high versus low levels of depressive symptoms. We found evidence for the general pattern of a major proportion of stable and autoregressive trait variance and a smaller yet substantial amount of state variance in self-esteem across 10 years. Furthermore, multigroup models suggested substantial differences in the variance components: Females showed more state variability than males. Individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed more state and less autoregressive trait variance in self-esteem. Results are discussed with respect to the ongoing trait-state debate and possible implications of the group differences that we found in the stability of self-esteem. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  11. Vocational Crystallization and Self Esteem in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Harvey; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A positive relationship between vocational crystallization and self esteem was assessed by observing differences on two measures of vocational crystallization in students high and low in self esteem scores. No differences according to self esteem were observed. Differences were observed in the certainty of high and low self esteem students. The…

  12. Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…

  13. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  14. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Razieh; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R(2)) of self-esteem in the model (P self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs) and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression) aspects of health in older patients' self-esteem. The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients' self-esteem.

  15. Building Self-Esteem in the Early Years

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Jenny Lukito

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practical ways of building self-esteem in the early years. It describes the concepts of self-esteem and characteristics of children with high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem. The practical ways of building self-esteem are discussed under the five essential components of self-esteem pointed out by Reasoner and Dusa (1991), which include sense of security, identity, belonging, purpose, and personal competence.Key words: self-esteem, sense of security, sense ...

  16. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Peter C.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants’ smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression. PMID:26131724

  17. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Peter C; Fisher, Aaron J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  18. Mood-Reactive Self-Esteem and Depression Vulnerability: Person-Specific Symptom Dynamics via Smart Phone Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Clasen

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology. In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression.

  19. Chemical dependency and adolescent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, D; Anderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency.

  20. Self-Esteem Maintenance in Family Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In this study, a self-esteem maintenance model is introduced and is used to test predictions about sibling identification, sibling friction, and the closeness of father-son relationships as they relate to sibling performance. (Author/SS)

  1. How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic for: Teens How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Rejection: How Well Do You Cope? (Quiz) How Can I Stop Focusing on My Flaws? Emotional Intelligence View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us ...

  2. Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.

  3. Impact of facial burns: relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-esteem and suicide ideation in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-10-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and depression. Self-esteem was operationalized as beliefs about oneself (self-based self-esteem) and beliefs about how other people regard oneself (other-based self-esteem). Each dimension of self-esteem was negatively associated with suicide ideation after controlling for depression and hopelessness. Of the two dimensions of self-esteem, other-based self-esteem was the more robust predictor of suicide ideation. These findings suggest that even in the context of depression and hopelessness, low self-esteem may add to the risk for suicide ideation.

  5. Evaluation of self-esteem and dermatological quality of life in adolescents with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İjlal Erturan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by itchy skin lesions. Since adolescents are intensely interested in their physical appearance, chronic skin diseases in this period can adversely affect the development of self esteem. Atopic dermatitis is a skin disease that affects the appearance and there is an heightened attention to the body image in adolescence which is an important period of time in the development of self-esteem. Therefore, we aimed to investigate self-esteem and dermatological quality of life in adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with atopic dermatitis and 33 healthy controls were included in the study. The Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale and the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI were used for determining self-esteem and quality of life. The Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD Index was used to assess the severity of atopic dermatitis. Results: It was found that patient group had lower self-esteem than healthy controls according to the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale. A statistically significant difference was observed in happiness/satisfaction and anxiety subscale scores between the patients and healthy controls while there was no significant difference between the other sub-scale scores. Mean value of dermatological quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly lower than in healthy controls. A moderate negative correlation was found between self-esteem and CDLQI scores among adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Discussion: This study results have shown that self-esteem and dermatological quality of life were adversely affected in adolescents with atopic dermatitis irrespective of gender. These patients should be examined psychiatrically besides dermatological examination and treatment. We suggest that improvement will be observed in self-esteem and quality of

  6. An application of the LC-LSTM framework to the self-esteem instability case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Donnellan, Brent M; Tisak, John

    2013-10-01

    The present research evaluates the stability of self-esteem as assessed by a daily version of the Rosenberg (Society and the adolescent self-image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1965) general self-esteem scale (RGSE). The scale was administered to 391 undergraduates for five consecutive days. The longitudinal data were analyzed using the integrated LC-LSTM framework that allowed us to evaluate: (1) the measurement invariance of the RGSE, (2) its stability and change across the 5-day assessment period, (3) the amount of variance attributable to stable and transitory latent factors, and (4) the criterion-related validity of these factors. Results provided evidence for measurement invariance, mean-level stability, and rank-order stability of daily self-esteem. Latent state-trait analyses revealed that variances in scores of the RGSE can be decomposed into six components: stable self-esteem (40 %), ephemeral (or temporal-state) variance (36 %), stable negative method variance (9 %), stable positive method variance (4 %), specific variance (1 %) and random error variance (10 %). Moreover, latent factors associated with daily self-esteem were associated with measures of depression, implicit self-esteem, and grade point average.

  7. The self-liking brain: a VBM study on the structural substrate of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroskin, Dmitrij; Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence suggests that self-esteem is an important personality resource for emotion regulation in response to stressful experiences. It was thus hypothesized that the relative grey matter volume of brain regions involved in responding to and coping with stress is related to individual differences in trait self-esteem. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 48 healthy adults in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry and diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL), positive associations between self-esteem and regional grey matter volume were indeed found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), right hippocampus, and left hypothalamus. In addition, self-esteem positively covaried with grey matter volume in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which has been implicated in pride and theory of mind. The results suggest that persons with low self-esteem have reduced grey matter volume in brain regions that contribute to emotion/stress regulation, pride, and theory of mind. The findings provide novel neuroanatomical evidence for the view that self-esteem constitutes a vital coping resource.

  8. The Self-Liking Brain: A VBM Study on the Structural Substrate of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroskin, Dmitrij; Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence suggests that self-esteem is an important personality resource for emotion regulation in response to stressful experiences. It was thus hypothesized that the relative grey matter volume of brain regions involved in responding to and coping with stress is related to individual differences in trait self-esteem. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 48 healthy adults in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry and diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL), positive associations between self-esteem and regional grey matter volume were indeed found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), right hippocampus, and left hypothalamus. In addition, self-esteem positively covaried with grey matter volume in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which has been implicated in pride and theory of mind. The results suggest that persons with low self-esteem have reduced grey matter volume in brain regions that contribute to emotion/stress regulation, pride, and theory of mind. The findings provide novel neuroanatomical evidence for the view that self-esteem constitutes a vital coping resource. PMID:24489727

  9. The role of perfectionism in daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Zuroff, David C

    2012-06-01

    This study of university students (64 men, 99 women) examined the role of self-critical (SC) and personal standards (PS) higher order dimensions of perfectionism in daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. Participants completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 7 consecutive days. Trait and situational influences were found in the daily reports of self-esteem, attachment, and affect. In contrast to PS perfectionism, SC perfectionism was strongly related to aggregated daily reports of low self-esteem, attachment fears (fear of closeness, fear of dependency, fear of loss), and negative affect as well as instability indexes of daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. Multilevel modeling indicated that both SC and PS perfectionists were emotionally reactive to decreases in self-esteem, whereas only SC perfectionists were emotionally reactive to increases in fear of closeness with others. These results demonstrate the dispositional and moderating influences of perfectionism dimensions on daily self-esteem, attachment, and negative affect. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The self-liking brain: a VBM study on the structural substrate of self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Agroskin

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence suggests that self-esteem is an important personality resource for emotion regulation in response to stressful experiences. It was thus hypothesized that the relative grey matter volume of brain regions involved in responding to and coping with stress is related to individual differences in trait self-esteem. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 48 healthy adults in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry and diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL, positive associations between self-esteem and regional grey matter volume were indeed found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, right hippocampus, and left hypothalamus. In addition, self-esteem positively covaried with grey matter volume in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, which has been implicated in pride and theory of mind. The results suggest that persons with low self-esteem have reduced grey matter volume in brain regions that contribute to emotion/stress regulation, pride, and theory of mind. The findings provide novel neuroanatomical evidence for the view that self-esteem constitutes a vital coping resource.

  11. Craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavric, Anja; Mirceta, Dubravka; Jakobovic, Mario; Pavlic, Andrej; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-06-01

    Self-esteem is a psychological trait that may develop in interaction with craniodentofacial esthetics. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem in adolescents and young adults. The study was cross-sectional; the sample included 200 pupils and university students (58% female) aged 13 to 33 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire were used. Craniodentofacial features were estimated by the method of Martin and Saller, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need. When malocclusion severity increases, dental esthetics-related quality of life decreases. The multiple linear regression showed that with the control of all other predictors in the model, the social impact of dental esthetics, borderline dental self-confidence, and facial type contribute the most to explain the variability of self-esteem, accounting for 3.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, of the variability values. The whole model accounts for 24.2% of the variability of self-esteem. In adolescents and young adults, self-esteem appears to be more influenced by the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics than the normative level of malocclusion, craniofacial typology, sex, or age. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Esteem among Druze Women

    OpenAIRE

    Awidat Rose; Awidat Rose; Snait Tamir

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the issue of self-esteem among Druze women in Israel in light of the challenges faced by the passage from traditional to modern society. It explores how gender roles, cultural dimensions, family structure, education and appearance influence women’s self-esteem. Druze women are breaking the traditional boundaries, while at the same time protecting those boundaries and doing their best to ensure that Druze values are carried, by their community, into the future. They...

  13. Depression, self-esteem and anger expression patterns of Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, N H; Sok, S R

    2014-03-01

    According to previous studies, nursing students' anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem significantly affected the physical and mental well-being of patients. It is of utmost importance that the relationship among them is thoroughly investigated in this study. The purpose of this study was to examine the degrees of anger expression patterns, depression and self-esteem of Korean nursing students and to examine the correlations among them. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The subjects consisted of 320 Korean nursing students at colleges in S and G city, Korea. The measurements were based on the Korean standard STAXI (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revision) and SLCS-R (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale-Revised Version). In the analysis of the degrees of variances, the subjects showed lower anger repression, anger expression, control of anger and depression. The degree of self-esteem revealed a higher than the median value. There were significant correlations among anger expression patterns (anger repression, anger expression and anger control), depression and self-esteem. The study limitations were the degree of representativeness of the setting and sample, and its generalizability. Based on the findings of this study, interventions are needed for Korean nursing students in order to promote anger management and improved self-esteem. The development of an anger control programme for nursing students should focus on lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. One of the policy issues focused on providing anger management programmes for lowering depression and enhancing self-esteem. This study will enable nursing students to recognize the importance of controlling their anger, enhancing their self-esteem, establishing positive emotions and improving their overall well-being as future professional nurses. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Depressive symptoms in university freshmen : Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using

  15. The foundation of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph A

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.

  16. Self-Esteem: Models and Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    self - esteem is significantly correlated with a number of behaviors. In comparison to an individual with low self - esteem , an individual with high self ...seems to look at himself and say "I like what I see and I am going to give it its desires and needs," whereas the low self - esteem person seems to say...that May identified with low self - esteem . Therefore, high self - esteem will exist with those who have a recognized and

  17. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  18. The relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people's sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other domains. Lack of difference in self-esteem of disabled

  19. The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Sexual Self-Concept in People With Physical-Motor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people’s sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other

  20. Self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy: Psychosocial and seizure-related correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy and its association with psychosocial and disease-related variables. This was a cross-sectional study with patients enrolled between January and June 2010. Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory for Children (CFSEI-2) was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10-18years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly lower overall self-esteem score when compared with those with asthma, 17±5.21 versus 19.4±3.83, respectively (P=0.005). Thirty-one (22.1%) children with epilepsy compared with 4 (8.3%) with asthma had overall self-esteem score below the cutoff (P=0.034). There was a significant correlation between overall self-esteem score and duration of epilepsy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety score, HADS depression score, and Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating combined score. The impact of various correlates on individual domains was not identical. Independent factors associated with low overall self-esteem were HADS depression score (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2; P=0.002), duration of epilepsy (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.88; P=0.024), and father employment status economically inactive (OR: 11.9; 95% CI: 1.07, 125; P=0.044). Seizure-free ≥12months was a favorable factor that was less likely to be associated with low self-esteem (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.81; P=0.028). Self-esteem was compromised in adolescents with epilepsy. A significant correlation between self-esteem and psychological comorbidities was demonstrated. Enhancing social support and education programs may improve the self-esteem and, ultimately, the lives of adolescents living with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Response to work transitions by United States Army personnel: effects of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and career resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, M A; Craft, S L; Zimmermann, R A

    2000-06-01

    This paper examined association of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and career resilience with the responses of 171 United States Army personnel making the transition to civilian jobs. Specifically, the study addresses whether personality traits are related to the appraisal of the transition from Army to civilian life and to how individuals plan to manage the transition to yield employment success. Self-esteem, self-efficacy, and career resilience were the personality variables examined. Only self-esteem and career resilience were related to harm appraisals of the transition. None of the personality variables were related to use of coping strategies. Limitations of the study and suggestions for research are provided.

  2. Treatment outcome in psychiatric inpatients: the discriminative value of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, France; Harris, Gregory E; French, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    Self-esteem has been identified as an important clinical variable within various psychological and psychiatric conditions. Surprisingly, its prognostic and discriminative value in predicting treatment outcome has been understudied. The current study aims to assess, in an acute psychiatric setting, the comparative role of self-esteem in predicting treatment outcome in depression, anxiety, and global symptom severity, while controlling for socio-demographic variables, pre-treatment symptom severity, and personality pathology. Treatment outcome was assessed with pre- and post-treatment measures. A heterogeneous convenience sample of 63 psychiatric inpatients completed upon admission and discharge self-report measures of depression, anxiety, global symptom severity, and self-esteem. A significant one-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed up by analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed significant reductions in depression (eta2 = .72), anxiety (eta2 = .55), and overall psychological distress (eta2 = .60). Multiple regression analyses suggested that self-esteem was a significant predictor of short-term outcome in depression but not for anxiety or overall severity of psychiatric symptoms. The regression model predicting depression outcome explained 32% of the variance with only pre-treatment self-esteem contributing significantly to the prediction. The current study lends support to the importance of self-esteem as a pre-treatment patient variable predictive of psychiatric inpatient treatment outcome in relation with depressive symptomatology. Generalization to patient groups with specific diagnoses is limited due to the heterogeneous nature of the population sampled and the treatments provided. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  3. Salespeople's Renqing Orientation, Self-esteem, and Selling Behaviors: An Empirical Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hong; Chi, Shu-Cheng Steve; Hu, Hsiu-Hua

    2009-06-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how salespeople's renqing orientation and self-esteem jointly affect their selling behavior. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were obtained from a survey of salespeople from 17 pharmaceutical and consumer-goods companies in Taiwan (n = 216). FINDINGS: Salespeople's renqing orientation (i.e., their propensity to adhere to the accepted norm of reciprocity) compensates the negative effect of self-esteem on their selling behaviors, such as adaptive selling and hard work. IMPLICATIONS: Our study results underscore the critical role of the character trait of renqing orientation in a culture emphasizing a norm of reciprocity. Therefore, it would be useful to consider a strategy of recruiting salespeople with either a high self-esteem or a combination of high renqing orientation and low self-esteem. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The existing literature of industrial/organizational psychology and marketing primarily relies on constructs that are derived from Western cultural contexts. However, the present paper extended these literatures by investigating the possible joint effects of self-esteem with a trait originated from the Chinese culture on salespeople's selling behaviors.

  4. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem Among Juveniles from Youth Educational Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Konaszewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of the results of the studies conducted among juveniles (boys and girls in the case of whom the family court applied the educational means of placing them in the Youth Educational Centre. The aim of the study was to find out the correlations between self-esteem, personality traits and the environmental determinants (support factors and risk factors among juveniles (boys and girls. The total of 481 juveniles staying in Youth Educational Centers participated in the study. Applied research tools: The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (SES, in the Polish adaptation by I. Dzwonkowska, M. Łaguna and K. Lachowicz-Tabaczek, NEO-FFI by P.T. Costa and R.R. McCrae was used to diagnose personality traits included in a popular five-factor model (it has been adapted into Polish by B. Zawadzki, J. Strelau, P. Szczepaniak, and M. Śliwińska and a questionnaire concerning support factors and risk factors was constructed to measure environmental determinants. The analysis model showed that the significant predictors of self-esteem were neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and negative relations at school. In girls group the significant predictors of self-esteem were neuroticism, conscientiousness, family support and negative relations at school, while in boys group the significant predictors of self-esteem were neuroticism, extraversion and negative relations at family.

  5. Emotional Health and Self-esteem Among Adolescents in Malaysian Orphanages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Marjan; Awang, Hamidin; Kadir Shahar, Hayati; Ismail, Suriani

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depression, anxiety, stress and low self-esteem among institutional Malaysian adolescents. This cross-sectional descriptive study included 287 adolescents aged 12-18 years living in six selected orphan homes. Study's instruments included Socio-demographic questionnaire, validated Malay version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The findings revealed that 85.2, 80.1 and 84.7% of participants had depression, anxiety and stress respectively. Females were more likely to be depressed. Furthermore, anxiety was significantly associated with race and age but no significant associations between stress and the demographic factors were found. The study also showed that 70.8% of males and 69.2% of females had low self-esteem and the self-esteem was associated with depression, anxiety and stress.Therefore, mental health problems are very common among adolescents in Malaysian orphanages. Results reveal the urgency of immediate actions to reduce the mental health problems among Malaysian institutional adolescents.

  6. Self-esteem in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  7. The suicidal process and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angus H

    2010-01-01

    It has not been made clear whether self-esteem is associated with the severity of suicidal behavior. To test the association between responses to a self-esteem inventory and levels of suicidal behavior as conceptualized in the notion of the suicide process. Questions on the severity of suicidal behavior over the lifespan (death wishes, ideation, plans, and attempts), as well as a self-esteem inventory, were administered to 227 university undergraduates. A negative relationship was found between the level of suicidality and self-esteem. As hypothesized, there were fewer cases in each succeeding level of seriousness of suicidal behavior. However, nearly all cases from any particular level were contained in the cohort of individuals who had displayed suicidal behavior at a less serious level. This suggests a possible progression through each of the stages of suicidal behavior, with very few cases showing a level of suicidal behavior that was not associated with a previous, less serious, form. It was hypothesized that early entry into the suicidal process may be indicated by low self-esteem, thus, allowing for a more timely preventive intervention.

  8. Interpersonal consequences of seeking self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  9. Agency versus Communion as Predictors of Self-esteem: Searching for the Role of Culture and Self-construal

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciszke Bogdan; Bialobrzeska Olga

    2014-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the relative importance of agentic versus communal traits as predictors of selfesteem were tested. The perspective hypothesis assumed that self-esteem is dominated by agency over communion because self-perceptions are formed from the agent (versus recipient) perspective. The culture hypothesis assumed that self-esteem is dominated by communal concerns in collectivistic cultures and by agentic concerns in individualistic cultures (echoed by individual differences in s...

  10. Two objective measures of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorr, M; Wunderlich, R A

    1986-01-01

    Two scales were constructed to assess self-esteem, conceptualized as reflecting (a) feelings of competence and efficacy, and (b) perceived positive appraisal from significant others. To control for response bias a paired choice format was chosen for the items constructed. A buffer scale designed to measure social assertiveness was also included. Data were collected on three samples of high school boys. The item intercorrelations were subjected to principal component analyses followed by Varimax rotations. In each of the three analyses factors of Confidence, Popularity (Social Approval), and Social Assertiveness emerged. The revised self-esteem scales, each defined by 11 items, have been shown to have acceptable reliability and some concurrent validity based on correlations with the well-known Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

  11. Self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.

  12. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  13. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  14. The Self-Esteem Test for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Caso Niebla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to explore construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents and update psychometric properties found in previous studies. 1581 Mexican students (850 women and 731 men of a public high school in Mexico City responded to the scale. The sample was split randomly in half. EFA was applied using one sample´s data, and CFA to the other sample´s data. The model, assumed to underlie responses to the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents, satisfactorily fit the data, confirming a structure of 4 factors: self-cognitions, competence cognitions, family relations and rage. Results of the present study corroborate previous data concerning content, criterion-related and construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents.

  15. [Assessment of self-esteem in pregnant women using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.

  16. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  17. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101

  18. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi

    2012-03-20

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  19. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosogi Mizuho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  20. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eCreemers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  1. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22433387

  2. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers

    2011-01-01

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...

  4. Wherever I may roam: Processes of self-esteem development from adolescence to emerging adulthood in the context of international student exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutteman, Roos; Nestler, Steffen; Wagner, Jenny; Egloff, Boris; Back, Mitja D

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies on self-esteem development show substantial changes as well as interindividual differences in change from adolescence to young adulthood. However, the processes underlying these developmental trajectories are still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the macro- and microprocesses of self-esteem development. We investigated a sample of 876 German high school students (M = 16.0 years at Time 1) participating in an international exchange year. Exchange students provided 3 waves of trait self-esteem data (shortly before they departed, immediately after return, and 1 year later), as well as 9 monthly state measures of self-esteem and social inclusion during their stay abroad. In addition, a control group of high school students who stayed in Germany (N = 714) provided 2 waves of trait self-esteem data. From a macroperspective, results showed an effect of student exchange on trait self-esteem development: Exchange students showed a steeper mean-level increase and a lower rank-order stability compared with control students. Zooming in on the microprocesses underlying these developmental patterns, we found trait changes in exchange students to be mediated by state changes in self-esteem during their exchange. These fluctuations in state self-esteem were found to be predicted by feelings of social inclusion in the host country, and vice versa, providing support for both sociometer and self-broadcasting perspectives on self-esteem dynamics. In sum, our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating a microanalytical approach when investigating self-esteem development by showing that the environment triggers changes in this relatively stable personality trait through changes in states. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Correlation between fatigue and self-esteem in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoso,Yára Dadalti; Silva,Érika Oliveira da; Finkelsztejn,Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible association of fatigue with self-esteem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHOD: Thirty patients were prospectively assessed. None of them presented moderate or severe depression or anxiety and their degree of disability was low (EDSS

  6. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  7. Quality of life, mental health and self-esteem in hirsute adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hirsutism on general quality of life, self-esteem and the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Fifty adolescent females with hirsutism, aged 13-18 years, were enrolled in the research group. The control group comprised 50 non-hirsute adolescents. A specific questionnaire was used as the research tool. It included self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey Version 2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Quality of life indices for hirsute girls scored lower than for the controls and statistically significantly so with regard to physical functioning (p = 0.04), general health (p = 0.002) and social functioning (p = 0.007). Anxiety was diagnosed in 26% in the group of hirsute girls as compared with 10% of the controls (p = 0.03). The study analysis revealed more clinically significant problems of low self-esteem in hirsute adolescents compared with non-hirsute girls (14% vs. 2%). Hirsutism is associated with a decreased quality of life, a higher prevalence of anxiety disorder and lower self-esteem in adolescent females. The mother's level of education is associated with the quality of life in adolescent girls.

  8. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  9. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  10. EXAMINING BADMINTON ATHLETES’ SELF-ESTEEM

    OpenAIRE

    EYLEM GENCER; Ekrem Levent İLHAN

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine badminton athletes’ self-esteem according to some variables. The research was carried out in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship where 12 clubs and 87 athletes participated in 2009. 42 national and 14 non-national totaly 56 badminton athletes whose mean age 18.78±3.46 that participated in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship in 2009 constitute our research sample. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, that was developed by Rosenberg (1963) and adapted to Turkish ...

  11. Interaction of Induced Anxiety and Verbal Working Memory: Influence of Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilam; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may…

  12. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  13. [Psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life in adult individuals with high potential: Relationships with self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancon, Christophe; Martinelli, Marion; Michel, Pierre; Debals, Matthias; Auquier, Pascal; Guedj, Eric; Boyer, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the psychiatric comorbidities in adult individuals with high potential; 2) to assess self-esteem and quality of life in comparison with general population; 3) to study the relationships between intelligent quotient (IQ), self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric department of a public university hospital (Marseille, France). An outpatient hospital service has been specifically opened to test intelligence since 2012. During a period of six months, it was proposed to all the major individuals with high intellectual potential to receive a psychiatric evaluation using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and to complete self-report questionnaires assessing depression (Beck scale), anxiety (STAI), self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) and quality of life (SF-36). Relationships between IQ, self-esteem, psychiatric comorbidities and quality of life were analyzed using a Bayesian path analysis. Twenty-eight subjects were included, 8 had an IQ between 115 and 130, and 20 had an IQ>130. Fifty-seven percent of individuals had generalized anxiety, 21.4% a current major depressive episode, and 75% a past major depressive episode. Subjects had a low self-esteem and quality of life levels significantly lower than those in the French general population. Subjects with higher self-esteem levels had more depressive (β=0.726, Pself-esteem was defensive and inadequate. Our study found a high frequency of psychiatric disorders associated with low levels of self-esteem and quality of life. A psychological treatment focusing on self-esteem may have a beneficial effect on anxiety, depression and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Suicidality, self-stigma, social anxiety and personality traits in stabilized schizophrenia patients – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1–3 Marie Ociskova,1,2 Michaela Holubova,4 Krystof Kantor,1,2 Antonin Kolek,1,2 Aleš Grambal,1,2 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background and aim: Patients who have schizophrenia are more prone to suicidal behavior than the general population. This study aimed to find connections between suicidality and self-stigma, hope, and personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Forty-eight stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia attended this cross-sectional study. Patients were diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI using the ICD-10 research diagnostic criteria. The assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. Results: The individual rate of suicidality (suicidal index from MINI strongly positively correlated with self-stigma, level of depression, social anxiety, and harm-avoidance, and negatively correlated with hope, self-directedness, and stigma resistance. Conclusion: Individuals with additional symptoms of depression, social anxiety, trait-like anxiety, and self-stigma should be carefully monitored for suicidal ideation. On the opposite side, patients with sufficient hope, self-esteem, and goal-directed attitudes are less likely to have suicidal thoughts and may potentially be role models in group rehabilitation programs, motivating more

  15. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.

  16. Attributional Communication, Situational Involvement, Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Charles R.

    1973-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted which assumed that persons with extremely high or low self-esteem would be more defensive than moderate self-esteem persons when receiving ego-threatening communication. (Editor)

  17. Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ... completed a questionnaire comprising of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the General ... in social competence or interpersonal relationship skills and psychological well ...

  18. Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young adults. ... The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale.

  19. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  1. Calibrating the sociometer: the relationship between interpersonal appraisals and state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, M R; Haupt, A L; Strausser, K S; Chokel, J T

    1998-05-01

    Four experiments examined the functional relationship between interpersonal appraisal and subjective feelings about oneself. Participants imagined receiving one of several positive or negative reactions from another person (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or actually received interpersonal evaluations (Experiment 4), then completed measures relevant to state self-esteem. All 4 studies showed that subjective feelings were a curvilinear, ogival function of others' appraisals. Although trait self-esteem correlated with state reactions as a main effect, it did not moderate participants' reactions to interpersonal feedback.

  2. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  3. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: analysis and partial validation of a modified adult form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, J; Lorr, M

    1978-01-01

    Determined the factor structure of an adult form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), tested several hypotheses related to its content, and assessed the utility of the five derived scores for differentiating psychiatric outpatients from normals. The modified Self-Esteem Inventory and six other scales were completed by 200 local-government employees. A principal components analysis of correlations among 58 SEI items and two marker variables revealed five factors. The rotated dimensions were labelled (1) anxiety; (2) defensiveness; (3) negative social attitude; (4) rejection of self; and (5) inadequacy of self. Fifty psychiatric outpatients were compared with 100 normals with respect to the five derived factor scores. Tests of significance indicated that the two groups differed significantly on all measures except the defensiveness or lie scale factor. It is concluded that the Coopersmith Inventory is complex and measures several characteristics in addition to self-esteem.

  4. Gender differences of brain activity in the conflicts based on implicit self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Reiko; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    There are gender differences in global and domain-specific self-esteem and the incidence of some psychiatric disorders related to self-esteem, suggesting that there are gender differences in the neural basis underlying one's own self-esteem. We investigated gender differences in the brain activity while subjects (14 males and 12 females) performed an implicit self-esteem task, using fMRI. While ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was significantly activated in females, medial and dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) were activated in males in the incongruent condition (self = negative) compared with the congruent condition (self = positive). Additionally, scores on the explicit self-esteem test were negatively correlated with vmPFC activity in females and positively correlated with dmPFC activity in males. Furthermore, the functional relationships among the regions found by direct gender comparisons were discussed based on the somatic-marker model. These showed that, compared to males, females more firmly store even the incongruent associations as part of their schematic self-knowledge, and such associations automatically activate the neural networks for emotional response and control, in which vmPFC plays a central role. This may explain female cognitive/behavioral traits; females have more tendency to ruminate more often than males, which sometimes results in a prolonged negative affect.

  5. Gender differences of brain activity in the conflicts based on implicit self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Miyamoto

    Full Text Available There are gender differences in global and domain-specific self-esteem and the incidence of some psychiatric disorders related to self-esteem, suggesting that there are gender differences in the neural basis underlying one's own self-esteem. We investigated gender differences in the brain activity while subjects (14 males and 12 females performed an implicit self-esteem task, using fMRI. While ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC was significantly activated in females, medial and dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC were activated in males in the incongruent condition (self = negative compared with the congruent condition (self = positive. Additionally, scores on the explicit self-esteem test were negatively correlated with vmPFC activity in females and positively correlated with dmPFC activity in males. Furthermore, the functional relationships among the regions found by direct gender comparisons were discussed based on the somatic-marker model. These showed that, compared to males, females more firmly store even the incongruent associations as part of their schematic self-knowledge, and such associations automatically activate the neural networks for emotional response and control, in which vmPFC plays a central role. This may explain female cognitive/behavioral traits; females have more tendency to ruminate more often than males, which sometimes results in a prolonged negative affect.

  6. Probing Resilience: Daily Environmental Mastery, Self-Esteem, and Stress Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    The current study explores one way the process of resilience arises by investigating the underlying process of stress appraisal. In particular, the analyses examine how resilience resources function each day to attenuate the extent to which life experiences are perceived as threatening, and how trait-like resilience resources shape the appraisal process. Daily diary and questionnaire data from 96 participants of Successful Aging in Context: The Macroenvironment and Daily Lived Experience (SAIC; MAge = 67 years, SDAge = 4.9 years; range: 58-86 years) were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling to investigate how individuals' daily perceptions of control and self-esteem impacted perceived stress on a given day. Results suggested that both self-esteem and environmental mastery help mitigate the experience of stress; furthermore, dispositional resilience and self-esteem stability predict differences between individuals in the extent to which self-esteem tempers the perception of stress each day. The results inform theoretical and empirical work on the nature of resilience, especially regarding how the process arises in ordinary life. From an application perspective, results imply that augmenting environmental mastery and self-esteem, both of which are malleable, can facilitate resilience by helping elders challenge their perceptions of stress each day. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Self-esteem and insight as predictors of symptom change in schizophrenia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly A; Lysaker, Paul H

    2012-07-01

    Though it is known that symptom profiles in schizophrenia change throughout the course of the illness, it is not yet clear which psychological antecedents predict these changes. The purpose of the present study was to explore "level of insight into mental illness" and "self-esteem" as predictors of positive symptom change in schizophrenia patients. Fifty-seven schizophrenia patients completed assessments of self-esteem, insight into mental illness, positive symptoms and paranoia once every four weeks for a total of eight individual testing sessions. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that changes in self-esteem predicted future changes in paranoia as well as positive symptoms more broadly; decreases in self-esteem at any given time point were associated with an increase in persecutory beliefs and other positive symptoms at the following assessment. On the other hand, decreases in insight were not significantly associated with paranoia or positive symptoms, either as a stable trait of the mental illness or as a predictor of change over time. Taken together, these results suggest that change in self-esteem, but not insight, has a significant and unique association with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and may be a valuable target for future treatment.

  8. Self-esteem: models and implications for management

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Manfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a literature review of self-esteem, primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review, self-esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self-esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self-esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary so...

  9. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  10. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    OpenAIRE

    Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for...

  11. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  12. Differences In Self Esteem Between Adopted and Looked After ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...

  13. Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. L.

    The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

  14. Self-Esteem and Suicide Ideation in Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…

  15. Exercise and Self-esteem: Recommendations for Expository Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstroem, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of selected research in the area of exercise and self-esteem illustrates recommendations made for improving research in this area. Studies concerning self-esteem theory and static and dynamic relationships between exercise and self-esteem are reported. (CJ)

  16. The Self-Esteem Complex and Youth Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    The article outlines recent theoretical developments in self-esteem research that have not yet been applied to the youth fitness problem, including concepts of self-esteem multidimensionality and hierarchical structuring, and personalization processes. Programmatical implications related to self-esteem promotion and exercise motivation are…

  17. Corporal punishment, academic performance and self-esteem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...

  18. Behavioral Referents of Presented Self-Esteem in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiwanger, Jane

    In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…

  19. Self-Esteem and Facial Attractiveness among Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…

  20. Enhancing Self-Esteem through Self-Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valett, Robert E.

    Self-esteem, well managed, is a powerful force for effective learning. Research has shown that good self-esteem is associated with analytical thinking, persistence, creative ability, social independence, stability and high expectations, and that the antecedents of positive self-esteem are found in parental models who provide firm guidance in the…

  1. Relationships between Self-Esteem and Smoking Experimentation in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Alexandra; Woods, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    There have been mixed results concerning any association between self-esteem and smoking prevalence in young people. The aim of this paper was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between self-esteem and the uptake of smoking in childhood, and how various sub-components of self-esteem are related to smoking. A sample of…

  2. Enhancing Children's Self-Esteem: Illusion and Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to enhance children's self-esteem are critiqued, and an alternative direction is proposed that is based on the notion of self-esteem as a crucial aspect of human dignity. This approach connects self-esteem to both cultural and social conditions and works toward the reconstruction of school and society. (LB)

  3. Visual Impairment and Self-Esteem: What Makes a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This account follows on from the research report "Visual impairment and its impact on self-esteem" (Bowen, 2010) published in this journal. The original article reported the results of an investigation of self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with visual impairment. Four children, whose self-esteem was measured as…

  4. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the

  5. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  6. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  7. Romantic Jealousy and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisi, Anthony T.

    1992-01-01

    Like a fire out of control, jealousy can reduce a marriage to rubble. It can leave self-esteem ruined. Although oversimplified, the pathologically jealous person regards even slight signs as conclusive evidence of betrayal. Where jealousy arises exclusively within a relationship then a counselor might examine the jealous person's self-concept and…

  8. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  9. Black Self-Esteem and Desegregated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study to determine attitudes among Black and White students in 194 southern high schools regarding desegregation. Data are presented on differences between schools; test-score achievement; and variations in self-esteem among students in predominantly White, Black, and racially mixed schools. Findings are interpreted in light of…

  10. The Self-Esteem of Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…

  11. Networking: Addressing Urban Students' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…

  12. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  13. Relationship between the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and perfectionism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venete, Alina; Trillo-Lumbreras, Eva; Prado-Gascó, Vicente-Javier; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Montiel-Company, José-María

    2017-12-01

    Awareness of the influence of personality traits such as self-esteem and perfectionism on the aesthetic self-image can help clinicians to improve their patients' satisfaction and quality of life. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, perfectionism and the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and their association with gender. A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 301 students of the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of the University of Valencia, aged between 18 and 30 years. Each participant was asked to complete a survey comprising three questionnaires: PIDAQ (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), MPS (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and RSS (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The response rate was 79%. The mean age was 20.8 years; 226 were women (75 %) and 75 were men (25 %). A negative correlation (Pearson = -0.387) was found between the total PIDAQ score and self-esteem. The correlation with perfectionism was found to be positive (Pearson = 0.281). On comparing the questionnaire and subscale scores by gender, the only statistically significant differences were in perfectionism (men 97.4, women 89.1) and self-confidence (men 22.1, women 23.5). The students most affected by poor dental aesthetics had lower self-esteem and higher levels of perfectionism. The men presented higher levels of perfectionism than the women, while the latter displayed greater self-confidence in their dental aesthetics. Clinicians should pay greater attention to these traits and to their implications for treating these patients. Key words: Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire, multidimensional perfectionism scale, rosenberg self-esteem scale, students.

  14. I like me if you like me: on the interpersonal modulation and regulation of preadolescents' state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly judged by a jury consisting of popular and unpopular peers. Participants randomly received negative, neutral, or positive feedback from the jury. Next, they could examine the feedback that each individual judge gave them. As expected, peer disapproval decreased self-esteem, especially in children high in narcissism. In contrast, peer approval increased self-esteem. Moreover, disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges. These findings support sociometer theory.

  15. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  16. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Crocker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than

  17. Explaining the “how” of self-esteem development : The self-organizing self-esteem model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Naomi M.P.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The current article proposes a theoretical model of self-esteem called the Self-Organizing Self-Esteem (SOSE) model. The model provides an integrative framework for conceptualizing and understanding the intrinsic dynamics of self-esteem and the role of the context across 3 levels of development: The

  18. Body image and self-esteem in disorders of sex development: A European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; de Vries, Annelou L C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2018-04-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) refer to congenital conditions with atypical sex development and are associated with psychosexual issues. The aim of this study was to assess body image and self-esteem across the DSD spectrum and to study the impact of diagnosis and mediating characteristics. Data collection was part of dsd-LIFE, a cross-sectional study conducted by 14 European expert clinics on wellbeing and health care evaluation of adults diagnosed with DSD. Main outcome measures in the present analyses were the Body Image Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Additional data were obtained on treatments, openness, body embarrassment, sexual satisfaction, anxiety, and depression. The participating sample (n = 1,040) included 226 classified as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, 225 as Klinefelter Syndrome, 322 as Turner Syndrome, and 267 as conditions with 46,XY karyotype. Many participants had received hormonal and surgical treatments. Participants scored lower on body image and self-esteem compared to control values, whereas each diagnosis showed different areas of concern. Limited openness, body embarrassment, and sexual issues were frequently reported. Overall body satisfaction was associated with BMI, hormone use, openness, body embarrassment, anxiety, and depression; genital satisfaction with age at diagnosis, openness, sexual satisfaction, and body embarrassment. Body embarrassment, anxiety, and depression predicted lower self-esteem. While each DSD showed specific issues related to body image and self-esteem, our findings indicate that the related factors were similar across the conditions. Clinical care on this subject could be improved by giving specific attention to factors like openness, body embarrassment, sexuality, anxiety, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Miedo a la evaluación negativa y autoestima como factores predictivos del rendimiento deportivo: Papel mediador de los estados de ansiedad y autoconfianza. [Fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem as predictors of sport performance: The mediational role of anxiety and self-confidence states].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Molina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudió examinó el efecto que ejerce el miedo a la evaluación negativa y la autoestima en la predicción del rendimiento deportivo, examinando la mediación de las variables de estado de ansiedad (cognitiva y somática y la autoconfianza. Participaron 100 estudiantes (rango de edad = 15-17 años; el 66% eran mujeres de Educación Secundaria, los cuales disputaron un juego de bádminton en condiciones de baja y alta presión psicológica. Los datos basados en modelos predictivos mediacionales constataron un efecto directo del miedo a la evaluación negativa sobre el deterioro del rendimiento deportivo, y un efecto indirecto mediado por la ansiedad somática. También se constató un efecto directo de la autoestima favoreciendo el rendimiento deportivo, y un efecto indirecto mediado por la autoconfianza sobre dicho rendimiento. El presente estudio amplía la evidencia de la literatura sobre la predicción del miedo a la evaluación negativa y la autoestima en el rendimiento deportivo en situación de choking, integrando el efecto mediador de las variables situacionales de ansiedad y autoconfianza. Abstract The present study examined the effect of fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem on the prediction of sport performance, and the mediation role of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence, as state variables. One hundred high school students (ranged on age from 15 to 17 years; 66% women disputing a game of badminton in conditions of low and high psychological pressure participated in the study. Data based on predictive mediational models showed a direct effect on the deterioration of sport performance caused by fear of negative evaluation and an indirect effect mediated by somatic anxiety. We also found a positive direct effect of self-esteem on sport performance, and an indirect effect mediated by self-confidence. The present study extends the literature on the prediction of fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem

  20. The Pursuit of Self-Esteem and Its Motivational Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene van der Kaap-Deeder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have found contingent self-esteem (CSE to be negatively related to individuals’ well-being, research concerning its implications for motivation and engagement is scarce. In two studies, we investigated the relation between CSE, motivation, and engagement in achievement-related situations. A first cross-sectional study among second year high school students ('N' = 641; 54.1% female confirmed the hypothesized motivational ambiguity associated with academic CSE. Beyond the contribution of academic self-esteem, academic CSE was positively related to behavioral and emotional engagement, but also to emotional disaffection and test anxiety. These associations could partially be explained by motivational quality, as CSE was also positively related to both autonomous and controlled types of motivation. In a second experimental study among university students ('N' = 72; 70.8% female, who participated in a tangram puzzle task under varying feedback circumstances, global CSE related to more tension, while predicting less behavioral task perseverance. These effects were not moderated by the type of feedback provided (i.e., positive vs. negative. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. The People Paradox: Self-Esteem Striving, Immortality Ideologies, and Human Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Janis L. Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    In 1973, Ernest Becker, a cultural anthropologist cross-trained in philosophy, sociology, and psychiatry, invoked consciousness of self and the inevitability of death as the primary sources of human anxiety and repression. He proposed that the psychological basis of cooperation, competition, and emotional and mental health is a tendency to hold tightly to anxiety-buffering cultural world views or "immortality projects" that serve as the basis for self-esteem and meaning. Although he focused m...

  2. The effect of social exclusion on state paranoia and explicit and implicit self-esteem in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C; Rogers, F; Pilch, M; Stewart, I; Barnes-Holmes, Y; Westermann, S

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and paranoia may be influenced by social stress. This study aimed to replicate previous research on the impact ofsocial exclusion on paranoia and self-esteem in a non-clinical sample and to extend this work by examining the effect of exclusion on self-esteem at the 'implicit' level. Non-clinical participants (N = 85) were randomly allocated to the Inclusion or Exclusion condition of a virtual ball-toss game ('Cyberball'). They completed self-reportmeasures of state paranoia and self-esteem, and two implicit measures of self-esteem - theImplicit Association Task (IAT) and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) -prior to and after exposure to Cyberball. Social exclusion increased state paranoia. This effect was moderated by distress associated with trait paranoia. Exclusion was also associated with decreased self-reported self-esteem, as well as reduced implicit self-esteem on the IAT. Changes in self-reported self-esteem were associated with state paranoia at post-Cyberball. The IRAP indicated that reductions in implicit self-esteem may be due to increases in 'Me-Negative' and 'Others-Positive' biases (rather than reductions in 'Me-Positive' bias). The current study involved a non-clinical sample and so findings cannot be generalized to clinical paranoia. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that paranoia is associated with negative self-evaluations, whereas positive self-evaluations can persist in paranoia. They also provide support for the suggestion that investigations of self-esteem in paranoia should extend beyond global self-esteem and might benefit from a distinction between positive and negative components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, J C; Adams, D M; Lehnert, K L; Brinkman, D C

    1995-07-01

    Self-esteem can play an important role in suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies in 254 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 288 high school students. The direct relationship between self-esteem and suicidal tendencies was examined by assessing suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. An indirect relationship between self-esteem and suicidality was examined by assessing depression and hopelessness. Differences were found across gender and hospitalization status, with males reporting higher self-esteem than females and high school students scoring higher in self-esteem than psychiatric inpatients. However, correlations among variables remained similar across gender and hospitalization status. Thus, low self-esteem was related to higher levels of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and an increased likelihood of having previously attempted suicide. Furthermore, self-esteem added to the understanding of suicidal ideation beyond what could be explained by depression and hopelessness. Low self-esteem was closely related to feelings of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal tendencies. Assessment of adolescents should include an evaluation of self-esteem, and therapy should attempt to address any self-esteem deficits.

  4. Continuity and Change in Self-Esteem During Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355

  5. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between

  6. Children's self-esteem based on their sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serrano Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following study proposes describing the levels of self-esteem in children and analyzing whether there are differences based on their sex. The sample consists of 1,757 children aged from 3 to 7. For self-esteem assessment, the EDINA questionnaire was administrated, which shows an appropriate reliability rate (0.803. The self-esteem of girls and boys studied is high. Statistical analyzes showed: a significantly higher scores on self-esteem of girls; b a decrease on self-esteem associated to age of children; c significant differences depending on the socioeconomic status; and d higher level of self-esteem in children when they have a woman as advisor of class group. In future researches, we suggest the need to study in depth the evolution of sex differences in relation to self-esteem.

  7. Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.

  8. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-01-01

    (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error......Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods: OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49......L regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment....

  9. Predicting Risk-Mitigating Behaviors From Indecisiveness and Trait Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...

  10. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem status among the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeide; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-10-01

    Most previous research has focused on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) characteristics and their association with psychological disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, our aim was to study whether PCOS characteristics are associated with several aspects of psychological well-being namely self-esteem and body satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 women with PCOS that was carried out in Kashan, Iran. Main outcome measures were the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and clinical information of PCOS. Major clinical PCOS features including obesity (BMI), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances and infertility. The findings of regression analysis indicated that infertile women had lower levels of self-esteem (=-0.11, p=0.049) and poorer body satisfaction (=0.121, p=0.036) compared with PCOS women without infertility. Furthermore, hirsute women experienced poorer self-esteem than women without hirsutism (=-0.124, p=0.032). Women with menstrual irregularities had higher body dissatisfaction (=0.159, p=0.005). Moreover, women with higher body mass index scores had poorer body satisfaction (=0.151, p=0.009) but were not associated with self-esteem. The emotional well-being of the patients presenting with the syndrome needs to be recognized more fully, particularly in relation to the low self-esteem, poor body image, and struggles with weight, menstrual irregularities, hirsutism and infertility. The results of this study raise implications for clinical practice and suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of women with PCOS. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Fatemeh Bazarganipour).

  11. Quality of life and self-esteem in children with chronic tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapçıoğlu, Selma Tural; Tural, Mustafa Kemal; Kandil, Sema

    2014-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the quality of life and self-esteem in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic motor or vocal tic disorders in comparison with the control group. This is the first study examining the effects of quality of life and self-esteem on each other in chronic tic disorders. Among 62 patients aged between 6 and 16 years who were diagnosed with chronic tic disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, 57 patients who met the study inclusion criteria constituted the study group and 57 age- and gender-matched individuals constituted the control group (Ethics committee file number: 2009/69; ethics committee meeting number: 2009/14 (11.06.2009); ethics committee decision number: 16). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version were applied to the children and adolescents. In the study group, all quality of life subtests were found to be lower compared to the control group both in children and adolescents except for self-reported emotional functionality and social functionality. Being below the age of 12 years and female gender were found to be predictors of low self-esteem in tic disorder. In the reports obtained from the children and adolescents, low self-esteem was related with decreased quality of life in all areas except for academic functionality. Children and adolescents with tic disorder experience functional disruption with a higher rate compared to the group without a psychiatric disorder or severe medical condition. Applying holistic approaches considering other clinical psychiatric symptoms as a part of chronic tic disorder will be useful in increasing the quality of life and self-esteem of these children.

  12. Longitudinal predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem in people with ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Atkins, L; Landau, S; Brown, R G; Leigh, P N

    2006-11-14

    To identify predictors of psychological distress (measured by anxiety and depression) and low self-esteem and to determine whether these change over time in people with ALS. We interviewed 50 patients with ALS living with a spouse/partner; further interviews were held at median intervals of 6 and then 5 months. Although carers were interviewed, we report the patients' data. Patients completed measures about their social support and marital relationship; the functional impact of ALS; everyday cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes; symptoms of anxiety and depression; and self-esteem. The ALS Severity Scale was also completed. From the initial sample of 50, 26 patients were interviewed on all three occasions. At the first interview, negative social support and bulbar impairment were most predictive of psychological distress; pre-illness marital intimacy was the best predictor of patients' self-esteem. Over time, negative social support and pre-illness marital intimacy retained an ability to predict patients' affective state and self-esteem. Social factors are important in determining longer-term psychological well-being in people with ALS who are in the relatively early stages of the disease.

  13. Self-esteem as mediator and moderator of the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of Chinese adults with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Wentao; Liu, Binbin; Xie, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies show the relationship between self-esteem and stigma perception and also between self-esteem and social alienation, but none sufficiently analyze the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the mediator and moderator effects of self-esteem on the relationship between stigma perception and social alienation of people with disability. The participants were 129 adults with disability (80 males and 49 females) from eight communities in China. Data was collected by using the stigma perception scale, self-esteem scale, social avoidance scale, social anxiety subscale of the self-consciousness scale, and loneliness scale. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale (1 = "strongly disagree" to 5 = "strongly agree"). Stigma perception was positively correlated with social avoidance (p Self-esteem was inversely correlated with social avoidance (p perception (p Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, social anxiety and loneliness. Moreover, self-esteem moderated the relationship between stigma perception and social avoidance, but not on social anxiety and loneliness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient body image, self-esteem, and cosmetic results of minimally invasive robotic cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İyigün, Taner; Kaya, Mehmet; Gülbeyaz, Sevil Özgül; Fıstıkçı, Nurhan; Uyanık, Gözde; Yılmaz, Bilge; Onan, Burak; Erkanlı, Korhan

    2017-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures reveal the quality of surgical care from the patient's perspective. We aimed to compare body image, self-esteem, hospital anxiety and depression, and cosmetic outcomes by using validated tools between patients undergoing robot-assisted surgery and those undergoing conventional open surgery. This single-center, multidisciplinary, randomized, prospective study of 62 patients who underwent cardiac surgery was conducted at Hospital from May 2013 to January 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: the robotic group (n = 33) and the open group (n = 29). The study employed five different tools to assess body image, self-esteem, and overall patient-rated scar satisfaction. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of self-esteem scores (p = 0.038), body image scores (p = 0.026), overall Observer Scar Assessment Scale (p = 0.013), and overall Patient Scar Assessment Scale (p = 0.036) scores in favor of the robotic group during the postoperative period. Robot-assisted surgery protected the patient's body image and self-esteem, while conventional open surgery decreased these levels but without causing pathologies. Preoperative depression and anxiety level was reduced by both robot-assisted surgery and conventional open surgery. The groups did not significantly differ on Patient Satisfaction Scores and depression/anxiety scores. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that a minimally invasive approach using robotic-assisted surgery has advantages in terms of body image, self-esteem, and cosmetic outcomes over the conventional approach in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  17. An implicit theory of self-esteem: the consequences of perceived self-esteem for romantic desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Myers, Erin M

    2011-04-07

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  18. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  19. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Moein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.

  20. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Altmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  1. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551

  2. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  3. Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernis, Michael H

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.

  4. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China: A two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Jian; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood has been targeted as an especially important period for self-esteem formation. The aim of this study is to examine the change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted with a general elementary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine relationships between low self-esteem and socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. On average, self-esteem level among children was increased across three assessments. Multivariable analysis (GEE) showed that low self-esteem in children was clearly associated with male gender (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.12-1.89), moderate and severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.40-2.51; OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.25-2.83, respectively), quality of life (OR = .97, 95%CI = .96-.98), depression (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.32-2.70), anxiety (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.51-2.77), positive coping styles (OR = .91, 95%CI = .89-.94), and negative coping styles (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.03-1.07). Self-esteem is a dynamic rather than a static construct during childhood. Low self-esteem among children was associated with a number of socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. Further studies exploring the pathways and mechanisms by which the effect of these factors impact on self-esteem among children are warranted.

  6. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  7. Is self-regard a sociometer or a hierometer? Self-esteem tracks status and inclusion, narcissism tracks status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Nikhila; Gregg, Aiden P; Sedikides, Constantine

    2018-04-02

    What adaptive function does self-regard serve? Sociometer theory predicts that it positively tracks social inclusion. A new theory, hierometer theory, predicts that it positively tracks social status. We tested both predictions with respect to two types of self-regard: self-esteem and narcissism. Study 1 (N = 940), featuring a cross-sectional design, found that both status and inclusion covaried positively with self-esteem, but that status alone covaried positively with narcissism. These links held independently of gender, age, and the Big Five personality traits. Study 2 (N = 627), a preregistered cross-sectional study, obtained similar results with alternative measures of self-esteem and narcissism. Studies 3-4 featured experimental designs in which status and inclusion were orthogonally manipulated. Study 3 (N = 104) found that both higher status and higher inclusion promoted higher self-esteem, whereas only higher status promoted higher narcissism. Study 4 (N = 259) obtained similar results with alternative measures of self-esteem and narcissism. The findings suggest that self-esteem operates as both sociometer and hierometer, positively tracking both status and inclusion, whereas narcissism operates primarily as a hierometer, positively tracking status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Cheng, H

    2000-10-01

    This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.

  9. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  10. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers’ actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Landman, Annemarie; Daalder, Nathalie R.; de Cock, Hans P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers’ actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  12. Effects of threat, trait anxiety and state anxiety on police officers' actions during an arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Daalder, N.R.; de Cock, H.P.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of threat and trait anxiety on state anxiety and how that affects police officers' actions during an arrest. Most experiments on police performance under anxiety test the performance of one particular skill. Yet, police work often involves concerted use of a

  13. Surface morphology of amygdala is associated with trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Li

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of amygdala in trait anxiety level, in which amygdala was typically treated as a whole. To date, it remains unknown whether the morphology of specific subregions of amygdala are associated with trait anxiety. Here, we employed a shape analysis approach to locate the association between its morphology and trait anxiety on the surface of amygdala. 24 healthy young participants were included. The boundary of amygdala for each subject was first manually outlined using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR image, followed by 3D surface reconstruction and parameterization using spherical harmonic description. Two point-wise metrics, direct displacement between the individual surface and atlas surface and its normal projection, were used to quantify the surface morphology of amygdala. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between the two surface metrics and trait anxiety levels, which were located around the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala. Our results provided localized information for the association between amygdala and trait anxiety, and suggested a central role of the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala on trait anxiety.

  14. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  15. Self-esteem among nursing assistants: reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.

  16. Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

  17. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  18. Examining Teachers' Trait, State and Cursive Handwriting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Arslan, Derya; Karatas, Mustafa Erdal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the trait and state anxiety and cursive handwriting anxiety of teachers differs according to assorted variables. The study group for this research project is composed of 381 teachers from the city of Burdur and the district centre of Bucak, Turkey. Of these participants, 44% were female and 56% were male. As for the…

  19. Improving self-esteem in women diagnosed with Turner syndrome: results of a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paul M; Smyth, Arlene; Liao, Lih-Mei

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate a brief intervention to improve the self esteem of women diagnosed with Turner syndrome (TS). Prospective observational study. Turner Syndrome Support Society, UK. 30 women aged 18-60 years. A 1-day psychology workshop targeting problems of self-esteem in women diagnosed with TS. The workshop drew on cognitive-behavioral therapy and narrative therapy skills and emphasized increased self-awareness of interpersonal difficulties and improved capacity for self-management. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); bespoke user experiences questionnaire. All 30 women provided baseline data, 27/30 provided immediate post-intervention data and 22/30 provided follow-up data at 3 months. The intervention improved RSS and HADS scores at 3 months. Generic skills-based psychological interventions have the potential to be adapted to provide brief and low-cost interventions to improve self-esteem and reduce psychological distress in women diagnosed with TS. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-esteem and social respect within the high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J

    1998-08-01

    A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.