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Sample records for self-esteem perceived control

  1. Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Communal Relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to determine whether self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength would predict emotional distress in Nigerian university students. 148 students from a Christian university and 158 students from a Secular university responded to measures of the variables listed above.

  2. Influence of sex, self esteem and locus of control on perceived job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of sex, self esteem and locus of control on perceived job tension. Sunday E Idemudia, Adebayo D Otu, Ilora Chizoba Uchenna. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(2) 2000: 227-248. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Effects of Self-esteem, Optimism, and Perceived Control on Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P self-esteem (B = -0.047, P = .036) also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. We found significant partner effects of self-esteem on depression for both members and partner effect of optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.

  4. Perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and its relations to psychological well-being status in Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, M; Ashtarian, H

    2010-01-01

    Health locus of control (HLC) has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and designed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relationships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students. In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154). Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, perceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data. The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychological well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statistically significant (r= 0.21, Pself-esteem was statistically significant (r= 0.25, Plow perceived Internal HLC, self-esteem and psychological problems was found among these students. The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.

  5. Looking beyond Grades: Comparing Self-Esteem and Perceived Academic Control as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Renaud, Robert D.; Hladkyj, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found perceived academic control (PAC) to be a better predictor of first-year college students' grades than self-esteem; however, it is uncertain which construct is more important for students' well-being. The current study compared PAC and self-esteem on first-year college students' emotions, perceived stress, and…

  6. Perceived Family Climate and Self-Esteem in Adolescents With ADHD: A Study With a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Eray, Şafak; Vural, Ayşe Pınar; Kocael, Ömer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, our objective is to assess the perception of family environments by adolescents with ADHD based on perceived expressed emotion (EE) and the self-esteem of the adolescents. Uludag University Medical Faculty Hospital completed this study with 41 adolescents with ADHD and 35 control group participants who were matched based on age and gender. The total scores of perceived EE, described as a lack of emotional support, irritability, and intrusiveness, were significantly higher in ADHD group than in the control group. The group with ADHD also showed significantly lower self-esteem. There was a negative correlation between self-esteem scores and total perceived EE scores in the ADHD group and the control group. This study showed that the adolescents with ADHD perceive less emotional support and higher levels of intrusiveness, with patients also describing their families as more irritating. Other results in this study show that adolescents with less emotional support possess lower self-esteem, as do adolescents with more irritable parents.

  7. The influence of perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and multiple discrepancies on the mental health and subjective well-being in Serbian immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mental health and subjective well-being (SWB of Serbian immigrants of the first generation in Canada. We wanted to examine if perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and perceived multiple discrepancy affect their mental health and SWB. Our results indicate that self-esteem and sense of control have a positive effect on mental health and all aspects of the SWB, while the perceived discrimination and perceived multiple discrepancy negatively affect SWB and mental health. Self-esteem was the most salient predictor of mental health, while the perceived multiple discrepancy was the most salient predictor of life satisfaction of Serbian immigrants.

  8. Perceived Expressed Emotion, Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Self Esteem in Obese Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolpan, Merve; Eray, Şafak; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Ayşe Pınar

    2018-05-23

    Obesity is a chronic disease which causes medical and psychiatric complications. Family climate is also a critical factor in the presence and treatment of obesity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In our study, perceived expressed emotion (EE), psychopathology, self-esteem and emotional and behavioural problems among obese adolescents will be investigated by comparison with their non-obese peers. This study was carried out with 49 obese adolescents and 47 non-obese adolescents as a control group. All participants were requested to fill out the Socio-demographic Data Form, Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire-Adolescent Form. In our study, obese adolescents showed a significant difference in perceived EE (pself-esteem (pself esteem. A higher rate of perceived EE, psychopathology and low self-esteem among obese adolescents showed that obesity prevention and treatment are also crucial for mental health in adolescents. With the help of our study results, we aimed to emphasize the role of the family in obese adolescent's mental health and their treatment. By the help of our results we try to identifying risk factors in childhood that promote obesity in order to help develop targeted intervention and prevention programs.

  9. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  10. Perceived academic performance, self-esteem and locus of control as indicators of need for assessment of adolescent suicide risk: implications for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham; Richardson, Angela S; Bergen, Helen A; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2005-02-01

    There is currently a need for research into indicators that could be used by non-clinical professionals working with young people, to inform the need for referral for further clinical assessment of those at risk of suicide. Participants of this repeated measures longitudinal study, were 2603, 2485, and 2246 school students aged 13, 14, and 15, respectively, from 27 South Australian Schools. Perceived academic performance, self-esteem and locus of control are significantly associated with suicidality. Further, logistic regression of longitudinal results suggests that perceived academic performance, over and above self-esteem and locus of control, in some instances, is a good long-term predictor of suicidality.

  11. Mediation Effect of Locus of Control on the Causal Relationship between Students' Perceived Teachers' Expectancy and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, Kususanto; Hairul, Nizam Ismail; Hazri, Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Symbolic interaction theorists maintained that general self-esteem, defined as the way individuals assess themselves, is based on the individual's perception on the way others assess them (we are what we think other people think we are). Accordingly, studies in school settings indicated that students' perceived teachers' expectancy…

  12. Perceived appraisals by others, self-esteem, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, D C; Schwab, M R

    1977-11-01

    Questionnaire data from 595 male and female college students were used to test four hypotheses regarding interpersonal sources of anxiety--i.e., that high anxiety occurs as a function of (a) low subjective public-esteem (perceived negative appraisals of self by others); (b) low self-esteem; (c) discrepancies where subjective public-esteem is more negative than self-esteem; and (d) absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem, regardless of evaluative direction. The results suggested that level of self-esteem and absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem are important and relatively independent factors in anxiety.

  13. An Investigation of the Interaction Effects of Acute Self-Esteem and Perceived Competence on Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-22

    a demonstration of the interaction effects of acute self - esteem and perceived competence. Acute self - esteem manipulations (high, low or no) were...On the basis of previous research on conformity it was predicted that subjects who were subjected to acute self - esteem manipulations and perceived...role in conformity. The main effect of self - esteem and the interaction of self - esteem and perceived competence did not prove significant. Results were

  14. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  15. The relationship between perceived parental favoritism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F

    1994-03-01

    In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.

  16. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem: implications for mate retention strategies and perceived infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...

  19. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J M; Paull, J C

    1995-07-01

    This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.

  20. A randomised control trial of physical activity in a perceived environment on self-esteem and mood in UK adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Angus, Caroline; Pretty, Jules; Sandercock, Gavin; Barton, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether exercising whilst viewing natural or built scenes affected self-esteem (SE) and mood in adolescents. Twenty-five adolescents participated in three exercise tests on consecutive days. A graded exercise test established the work rate equivalent to 50% heart rate reserve for use in subsequent constant load tests (CLTs). Participants undertook two 15-min CLTs in random order viewing scenes of either natural or built environments. Participants completed Rosenberg's SE scale and the adolescent profile of mood states questionnaire pre- and post-exercise. There was a significant main effect for SE (F(1) = 6.10; P 0.05). Short bouts of moderate physical activity can have a positive impact on SE and mood in adolescents. Future research should incorporate field studies to examine the psychological effects of contact with real environments.

  1. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  2. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  3. Self-esteem is associated with perceived stress in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Ifantopoulou, Parthena; K Artemiadis, Artemios; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Chrousos, George; Papanastasiou, Ioannis; Darviri, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have showed that perceived stress (PS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) constitutes an important factor for disease onset, relapse, symptomatology and psychological adjustment. The aim of this pilot cross-sectional study was to examine the role of self-esteem in PS, after controlling for sociodemographical characteristics, depression and personality in MS patients. Sixty-six relapsing-remitting MS patients (66.67% females, mean age of 40 ± 11.1 years old, mean duration of disease 133.6 ± 128.8 months) were studied. Perceived stress, self-esteem, depression and personality type were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Hierarchical multivariate regression modelling was used. Higher education and depression and lower self-esteem were independently and significantly associated with increased PS, accounting for 40.5% of its variance. Univariate analyses revealed that low extroversion and openness and higher neurotism were associated with higher PS, although no significant after adjusting for other factors. Although our findings need further confirmation, psychological interventions targetting self-esteem are strongly encouraged.

  4. Perceived and desired facilitativeness of one's closest friend, need for approval and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D

    1993-03-01

    The hypothesis that the positive association between self-esteem and the perceived facilitativeness of one's closest friend can be explained by the presumed greater desire of low self-esteem individuals for a facilitative relationship was not confirmed in 262 16-17-year-old females, who completed the Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem Scale and a shortened version of the Barrett-Lennard (1964) Relationship Inventory. Although desired facilitativeness correlated significantly positively with self-esteem, the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem remained significantly positive when desired facilitativeness was partialled out. The further prediction that the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem would be more positive for those scoring higher on the Jones' (1969) Need for Approval Scale was also not confirmed. The opposite result was obtained in that this correlation was significantly positive for those with low need for approval but not for those with a high need.

  5. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Cheng, H

    2000-10-01

    This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.

  6. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  7. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Relations among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…

  8. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Heijmans, Monique; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W

    2010-07-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N = 166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was low, the average autonomy levels were only moderate, and the average self-esteem level was rather high. On the whole, positive illness and treatment perceptions were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem, but not with labour participation. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness and treatment perceptions explained 18 to 27% of the variance in autonomy and self-esteem. Perceptions of personal control, less impact of the illness and treatment, and less concern were important predictors. Our results indicate that dialysis patients' beliefs about their illness and treatment play an important role in their perceived autonomy and self-esteem. Stimulating positive (realistic) beliefs and altering maladaptive beliefs might contribute to a greater sense of autonomy and self-esteem, and to social participation in general. Interventions focusing on these beliefs may assist patients to adjust to ESRD.

  9. Academic Self-Esteem and Perceived Validity of Grades: A Test of Self-Verification Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Fournet, Lee M.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis derived from self-verification theory that semester grade point average would be positively related to perceived validity of grade scores among high self-esteem undergraduates and inversely related for low self-esteem students was not supported in a study with 281 undergraduates. (SLD)

  10. Global self-esteem, perceived athletic competence, and physical activity in children : A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Exercise and Self-Esteem Model is used as a theoretical framework to describe associations between global self-esteem and physical activity, mediated by perceived athletic competence. We know little about how these associations develop over time in elementary school children. We

  11. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670

  12. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. RESULTS revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  13. Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina eVerrocchio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  14. Self-esteem of young adults with chronic health conditions: appraising the effects of perceived impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireys, H T; Gross, S S; Werthamer-Larsson, L A; Kolodner, K B

    1994-12-01

    The relationships between selected condition characteristics and self-esteem were investigated in a randomly drawn, community-based sample of 286 young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. Whether appraisals of the impact of the condition mediated relationships between condition characteristics and self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, was also measured. As a group, the youth in this sample reported positive self-esteem. When sociodemographic and condition-related variables were considered simultaneously, maternal education, unpredictability of symptoms, prognosis, sensory impairment, and the presence of a co-occurring learning disability were found to have direct effects on esteem. Perceived impact mediated the relationship between condition characteristics and self-esteem. The results are discussed in relation to the role of impact appraisal in determining the emotional well-being of young adults with chronic illnesses.

  15. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers

    2011-01-01

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...

  16. Perceived stigma, self-esteem and social comparison of people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Ivana; Milačić-Vidojević Ivona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ...

  17. Determinants of self-esteem in early psychosis: The role of perceived social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Arlene G; Vandermeer, Matthew R J; Norman, Ross M G

    2017-12-01

    Self-esteem plays a role in the formation and maintenance of symptoms and in the recovery from psychotic illness. This study examines the relative contribution of perceived social dominance and other known predictors in determining self-esteem in 102 individuals in an early intervention program for psychosis. Regression analysis demonstrated that scores on the Perceived Relational Evaluation Scale (PRES), depressed mood, social dominance, gender and positive symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), whereas self-stigma and negative symptoms did not. Our study suggests that low self-esteem in early psychosis can be understood in part as a reflection of low levels of perceived social value and status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Self-Esteem and Perceived Goal Difficulty on Goal Setting, Certainty, Task Performance, and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Reynolds, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects competed on a task against themselves, a difficult competitor, and an easy competitor. Certainty, ability attribution, and task satisfaction for those with low self-esteem were affected by perceived goal difficulty but not for those with high self-esteem. Low self-esteem groups had lower goals, certainty, and task performance.…

  19. Peers Versus Parents: The Salience of Perceived Sources of Self-esteem Among Three- to Five-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J. A. H.; Gurney, P. W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the perceived source of self-esteem among 300 children aged three to five. Results indicate that peers are the predominant source of self-esteem in the low intensity ("like") condition and parents are the predominant source of self-esteem in the high intensity ("love") condition. (RJC)

  20. Association of Patient Self-esteem With Perceived Outcome After Face-lift Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew; Chastant, Ryan P; Dibelius, Greg

    2016-01-01

    It is well understood that optimal psychological health is imperative to success in aesthetic surgical procedures. Self-esteem is a very sensitive psychological factor that can influence patients' motivations for seeking surgery as well as their perceptions of outcomes. To use the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to correlate the outcome of rhytidectomy as perceived by the patient to further understand the association of self-esteem and the results of aesthetic facial rejuvenation. A prospective study was conducted of 59 consecutive patients undergoing rhytidectomy performed by a single surgeon at a private practice from July 1 to October 31, 2013. The RSES was used to establish preoperative baseline scores and scores at a 6-month postoperative follow-up. A paired t test was used to compare statistical data before and after surgery. Change in self-esteem and the patient's evaluation of the surgical outcome was assessed. Analysis was conducted from July 1 to December 1, 2014. Patients' change in self-esteem level after rhytidectomy, as assessed by the RSES. Of the 59 patients, 50 completed a 6-month postoperative questionnaire; mean age was 58 years (range, 37-73 years); 48 were women; and 44 were nonsmokers. The mean difference between baseline and 6-month scores showed an increase of 0.3 (baseline, 24.3; 6-month follow-up, 24.6), which was not statistically significant (P = .69). Subdivision of patients into groups by self-esteem level showed a statistically significant improvement in self-esteem after surgery in the group with low self-esteem, with a mean difference in the RSES score of 3.7 (P = .01), whereas the group with high self-esteem showed a decrease in the RSES score of -3.1 (P = .03) and the group with average self-esteem showed a nonsignificant increase of 0.5 in the RSES score (P = .59). The perceived change in youthful appearance (mean, 8.9 years) did not correlate with self-esteem changes. Patient's self-esteem before surgery may partially

  1. Relations of spanking and other parenting characteristics to self-esteem and perceived fairness of parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Klein, M; Schumm, W R; Alibrando, S A

    1989-06-01

    Punishment has long been a controversial topic in psychology, perhaps partly because its effects are different under different circumstances. This study used retrospective reports from college students to examine the effects of spanking, a common aversive punishment, on self-esteem and perceived fairness of parental discipline, while taking the effects of other parental characteristics into account. No parental characteristic interacted with the slightly negative effect of spanking on self-esteem and fairness. However, controlling for positive communication or for a parent-oriented motivation for spanking eliminated the negative effects of spanking, suggesting that the negative effects reflected use of spanking as a replacement for positive communication with the child.

  2. Perceived Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun

    2009-01-01

    We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…

  3. Self-Perceived Attractiveness, Romantic Desirability and Self-Esteem: A Mating Sociometer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Bale; John Archer

    2013-01-01

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals’ desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these rela...

  4. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  5. An implicit theory of self-esteem: the consequences of perceived self-esteem for romantic desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Myers, Erin M

    2011-04-07

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  6. Self-esteem and the quest for felt security: how perceived regard regulates attachment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S L; Holmes, J G; Griffin, D W

    2000-03-01

    The authors proposed that personal feelings of self-esteem foster the level of confidence in a partner's regard critical for satisfying attachments. Dating and married couples described themselves, their partners, how they thought their partners saw them, and how they wanted their partners to see them on a variety of interpersonal qualities. The results revealed that low self-esteem individuals dramatically underestimated how positively their partners saw them. Such unwarranted and unwanted insecurities were associated with less generous perceptions of partners and lower relationship well-being. The converse was true for high self-esteem individuals. A longitudinal examination of the dating couples revealed that the vulnerabilities of lows were only exacerbated over time. A dependency regulation model is proposed, wherein felt security in a partner's perceived regard is suggested as a prime mechanism linking self-esteem to relational well-being.

  7. Effect of perceived organizational support on suicidal ideation of young employees: The mediator role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jinyan; Ji, Yongbao; Li, Ping; Zhao, Hao

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation of young employees. A total of 447 unmarried employees completed the survey of perceived organizational support, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and suicide ideation scale. The results revealed that perceived organizational support, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation were significantly correlated with each other. Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis both indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the effect of perceived organizational support on suicidal ideation.

  8. Self-Perceived Attractiveness, Romantic Desirability and Self-Esteem: A Mating Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  9. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John

    2013-01-26

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  10. Improving childrens self-esteem and perceived social related abilities: the evaluation of a school-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lemma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objective: Health education programmes delivered in school settings are often design to enhance child self–esteem or various social skills in order to improve the way that they interact in every day life. Although these are becoming increasingly frequent, little is known about the real efficacy of many of the available programs that claim to be able to positively develop these psychologica dimensions. This study, which takes a Public Health approach, examines the effect of a school-based educational programme, designed following the WHO recommendations, in order to favour children’s self-esteem and improve perceived socio-relational competences.

    Method: To test the effectiveness of this intervention, a non randomized, controlled, prospective study was set up. All 291 eligible students, aged between 8-10 years, were enrolled. To assess self-esteem and perceived supportive relationship, a well-known and descriptive scales were utilised (MSCS, SPPC, AIR.

    Results: No difference was found between the experimental and control groups with respect to the children’s self-esteem and perceived socio-relational competences following the intervention, except in the quality of their relationships with their teachers, which improved in the experimental group and declined in the control group.

    Discussion: The educational programme used in our study did not seem to be able to enhance self-esteem in the intervention group, but the methodological instruments used to monitor the change in self-esteem domonstrated a different rate of change in the more disadvantaged sub-groups of the observed population.

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated th...

  12. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts: Self-esteem and loneliness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mediation effects of both self-esteem and loneliness on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in drug addicts. In all, 110 participants, all drug addicts from Guangdong Fangcun Brain Hospital, completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that perceived social support was positively related to self-esteem and life satisfaction and was negatively correlated with loneliness in drug addicts. Structural equation modeling estimated by the Bootstrap method indicated that loneliness and self-esteem partially mediated the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction. These findings provided insights into the association between perceived social support and life satisfaction in drug addicts.

  13. When paranoia fails to enhance self-esteem: explicit and implicit self-esteem and its discrepancy in patients with persecutory delusions compared to depressed and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Lincoln, Tania M

    2011-04-30

    The hypothesis that persecutory delusions function to enhance self-esteem implies that patients will show normal explicit, but low implicit self-esteem. As evidence for this has been inconsistent, our study assessed delusional state, explicit and implicit self-esteem and depression in a large sample (n=139) of schizophrenia patients with acute persecutory delusions (n=28), patients with remitted persecutory delusions (n=31), healthy controls (n=59), and depressed controls (n=21). Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit, but normal levels of implicit self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How Good Am I? Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem as a Function of Perceived Parenting Styles Among Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurman, Jenny; Rothschild-Yakar, Lily; Angel, Ruth; Katz, Miri

    2015-02-11

    To investigate implicit and explicit self-esteem and academic self-evaluation among children with ADHD as a function of parenting styles, namely, authoritarian, authoritative and permissive parenting. Participants included 43 children with ADHD and 35 non-ADHD controls who filled out self-concept and perceived parenting style questionnaires. They also took an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that measured unacknowledged self-esteem. Lower self-esteem was found among children with ADHD than among controls, with stronger effect on the implicit level. Perceived authoritarian parenting was related to lower implicit self-esteem among children with ADHD. Higher self-esteem was found in the authoritative than in the permissive parenting groups in the non-ADHD control group but not among children with ADHD. The role of parental support versus authoritarian parenting in terms of implicit self-esteem points to the importance of promoting responsiveness strategies among parents in the treatment of children with ADHD. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  15. Self-Esteem as a Moderator between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was investigated within a social comparison theory framework. Predictions of a variant of social comparison theory--relative deprivation theory--as well as predictions from the stress-buffering literature pertaining to the moderating effects of self-esteem were tested…

  16. Self-Perceived Information Seeking Skills and Self-Esteem in Adolescents by Race and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Scott, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and self-esteem in adolescents and, further, to determine whether this correlation varied according to race and gender. Tenth-grade students from three public high schools in a Midwestern city were given two instruments. Self-perceived…

  17. The protective role of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  19. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. PMID:28769850

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuji Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  1. Self-esteem and socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, David

    2009-01-01

    To determine if psychosocial factors explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health that persist after controlling for oral status variables. Data came from the participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who were residents in the city of Toronto. Oral health variables included self-rated oral health, a 13-item oral health scale, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. The last two measures were regarded as proxy indicators of tooth loss. Psychosocial variables included a self-esteem scale, a depression scale, and single items measuring life satisfaction, life stress, and sense of cohesion. Socioeconomic status was assessed using total annual household income. Interviews were completed with 2,754 dentate persons aged 20 years and over. Bivariate analyses confirmed that there were income gradients in self-rated oral health and scores on the oral health scale. Linear regression analyses confirmed that these persisted after controlling for age, gender, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. In the model predicting self-rated oral health self-esteem, life satisfaction, stress, a sense of cohesion, and depression also contributed to the model, increased its explanatory power, and reduced the strength of but did not eliminate the association between income and self-rated oral health. Broadly, similar results were obtained when the oral health scale score was used as the dependent variable. In both analyses and all models, denture wearing had the strongest and most enduring effect. Psychosocial factors partly but do not wholly explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health in this population after controlling for tooth loss and denture wearing. Other variables need to be added to the models to increase their explanatory power.

  2. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Youths: Examining the Role of Gender and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Derlan, Chelsea L.

    2013-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents…

  3. Adult self-esteem and locus of control as a function of familial alcoholism and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L J; Broida, J P

    1991-05-01

    This study examines self-esteem and locus of control in adult children of alcoholics. We assessed these measures in 195 professional adults in relation to alcoholism and functioning in the family of origin. Although the presence of parental alcoholism was not a predictor of significant differences in adult self-esteem or locus of control, familial dysfunction was reflected in significant differences in self-esteem. This suggests that parental alcoholism does not necessarily result in personality differences in adult children.

  4. Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. L.

    The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

  5. Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, selfesteem and life satisfaction in a sample of 316 Spanish adolescents (179 females and 137 males, ranging in age from 14 to 18. Demographic information was collected, along with data through the use of three self-report measures: the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As expected, perceived emotional dimensions, particularly mood clarity and repair, showed positive associations with life satisfaction. Self-esteem also correlated significantly and positively with levels of adolescents´ satisfaction with life. More interestingly, results of structural equation modelling indicated that mood clarity and emotional repair had a significant direct and indirect link (via selfesteem with life satisfaction in adolescents. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the underlying process between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Our findings encourage moving beyond the examination of direct association between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction and focusing on the role of potential mechanisms such as self-esteem involved in the link between perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescents. Implications of the present findings for future research are discussed, as well as potential interventions for increasing subjective well-being in adolescents.

  6. The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Ferrer, Rodrigo; Godoy, Nidia; Leppes, Francisca; Trujillo, Carlos; Osorio, Camila; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in South American immigrants in Chile. An analytical, cross sectional, non-experimental design was used. We evaluated 853 Peruvians and Colombians living in the northern cities of Arica, Antofagasta, and Santiago de Chile, the capital located in the center of the country. The instruments used were the Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Perceived Discrimination Scale by Basabe, Paez, Aierdi and Jiménez-Aristizabal. We used the estimation method (RWLS) and polychoric correlation matrices, to estimate the effect size and overall fit of the direct effect models of discrimination and self-esteem on psychological well-being, and indirect and total effects of discrimination mediated by self-esteem. While both populations reported similar levels of perceived discrimination, it was found that the means in psychological well-being and self-esteem of the Colombian population were significantly higher than that of the Peruvian population. Regarding self-esteem, the results provided evidence for the possible mediating effect on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. This research aims to contribute to the development of interventions seeking to strengthen self-esteem in order to circumvent possible negative consequences of perceived discrimination, as a consequent, improving immigrants´ personal resources to successfully cope with the diverse demands of their new context.

  7. Mexican American adolescents' academic achievement and aspirations: the role of perceived parental educational involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Indian and White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James C.

    1976-01-01

    The development and relationship of two dimensions of personality, self esteem and locus of control, were examined in a study of 763 fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade Indian and white children selected from 22 Oklahoma public schools. The students were given the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Nowicky-Strickland Locus of Control Scale during…

  9. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  10. Self-esteem, social support perception and seizure controllability perception in adolescents with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália F. Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the self-esteem of adolescents with epilepsy and adolescents without epilepsy and relate it to social support and seizure controllability perception. METHOD: The study sample consisted: case participants (34 subjects attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital and control participants (30 subjects from public schools in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, a semi-structured interview on aspects of the disease, and a Self-Esteem Multidimensional Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups but majority of adolescents with epilepsy presented higher self esteem rate, have knowledge about epilepsy, presented high levels of social support and seizure controllability perception. There was no significant relationship between social support and seizure controllability perception with self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about epilepsy, social support such good controllability seizure perception seem are important contingencies for a better evaluation of self esteem in adolescents with epilepsy.

  11. Self-esteem fluctuations and cardiac vagal control in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R; Scheel, Sophie-Marie

    2012-03-01

    It has been proposed that self-esteem buffers threat-responding. The same effect is ascribed to the vagus nerve, which is a primary nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. Consequently, it has been suggested that self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone are interconnected on a trait, as well as on a state, level. In this study, we examined the relationship of vagal cardiac control and self-esteem fluctuations across a single day using ecological momentary assessment. Eighty-four participants were recruited, and self-esteem, negative affect, and vagal tone were recorded throughout a 22-hour period. Men provided higher self-esteem ratings than women, but the negative relationship between self-esteem and negative affect was stronger in women. Moreover, controlling for potential confounds (e.g., age, BMI, depressive symptoms, smoking status, regular physical activity), we observed that for men, self-esteem was significantly positively associated with cardiac vagal tone, whereas for women it was not. These findings suggest that the relationship between self-esteem and vagal innervation of the heart during daily life is sex-specific and might involve different central-autonomic pathways for men and women, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis patients: the moderating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study described the prevalence of psychological distress and examined the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Seven hundred and twenty patients with TB from three cities of Shandong Province in eastern China participated in a cross-sectional survey. Patients were measured with the Kessler 10 (K10), the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a self-developed perceived discrimination questionnaire. A total of 58.6% of patients with TB scored above 16 on the K10, indicating moderate and serious psychological distress. Chi-square test revealed that female patients reported higher psychological distress than male patients. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis among the whole sample indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related with psychological distress (β = .28, p ≤ .01). The multiple group analysis of SEM showed that perceived discrimination had a significantly substantial (β = .50, p ≤ .001), significantly moderate (β = .15, p ≤ .01), and insignificant effect (β = .05, p ≥ .05) on psychological distress among low self-esteem, moderate self-esteem, and high self-esteem patients with TB, respectively, which verified the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress.

  13. The effect of malocclusion and self-perceived aesthetics on the self-esteem of a sample of Jordanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Serene Adnan

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of normative treatment need, perceived social impact of malocclusion and satisfaction with dental appearance on self-perceived treatment need, self-perceived aesthetics, and self-esteem; the influence of self-perceived need and aesthetics on self-esteem; and whether receipt of orthodontic treatment influences self-esteem. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 410 students (195 males and 215 females) aged 14-16 years. Self-esteem was measured using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation (GSE) scale. The Aesthetic and Dental Health Components (AC and DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used to assess orthodontic treatment need. Students' AC scores determined their self-perceived dental aesthetics. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyse the association between all variables, and multiple stepwise regression analysis to study the effect of independent variables on self-perceived need for treatment, self-perceived aesthetics, and self-esteem. A correlation existed between the students' and examiner's AC scores (P aesthetic appearance. Students who perceived themselves in need of treatment had a great need for treatment, as assessed by the DHC and the AC of the IOTN (r = 0.421 and 0.489, respectively), were dissatisfied with their dental appearance (r = 0.542) and avoided smiling to hide their teeth (r = 0.457). Students who scored high on the GSE scale perceived a need for orthodontic treatment, evaluated their dental aesthetics poorly, perceived an impact of malocclusion on social acceptance, and had a great normative orthodontic treatment need; the correlation, however, was weak with r values ranging from 0.134 to 0.317. Students who had received orthodontic treatment showed greater self-esteem than those who had not, although the correlation was weak. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance had a strong predictive effect on self-esteem.

  14. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  15. Social integration, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in mid- and later life: intersections with age and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jeffrey E

    2018-03-15

    Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation. This study examines the impacts of social integration and perceived discrimination on self-esteem, and whether such impacts differ according to individuals' age and/or neuroticism. Random effects models analyzed 2,982 observations from 1,882 individuals who participated in at least one of the two most recent waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2014). Self-esteem displayed a minor cubic trajectory across the age range, including declines after age 70. Social integration, perceived discrimination, and neuroticism were all significantly associated with self-esteem, in the expected directions. Self-esteem trajectories varied according to the level of social integration, such that low social integration exacerbated later life declines in self-esteem. The influence of social integration on self-esteem was also stronger at higher levels of neuroticism. Perceived discrimination's influence on self-esteem did not vary by participants' age or neuroticism. Social ties are influential for well-being across the life course, but may take on added importance in later life. Oldest-old and neurotic adults are at particular risk of experiencing low self-esteem if they lack integration with their community.

  16. Self-statements, locus of control, and depression in predicting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, V D; Holliman, W B; Madonna, S

    1995-06-01

    The contributions of frequency of positive and negative self-statements and their ratio, locus of control, and depression in prediction of self-esteem were examined. Volunteers were 145 college students (100 women and 45 men) who were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Intercorrelations suggested significant relationships among variables. The magnitude of the relationship was strongest between the frequency of negative self-statements and self-esteem. These results are consistent with and lend further support to prior studies of Kendall, et al. and Schwartz and Michaelson.

  17. Perceived organizational support and intention to remain: The mediating roles of career success and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingying; Liu, Yan-Hui

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among perceived organizational support, career success, self-esteem and intention to remain. A cross-sectional study was designed, and subjects were recruited from six nonprofit organizations in China in spring 2015. A convenience sample of 610 nurses answered a survey with questions related to their ideas about their work. Structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. The results revealed that perceived organizational support was positively associated with intention to remain and career success, which, in turn, mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and intention to remain. We also found that self-esteem mediated the relationships between perceived organizational support and career success and between career success and intention to remain. Higher perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem can increase intention to remain in Chinese nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  20. Vocational interests of adolescents: relationships between self-esteem and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, A K; Mullis, R L

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among scores on vocational interests, self-esteem, and locus of control for high school students. Grade and sex differences were also examined. 1364 high school students ranging in age from 14 to 19 years of age were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. High school students with higher scores on self-esteem and showing an orientation toward internal locus of control expressed more interests in a variety of vocational themes than adolescents with lower scores on self-esteem and scores for external locus of control. Sex and grade differences in vocational interests of adolescents were also noted. The findings were discussed in light of theoretical and practical considerations.

  1. Self-Esteem, Perceived Stress, and Gender During Adolescence: Interactive Links to Different Types of Interpersonal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanling; Ma, Lijie; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-esteem, perceived stress, the quality of different types of interpersonal relationships, and gender in adolescents. This study used a sample of 1614 adolescent high school students and robust data analytic techniques to test the proposed relationships. The results partially supported the initial hypothesis in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and four of the types of interpersonal relationships (i.e., same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and teacher-student relationships) and moderated the relationship between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships. In addition, a moderated role of gender was also partially supported in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, and the parent-child relationship for girls, but not boys. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that perceived stress plays an intervening role in the relationship between self-esteem and different types of interpersonal relationships and that gender seems to be a moderator for some of the patterns of the relationships between these variables. These findings are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms by which the variables could influence each other. Implications for theory and practice as well as some directions for future research were also suggested.

  2. [Self-esteem, resilience, locus of control and suicide risk in nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that suicide is the result of a series of factors acting cumulatively, the aim of this paper was to study the association of self-esteem, resilience and locus of control with the risk of suicidal behavior in a sample of nursing students. Observational, cross-sectional and correlational study with 186 nursing students who answered a questionnaire that contained, in addition to demographic data, the Spanish forms of Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the brief resilient coping scale, the Plutchik scale of suicide risk and the Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale. The scores of males and females are very similar on all scales except Locus of Control, where a significantly greater tendency of females attributed to external control. 6.4% of students have scores indicating suicide risk. Suicide risk scores correlated negatively and significantly with self-esteem and resilience and positively with locus of control. The multiple linear regression analysis identified self-esteem as the main variable related to suicide risk. The results suggest that students who have low self-esteem, have difficulty in adjusting to adverse situations and tend to the external attribution of the consequences of their actions may have an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Furthermore, the identification of self-esteem as the important factor involved in suicide risk can help in designing prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Coping with loss of ability vs. emotional control and self-esteem in women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Katarzyna; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Does coping with the loss of ability depend on self-esteem and emotional control? Persons who experience losses in two dimensions, i.e. health and ability can deal with the loss by physical therapy, and also by mental and socio-professional rehabilitation. But far and foremost, it is the personality of the person who experiences the loss that matters most. The study included 37 patients after mastectomy. They were divided into two groups according to the time elapsed from cancer diagnosis. The study was conducted using the Questionnaire on Coping With Ability Loss (P. Wolski), Self-Esteem Loss (M. Rosenberg,) and the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale - CECS. In Group I, the higher level of acceptance in the QCAL test, the higher self-esteem. The more depression experienced by individuals, the lower is their level of self-esteem or the less depression experienced, the higher the self-esteem. In Group II, the higher the level of depression, the lower the level of anger. The greater the struggle, the lower level of anger. The lower the level of depression and struggle, the higher the level of emotion control. Women diagnosed no longer than five years back do not differ from those diagnosed further back in terms of copying with the loss of ability, self-esteem and emotional control.

  4. Perceived Social Support, Self-Esteem, and Internet Addiction Among Students of Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Laila; Mohamadi, Jalal; Sayehmiri, Koroush; Azizpoor, Yosra

    2015-09-01

    Internet addiction is a global phenomenon that causes serious problems in mental health and social communication. Students form a vulnerable group, since they have free, easy, and daily access to the internet. The current study aimed to investigate perceived social support, self-esteem, and internet addiction among Al-Zahra University students. In the current descriptive research, the statistical sample consisted of 101 female students residing at AL-Zahra University dormitory, Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomly selected and their identities were classified. Then, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and Yang Internet Addiction Test. After completion of the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using the correlation test and stepwise regression. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated significant relationships between self-esteem and internet addiction (P scale of internet addiction and the family subscale were predicative variables for self-esteem (r = 0.137, P self-esteem were more vulnerable to internet addiction.

  5. Emotional experience with dyslexia and self-esteem: the protective role of perceived family support in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carawan, Lena W; Nalavany, Blace A; Jenkins, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that suggests dyslexia persists through the life span, there is a dearth of research that explores the complicating factor of dyslexia in late adulthood. Based upon stress and coping theory, this study examined whether perceived family support protects the impact of negative emotional experience with dyslexia on self-esteem. Adults aged 21 years and older with diagnosed or self-reported dyslexia were participants in a web-based survey. A total of 224 individuals completed the survey. These findings are from the 50 participants who reported to be 60 years or older. Completed measures include their perception of family support, emotional experience with dyslexia, self-esteem, and demographic variables. Preliminary analysis revealed that negative emotional experience with dyslexia negatively impacts self-esteem. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis demonstrated that positive perceived family support significantly buffers, mitigates, and protects the effects of negative emotional experiences with dyslexia on self-esteem in individuals with dyslexia in late adulthood. In this study, family support promoted self-esteem because as a protective dynamic, it helped older adults cope with the emotional distress associated with dyslexia. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashikhina, Anna; Hagglof, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes, asthma and epilepsy; compare the results with those of the representative sample of healthy adolescents; and evaluate the predictive value of certain demographic, family-related, and disease-related factors on self-esteem. A total of 148 chronically ill adolescents and 301 matched healthy counterparts completed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the "I think I am" questionnaire. Adolescents' parents answered socio-economic status questions. Disease severity was evaluated by doctors of the outpatient clinic. Comparison analysis of the three disease groups revealed highest self-esteem perception in adolescents with diabetes, and lowest in adolescents with epilepsy. Unexpectedly, adolescents with diabetes scored higher than their healthy counterparts. There were no significant differences between the reports of adolescents with asthma and controls. In the epilepsy group, self-esteem was predicted mostly by disease severity and socio-economic status in diabetes and asthma groups, as well as by age and gender. The maintenance of positive self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes and asthma is a very reassuring finding. The other results of our study provide support for recognizing adolescents with epilepsy as a vulnerable group in the society. A multidisciplinary professional approach targeted on adolescents with epilepsy is needed, with focus on factors connected with maturation and gender issues.

  7. Ethnic identity and its relationship to self-esteem, perceived efficacy and prosocial attitudes in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E P; Walker, K; Fields, L; Brookins, C C; Seay, R C

    1999-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy and prosocial attitudes. The sample included 100 male and female early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 13 years old, from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Structural equations modeling was used to examine the latent structure of the multi-dimensional constructs and their interrelationships. Self-esteem and ethnic identity factors emerged which were related and which evidenced efficacy-mediated effects upon prosocial attitudes. The findings suggested that ethnic identity and self-esteem are distinct but related contributors to young people's perceptions of their ability to achieve academically, to find meaningful careers and to value prosocial means of goal attainment. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  8. Relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, & optimism in a sample of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott; Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu

    2010-09-01

    Stress, developmental changes and social adjustment problems can be significant in rural teens. Screening for psychosocial problems by teachers and other school personnel is infrequent but can be a useful health promotion strategy. We used a cross-sectional survey descriptive design to examine the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, and optimism in a sample of rural school-based adolescents. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with peer social support, family social support, self-esteem, and optimism. Findings underscore the importance for teachers and other school staff to provide health education. Results can be used as the basis for education to improve optimism, self-esteem, social supports and, thus, depression symptoms of teens.

  9. Self-Functioning and Perceived Parenting: Relations of Parental Empathy and Love Inconsistency with Narcissism, Depression, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.

    2008-01-01

    In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…

  10. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  11. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.L.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Boeschoten, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these

  12. The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ying Liu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Hospitals should pay more attention to the benefits of positive personality trait on working motivation. It is meaningful to enhance perceived organizational support, career success and self-esteem in the working process so that nurses are willing to stay in the current employment.

  13. Multiple Mediation of Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support in the Relationship between Loneliness and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test serial-multiple mediation role of self-esteem and perceived social support on the relationship between university students' loneliness and life satisfaction. The participants of this study consisted of 398 undergraduate students, with 289 females and 109 males aged between 17 and 41 with a mean age of 21.79 (SD…

  14. Perceived Family Support and Self-Esteem: The Mediational Role of Emotional Experience in Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Carawan, Lena W.

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature shows that perceived family support (PFS) influences self-esteem in adults with dyslexia, little empirical attention has been given to the mechanisms through which this effect operates across early, middle, and late adulthood. The present study examined the mediational effect of emotional experience with…

  15. The Distinct Roles of Sociometric and Perceived Popularity in Friendship: Implications for Adolescent Depressive Affect and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwack, Scott D.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the similarities and distinctions between two types of popularity, sociometric and perceived, in their associations with friendship characteristics and how they in turn are related to depressive affect and self-esteem. Among 245 eighth graders, sociometric popularity was associated with a greater…

  16. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  17. Development in Multiple Areas of Life in Adolescence: Interrelations between Academic Achievement, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Julia; Becker, Michael; Maaz, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study examined interrelations between three indicators of main challenges during adolescence: academic achievement, self-perceived peer acceptance, and self-esteem. An additional aim was to investigate whether the findings hold for girls and boys and across school types (academically oriented track vs. non-academically oriented track). We…

  18. Counterfactual reasoning for regretted situations involving controllable versus uncontrollable events: the modulating role of contingent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R; Ball, Linden J; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person's sense of self-worth is based on self and others' expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future.

  19. Counterfactual Reasoning for Regretted Situations Involving Controllable Versus Uncontrollable Events: The Modulating Role of Contingent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697

  20. Self-esteem and peer-perceived social status in early adolescence and prediction of eating pathology in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2018-04-27

    Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trajectories of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in Latino youths: examining the role of gender and perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-05-01

    The current longitudinal study examined changes in Latino adolescents' (N = 323, M age = 15.31 years) self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the high school years. Differences in trajectories were examined by gender and perceived ethnic discrimination. Findings revealed that self-esteem increased across high school for both male adolescents and female adolescents. Depressive symptoms, however, showed differences by gender, with female adolescents reporting a decline in depressive symptoms across high school and male adolescents reporting no change. Perceived ethnic discrimination emerged as an important predictor of male adolescents' self-esteem in early high school and predicted changes in self-esteem growth for male adolescents and female adolescents across the high school years. Perceived ethnic discrimination also emerged as a significant predictor of adolescents' depressive symptoms in early high school but did not relate to changes in symptoms across time. Together, findings suggest that Latino adolescents experience positive changes in psychological adjustment across this developmental time. Experiences of ethnic discrimination, however, have the potential of placing adolescents at risk for maladjustment over time. These findings inform our understanding of Latino youth development and point to the importance of early high school years in youths' psychological functioning.

  2. Note on guilt appeals in advertising: covariate effects of self-esteem and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M B; Worobetz, N D

    1992-02-01

    A 1991 study by Pinto and Priest demonstrated the effectiveness of advertisements employing moderate levels of guilt in inducing guilt responses in subjects. Because individuals' responses to guilt are often influenced by their specific personality characteristics, researchers have pointed to the potential moderating effects of individual difference variables such as level of self-esteem and locus of control on individuals' susceptibility to guilt appeals. A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility that self-esteem and locus of control can act as covariates across three treatment levels of guilt advertising. From a sample of 57 working mothers, advertisements stimulating medium and high levels of guilt elicited significantly greater feelings of guilt in subjects than the control advertisement stimulating low guilt. However, the relationship between susceptibility to guilt appeals and self-esteem and locus of control was not observed to covary.

  3. Exercise and self-esteem in menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of walking and yoga on multidimensional self-esteem and roles played by self-efficacy, body composition, and physical activity (PA) in changes in esteem. Four-month randomized controlled exercise trial with three arms: walking, yoga, and control. Previously low-active middle-aged women (n=164; M age = 49.9; SD = 3.6). Structured and supervised walking program meeting three times per week for I hour and supervised yoga program meeting twice per week for 90 minutes. Body composition, fitness assessment, and battery of psychologic measures. Panel analysis within a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus 3.0. The walking and yoga interventions failed to enhance global or physical self-esteem but improved subdomain esteem relative to physical condition and strength (for walking) and body attractiveness (for both walking and yoga). Over time the effects of PA, self-efficacy, and body fat on changes in physical self-esteem and global esteem were mediated by changes in physical condition and body attractiveness subdomain esteem. Women reporting greater levels of self-efficacy and PA with lower body fat also reported greater enhancements in subdomain esteem. These results provide support for the hierarchic and multidimensional nature of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women may enhance certain aspects of physical self-esteem by participating in PA.

  4. Effect of Supportive Nursing Care on Self Esteem of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients. PMID:25276758

  5. Effect of supportive nursing care on self esteem of patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2014-06-01

    Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ(2), t-test and ANCOVA. RESULTS showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.

  6. Effect of Supportive Nursing Care on Self Esteem of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35 and intervention (n=35 groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES. Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention.Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.

  7. The Relationships Between Skin Color and Self-Perceived Global, Physical, and Sexual Attractiveness, and Self-Esteem for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T. Joel

    1996-01-01

    Examined skin color in relation to self-esteem and self-perceived physical, sexual, and global attractiveness in 91 African Americans. Findings support the hypothesis that fair-skinned females have higher self-esteem and self-ratings of attractiveness than dark-skinned females, and that dark-skinned males have higher or no different ratings from…

  8. Utilized social support and self-esteem mediate the relationship between perceived social support and suicide ideation. A test of a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H

    2013-01-01

    While perceived social support has received considerable research as a protective factor for suicide ideation, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that mediate its effects. We integrated two theoretical models, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide and Leary's (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995) sociometer theory of self-esteem to investigate two hypothesized mechanisms, utilization of social support and self-esteem. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals must utilize the social support they perceive that would result in increased self-esteem, which in turn buffers them from suicide ideation. Participants were 172 college students who completed measures of social support, self-esteem, and suicide ideation. Tests of simple mediation indicate that utilization of social support and self-esteem may each individually help to mediate the perceived social support/suicide ideation relationship. Additionally, a test of multiple mediators using bootstrapping supported the hypothesized multiple-mediator model. The use of a cross-sectional design limited our ability to find true cause-and-effect relationships. Results suggested that utilized social support and self-esteem both operate as individual moderators in the social support/self-esteem relationship. Results further suggested, in a comprehensive model, that perceived social support buffers suicide ideation through utilization of social support and increases in self-esteem.

  9. The relevance of self-esteem and self-schemas to persecutory delusions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2013-10-01

    Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD). However, its precise role in the formation and maintenance of PD is unclear and has been subject to a number of theories: It has been hypothesized that PD function to enhance self-esteem, that they directly reflect negative conceptualizations of the self, that self-esteem follows from the perceived deservedness of the persecution (poor-me versus bad-me-paranoia) and that the temporal instability of self-esteem is relevant to PD. In order to increase our understanding of the relevance of self-esteem to PD, this article systematically reviews the existing research on self-esteem in PD in the light of the existing theories. We performed a literature search on studies that investigated self-esteem in PD. We included studies that either investigated self-esteem a) within patients with PD or compared to controls or b) along the continuum of subclinical paranoia in the general population. We used a broad concept of self-esteem and included paradigms that assessed implicit self-esteem, specific self-schemas and dynamic aspects of self-esteem. The literature search identified 317 studies of which 52 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD. The studies therefore do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self-esteem but underline the theory that they directly reflect specific negative self-schemas. There is evidence that low self-esteem is associated with higher perceived deservedness of the persecution and that PD are associated with instable self-esteem. Only few studies investigated implicit self-esteem and the results of these studies were inconsistent. We conclude by proposing an explanatory model of how self-esteem and PD interact from which we derive clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Self-esteem, coping, perceived social support and substance use in young adults with a cannabis dependence disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Bungener, C; Corcos, M; Berthoz, S

    2014-06-01

    Self-esteem, coping strategies and perceived social support play a role in the adaptive functioning of the human being: they allow the adjustment of the subject to his/her environment. These dimensions could be protective factors regarding multiple risks associated with adolescent development, and particularly substance use. Thus our objective was twofold: to evaluate self-esteem, coping strategies and perceived social support in adolescents and young adults with a cannabis dependence in comparison with subjects from the general population; to establish the correspondence between these psychological dimensions and the patients' substance use pattern. Data from 43 young patients (36 males; mean age=19.6±3), consulting for their cannabis dependence, and 50 young adults from the general population (39 males; mean age=19.7±3.4) were included. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Social Self-Esteem Inventory of Lawson, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation of Endler & Parker, and the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire of Sarason. The MINI was administered to evaluate cannabis abuse or dependence; a semi-structured clinical interview was given to determine psychoactive substance use. Between-group comparisons (two independent sample t-tests) showed that the patients had significantly lower scores on global (P=0.002) and social (P=0.035) self-esteem, task-oriented coping (Pself-esteem scores (P=0.028). Moreover, polysubstance misuse is associated with low distraction-avoidant coping scores. No association was found between clinical scores and tobacco and alcohol uses variables. These results suggest that cannabis dependent patients may present a lack in individual and interpersonal resources. This clinical study underscores the potential contribution of maladaptive coping to the development or maintenance of substance use in young adulthood. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  11. The impact of visual impairments in self-esteem and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Montgomery, Anthony J; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the differences between adults with visual impairments and sighted adults with regard to locus of control (LOC) and self-esteem. One hundred and eight adults with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and fifty-five sighted adults took part in this study. Sighted adults showed a higher score on the self-esteem scale than either the individuals with low vision or with blindness. Moreover, analysis indicated no significant differences amongst the three groups of participants regarding LOC. Significant predictors of self-esteem were vision status and age at loss of sight. Significant predictors of LOC were vision status and independent movement. Findings are discussed with regard to their implications for parents, social workers, teachers, and rehabilitation specialists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical correction of pectus carinatum improves perceived body image, mental health and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Laustsen, Sussie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step Questionnaire supported the improvements in health-related quality of life and self-esteem six months postsurgery. This study confirms positive effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health-related quality of life and self-esteem. Patients were to a greater extent self-satisfied about chest appearance following surgery, indicating this to be a step in the right direction toward improved body image, mental health and self-esteem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide Risk Factors Among Older Adults: Exploring Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness in Relation to Personality and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Allison; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of personality and self-esteem in later life within two established risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI)-Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB). The data about personality (i.e., Five Factor Model [FFM] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Personality Disorders [PD]), self-esteem, TB, PB, and SI were collected from 102 community-dwelling older adults and analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. All FFM domains and most PD traits were significantly correlated with SI, TB, and PB. Furthermore, FFM and PD traits explained a significant and meaningful amount of variance of SI, TB, and PB. Self-esteem demonstrated strong negative relationships with SI, TB, and PB. Personality features and self-esteem are important associated features for SI, TB, and PB. Clinicians should consider this information when assessing and evaluating for suicidal risk among older adults. The findings also highlight the need to consider personality traits in developing prevention strategies.

  14. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F; Campbell, W Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-03-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

  15. Relationship between perceived parental behaviors and the self-esteem of gifted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, K M; Ruzicka, M F

    1989-12-01

    This pilot study sought to investigate parent-child interactions which influenced self-esteem in a sample of gifted children. 13 gifted children, aged 6 to 10 yr., who were enrolled in a private elementary school, were tested on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and the Parent Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Significant correlations obtained between (1) each of four maternal PPQ variables (physical punishment, consistency of expectations, principled discipline, and support) and (2) one paternal PPQ variable (deprivation of privileges) with the total self-esteem score. Maternal variables and dimensions, more than paternal, appear to influence self-esteem in these subjects. Explanations for these findings are proposed along with recommendations for study.

  16. Surgical correction of pectus carinatum improves perceived body image, mental health and self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K.

    2014-01-01

    to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health- related quality of life and self-esteem. METHODS: Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conduct- ed on consecutive patients...... undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. RESULTS: Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses...

  17. Relating shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, and anxiety with weight and perceived physical health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamody, Rebecca C; Thurston, Idia B; Decker, Kristina M; Kaufman, Caroline C; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health. Three profiles emerged: (1) High Shape/Weight Influence (HSWI); (2) Low Shape/Weight, Depression, & Anxiety Influence (LSWDAI); and (3) High Depression & Anxiety Influence (HDAI). The HSWI profile had significantly higher BMI than the LSWDAI and HDAI profiles, and significantly lower perceived physical health than the LSWDAI profile. Over emphasis on shape/weight, regardless of depression and anxiety, is associated with elevated weight and negative internalized health views. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Computer Expertise, Locus of Control and Self-Esteem on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study considered the influence of self-esteem, locus of control and computer expertise on computer-induced stress in a cross sectional survey. One hundred and fifty cyber café users drawn from 10 cyber cafes randomly chosen from University of Ibadan and its environs participated in the study. Of the 150 ...

  19. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  20. General self-esteem and locus of control of young sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between some elements of self-concept (general self-esteem and locus of control and going in for sport in adolescence. The relationship between going in for sport and variables of self-concept (general self-esteem and external locus of control was investigated in a sample of 300 adolescent boys and girls (150 sportsmen and 150 non-sportsmen. Modification of the Rosenberg’s General self-esteem scale and Bezinović-Savčić’s Scale of externality were used to measure variables of self-concept. The significant positive correlation between variables of going in for sport and general selfesteem, as well as negative ones between variables of going in for sport and external locus of control were found in the whole sample of subjects and in the sample of boys, but not of girls. The sex role stereotypes and greater importance that the culture puts on success in sport for boys have contributed to such results. The sex differences in correlations between variables of self-concept and going in for sport suggest that going in for sport influences general self-esteem and locus of control in adolescents through social feedback and social evaluation of sport achievement and physical fitness. .

  1. Aging Labels: The Decline of Control and the Fall of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Judith; Langer, Ellen

    1980-01-01

    Describes studies that investigate how labeling and stigmatization of the elderly might contribute to behavior that would confirm prevalent stereotypes of old age and lead to lowered self esteem and diminished feelings of control. Also discusses suggested strategies for social change. (Author/GC)

  2. Adolescent Parenting: Contrasts in Self-Esteem and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ann; Troike, Roger

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents represent a unique and challenging problem for educational systems. Of the 17,051 women who become pregnant every day in America, 2,795 or 16% of them are adolescents. The self-esteem and locus of control of 85 pregnant and parenting teens enrolled in the Ohio Graduation, Reality, Dual Role Skills (GRADS) Program…

  3. The Association of Age, Sense of Control, Optimism, and Self-Esteem with Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M. Guadalupe; Montorio, Ignacio; Izal, María

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a model of emotional distress, which incorporates the potential mediator role of positive resources (sense of control, self-esteem, and optimism) in the association of age with emotional distress. The study used a cross-sectional design with intentional sampling and the voluntary participation of 325 adults…

  4. Locus of Control, Self-esteem, Stimulus Appraisal, and Depressive Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, Barbara R.

    1977-01-01

    Variables of self-esteem, locus of control, stimulus appraisal, and depressive symptoms, which are related to depression in adults, were investigated in a sample of nonreferred Grade 5 and Grade 6 children. Grade and sex effects were not significant. All other intervariable correlations were significant. (Author)

  5. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  6. Parental Psychological Control, Psychological Autonomy, and Acceptance as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…

  7. Self Esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy and neuroticism as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self Esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy and neuroticism as correlates of job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Helen O Nwagwu, SO Salami. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(1) 1999: 48-61. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  8. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual's perception of self has potential to enhance or impede his or her success at work. In view of this, there is a need to examine the relationship between locus of control and self-esteem as they jointly influence teachers' frustration in Lagos state, Nigeria. The participants were two hundred (200) teachers (100 males ...

  9. The role of self-control and self-esteem and the impact of early risk factors among violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Gunda; Schneider, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Research on the role of self-esteem and self-control among violent offenders has so far yielded inconsistent findings. Certain factors, such as an adverse upbringing, foster development of delinquent behaviour, but it is less clear how this is mediated. Little is known about the interrelationship between self-control and self-esteem or factors that influence them. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relevance of self-esteem and self-control as distinct characteristics of violent offenders, and of their interrelationship with biographical risk factors for violence. Data were obtained from interviews and psychological testing with 101 incarcerated violent male offenders. These violent men showed higher body-related self-esteem compared with a general population sample. There were no offence-specific differences for self-control. Self-esteem was associated with self-control on binary testing, but, when entered into a regression analysis with attention and cognitive factors together with established early childhood risk factors, only the variable 'family problems' was independently related to self-control. The findings stress the complex interrelation between self-control, self-esteem and early childhood risk factors for antisocial behaviour. The combination of low social self-esteem, high body-related self-esteem and history of parenting problems characterising the violent offenders raises testable questions about whether high body-related self-esteem and violence are means of compensating for low social self-esteem with origins in parental neglect, inconsistent or harsh discipline. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, D.L.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Boeschoten, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N¼166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was ...

  11. The role of perceived social support in loneliness and self-esteem among children affected by HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal multilevel analysis in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-07-01

    To delineate the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time among children affected by parental HIV and AIDS, and to examine how their perceived social support (PSS) influenced initial scores and change rates of these two psychological outcomes. We collected longitudinal data from children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural central China. Children 6-18 years of age at baseline were eligible to participate in the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Multilevel regression models for change were used to assess the effect of baseline PSS on the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time. We employed maximum likelihood estimates to fit multilevel models and specified the between-individual covariance matrix as 'unstructured' to allow correlation among the different sources of variance. Statistics including -2 Log Likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion were used in evaluating the model fit. The results of multilevel analyses indicated that loneliness scores significantly declined over time. Controlling for demographic characteristics, children with higher PSS reported significantly lower baseline loneliness score and experienced a slower rate of decline in loneliness over time. Children with higher PSS were more likely to report higher self-esteem scores at baseline. However, the self-esteem scores remained stable over time controlling for baseline PSS and all the other variables. The positive effect of PSS on psychological adjustment may imply a promising approach for future intervention among children affected by HIV/AIDS, in which efforts to promote psychosocial well being could focus on children and families with lower social support. We also call for a greater understanding of children's psychological adjustment process in various contexts of social support and appropriate adaptations of evidence-based interventions to meet their diverse needs.

  12. Study of stress, self-esteem and depression in medical students and effect of music on perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Vrushali S; Gadkari, Jayashree V

    2014-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to many stressors and if stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive can affect academic performance and health adversely. The objective of this study was to assess stress, predominant stressor and effect of music on perceived stress. 90 undergraduate students were selected randomly. A written questionnaire about personal information, stressful factors, ways to cope up stress, Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and 'Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology' self-rated 16 (QIDS-SR-16) was given.45.6% Students had mild stress, 7.7% students had moderate stress and 1.1% students had severe stress. Academic factors were the predominant cause of stress in most students, followed by physical, social and emotional. On Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) 85.6% students had high self-esteem and on QIDS-SR16 50% students had depression. Effect of music on perceived stress was statistically significant. Medical curriculum is associated with increased stress in students. Music can be used as simple, inexpensive and effective therapy for stress.

  13. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The 'Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  14. Components of self-esteem in affective patients and non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro; Olgiati, Paolo; Colombo, Cristina

    2005-09-01

    Decrease in self-esteem (SE) is found in all mood disorders during inter-episode phases. This trait was associated with relapse and suicidality but its genetic basis is still undefined, probably because SE has multiple components. The aim of the current study was to ascertain which of those components were altered in a sample of affective patients. Three hundred and thirty-one outpatients with bipolar (N=199) and major depressive MD (N=132) disorders in remission for at least three months and one hundred controls completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; [Rosenberg, M., 1965. The measurement of self-esteem, Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton University Press, pp.16-36]). Principal component analysis was performed to identify RSE factor structure. Extracted factors were compared across case and control groups in the whole sample (N=431) and in a sub-sample (N=301) with low self-esteem (RSE <20). PCA yielded a two-factor solution with self-confidence (SC) and self-deprecation (SD) that was largely consistent with the existing literature. Such factors were both associated with lower scores in affective patients than controls (SC: F=52, p<0.01; SD: F=43, p<0.01). However in the low RSE group only self-confidence was found to be decreased in subjects with mood disorders (SC: F=13.8, p<0.01; SD: F=0.05, p=0.9). These findings suggest that self-esteem deficit in affective disorders might involve specific components. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. The relationship between stroke survivors' perceived identity and mood, self-esteem and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadatu, Irina; Morris, Reg

    2017-01-11

    To examine change in identity after stroke and to elucidate its relationship with mood and quality of life. To test Higgins' theory of the impact of identity (self-discrepancy) on anxiety and depression. To examine the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationship between identity and outcomes. Sixty-five community-living first-time stroke survivors, mean age 61.58 and time since stroke 5.60 years, were recruited from stroke charities. A cross-sectional study used the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (adapted) and the Barthel Index. Identity was rated more negatively after stroke than before (t(64) = 6.46, p identity was associated with anxiety (r = .38, p self-esteem (r = -.48, p identity after stroke predicted outcomes even better than discrepancy. The association between discrepancy and mood and quality of life was mediated by self-esteem (β = .30, p relationships with anxiety and depression as predicted. Identity changes after stroke and identity and self-esteem are associated with important outcomes for stroke survivors.

  16. Perceived social support, self esteem, and pregnancy status among Dominican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, Lynn M; Malone, Linda; Kelley, Barbara R

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major health concern among Dominicans in the U.S. and in the Dominican Republic (DR). Twenty three percent of adolescents age 15-19 have experienced pregnancy and this trend is rising. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare social support, self-esteem and pregnancy between Dominican adolescents in the DR with those who have immigrated to the U.S. This study used an exploratory, descriptive design including study samples from both the U.S. and DR. Findings showed that young women with stronger social support and higher self esteem experienced lower pregnancy rates in both the DR and U.S. Neither self esteem nor social support was found to be predictors of pregnancy. Important findings from this study will inform the development of interventions aimed at preventing pregnancy in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  18. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them.

  19. The effect of a creative art program on self-esteem, hope, perceived social support, and self-efficacy in individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Cira; Keating, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Creative art has been found to be beneficial to some patients with chronic illness. Little is understood about how creative art can benefit individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the pilot study was to determine if there was a difference in self-esteem, hope, perceived social support, and self-efficacy in individuals with MS after a 4-week creative art program. A one-group, pretest/posttest design was used. The convenience sample of 14 individuals was recruited from MS Centers and the National MS Society. They ranged in age from 29 to 70 years (M = 51.3 years, SD = 12.5 years). Participants included 14 women. The creative art program included week 1-watercolor, week 2-collage making, week 3-beading, and week 4-knitting. Each of the four weekly sessions was facilitated by a registered nurse with expertise in MS and lasted 2 hours. Creative artists instructed participants and provided a hands-on experience for each of the creative projects. Participants were free to share thoughts, experiences, and words of support and encouragement during each session. The variables were measured before starting the creative art program and after the final session. The instruments included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Modified Social Support Survey, the MS Self-Efficacy Scale, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was used to analyze the data. There was a significant increase in all variables after the creative art program as follows: self-esteem (t = -3.05, p = 009), hope (t = -3.96, p = .002), social support (t = -2.21, p = .046), self-efficacy to function with MS (t = -2.68, p = .019), and self-efficacy to control MS (t = 3.22, p = .007). The power analysis revealed a large effect size for hope (d = 1.06), self-esteem (d = 0.82), and self-efficacy (control; d = 0.86). A medium effect size was found for self-efficacy (function; d = 0.72) and social support (d = 0

  20. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  1. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L.; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F.; Campbell, W. Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem’s moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications—suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks. PMID:22611304

  2. Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents – an intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Hilde; Kvalem, Ingela L.; Berget, Bente; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Braastad, Bjarne O.

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12–15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants answered questionnaires at three time periods. Study I (N = 49) examined the effect of the intervention compared with the control group. Study II (N = 41) examined the relationship between the same psychological variables and change in mastering skills with horse. The intervention group reported a significant increase in perceived social support compared with the control group. There were no differences in self-esteem and general self-efficacy between the groups. The results from study II showed that a lower level of perceived social support prior to the intervention predicted an increase in mastering skills with the horse during the intervention. PMID:24833811

  3. Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: perceived - but not actual - social acceptance as an underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem is virtually non-existent. The present study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. First, the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem was investigated in two independent longitudinal studies: a five-wave study sampling Dutch adolescents (M age = 15.22 years at T1; 47 % female; N = 428) and a three-wave study sampling Belgian adolescents (M age = 14.95 years at T1; 63 % female; N = 882). Second, the underlying role of social acceptance was investigated in the latter sample by applying a multi-method approach that included actual (i.e., peer-reported) and perceived (i.e., self-reported) social acceptance. Results indicated that self-esteem and loneliness influenced one another in a reciprocal manner. Furthermore, the dominant path from self-esteem to loneliness was partially mediated by perceived--but not actual--social acceptance. The importance of distinguishing actual from perceived social acceptance is discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  4. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  5. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demogr...

  6. Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, E; Heian, F; Hagen, K B

    2005-11-01

    A systematic review to determine if exercise alone or as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self esteem in children and young people is described. Twenty three randomised controlled trials were analysed. A synthesis of several small, low quality trials indicates that exercise may have short term beneficial effects on self esteem in children and adolescents. However, high quality research on defined populations with adequate follow up is needed.

  7. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna; Hope, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents' perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  8. Family income and young adolescents’ perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Design and objectives Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents’ perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). Results The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Conclusions Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. PMID:26957529

  9. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  10. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  11. Two objective measures of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorr, M; Wunderlich, R A

    1986-01-01

    Two scales were constructed to assess self-esteem, conceptualized as reflecting (a) feelings of competence and efficacy, and (b) perceived positive appraisal from significant others. To control for response bias a paired choice format was chosen for the items constructed. A buffer scale designed to measure social assertiveness was also included. Data were collected on three samples of high school boys. The item intercorrelations were subjected to principal component analyses followed by Varimax rotations. In each of the three analyses factors of Confidence, Popularity (Social Approval), and Social Assertiveness emerged. The revised self-esteem scales, each defined by 11 items, have been shown to have acceptable reliability and some concurrent validity based on correlations with the well-known Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

  12. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letitre, Sarah L.; de Groot, Eric P.; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paulus

    Objective Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Setting

  13. The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Learning Attitude on the Relationship between Middle School Students’ Perceived Parenting Style and School Life Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Youn, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010 data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPSconducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school studentsperceived their parents’parenting style positively, thelevelof their self-esteem andself-directedlearningattitudewere high,and this,in turn,had positive effects on their school lifeadjustment. Especially, self-esteem andlearning attitudemediated the effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parenting style on school life adjustment. Theseresults demonstrate that the mothers’ affectionate,monitoryandrationalparentingstyle will contribute greatly to the successfulstudents’school lifewith a sense ofself-esteem andself-directedlearningattitude.

  14. Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C P M Theunissen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. METHODS: This large (N = 252 retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years. Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. RESULTS: HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs were related to higher levels of self-esteem. CONCLUSION: HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. DISCUSSION: Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential.

  15. Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential.

  16. Self-Esteem in Hearing-Impaired Children: The Influence of Communication, Education, and Audiological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329

  17. Effect of yoga on positive–Negative affect and self-esteem on tribal male adolescents- A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Effect of yoga on positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem in tribal adolescents. Material and Methods: This is a pilot randomized control study. Several chits were made in which the name of all the available students was written. The youngest boy from the group selected 30 chits for yoga group and the remaining students were included in the control group. The yoga group included 30 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 14.4, SD = 3.51. Control group included 25 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 13.3, SD = 1.90. PANAS-C and Rosenberg self-esteem scales were used to measure the positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem, respectively. Data was collected before and after interventions. Results: Study shows significant increase in positive affect (P = 0.008 and negative affect (P = 0.047 in experimental group as compared to control group's positive affect (P = 0.468 and negative affect (P = 0.156. Self-esteem in experimental group slightly reduced (P = 0.927. Similarly, self-esteem in control group reduced (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Study suggests that two weeks of yoga practice has a significant impact on positive-negative affect in tribal adolescents.

  18. The Perception of the Autonomy Supportive Behaviour as a Predictor of Perceived Effort and Physical Self-esteem among School Students from Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vello Hein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT, this study tested a model of motivational sequence in which perceived autonomy support from teachers in a physical education (PE context predicted the perceived effort and physical self-esteem via self-determined motivation in school students. School students aged 12 to 16 years from Estonia (N = 816, Lithuania (N = 706, Hungary (N = 664, and Spain (N = 922 completed measures of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers, need satisfaction for autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determined motivation, perceived effort and physical self-esteem. The results of the structural equation model (SEM of each sample indicated that the students’ perceived autonomy support from the teacher was directly related to effort and indirectly via autonomous motivation, whereas physical self-esteem was related indirectly. Confirmatory factor analyses and multi-sample structural equation revealed well-fitting models within each sample with the invariances of the measurement parameters across four nations. The findings support the generalizability of the measures in the motivational sequence model to predict perceived effort and physical self-esteem.

  19. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  20. Pragmatic, Randomized Controlled Trials of the Girls on the Go! Program to Improve Self-Esteem in Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlea, Loredana; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry P

    2016-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of an intervention delivered by health professionals outside the school environment to girls identified with issues such as poor body image, low self-esteem, low self-confidence, nonparticipation in sports, or being overweight or underweight. The study's design was a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an intervention on self-esteem, impairment induced by eating disorders, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, and dieting behaviors. The study took place at the community health center located in a culturally diverse area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Participants were 122 primary and secondary school girls between 10 and 16 years of age. Girls on the Go! is a 10-week program designed to improve self-esteem, body image, and confidence, using an empowerment model that involved interactive and experiential learning approaches. Weekly themes included body image and self-esteem, safety and assertiveness, a healthy mind, physical activity, healthy eating, trust and confidence, and connections. Measurements were made using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, clinical interview assessment, health self-efficacy (included mental health and physical health self-efficacy scales), body esteem scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children. A linear mixed model was used. The intervention led to a significant increase (p self-esteem and self-efficacy (mental and physical health self-efficacy subscales), for both primary and secondary school-aged participants and reduced dieting behaviors (secondary school participants). These gains were retained after 6 months of follow-up. This group-based, low-dose intervention, which, although targeting girls with a range of psychological issues and including both overweight and underweight participants, is a successful means of improving self-esteem among girls from diverse cultural backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Pre-dialysis patients' perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation: associations with illness perceptions and treatment perceptions. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daphne L; Grootendorst, Diana C; Rijken, Mieke; Heijmans, Monique; Kaptein, Ad A; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Dekker, Friedo W

    2010-12-08

    Compared to healthy people, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) participate less in paid jobs and social activities. The aim of the study was to examine a) the perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation of patients in the pre-dialysis phase, b) pre-dialysis patients' illness perceptions and treatment perceptions, and c) the association of these perceptions with autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation. Patients (N = 109) completed questionnaires at home. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The results showed that the average autonomy levels were not very high, but the average level of self-esteem was rather high, and that drop out of the labor market already occurs during the pre-dialysis phase. Positive illness and treatment beliefs were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem levels, but not with employment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that illness and treatment perceptions explained a substantial amount of variance in autonomy (17%) and self-esteem (26%). The perception of less treatment disruption was an important predictor. Patient education on possibilities to combine CKD and its treatment with activities, including paid work, might stimulate positive (realistic) beliefs and prevent or challenge negative beliefs. Interventions focusing on these aspects may assist patients to adjust to CKD, and ultimately prevent unnecessary drop out of the labor market.

  2. Pre-dialysis patients' perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation: associations with illness perceptions and treatment perceptions. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaptein Ad A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to healthy people, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD participate less in paid jobs and social activities. The aim of the study was to examine a the perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation of patients in the pre-dialysis phase, b pre-dialysis patients' illness perceptions and treatment perceptions, and c the association of these perceptions with autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation. Methods Patients (N = 109 completed questionnaires at home. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results The results showed that the average autonomy levels were not very high, but the average level of self-esteem was rather high, and that drop out of the labor market already occurs during the pre-dialysis phase. Positive illness and treatment beliefs were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem levels, but not with employment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that illness and treatment perceptions explained a substantial amount of variance in autonomy (17% and self-esteem (26%. The perception of less treatment disruption was an important predictor. Conclusions Patient education on possibilities to combine CKD and its treatment with activities, including paid work, might stimulate positive (realistic beliefs and prevent or challenge negative beliefs. Interventions focusing on these aspects may assist patients to adjust to CKD, and ultimately prevent unnecessary drop out of the labor market.

  3. Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: the mediating role of perceived sport competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnsson, Stefan; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to test longitudinal (2 years across three occasions) associations between sport participation (SP) and self-esteem (SE) across adolescence (10-18 years), addressing the mediating role of perceived sport competence (PSC) from a developmental perspective. Three waves of data were collected from three age cohorts (10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) of school-aged youth (N = 1358). The results demonstrate that SP and SE are related across time and that PSC has an important mediating role in this relationship, both from a skill development and a self-enhancement perspective. In the skill development model, the mediating role of PSC was significantly stronger in the youngest cohort whereas the effect of PSC on subsequent SP in the self-enhancement model was significantly stronger in the 13-15 age group compared with the youngest age group.

  4. Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control in Black and White Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J.; Bridgeman, Brent

    1976-01-01

    This investigation examines the relationship between fifth graders' scores on Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by race and sex. (GO)

  5. The effects of media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-04-01

    Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction: a moderated mediation model of self-esteem and life experience of deaf and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Hong, Xiuxiu; Yu, Yanping; Ling, Hong; Tian, Haiping; Yu, Zuwei; Chang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction, and the role of self-esteem as mediator and life experience as moderator of the relationship in deaf and hearing adolescents. 118 Chinese deaf adolescents (55.1% male; mean age = 15.12 years, standard deviation [SD] = 2.13) from 5 special education schools and 132 Chinese hearing adolescents (53.8% male; mean age = 13.11 years, SD = .85) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding perceived physical appearance, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Perceived physical appearance, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with each other. Moreover, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived physical appearance and life satisfaction; however, this indirect link was weaker for deaf adolescents than it was for hearing adolescents. Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed, as are potential interventions that can be applied to increase subjective well-being in deaf adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre-dialysis patients’ perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation: associations with illness perceptions and treatment perceptions: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.L.; Grootendorst, D.C.; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Kaptein, A.A.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Dekker, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compared to healthy people, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) participate less in paid jobs and social activities. The aim of the study was to examine a) the perceived autonomy, self-esteem and labor participation of patients in the pre-dialysis phase, b) pre-dialysis patients'

  8. The Role of Generational Status, Self-Esteem, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Social Support in College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…

  9. A cross-cultural comparison of climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo women and Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xudong; Leonhart, Rainer; Nadig, Maya; Hasenburg, Annette; Wirsching, Michael; Fritzsche, Kurt

    2016-07-01

    This cross-cultural study aimed to compare climacteric symptoms, self-esteem, and perceived social support between Mosuo and Han Chinese women, and to explore the interaction between culture and climacteric symptoms. Mosuo is a Chinese minority group with a matriarchal structure, and Han Chinese is the majority ethnic group in China with a patriarchal structure. Through convenience sampling, 54 Mosuo women and 52 Han Chinese women between 40 and 60 years of age completed the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Compared with Han Chinese women, Mosuo women scored lower on the psychological (P psychological symptoms severity. Referring to the severity of all symptoms, predictive variables were: perceived support from family (β = -0.210, P = 0.017); self-esteem (β = 0.320, P Cultural variables such as familial structure, women's self-esteem, and perceived social support were correlated with symptomatology.

  10. Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Supportive Parenting to Psychosocial Outcomes among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, R.R.; Prelow, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships among supportive parenting, ethnic identity, self-esteem, perceived efficacy, and psychological adjustment in an urban sample of 133 African American (M age=16.37) and 110 European American (M age=16.43) adolescents. Although the mediational model was partially supported for both…

  11. Role of Perceived Fair Interpersonal Treatment and Organization-Based Self-Esteem in Innovative Work Behavior in a Nigerian Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role of perceived fair interpersonal treatment, organization-based self-esteem, and some demographic characteristics in innovative work behavior among employees of a Nigerian bank. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of 185 employees through a structured questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression and One-Way Analysis of Variance were carried out to test hypotheses. The results reveal significant positive influence of perceived fair interpersonal treatment and organization-based self-esteem on innovative work behavior. Lastly, the results show significant effect of level of education on innovative work behavior. The findings suggest that perceived fair interpersonal treatment and organization-based self-esteem are important predictors of innovative work behavior. Therefore, organizations should focus on improving the levels of organizational based self-esteem among employees who scored low on this trait by providing more recognition and importance. They should also strive to ensure fair interpersonal treatment among employees in order to promote motivation to engage in innovative work behavior.

  12. The impact of individual characteristics in self-esteem and locus of control of young adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    In this study the impact of personal/individual characteristics (gender, vision status, age, age at loss of sight, recency of vision loss, education level, employment status, and ability of independent movement) in locus of control (LOC) and self-esteem were examined. Eighty-four young adults with visual impairments (42 with blindness and 42 with low vision) took part in this study. The significant predictors of self-esteem were vision status, age at loss of sight, recency of vision loss and educational level. Moreover, significant predictors of LOC were vision status and independent movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of EMDR and CBT on Low Self-esteem in a General Psychiatric Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Brecht T; van der Vegt, Anna A; de Groot, Izaäk W; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), regarding their capacities in enhancing self-esteem in a general psychiatric secondary health care population. A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated to either 10 weekly sessions of EMDR ( n = 15) or CBT ( n = 15). They were assessed pre-treatment, after each session, post treatment and at 3 months follow-up on self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Credibility of Core Beliefs), psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory), social anxiety, and social interaction (Inventory of Interpersonal Situations) (IIS). The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for the complete cases ( n = 19) and intention-to-treat ( n = 30) to examine differences over time and between conditions. Both groups, EMDR as well as CBT, showed significant improvements on self-esteem, increasing two standard deviations on the main parameter (RSES). Furthermore, the results showed significant reductions in general psychiatric symptoms. The effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group differences could be detected. Although the small sample requires to exercise caution in the interpretation of the findings, the results suggest that, when offering an adequate number of sessions, both EMDR and CBT have the potential to be effective treatments for patients with low self-esteem and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric conditions. This study was registered at www.trialregister.nl with identifier NTR4611.

  14. The Effect of EMDR and CBT on Low Self-esteem in a General Psychiatric Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht T. Griffioen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT, regarding their capacities in enhancing self-esteem in a general psychiatric secondary health care population. A randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated to either 10 weekly sessions of EMDR (n = 15 or CBT (n = 15. They were assessed pre-treatment, after each session, post treatment and at 3 months follow-up on self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Credibility of Core Beliefs, psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, social anxiety, and social interaction (Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for the complete cases (n = 19 and intention-to-treat (n = 30 to examine differences over time and between conditions. Both groups, EMDR as well as CBT, showed significant improvements on self-esteem, increasing two standard deviations on the main parameter (RSES. Furthermore, the results showed significant reductions in general psychiatric symptoms. The effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group differences could be detected. Although the small sample requires to exercise caution in the interpretation of the findings, the results suggest that, when offering an adequate number of sessions, both EMDR and CBT have the potential to be effective treatments for patients with low self-esteem and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric conditions. This study was registered at www.trialregister.nl with identifier NTR4611.

  15. Mental health promotion of Iranian university students: the effect of self-esteem and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, M; Amiri, M; Khosravan, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-esteem and health control belief on promoting students' mental health. In so doing, 144 students from two medical universities in the north-east of Iran were recruited into study. They were pair-matched and randomly assigned to case and control groups. The data were collected through Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire-28, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scales. The results showed that there were significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. The external components of health locus of control (chance and powerful others) showed a significant decrease but the internal health locus of control and self-esteem revealed a significant increase after the intervention (P mental health had a significant increase after 3 months of intervention (P control beliefs, self-esteem and mental health promotion of the students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted attempts to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  17. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  18. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  19. Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ekeland, E; Heian, F; Hagen, K; Coren, E

    2005-01-01

    Twenty three randomised controlled trials were analysed. A synthesis of several small, low quality trials indicates that exercise may have short term beneficial effects on self esteem in children and adolescents. However, high quality research on defined populations with adequate follow up is needed.

  20. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients with paraplegia and pressure ulcers: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, L; Blanes, L; Salomé, G M; Ferreira, L M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-esteem in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and pressure ulcers. This study was a controlled cross-sectional study. HRQoL was assessed using the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/UNIFESP-EPM Scale. A total of 120 patients with traumatic SCI were included in the sample, of which 60 had pressure ulcers and were assigned to the study group, and 60 had no pressure ulcers and were assigned to the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Of the 60 patients in the study group, 83.3% were men and the mean age was 38.17 years (SD = 9.08 years). When compared with controls, patients in the study group reported significantly lower scores (worse health status) on all SF-36 subscales (p less than or equal to 0.0013) except for general health (p=0.109). The RSE/UNIFESP-EMP scale total score indicated that patients with pressure ulcers had significantly lower self-esteem than controls (p<0.001). Pressure ulcers had an adverse impact on the HRQoL and self-esteem of patients with SCI. There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  1. Fragile self-esteem in children and its associations with perceived patterns of parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernis, M H; Brown, A C; Brody, G H

    2000-04-01

    We examined the extent to which 11- to 12-year-old children's (N = 174) self-esteem (SE) stability and level related to their perceptions of various aspects of parent-child communication. Compared to children with stable SE, children with unstable SE reported that their fathers were more critical and psychologically controlling, and less likely to acknowledge their positive behaviors or to show their approval in value-affirming ways. Likewise, children with low SE reported that their fathers exhibited these qualities to a greater extent than did children with high SE. In addition, fathers of children with stable high SE were viewed as especially good at problem solving. Children's SE level related to perceptions of mothers' communication styles very similarly to how it did with fathers'; with respect to SE stability, however, relationships were generally less consistent and frequently absent. Discussion centered on the role of parent-child communication in promoting unstable SE.

  2. Effectiveness of chemotherapy counselling on self-esteem and psychological affects among cancer patients in Malaysia: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Periasamy, Ummavathy; Rampal, Lekhraj; Fadhilah, Siti Irma; Mahmud, Rozi

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the outcomes of chemotherapy counselling based on the "Managing Patients on Chemotherapy" module on self-esteem and psychological affect (anxiety, depression) of cancer patients by pharmacists in ten selected government hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. A randomized control trial was conducted among 2120 cancer patients from April 2016 to January 2017 in ten selected government hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. Cancer patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received chemotherapy counselling by pharmacists based on the "Managing Patients on Chemotherapy" module. The outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups after counselling. In the course of data analysis; independent sample t-test, chi-square and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were conducted. Mean scores of self-esteem in the intervention group had significant difference in comparison with those of the control group in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups after counselling (P self-esteem and psychological affect of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Peninsular Malaysia. This module can be used for all Malaysian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy to improving self-esteem and psychological affect. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in anxiety, depression and self-esteem: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Giulio; Aria, Massimo; Cepeda-Valdes, Rodrigo; Garcia-Garcia, Sandra Cecilia; Moreno Trevino, Maria Guadalupe; Salas-Alanís, Julio Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The psychological aspect in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is poorly documented. We sought to determine the role of DEB in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 27 DEB patients and 26 healthy individuals. DEB patients and healthy controls completed three different psychometric scales for anxiety and depression and one scale for self-esteem. DEB patients and healthy controls were homogeneous for age and sex (P > 0.05), but not for employment, marital status and economic level (P depression (P = 0.037) and slightly significant for Zung Scale for anxiety (P = 0.048) with no difference between DEB patients with dominant versus recessive form in all scales (P > 0.05). Among DEB patients, only employment showed a significant difference in all scales (P depression, whereas self-esteem seemed to be affected by marriage (P = 0.04) and education (P = 0.016). DEB patients apparently are not more anxious and/or depressed and do not have less self-esteem than healthy individuals. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SELF SYSTEMS, ANOMIE AND SELF ESTEEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as

  6. Loss of control over eating in pre-adolescent youth: the role of attachment and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Decaluwé, Veerle

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to add to the limited literature on the role of self-esteem and attachment for the explanation of loss of control over eating (LC) among pre-adolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 555 children (8-11 years; 47% female). Children reporting LC (17.6% of the sample) were characterized by a lower self-esteem and less secure attachment toward both of their parents. No gender differences emerged. Moreover, the relation between self-esteem and LC was fully mediated by attachment toward mother and partially mediated by attachment toward father. The present study provides preliminary evidence for the idea that the influence of self-esteem on LC seems to operate through a third variable that is an insecure relationship with the parents. Longitudinal research is needed to further elucidate the influence of interpersonal factors on the development of LC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [A comparison of self-esteem in alcohol-dependent women and women who have become abstinent, against a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Angélique; Chauveau-Clerc, Charlyne; Courtois, Robert; Bacq, Yannick; Maugé, Damien; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Women's addiction to alcohol remains a taboo subject, whereas one third of alcohol-dependent people are female. Social representations concerning them are very unfavorable. Their alcoholism is usually accompanied by strong feelings of guilt, depreciation and lowered self-esteem. There is little existing work about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent. This study's goal is to compare the self-esteem of women who are alcohol-dependent and the self-esteem of women who have become abstinent in various domains (social, familial, professional). The sample contained 71 women divided into three groups: 31 alcohol-dependent women (average age of 44.9); 20 alcohol-dependent women who had become abstinent for at least two months (average age of 44.7) and 20 women who formed the control group (average age of 44.4). The material was put together from the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI, adult version of Coopersmith 1981). It includes 58 items divided into four sub-categories (general self-esteem, social, familial and professional) and a scale for falsehoods. The SEI was self-administered. The statistics were produced entirely with non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitley U Test for the comparison of two independent samples and Kruskal-Wallis Anova for the comparison of three independent samples. A significant difference was found for general self-esteem (P=0.001), familial (P=0.01) and professional (P=0.03) between the three groups of women (alcohol-dependent, alcohol-dependent who had become abstinent and women from the control group). There was no statistical difference for social self-esteem or the lying scale. There was a difference between alcohol-dependent women and the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.0001), familial self-esteem (P=0.01) and professional self-esteem (P=0.002), as well as between women who had become abstinent and women from the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.02), familial self-esteem (P=0.005) and professional self-esteem (P=0.07; ns

  8. Health locus of control, body image and self-esteem in individuals with intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Salomé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the health locus of control, self-esteem, and body image in patients with an intestinal stoma. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study conducted at the pole of the ostomates of the city of Pouso Alegre. The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee of Universidade do Vale do Sapucaí. Opinion: 620,459. Patients: 44 patients with an intestinal stoma. Four instruments were used: a questionnaire with demographic and stomatologic data, the Health Locus of Control Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM, and the Body Investment Scale. Statistics: Chi-square, Pearson, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests. p < 0.05 was determined. Results: The majority of patients were over 70 years, 16 (36.4% were female, 30 (68.2% were married, 31 (70.5% were retirees, 31 (70.5% had an income of 1–3 minimum wages, 32 (72.7% did not practice physical activity, 18 (40.9% had an incomplete elementary education, and 35 (79.5% participated in a support or association group. 33 (75% participants received the stoma because of a neoplasia; and 33 (75% had a definitive stoma. In 36 (81.8% participants, the type of stoma used was a colostomy, and 22 (50% measured 20–40 mm in diameter; 32 (72.7% participants used a two-piece device. With regard to complications, there were 29 (65.9% cases of dermatitis. The mean total score for the Health Locus of Control Scale was 62.84; for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, 27.66; and for the Body Investment Scale, 39.48. The mean scores for the dimensions internal, powerful others, and chance of the Health Locus of Control Scale were 22.68, 20.68, and 19.50, respectively. With respect to the Body Investment Scale, for the dimensions body image, body care, and body touch, the mean scores were 11.64, 11.00, and 13.09, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, the participants showed changes in self-esteem and body image and also showed negative feelings about their body

  9. Self-esteem and suicide ideation in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-10-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and depression. Self-esteem was operationalized as beliefs about oneself (self-based self-esteem) and beliefs about how other people regard oneself (other-based self-esteem). Each dimension of self-esteem was negatively associated with suicide ideation after controlling for depression and hopelessness. Of the two dimensions of self-esteem, other-based self-esteem was the more robust predictor of suicide ideation. These findings suggest that even in the context of depression and hopelessness, low self-esteem may add to the risk for suicide ideation.

  10. Social threat appeals in commercial advertising: the moderating impact of perceived level of self-efficacy and self-esteem on advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Faseur, Tine; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the level of fear evoked by an advertisement (for deodorant) framing a threatening social situation. Where the effectiveness of threat appeals has been investigated extensively in health communication, this study focuses on the impact of social threat appeals in a commercial setting. The study investigates the moderating impact of self-esteem on the interaction effect between the level of fear (evoked by a social threat ad) and perceived level of self-eff...

  11. The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Learning Attitude on the Relationship between Middle School Students’ Perceived Parenting Style and School Life Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Youn, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Thisstudyexaminedthe effect ofmiddle school students’perceived parentingstyle on their schoollifeadjustment focusing on the mediation effect of self-esteem andlearning attitude.The author carried outanalysis ofcovariancestructure using the 1stwave(2010) data ofKorean Children and Youth PanelSurvey(KCYPS)conducted by the National Youth Policy Instituteandconsists of2,351first yearmiddle schoolstudents and their parents.The results indicated that whenmiddle school...

  12. The impact of leadership programme on self-esteem and self-efficacy in school: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lau, Tony C M; Lee, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Leadership training programs by experiential learning among adolescents are very popular worldwide and in particular developed countries, but there exists few studies which formally assessed their impact on the psychological well-being of program participants. This study evaluated the effectiveness of leadership training programs on self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents. a total of 180 students of the same grade of one secondary school were randomized into an intervention (n = 50) and a control group (n = 130). The students in the intervention group participated in a 6-month program of leadership training and service learning, while the control group did not participate in any training. Their self-esteem and self-efficacy were assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire and Chinese Adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale, respectively, before and after the program. Both scales have been recognized internationally as valid and reliable survey instruments to measure these psychological attributes. The scores were compared by Student's tests according to gender. A total of 180 students were enrolled during the study period October, 2009 to May, 2010. Their mean age was 15.18 years (0.62) and 56.7% were male. Students allocated to the intervention and control group had statistically similar demographic characteristics except gender (male 36.0% vs. 64.6%, p = 0.001). Overall, the self-esteem scores increased by 1.28 and decreased by 0.30 (p = 0.161) while the self-efficacy scores increased by 0.26 and decreased by 0.76 (p = 0.429) in the intervention and control group, respectively. Among female students, the intervention group showed significant improvements in both self-esteem (2.38 vs. -0.24, pself-efficacy (1.32 vs. -0.04, p = 0.043). Leadership training program were not found to be effective to enhance self-esteem and self-efficacy in adolescents, except girls who showed modest increase in these outcomes. Future research

  13. The impact of leadership programme on self-esteem and self-efficacy in school: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leadership training programs by experiential learning among adolescents are very popular worldwide and in particular developed countries, but there exists few studies which formally assessed their impact on the psychological well-being of program participants. This study evaluated the effectiveness of leadership training programs on self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: a total of 180 students of the same grade of one secondary school were randomized into an intervention (n = 50 and a control group (n = 130. The students in the intervention group participated in a 6-month program of leadership training and service learning, while the control group did not participate in any training. Their self-esteem and self-efficacy were assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire and Chinese Adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale, respectively, before and after the program. Both scales have been recognized internationally as valid and reliable survey instruments to measure these psychological attributes. The scores were compared by Student's tests according to gender. A total of 180 students were enrolled during the study period October, 2009 to May, 2010. Their mean age was 15.18 years (0.62 and 56.7% were male. Students allocated to the intervention and control group had statistically similar demographic characteristics except gender (male 36.0% vs. 64.6%, p = 0.001. Overall, the self-esteem scores increased by 1.28 and decreased by 0.30 (p = 0.161 while the self-efficacy scores increased by 0.26 and decreased by 0.76 (p = 0.429 in the intervention and control group, respectively. Among female students, the intervention group showed significant improvements in both self-esteem (2.38 vs. -0.24, p<0.001 and self-efficacy (1.32 vs. -0.04, p = 0.043. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leadership training program were not found to be effective to enhance self-esteem and self

  14. The relative importance of body change strategies, weight perception, perceived social support, and self-esteem on adolescent depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of body change strategies and weight perception in adolescent depression after accounting for established risk factors for depression, namely low social support across key adolescent contexts. The moderating effect of self-esteem was also examined. Participants (N=4587, 49% female) were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Regression analyses were conducted on the association between well-known depression risk factors (lack of perceived support from parents, peers, and schools), body change strategies, weight perception, and adolescent depressive symptoms one year later. Each well-known risk factor significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Body change strategies related to losing weight and overweight perceptions predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond established risk factors. Self-esteem moderated the relationship between trying to lose weight and depressive symptoms. Maladaptive weight loss strategies and overweight perceptions should be addressed in early identification depression programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  16. Contribution Locus of Control and Self Esteem to Student Academic Procrastination (Study at Department of Islamic Guidance And Counseling, IAIN IB Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Batubara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 describe the locus of control, self-esteem and student academic procrastination (2 express the contribution of locus of control and self-esteem to student academic procrastination. This research is conducted by the expost-facto method with questionnaire instrument which has been measured its validity and reliability. The population in this study were BKI FTK IAIN IB Padang students entering 2014, 2013 and 2012 totaling 355 people, the samples used were Stratified Proportional Random Sampling technique so that the sample of 107 students was obtained. Sample amounted to 107 students. The result of the research shows that (1 locus of control is classified moderately, student self-esteem is on average high and student academic procrastination rate is high. (2 there is a significant contribution between locus of control and self-esteem on student academic procrastination jointly equal to 18.8%.

  17. Self-esteem and intentions mediates perceived fitness with physical activity in Finnish adolescents with long-term illness or disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is recognised as the common language in disability research. However, personal factors in the ICF are not explicitly coded because of cultural differences that influence physical activity (PA participation. The ICF suggests using fitness as a personal factor, as well as other psychological assets. Intentions may serve as such psychological assets and studies on the antecedents to intentions which prompts PA behaviours is lacking in adolescent long term illness or disability (LTID populations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to report how ICF personal factors can influence participation in PA. Perceived fitness (FIT, global self-esteem (GSE, and PA intentions (INT are hypothesised to positively predict PA behaviours among adolescents with LTID after controlling for age. Methods: The data from Finnish 13 and 15 years old adolescents from the self-reported Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study from 2002 and 2010 were pooled. Those with LTID as stated by a medical doctor were included (N = 1,059. Serial mediation with ordinary least squares path analysis was used. Boys and girls were separately analysed, FIT was the independent variable, GSE and INT as mediators, and age controlled moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA the dependent variable. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals were used to test for significance of the direct and indirect paths. Results: FIT was positively related to GSE and INT for boys and girls. Furthermore, INT were positively related to MVPA for boys and girls. These relationships were statistically significant. Therefore, INT can be seen to mediate the relationship between FIT and MVPA after controlling for age. GSE also acted as a statistically significant mediator for boys, between FIT and INT. Therefore serial mediation was presented with boy's MVPA, whereas in the girl's model, only INT mediated FIT and MVPA

  18. The Effect of Identity Development, Self-Esteem, Low Self-Control and Gender on Aggression in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Morsünbül, Ümit

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression seems to be an extensive and serious problem among adolescents and emerging adults, negatively affecting both the victims and the offenders. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, a lot of factors affect aggression. In this study, five factors were examined: gender, life periods, identity formation, low self-control and self-esteem.   Purpose of the Study: The aim of the study is to examine the relations between identity dimensions, low self-control, self-esteem,...

  19. Relaxation therapy and anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation among adults with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who completed 10 sessions of relaxation therapy, and a control group (CG, 15 subjects), who were on a waiting list. The method used is the pretest and posttest. Variables were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. We found that in the RG, relaxation significantly reduced state anxiety, t(14, 15) = 17.8***, d = -0.72, and improved self-esteem, t(14, 15) = -7.7***, d = 1.03, and cognitive reappraisal, t(14, 15) = -6.3***, d = 1.3, while the CG showed no change for these variables. We conclude that relaxation seems to be an interesting therapeutic option for reducing anxiety in people with ID in a supported employment setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. State Self-Esteem in Relation to Weight Locus of Control amongst Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Neelam; Kang, Shirin; Thakur, Nisha; Parthi, Komila

    2006-01-01

    The current society emphasizes physical appearance and physical fitness. Individual's self-esteem has been shown to be linked with physical appearance. Methods: A random sample comprising of 100 male and 100 female (N = 200) adolescents was selected. The subjects were administered the Current Thoughts Scale and the Dieting Beliefs Scale for…

  1. The Measurement, Nomological Net, and Theory of Perceived Self-Esteem Instability: Applying the Conservation of Resources Theory to Understand the Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C

    2018-01-01

    The current article performs the first focused investigation into the construct of perceived self-esteem instability (P-SEI). Four studies investigate the construct's measurement, nomological net, and theoretical dynamics. Study 1 confirms the factor structure of a P-SEI Measure, supporting that P-SEI can be adequately measured. Study 2 identifies an initial nomological net surrounding P-SEI, showing that the construct is strongly related to stable aspects of the self (i.e., neuroticism and core self-evaluations). In Studies 3 and 4, the Conservation of Resources Theory is applied to develop and test five hypotheses. These studies show that P-SEI is predicted by self-esteem level and stressors, and the relationship of certain stressors is moderated by self-esteem contingencies. P-SEI also predicts stress, depression, anxiety, and certain defensive postures. From these studies and the integration of Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that P-SEI emerges through an interaction between environmental influences and personal resources, and we provide a theoretical model to better understand the construct of P-SEI. We suggest that this theory-driven model can prompt the initial field of study on P-SEI.

  2. Promoting a Positive Middle School Transition: A Randomized-Controlled Treatment Study Examining Self-Concept and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R

    2017-03-01

    The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age  = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.

  3. Perceived Parenting, Self-Esteem, and General Self-Efficacy of Iranian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…

  4. Evaluation of depression and self-esteem in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A controlled trial

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    Orhan Koca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis (NE is very common and is one of the most common causes for patients to be admitted to urology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and child surgery departments. We aimed to investigate the effect on depression and self-esteem of this disorder that can cause problems on person's social development and human relations. Material and methods: 90 patients who were admitted to our clinic with complaints of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled. Investigations to rule out organic causes were performed in this group of patients. Out of them 38 children and adolescents (age range 8-18 years with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE agreed to participate in the study In the same period 46 healthy children and adolescents with a similar age range without bed wetting complaint were included in the study as a control group. The age of the family, educational and socioeconomic level were questioned and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI forms were filled out. Results: Mean age of the cases (18 females or 47.4% and 20 males or 52.6% was 10.76 ± 3.82 years whereas mean age of controls (26 females or 56.5% and 20 males or 43.5% was 10.89 ± 3.11 years. Depression scale was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in the case group than in the control group (10.42 ± 4.31 vs 7.09 ± 4.35. In both groups there was no statistically significant difference by age and sex in terms of depression scale (p > 0.05. Conclusion: NE is widely seen as in the community and is a source of stresses either for children and for their families. When patients were admitted to physicians for treatment, a multidisciplinary approach should be offered and the necessary psychological support should be provided jointly by child psychiatrists and psychologists.

  5. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  6. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and First-Time NCLEX-RN Passage of BSN Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis, Pamella Ivey

    Relationships between self-esteem, locus of control (LOC), and first-time passage of National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®) were examined at baccalaureate nursing programs at two historically black colleges and universities. Shortages continue to exceed demands for RNs prepared at the baccalaureate level. Inconsistent pass rates on the NCLEX-RN for graduates of historically black colleges and universities impede the supply of RNs. Surveys and archival data were used to examine characteristics of the sample and explore relationships among variables. All participants (N = 90) reported high self-esteem and internal LOC. Models suggested that all those with high self-esteem and internal LOC would pass the NCLEX-RN; only 85 percent passed the first time. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of statistical significance between self-esteem, LOC, and first-time passage. Variables not included in the study may have affected first-time passage.

  7. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letitre, Sarah L; de Groot, Eric P; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paul L P

    2014-08-01

    Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Dedicated asthma clinic in a general hospital. 70 patients with mostly well-controlled asthma and 70 matched healthy controls. Comprehensive asthma education, management and follow-up for asthma patients. Validated Dutch versions of the Childhood Depression inventory (CDI), Revised Fear Survey for Children (RFSC), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPC-C) and Adolescents (SPC-A) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Asthma control assessed by asthma control questionnaire. No significant differences were found in total scores between asthmatics and controls (95% CI for difference -0.2 to 2.9 for CDI, -5.9 to 11.2 for RFSC, -19.9 to 6.3 for SPC-C, -24.1 to 5.0 for SPC-A and -2.7 to 0.01 for STAIC). There were also no significant differences between asthmatics and controls in the prevalence of scores exceeding cut-off levels for clinically relevant anxiety (13.3 vs 13.0%, p=0.605), depression (12.9 vs 5.7%, p=0.243) or low self-esteem (21.4 vs 12.9%, p=0.175). A significant correlation was found between poorer asthma control and CDI (p=0.012) and anxiety trait symptoms (pChildren with well-controlled asthma enrolled in a comprehensive asthma management programme do not have an increased risk of anxiety, depression and poor self-esteem. Earlier reports of psychological comorbidity in asthma may have been related to inadequately controlled asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Aesthetic self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2015-01-01

    The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.

  9. Self-Esteem and Sexual Permissiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)

  10. Effects of the activation of self-esteem and perceived temporal distance on the preparation for an examination(2): Temporal changes in performance prediction

    OpenAIRE

    藤島, 喜嗣; Yoshitsugu, FUJISHIMA; 昭和女子大学大学院生活機構研究科

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is a global representation of the self that varies in its level of activation. Self-esteem should have an influence on future prediction depending on its activation level. According to the construal level theory, temporal distance moderates the influence of the activated self-esteem. Undergraduates (n=89) participated in a panel survey on predictions about their examination performance, in which their level of self-esteem activation was manipulated. Contrary to the hypothesis, the...

  11. Low Self-Esteem as a Risk Factor for Loneliness in Adolescence: Perceived-but not Actual-Social Acceptance as an Underlying Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhalst, J.; Luyckx, K.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Goossens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem

  12. Coping Styles Mediate the Relationship Between Self-esteem, Health Locus of Control, and Health-Promoting Behavior in Chinese Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huijing; Tian, Qian; Chen, Yuxia; Cheng, Cheng; Fan, Xiuzhen

    Health-promoting behavior plays an important role in reducing the burden of coronary heart disease. Self-esteem and health locus of control may contribute to health-promoting behavior, and coping styles may mediate these associations. The aims of our study were to examine whether self-esteem and health locus of control are associated with health-promoting behavior and examine the possible mediating effect of coping styles in patients with coronary heart disease. Health-promoting behavior, self-esteem, health locus of control, and coping styles were assessed in 272 hospitalized patients (60 ± 12 years, 61% male) with coronary heart disease. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyze the relationships between health-promoting behavior and other variables. Mediation effect was examined according to the methods of Baron and Kenny. The mean score for health-promoting behavior was 2.57 ± 0.51; 38.2% of patients (n = 104) scored lower than 2.5. Self-esteem (β = .139, P locus of control and health-promoting behavior. Confrontation plays a mediating role in the association among self-esteem, internal health locus of control, and health-promoting behavior. Strategies should be undertaken to encourage the use of confrontation coping style, which will facilitate health-promoting behavior.

  13. Relationship between coping, self-esteem, individual factors and mental health among Chinese nursing students: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chunping; Liu, Xiwen; Hua, Qianzhen; Lv, Aili; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between ways of coping, self-esteem, individual factors and mental health among Chinese nursing students. A sample of 515 nursing students was selected from four public institutes and colleges in Xi'an of China by a random sampling method. They were surveyed by a self-evaluation questionnaire including the Symptom-Checklist 90 (SCL-90), the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Personal Data Form. On the basis of the total score of SCL-90 obtained in the survey, high and low score groups were formed, each consisting of 100 nursing students. Then a matched case-control design was carried out to explore the relationship between ways of coping, self-esteem, individual factors and mental health. Besides descriptive statistics, the Chi-square analysis, t-test and Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis were also employed. The active coping and self-esteem scores of the high score group were found to be much lower than those of the low score group (Pmental health among nursing students, whereas self-fulfillment satisfaction (OR=0.037, 95%CI: 0.014-0.097) and a higher level of self-esteem (OR=0.357, 95%CI: 0.152-0.838) were preventive factors. The mental health of Chinese nursing students was related to the ways of coping, self-esteem, study stress and physical health problems in the past year. In order to improve the mental health of nursing students, aside from reducing the study stress and avoiding passive coping, it is very necessary for them to be supported to ensure that academic stress is minimized, autonomy is promoted, and self-esteem is developed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Situated Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigman, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…

  15. Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…

  16. Justified Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…

  17. Self-Esteem and Suicide Ideation in Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…

  18. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of self-perceived usefulness and competence in the self-esteem of elderly adults: confirmatory factor analyses of the Bachman revision of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzijn, R; Keeves, J; Luszcz, M; Feather, N T

    1998-03-01

    This article reports on a confirmatory analytic study of the Bachman Revision (1970) of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) that was used in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA). Participants comprised 1,087 elderly people aged between 70 and 103 years (mean 77 years). Five competing factor models were tested with LISREL8. The best-fitting model was a nested one, with a General Self-Esteem second-order factor and two first-order factors, Positive Self-regard and Usefulness/Competence. This model was validated with data from a later wave of ALSA. Usefulness and competence have received little attention in the gerontological literature to date. Preliminary results indicate that usefulness/competence may be an important predictor of well-being. Further work is required on the relationships among usefulness, competence, self-esteem, and well-being in elderly people.

  20. Effects of an exercise programme on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Aida M; De Paz, José A; Márquez, Sara

    2012-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise trial on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia and to evaluate whether improvements in psychological distress were related to changes in physical functioning. Twenty-eight women with a primary diagnosis of fibromyalgia were randomized to a usual care control group or to a 12-week supervised training programme consisting of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic, strengthening and flexibility exercises. Outcomes were physical functioning (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), lower-body strength and flexibility) and psychological functioning (SF-36, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and Erdmann self-concept scale). Outcomes were measured at study entry and at the end of the intervention. Compared to the control group, statistically significant improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, FIQ, physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, role emotional, social functioning, mental health, isometric strength, muscular endurance and flexibility were evident in the exercise group at the end of treatment. Self-esteem and self-concept scores were correlated positively with role emotional, mental health and the mental component summary of SF-36 and were negatively correlated to FIQ scores. No significant correlation existed between self-esteem or self-concept and isometric strength, muscular endurance or flexibility. Our results highlight the need for a broader array of physical and mental outcomes and the importance of examining patient's perceptions in future research therapies.

  1. Trauma Symptoms, Perceived Social Support, Emotional Competence and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Nursing School Teachers' Behavior Styles in Social Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vlah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to analyse the relationship between three styles used in social conflicts (cooperation, avoiding/adapting and winning and some personality traits shared by future nursery school teachers, and to explore the possibility of predicting styles used in social conflicts on the basis of these traits. One hundred and seven students of Early and Preschool Education in Rijeka (M=23 years, 98% female students completed a questionnaire that integrated the Scale of Attitudes Towards Behavioural Styles in Social Conflicts (Vlah, 2013, Trauma Symptoms Checklist (Šimić, Sesar, & Barišić, 2012, Social Support Appraisals Scale (Kurtović, 2013, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (Takšić, 2002, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1979. Descriptive, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyse the data. All three styles used in social conflicts were correlated to other research variables. Older students and those more competent in perceiving and understanding emotions and those with higher self-esteem with regard to oneself are significantly more oriented towards the cooperation style. The avoiding/adapting style can be predicted on the basis of students' somatic symptoms, while trauma symptoms present in students predict the winning style.

  2. Continuity and Change in Self-Esteem During Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355

  3. Effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem on community-living individuals with mental illness: Non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine over a 12-month post-intervention period whether the participation of community-living individuals with mental illness in cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem (CBGTRS) resulted in improved outcomes. This was a non-randomized controlled trial. The participants were persons with mental illness who resided in communities in the Chugoku region of Japan. In total, 41 were assigned to an experimental group (CBGTRS intervention, 12 group sessions), and 21 to a control group. Outcome indices (self-esteem, moods, cognition, subjective well-being, psychiatric symptoms) were measured for the experimental group prior to intervention (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and at 3 (T2) and 12 (T3) months post-intervention. The control group was measured at the same intervals. For the experimental group, self-esteem scores at T1, T2, and T3 were significantly higher than at T0. Moods and cognition scores remained significantly low until T2. Scores for Inadequate Mental Mastery in the subjective well-being index had not decreased by T3. Confidence in Coping remained significantly high until T2. Psychiatric symptoms scores at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than at T0. The means and standard errors for self-esteem and Inadequate Mental Mastery increased until T3, and those for Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Confusion decreased until T2. From within-group trends and between-group differences in self-esteem, we conclude that CBGTRS may have a relatively long-term effect on self-esteem recovery. T2 is the turning point for moods and cognition; thus, follow-up is needed 3 months following the initial program. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Theory and Practice in Self-Esteem Enhancement: Circle-Time and Efficacy-Based Approaches--A Controlled Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Moran, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    There are differences of opinion about self-esteem enhancement in the classroom; these differences exist at both conceptual and practical levels. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether techniques employed by primary school teachers as a day-to-day part of their teaching can have measurable effects on the self-esteem of their pupils. Two…

  5. Is BodyThink an efficacious body image and self-esteem program? A controlled evaluation with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Shanel M; Paxton, Susan J; Thomson, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of BodyThink, a widely disseminated body image and self-esteem program. Participants were 277, grade 7 students from 4 secondary schools in Australia. The intervention group (62 girls, 85 boys) participated in BodyThink during four 50-min lessons, while the control group (65 girls, 65 boys) received their usual classes. All participants completed baseline, postintervention and 3-month follow-up questionnaires. For girls, the intervention group reported higher media literacy and lower internalization of the thin ideal compared to the control group. For boys, the intervention group reported higher media literacy and body satisfaction than the control group. Although some positive outcomes were observed, it would be valuable to find ways to enhance the impact of BodyThink, especially in light of its wide dissemination. Suggestions for improving BodyThink are presented.

  6. Story on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Kids / Self-Esteem Print en español Sobre la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...

  7. Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Kanazayire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.

  8. Visual Arts Education improves self-esteem for persons with dementia and reduces caregiver burden: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Allan G; Tietyen, Ann C; Jicha, Gregory A; Bardach, Shoshana H; Schmitt, Frederick A; Fardo, David W; Kryscio, Richard J; Abner, Erin L

    2018-01-01

    A Visual Arts Education program was tested among 26 pairs of persons with dementia and their caregivers. Pairs were randomized to Visual Arts Education or control groups, and each group met once per week for two months (8 weeks) to participate in activities with a trained arts instructor. Groups were assessed at baseline, two months, and six months. The Visual Arts Education group received instruction and produced a different type of artistic work each week. The pedagogical strategy was designed so that each activity was increasingly novel, challenging, and complex. The control group viewed slide shows, participated in discussions about art, and made paintings. At the six-month follow-up, significant improvements in caregiver burden and self-esteem for the persons with dementia were found in the Visual Arts Education group. The Visual Arts Education pedagogical approach shows the potential for effectiveness for improving quality of life for persons with dementia and their caregivers.

  9. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L; Asghar, K; Seff, I; Cislaghi, B; Yu, G; Tesfay Gessesse, T; Eoomkham, J; Assazenew Baysa, A; Falb, K

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem. Key independent variables of interest included a scale measuring personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms, a measure of perceived injunctive norms capturing how a girl believed her family and community would react if she was raped, and a peer-group measure of collective descriptive norms surrounding gender inequity. The key outcome variable, self-esteem, was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Girl's personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms were not significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline, when adjusting for other covariates. Collective peer norms surrounding the same gender inequitable statements were significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.130; p   =  0.024). Additionally, perceived injunctive norms surrounding family and community-based sanctions for victims of forced sex were associated with a decline in self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.103; p   =  0.014). Significant findings for collective descriptive norms and injunctive norms remained when controlling for all three constructs simultaneously. Findings suggest shifting collective norms around gender inequity, particularly at the community and peer levels, may sustainably support the safety and well-being of adolescent girls in refugee settings.

  10. Students' Self-Esteem at School: The Risk, the Challenge, and the Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihadi Kususanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important elements in students’ psychological well-being, self-esteem is often neglected at school. In schools where students are grouped based on their academic abilities (Between Class Ability Grouping or BCAG, or tracking, teachers are likely to have different expectancies toward different group of students; towards high-achieving students, they tend to be academically supportive, while towards low-achieving students, they tend to control students’ behavior in order to avoid disciplinary problems. In turn, students observe their teachers’ classroom behavior and develop different perception towards their teachers’ expectancy. Eventually, self-esteem of the students is affected by their perceived teachers’ expectancy (PTE, where the effect is not always positive. In other words, while most teachers would rather not to teach in mixed classrooms, the practice of BCAG might contribute negative effect to students’ self-esteem. Therefore, any strategy to improve students’ self-esteem might not be able to produce long-lasting result, because teachers’ expectancy towards the students is strongly influenced by the classroom segregation. However, it was discovered recently that Locus of Control (LoC mediates the effect of PTE on students’ self-esteem. In the light of that, there is a hope to develop or maintain students’ self-esteem levels by developing some strategies based on Behavior Modification Theories to alter students’ LoC.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF ASSESS SELF-ESTEEM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL WITH QUALITY OF LIFE DURING TREATMENT STAGES IN PATIENTS REFERRING TO DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh

    2016-07-24

    Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. According to the results, in the 12 th day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life.

  12. RELATIONSHIP OF ASSESS SELF-ESTEEM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL WITH QUALITY OF LIFE DURING TREATMENT STAGES IN PATIENTS REFERRING TO DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. Methods: The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. Results: According to the results, in the 12th day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. Conclusion: It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life. PMID:27698598

  13. Sexual and contraceptives attitudes, the locus of health control and self-esteem among higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas Janeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship between sexual and contraceptive attitudes, the locus of health control and self-esteem among students of a private institution of higher education. Methods: Descriptive and correlational study with a quantitative approach, performed in a higher education school in Lisbon, with 152 students, from the 1st to the 4th year of undergraduate courses in Nursing, Physiotherapy, Cardiopneumology and Radiology. As research instrument, it was used a questionnaire with rating scales on ‘sexual attitudes’, ‘contraception attitudes’, ‘locus of health control’ and ‘self-esteem’. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The majority of students (90.7% have already had sexual intercourse. Sexual attitudes were influenced by gender (p=0.0035, but not by the start of sexual activity or by the course’s year (p>0.05. Contraceptive attitudes were related to the year that students attended (p=0.031 and to gender (p=0.029. The external locus of control, on average, was higher among girls (29.2 than boys (30.1. The self-esteem increased with the student’s age (p=0.003. Conclusion: Investment in the area of sexual education is needed in the undergraduate programs, since the young people live their days in the school setting, spending little time with their families. The university should assume a special position in the development of the concept of sexuality based on the holistic perspective of the human being, promoting sexual education as essential in the construction of human identity and fundamental for health promotion doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p505

  14. Psychological Correlates of Teen Sexting in Three Countries--Direct and Indirect Associations between Self-Control, Self-Esteem, and Sexting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Wright, Michelle F.; Wolf, Karsten D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates frequency rates of sexting, and examines the associations of sexting with self-control and self-esteem as psychological correlates. The study sample included 1,818 adolescents between 12 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.3, SD = 1.4) from Germany, the Netherlands, and Thailand. Across the three countries, the…

  15. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Moein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.

  16. Craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavric, Anja; Mirceta, Dubravka; Jakobovic, Mario; Pavlic, Andrej; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-06-01

    Self-esteem is a psychological trait that may develop in interaction with craniodentofacial esthetics. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem in adolescents and young adults. The study was cross-sectional; the sample included 200 pupils and university students (58% female) aged 13 to 33 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire were used. Craniodentofacial features were estimated by the method of Martin and Saller, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need. When malocclusion severity increases, dental esthetics-related quality of life decreases. The multiple linear regression showed that with the control of all other predictors in the model, the social impact of dental esthetics, borderline dental self-confidence, and facial type contribute the most to explain the variability of self-esteem, accounting for 3.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, of the variability values. The whole model accounts for 24.2% of the variability of self-esteem. In adolescents and young adults, self-esteem appears to be more influenced by the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics than the normative level of malocclusion, craniofacial typology, sex, or age. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  18. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  19. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  20. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  1. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.

  2. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  3. Sildenafil citrate improves self-esteem, confidence, and relationships in men with erectile dysfunction: Results from an international, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; O'leary, Michael P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Hvidsten, Kyle; Stecher, Vera J; Glina, Sidney; King, Rosie; Siegel, Richard L

    2006-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) can significantly impact a man's relationships and well-being. We assessed changes in self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction, and overall relationship satisfaction in men with ED using the validated Self-Esteem And Relationship questionnaire (SEAR). This was a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose (25, 50, 100 mg, as needed) international study of sildenafil in men > or =18 years of age in Mexico, Brazil, Australia, and Japan. The primary study outcome was change in self-esteem from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary study measures were changes in other SEAR components, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) domains, percentage of intercourse attempts that were successful, and the response to a global efficacy question at the end of treatment. Patients were well balanced for age and duration of ED (placebo = 149 and sildenafil = 151). Compared with placebo, sildenafil significantly improved self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction, and overall relationship satisfaction (P relationship satisfaction, and overall relationship satisfaction after treatment of ED with sildenafil were consistent among countries. These data suggest a substantial cross-cultural improvement in well-being after successful treatment of ED with sildenafil.

  4. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effects of a Home-Based DVD-Delivered Physical Activity Program on Self-Esteem in Older Adults: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awick, Elizabeth Ann; Ehlers, Diane; Fanning, Jason; Phillips, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Although center-based supervised physical activity interventions have proved to be successful in attenuating health declines in older adults, such methods can be costly and have limited reach. In the present study, we examined the effects of a DVD-delivered exercise intervention on self-esteem and its subdomains and the extent to which these effects were maintained. In addition, we examined whether psychological, demographic, and biological factors acted as determinants of self-esteem. Low-active, older adults (n = 307; mean [standard deviation] age =71.0 [5.1] years) were randomly assigned to a 6-month, home-based exercise program consisting of a DVD-delivered exercise intervention focused on increasing flexibility, toning, and balance (FlexToBa) or an attentional control DVD condition focused on healthy aging. Physical self-worth and three subdomains of self-esteem, global self-esteem, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. There was a differential effect of time for the two groups for physical self-worth (F interaction(2,530.10) = 4.17, p = .016) and perception of physical condition (F interaction(1,630.77) = 8.31, p = .004). Self-efficacy, sex, body mass index, and age were significant predictors of changes in physical self-worth and perception of physical condition. Our findings suggest that a DVD-delivered exercise intervention is efficacious for improving and maintaining subdomain and domain levels of self-esteem in older adults. In addition, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of changes in physical self-worth and perceptions of physical condition. This innovative method of delivering an exercise training program via DVD is practical and effective and has the potential for broad reach and dissemination. Clinicaltrials.govidentifier:NCT01030419.

  6. Effects of a Home-Based DVD-Delivered Physical Activity Program on Self-Esteem in Older Adults: Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awick, Elizabeth A; Ehlers, Diane; Fanning, Jason; Phillips, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although center-based supervised physical activity interventions have proven to be successful in attenuating health declines in older adults, such methods can be costly and have limited reach. In the present study, we examined the effects of a DVD-delivered exercise intervention on self-esteem and its subdomains and the extent to which these effects were maintained. In addition, we examined whether psychological, demographic, and biological factors acted as determinants of self-esteem. Methods Low active, older adults (N=307 ; Mean age =71.0 [SD=5.1] years) were randomly assigned to a six-month, home-based exercise program consisting of a DVD-delivered exercise intervention focused on increasing flexibility, toning, and balance (FlexToBa) or an attentional control DVD condition focused on healthy aging. Physical self-worth, three subdomains of self-esteem, global self-esteem, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months. Results There was a differential effect of time for the two groups for physical self-worth [F interaction (2, 530.10) = 4.17, p = 0.016] and perception of physical condition [F(2, 630.77) = 8.31, p = 0.004]. Self-efficacy, sex, body mass index (BMI), and age were significant predictors of changes in physical self-worth and perception of physical condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest a DVD-delivered exercise intervention is efficacious for improving and maintaining subdomain and domain levels of self-esteem in older adults. Additionally, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of changes in physical self-worth and perceptions of physical condition. This innovative method of delivering an exercise training program via DVD is practical, effective, and has the potential for broad reach and dissemination. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01030419 PMID:27359182

  7. Self-esteem and psychiatric features of Turkish adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a comparative study with epilepsy and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.

  8. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  9. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-esteem in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandell, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the ......-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions....

  11. The impact of dental appearance and anxiety on self-esteem in adult orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maroto, M; Santos-Puerta, N; González Olmo, M J; Peñacoba-Puente, C

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between different dimensions of dental appearance impact and self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, with special attention to the possible mediating role of anxiety. A quasi-experimental design was used with a matched control group (without orthodontic treatment). In each group (experimental and control), there were 85 patients. The impact of dental appearance was measured using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). State anxiety was assessed with the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and self-esteem with Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. In both groups (experimental and control), self-esteem correlates negatively, ranging between 0.26 and 0.43, with all dimensions of dental appearance impact (except for the positive dental self-confidence dimension, where all correlations were positive). Anxiety correlates positively, ranges between 0.35 and 0.44, with social impact, psychological impact and aesthetic concern, although it maintains no significant correlations with dental self-confidence. Nevertheless, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, anxiety plays a mediating role between dental impact dimensions and self-esteem, whilst for the control group anxiety only plays a mediator role between psychological impact and self-esteem. Anxiety plays a fundamental role in the effect of perceived dental impact on self-esteem in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. These results have important practical implications for the design of bio-psycho-social intervention programs that contemplate cognitive-affective variables as an essential part of orthodontic treatment in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship.

  13. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  14. What Is Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branden, Nathaniel

    By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…

  15. "I'm not gay. . . . I'm a real man!": Heterosexual Men's Gender Self-Esteem and Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.

  16. Probing Resilience: Daily Environmental Mastery, Self-Esteem, and Stress Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    The current study explores one way the process of resilience arises by investigating the underlying process of stress appraisal. In particular, the analyses examine how resilience resources function each day to attenuate the extent to which life experiences are perceived as threatening, and how trait-like resilience resources shape the appraisal process. Daily diary and questionnaire data from 96 participants of Successful Aging in Context: The Macroenvironment and Daily Lived Experience (SAIC; MAge = 67 years, SDAge = 4.9 years; range: 58-86 years) were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling to investigate how individuals' daily perceptions of control and self-esteem impacted perceived stress on a given day. Results suggested that both self-esteem and environmental mastery help mitigate the experience of stress; furthermore, dispositional resilience and self-esteem stability predict differences between individuals in the extent to which self-esteem tempers the perception of stress each day. The results inform theoretical and empirical work on the nature of resilience, especially regarding how the process arises in ordinary life. From an application perspective, results imply that augmenting environmental mastery and self-esteem, both of which are malleable, can facilitate resilience by helping elders challenge their perceptions of stress each day. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Interpersonal consequences of seeking self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  18. INTERNET OUT OF CONTROL: THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PERSONALITY TRAITS IN PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Sideli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Young people seem particularly likely to develop pathological Internet use (PIU with the use of social networks, chat, and videos. Sensation-seeking, neuroticism, introversion, and low self-esteem are personality features frequently associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to replicate and to extend previous findings by exploring the combined effect of personality traits and self-esteem on PIU. Method: A sample of 652 male students attending vocational technical schools in Palermo (Southern Italy was assessed using the following measures: the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to evaluate personality traits; the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale to assess self-esteem; the Tech Style Behavior to investigate PIU. Results: Pathological Internet Use was associated to age, feelings of low self-esteem and inadequate competence, impulsivity/sensation seeking, aggression-hostility, and sociability. However, in a multiple linear regression model, only sociability, aggression-hostility, competence, and age demonstrated a significant effect in the prediction of PIU. Conclusions: Expanding previous research, the findings suggest that low self-esteem, high aggression-hostility, and high sociability are significant risk factors for PIU. Therefore, primary prevention programmes should include interventions aimed at promoting self-competence, enhancing emotional skills, and developing effective coping strategies.

  19. The Relationship of Student Self-Esteem and Teacher Empathy to Classroom Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice F.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the influence of teacher and student personality on learning. Empathy was evaluated for 12 graduate teaching assistants, while 447 college students completed a self-esteem measure. Positive effects were found between self-esteem and academic performance and between objective and perceived empathy and self-esteem on all criteria.…

  20. Student Self-Esteem and the School System: Perceptions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Cynthia G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that examined similarities and differences in perceptions of K-12 school administrators, counselors, and teachers about student self-esteem, and how they perceived their impact on student self-esteem. Surveys yielded noteworthy similarities and differences in their perceptions of student self-esteem and statistical significance…

  1. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  2. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.

  3. The role of locus of control, self-esteem, parenting style, loneliness, and academic achievement in predicting bullying among middle school students

    OpenAIRE

    ATİK, Gökhan

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence rate of bullying and victimization among middle school students and investigating the role of locus of control, self- esteem, parenting style, loneliness, and academic achievement in predicting participation in bullying and victimization. The sample consisted of 742 participants recruited from 6th

  4. The effects of laughter therapy on mood state and self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hee; Kook, Jeong Ran; Kwon, Moonjung; Son, Myeong Ha; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Yeon Hee

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether laughter therapy lowers total mood disturbance scores and improves self-esteem scores in patients with cancer. Randomized controlled trial in a radio-oncology outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=33) or the wait list control group (n=29). Three laughter therapy sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Mood state and self-esteem. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant main effect of group: Experimental group participants reported a 14.12-point reduction in total mood disturbance, while the wait list control group showed a 1.21-point reduction (p=0.001). The per-protocol analysis showed a significant main effect of group: The experimental group reported a 18.86-point decrease in total mood disturbance, while controls showed a 0.19-point reduction (plaughter therapy can improve mood state and self-esteem and can be a beneficial, noninvasive intervention for patients with cancer in clinical settings.

  5. Relationship between Suicidality and Low Self-esteem in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-12-31

    Low self-esteem is associated with suicide risk in the general psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to examine associations between suicidality and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including previous suicide attempt history, were assessed. Psychopathology, self-esteem, and self-perceived stigma were also measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Korean version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (K-ISMI). Of the total of 87 participants, 20 (23.0%) had attempted suicide. Patients with a history of suicide attempts had significantly higher scores on the BDI (p=0.036) and K-ISMI (p=0.009), and significantly lower scores on the SES (p=0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the SES scores were significantly lower in patients with a history of previous suicide attempts than in those with no history, after controlling for K-ISMI and BDI scores (p=0.039). Low self-esteem appears to represent a psychological dimension that is closely related to suicide risk. Therefore, clinical attention should be paid to the evaluation and enhancement of low self-esteem in schizophrenia patients with suicidality. A longitudinal prospective study is required to ascertain whether low self-esteem leads suicide attempts.

  6. Self esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey study comparing young adults with MS and healthy controls on self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer Uccelli, Michele; Traversa, Silvia; Ponzio, Michela

    2016-09-15

    Studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) report low levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of anxiety and depression and reduced quality of life. The study aims to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life in young adults with MS and to compare them to a healthy control group. The age range for inclusion in the study was between 18 and 35years of age for both groups. Subjects with MS were recruited through the Italian MS Society. Healthy controls were recruited through social media and from a university undergraduate program. Subjects completed an anonymous online questionnaire combining various scales. Group differences on demographic data were assessed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups on scales of self-perception, mood and quality of life, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Eighty-nine subjects with MS and 109 HC were included in the analysis. ANCOVA failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between groups on self-esteem (F=0.11, p=0.743), self-efficacy (F=2.22, p=0.138), mood (anxiety F=0.03, p=0.855; depression F=0.06, p=0.812) and quality of life (F=0.08, p=0.772). This study demonstrated that young adults with MS and healthy controls have similar levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and that they do not differ significantly on measures of mood and quality of life, as previously reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Parental interest in children's education, children's self-esteem and locus of control, and later educational attainment: twenty-six year follow-up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-03-01

    Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's education at age 10 and child's locus of control and self-esteem at age 10 in educational attainment at age 26; and (2) to explore if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to child's educational attainment via their effect in increasing child's self-esteem and internal locus of control. The study used longitudinal data from sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). The initial sample was those 1,737 men and 2,033 women with valid data on age 10 self-esteem, locus of control, father's interest, mother's interest, and age 26 educational attainment. Of these, 1,326 men and 1,578 women were included in the final analysis. The birth to age 10 factors that were controlled for were birth weight, parental social class, socio-economic disadvantage, emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability, and mother's educational attainment. At the multivariate level, internal locus of control and mother's interest (but not self-esteem) were significantly related to educational attainment in both men and women. Father's interest was a significant predictor of educational attainment only in women. Parent's interest was not linked to educational attainment via its impact on child's self-esteem or locus of control. Self-esteem predicted educational attainment in both genders by increasing internal locus of control, and fathers' interest predicted educational attainment in men by increasing mother's involvement. Although mothers' and fathers' interest in their children's education were not linked to educational attainment via their impact on children's self-esteem or locus of control, they were significant predictors of

  9. Impaired responsibility dimension of self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Nathália F; Oliveira, Fernando L B B; de Souza, Elisabete Abib Pedroso

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy and Brazilian adolescents without this condition and the correlations between self-esteem of these adolescents with depression and anxiety symptoms. Study participants were 101 adolescents of both sexes, aged 10-19years old, from elementary and high school education. Fifty patients diagnosed with uncomplicated epilepsy attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital composed the case group. The other fifty-one adolescents without this diagnosis were attending public schools in Campinas-SP region. The instruments used were: identification card with demographics and epilepsy data, Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety - IDATE. A statistically significant result was found in the Responsibility Self-esteem Dimension favoring the control group. Significant correlations between self-esteem scores and anxiety and depression symptoms were also found. The development of a chronic disease such as epilepsy leads to a change in the way the individual perceives himself and the social environment he is inserted, influencing his behavior. The way people with epilepsy experience their seizures is a subjective measure that will control his/her well-being. Childhood and adolescence form the basis for a healthy emotional development; thus, our results show the importance of studying how subjective variables relate to the physical aspects of a chronic disease in these life stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. More negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among patients diagnosed with IBS compared with patients without IBS--a case-control study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzinsky, Ewa; Walter, Susanna; Viktorsson, Lisa; Carlsson, Ann-Kristin; Jones, Michael P; Faresjö, Åshild

    2015-01-28

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal disorder, that affects approximately 10% of the general population and the majority are diagnosed in primary care. IBS has been reported to be associated with altered psychological and cognitive functioning such as mood disturbances, somatization, catastrophizing or altered visceral interoception by negative emotions and stress. The aim was to investigate the psychosocial constructs of self-esteem and sense of coherence among IBS patients compared to non-IBS patients in primary care. A case-control study in primary care setting among IBS patients meeting the ROME III criteria (n = 140) compared to controls i.e. non-IBS patients (n = 213) without any present or previous gastrointestinal complaints. The data were collected through self-reported questionnaires of psychosocial factors. IBS-patients reported significantly more negative self-esteem (p IBS-cases were also less likely to report 'good' health status (p IBS patients remained statistically significant (p = 0.02), as did the lower scores for sense of coherence among IBS cases (p = 0.04). The more frequently reported negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among IBS patients found in this study suggest the possibility that psychological therapies might be helpful for these patients. However these data do not indicate the causal direction of the observed associations. More research is therefore warranted to determine whether these psychosocial constructs are more frequent in IBS patients.

  11. Effects of exercise programs on depressive symptoms, quality of life, and self-esteem in older people: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hi; Han, Kuem Sun; Kang, Chang-Bum

    2014-11-01

    This study attempted to show evidence of exercise programs as intervention to decrease depressive symptoms and to improve quality of life and self-esteem in older people. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases of KoreaMed, Korea Scientific and Technological Intelligence Center, Korean Society of Nursing Science, Korean Academy of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Ovid-Medline and Embase were searched up to May 25th, 2012 for relevant articles. We searched studies of randomized controlled trials involving exercise programs administered to participants aged 65 years or over. Of 461 publications identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Quality assessment of the studies utilized Cochrane's Risk of Bias. Exercise therapy in older people was effective, as evidenced by a decrease in depressive symptoms [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64, -0.08], and improvements in quality of life (SMD 0.86; 95% CI 0.11, 1.62) and self-esteem (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.09, 0.88). The changes were significant statistically, with no heterogeneity. Exercise programs in older people are effective in improving depressive symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem. Development and efficient use of tailored exercise programs for elderly people is a prudent strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-esteem and evaluative beliefs in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Sánchez, Alvaro; Provencio, María; Wickham, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Psychological models have implicated negative self-esteem as an important factor underlying paranoia. However, research investigating the role of self-esteem in paranoia suffers from poor conceptual and methodological understanding, resulting in conflicting findings. Central to this problem is the use of measures investigating global self-esteem and self-evaluative beliefs interchangeably. In the present study we aimed to analyze differences in self-esteem domains and self-evaluation. The present study used interviews and questionnaires to compare a clinical sample of participants who were currently paranoid (n = 55) with healthy controls (n = 57) on global self-esteem domains and negative evaluative beliefs, in order to investigate the multi-faceted role of "the self". There was no significant difference in self-esteem domains between groups, highlighting that self-esteem is preserved in currently paranoid individuals. However, the paranoid group had significantly more negative evaluative beliefs. Interestingly, our global measures of self-esteem and measures of negative evaluative beliefs were uncorrelated, highlighting the importance of understanding the differences underlying these concepts. This study does not address dynamic aspects of self-esteem and self-evaluation. The present study provides undeniable evidence to investigate self-concept dimensions separately. These findings must be considered by researchers interested in the role of the self in the onset and maintenance of paranoia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-esteem among Arab adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, I

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the level of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. A group of 1,560 11th- and 12th-grade Israeli-Arab adolescents answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). The results revealed significant relationships (a) between global self-esteem and students' evaluations of their scholastic levels, their schools' academic levels, and their plans to take matriculation exams and (b) between self-esteem and family and peer relations. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and community type. Participants living in cities and villages scored higher than those living in Bedouin townships. There were no significant gender differences or differences among grade levels.

  14. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  15. The effect of EMDR and CBT on low self-esteem in a general psychiatric population : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, B.T.; van der Vegt, A.A.; de Groot, I.W.; de Jongh, A.

    2017-01-01

    Although low self-esteem has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, surprisingly little is known about its treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and Cognitive

  16. [Self esteem : concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.

  17. The effects of yoga and self-esteem on menopausal symptoms and quality of life in breast cancer survivors-A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Anna K; Rabsilber, Sybille; Lauche, Romy; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost; Cramer, Holger

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has found that yoga can enhance quality of life and ease menopausal symptoms of breast cancer survivors. The study examined whether self-esteem mediated the effects of yoga on quality of life, fatigue and menopausal symptoms, utilizing validated outcome measures. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga with those of usual care in 40 breast cancer survivors who suffered from menopausal symptoms. All participants completed all 3 assessments (week 0, week 12, and week 24) and provided full data. Outcomes were measured using self-rating instruments. Mediation analyses were performed using SPSS. Self-esteem mediated the effect of yoga on total menopausal symptoms (B=-2.11, 95% BCI [-5.40 to -0.37]), psychological menopausal symptoms (B=-0.94, 95% BCI [-2.30 to -0.01]), and urogenital menopausal symptoms (B=-0.66, 95% BCI [-1.65 to -0.15]), quality of life (B=8.04, 95% BCI [3.15-17.03]), social well-being (B=1.80, 95% BCI [0.54-4.21]), emotional well-being (B=1.62, 95% BCI [0.70-3.34]), functional well-being (B=1.84, 95% BCI [0.59-4.13]), and fatigue (B=4.34, 95% BCI [1.28-9.55]). Self-esteem had no effect on somatovegetative menopausal symptoms (B=-0.50, 95% BCI n.s.) or on physical well-being (B=0.79, 95% BCI n.s.). Findings support the assumption that self-esteem plays a vital role in the beneficial effect of yoga and that yoga can have long-term benefits for women diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing menopausal transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Body dissatisfaction, trait anxiety and self-esteem in young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czeglédi Edit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Body image dissatisfaction has recently been described as 'normative' for both men and women. Despite intense theoretical interest in a multidimensional concept of male body image, comprehensive models have rarely been assessed empirically. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between body image and self-esteem among men in a multivariate model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional questionnaire study were 239 male university students (mean age: 20.3 years, SD=2.78 years, range: 18-39 years. Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, weightlifting activity, importance of appearance, perceived weight status, satisfaction with body height, Body Shape Questionnaire - Short form, Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: Structural equation modeling showed that after controlling for age, BMI, weightlifting activity, the importance of appearance, and trait anxiety, only muscle dissatisfaction predicted lower self-esteem (β=-0.11, p=0.033. Neither height dissatisfaction nor weight dissatisfaction showed significant association with selfesteem. Muscle dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and self-esteem (β=-0.04, p=0.049, R2=0.05. The model explained 50.4% of the variance in selfesteem. Conclusions: The results emphasize that trait anxiety might be a background variable in the relationship between males' body dissatisfaction and self-esteem, which should be considered in future studies and in the course of therapy.

  19. Self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.

  20. The development of global and domain-specific self-esteem from age 13 to 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. When Low Self-Esteem Encourages Behaviors that Risk Rejection to Increase Interdependence: The Role of Relational Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Levi R.; McNulty, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship requires engaging in behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support. Who takes such risks and who avoids them? Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping such behaviors, they can be used to make competing predictions regarding the direction of this effect. Six studies reconcile these contrasting predictions by demonstrating that the effects of self-esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self-construal— i.e., the extent to which people define themselves by their close relationships. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the opportunity to disclose negative personal information (Study 1) and feelings of intimacy (Study 2) to their dating partners. In Study 3, married couples reported the extent to which they confided in one another. In Study 4, we manipulated self-esteem and relational self-construal and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that increase interdependence. In Studies 5 and 6, we manipulated the salience of interpersonal risk and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence. In all six studies, self-esteem was positively associated with behaviors that can increase interdependence among people low in relational self-construal but negatively associated with those behaviors among people high in relational self-construal. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the role of self-esteem in relationships will be most complete to the extent that they consider the degree to which people define themselves by their close relationships. PMID:23586411

  2. Explicit self-esteem mediates the relationship between implicit self-esteem and memory biases in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen

    2016-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Esteem and Academic Stress among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N

    2015-01-01

    Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.

  4. What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.

  5. Decomposing global self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Milne, Alan B

    2002-08-01

    We argue in this paper for distinguishing two dimensions of global self-esteem, self-competence and self-liking. Studies 1 and 2 identify a corresponding pair of factors in Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale. Studies 3 and 4 examine the predictive value of the two-dimensional approach to self-esteem as reflected in the unique associations of self-competence and self-liking with negative life events and word recognition.

  6. Self-Esteem in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón; José Alfonso Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The present article gives a panoramic view about self-esteem as a characteristic of the human psyche, and as a social product which is developed in man-world interaction. It also presents some derived results of the researches carried out by the authors about the impact that self-esteem has in the work with individual's self-esteem in the pedagogic contexts.

  7. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  8. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  9. Low perception of control as a cognitive factor of eating disorders. Its independent effects on measures of eating disorders and its interactive effects with perfectionism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Gallucci, Marcello; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2008-12-01

    There is a large body of research about perfectionism and low self-esteem in eating disorders (ED). However, little is known about the influence in ED of a distorted cognition in the domain of control: the perception of low control. The present study examined the main and interactive effects of concern over mistakes (an important dimension of perfectionism), self-esteem, and perception of control on drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. Forty individuals with ED and 55 controls completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Anxiety Control Questionnaire, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the three symptomatic scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory, which are drive for thinness, bulimia and body dissatisfaction. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypothesis that perception of low control has a significant effect on the symptomatic scales of the EDI. The ED group had significantly lower perception of control and self-esteem and higher concern over mistakes, drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction than the control group. Analysis of interactive effects suggested that a combination of a low perception of control and a low self-esteem seems to moderate the effects of concern over mistakes on drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. ED are associated with a tendency to worry about mistakes, a low sense of self-esteem, and a low perception of control over internal feelings and external events. Perception of control and self-esteem seems to moderate the predictive power of concern mistakes on symptoms of ED. The results suggest that a low perception of control is an important cognitive factor in ED.

  10. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...

  11. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  12. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  13. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, me...

  14. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: Associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bannink (Rienke); A. Pearce (Anna); S. Hope (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence,

  15. Validation of two conceptualizations of fragile self-esteem: Contingent high self-esteem and incongruent high self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža Bojana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...

  16. Self-esteem in later life: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, L B

    1985-10-01

    Self-esteem provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long-term care. This article defines self-esteem in relation to self-concept and identifies the antecedents that affect its development. Elements of labeling theory, activity theory, and social exchange theory are explored to account for a potential decline in self-esteem among the elderly. According to this electric theoretical framework, stigmatization, decreased social interaction, and loss of control over the environment are all negatively correlated with self-esteem. Institutionalization intensifies the effect of these forces. Nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem by combating ageism, promoting social interaction, and maximizing the control and participation of elderly residents.

  17. Sense of coherence, self-esteem, and health locus of control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus with/without satisfactory metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, C; Valentini, A; Caletti, M T; Caselli, C; Mazzella, N; Forlani, G; Marchesini, G

    2018-03-01

    Despite intensive training, a few individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) fail to reach the desired metabolic targets. To evaluate the association between disease-related emotional and cognitive aspects and metabolic control in subjects with T1DM. Health locus of control (HLOC), sense of coherence (SOC), and self-esteem were assessed in T1DM subjects using validated questionnaires. Sixty-seven consecutive subjects who did not attain the desired HbA1c target (mean HbA1c, 8.3% [67 mmol/mol]) were compared with 30 cases in satisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c levels satisfactory metabolic control tend to rely on significant others, trusting in the physicians' skills or on the efficiency of the health-care system. Strategies aimed at increasing self-efficacy and SOC, based on personal ability, are eagerly awaited to help patients improve diabetes care.

  18. Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…

  19. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…

  20. Pulling your self together: Meditation enhances the congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Govorun, O.; Chang, C.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported or explicit self-esteem frequently conflicts with indirectly assessed, implicit self-esteem. The present research investigated whether meditation may reduce such inner conflicts by promoting congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Relative to control conditions,

  1. The Effects of Being Diagnosed with a Learning Disability on Children's Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Keith; Donovan, Leslie A.; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2002-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of being diagnosed with a learning disability on elementary school children's self-esteem. Findings indicated that self-esteem increased significantly above prediagnosis of a learning disability while self-esteem levels in a control group of children without learning disabilities…

  2. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  3. Romantic Jealousy and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisi, Anthony T.

    1992-01-01

    Like a fire out of control, jealousy can reduce a marriage to rubble. It can leave self-esteem ruined. Although oversimplified, the pathologically jealous person regards even slight signs as conclusive evidence of betrayal. Where jealousy arises exclusively within a relationship then a counselor might examine the jealous person's self-concept and…

  4. [Three types of self-esteem: its characteristic differences of contingency and contentment of sources of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaya; Kawasaki, Naoki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2011-02-01

    Previous research and theory (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Kernis, 2003) suggests that adaptive self-esteem stems from just being oneself, and is characterized by a sense of authenticity (SOA). Maladaptive self-esteem is derived from meeting external standards and social comparisons, and is characterized by a sense of superiority (SOS). Thus, the qualitative difference between SOA and SOS depends on the sources of self-esteem. We hypothesized that SOA is related to internal sources of self-esteem, while SOS is related to external sources. In order to control for covariance, global self-esteem was also examined in a questionnaire survey of self-esteem that was administered to 273 university students. The results of a partial correlation analysis showed that SOA was positively correlated with internal sources of self-esteem such as committed activities and efforts for self-development. In contrast, SOS was positively correlated with external sources of self-esteem such as approval from others and appearance. These results mainly support our hypotheses.

  5. Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. An Assessment of Positive Organizational Behavior in Service Sector of Pakistan: Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem and Global Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Khurram; Kamariah Bte Ismail; Syed Khurram Ali Jafri; Khairiah Soehod

    2013-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate prevalence of positive organizational behavior in the organizations in the service sector of Pakistan. We tested effects of organization based self-esteem, role stressors (role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity), leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support on positive organizational behavior as well as mediation of organization-based-self-esteem in this regard. Moreover, moderation of global self-esteem was also estimated in rel...

  7. Relationship of sociocultural factors and academic self-esteem to school grades and school disengagement in North African French adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence

    2006-12-01

    The present study was designed to provide an integrated understanding of school grades and psychological disengagement among ethnic minority students. For that purpose, perceived parental involvement, acculturation orientations, and ethnic identity were simultaneously investigated in order to discover their respective contribution to grades among these students. Additionally, it was tested whether academic self-esteem mediated the relationship between grades and psychological disengagement. North African French junior high-school students completed a questionnaire assessing their ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, perceptions of parental involvement, academic self-esteem and trend toward the devaluing and discounting facets of psychological disengagement. Their grades in the main courses were obtained from the school records. Although perceived parental involvement displayed the strongest contribution to grades, acculturation orientations and ethnic identity still predicted grades, after controlling for parental involvement. Academic self-esteem mediated the influence of grades on both facets of disengagement, while this pattern was less clear for the devaluing process.

  8. Genetic influences on level and stability of self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Neiss, Michelle; Sedikides, Constantine; Stevenson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to clarify the relation between self-esteem level (high vs. low) and perceived self-esteem stability (within-person variability) by using a behavioral genetics approach. We tested whether the same or independent genetic and environmental influences impact on level and stability. Adolescent twin siblings (n = 183 pairs) completed level and stability scales at two time points. Heritability for both was substantial. The remaining variance in each was attributable to non-shared envir...

  9. Terror management theory and self-esteem revisited: the roles of implicit and explicit self-esteem in mortality salience effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-05-01

    Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  11. Perceived Parental Acceptance Related to Self-Esteem, GPA, Sex-Role Identity, and Substance Use of Adolescents From Intact and Reconstituted Families

    OpenAIRE

    Sniteman, Stephen B.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation assessed the relationship between adolescents of intact families and adolescents in reconstituted families with regard to the effects of perception of parental acceptance on the variables of self-esteem, academic performance, sex role identity, and use o f substances. Observed differences between adolescents of intact and reconstituted families from a structural perspective, eliminating process variables, were also examined. Participants included two hundred fifty-six high ...

  12. The antidepressant effects of physical activity: mediating self-esteem and self-efficacy mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of physiological mechanisms responsible for the antidepressant effects of physical activity has been hampered by the failure to control adequately for psychosocial effects and the failure to control for participant expectancies concerning exercise outcomes. This retrospective, cross-sectional study of 188 male and 193 female undergraduates used structural regression modeling to assess the adequacy of the revised version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem, R. J., Harlow, L. L., & Josephs, L. (1994). Exercise and self-esteem: Validity of model expansion and exercise associations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 29-42), a modified version of that model, and an Exercise Self-Esteem and Efficacy Model (EXSEEM). Direct effects of physical activity on depressive symptomatology (SCL90R-D; Derogatis, L. R. (1994). SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual-II for the revised version (2nd ed.). Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research) were obtained using a disguised-measures procedure to minimize expectancy artifacts. However, direct activity effects were negligible when activity-based esteem and efficacy effects were added to the structural regression model. Eliminating direct physical-activity effects did not reduce the quality of fit of the EXSEEM model nor the variance accounted for in SCL90R-D scores. Direct effects of physical-self esteem, but not global self-esteem, on SCL90R-D scores were found for females. Conversely, direct effects of global self-esteem, but not physical self-esteem, on SCL90R-D scores were found for males. Supplementary analyses indicated that scheduling efficacy for aerobic exercise had a direct effect on SCL90R-D scores for males and females, but task efficacy had direct effects only on perceived endurance for both males and females. These findings are consistent with the proposed EXSEEM model and imply that independent self-esteem and self-efficacy mechanisms are sufficient to

  13. "If You Let Me Play Sports": How Might Sport Participation Influence the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…

  14. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  15. [Self-esteem and giftedness: a Rorschach Comprehensive System study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2014-02-01

    According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These

  16. [Perception of parental attitudes and the level of female adolescents' self-esteem affected with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to look for correlation between a parent - child relationship and the level of self-esteem in the perception of girls affected with anorexia nervosa (who meet the criteria of DSM-IV-TR). The differences in the perception of parental attitudes (of mothers and fathers) and self-esteem of girls suffering from anorexia nervosa and their healthy peers were also analyzed. Two equally numbered groups of girls: the clinical group (30 persons affected with anorexia nervosa) and control group (30 healthy girls) in the 15-20 age range were examined. Two test were applied: Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire (PCR) A. Roe and M. Siegelman in the authorized translation by W. S. Kowalski to investigate characteristic behavior of parents of small children as perceived by youth or adults and a Questionnaire "What are you like?" by P. Sears in adaptation of J. Kostrzewski, which is used to study self-esteem. The results confirmed the expected relationship between perception of parental attitudes and the level of self-esteem of girls affected with anorexia nervosa. Parental attitudes characterized by love and protection promote higher self-esteem of their daughters and the experience of higher demands and rejection by both parents lowers their self-esteem. The comparison of average attitudes of mothers and fathers in perception of their daughters diagnosed with anorexia nervosa did not confirm significant statistical differences. Comparison of maternal attitudes in the perception of their daughters from the group affected by anorexia and the healthy group revealed significant differences in full range of attitudes. The differences in perception of the attitudes of their fathers were statistically substantial regarding the attitudes concerning love and rejection. Self-esteem of persons treated for anorexia is significantly lower than of their healthy peers.

  17. Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Resources in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Elsässer, Marina; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on therapy-relevant factors, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources in adults with ADHD in comparison with a healthy control group. A total of 43 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for ADHD in adulthood were matched with a nonclinical sample in terms of age and gender. All participants (N = 86) were assessed with self-ratings: Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and Dick's Resources Checklist. Adults with ADHD showed lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy when compared with the control group. The authors found some, but not all, of the resources of adults with ADHD to be reduced. In other words, people with ADHD seem to possess specific resources. Our results have important implications for the treatment of adult ADHD and suggest that specific therapy programs should include resources-oriented modules for enhancing self-esteem, self-efficacy, and fostering strengths. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Self-esteem among nursing assistants: reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.

  19. Improving Self-Esteem in General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Mara E.

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…

  20. Psychological problems, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with brain lesions: A comparison with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Maestroni, Deborah; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Recla, Monica; Locatelli, Federica; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe psychological problems, self-esteem difficulties and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with acquired brain lesions and to compare them with an age- and gender-matched control group. In an experimental design, the psychological profile of 26 adolescents with brain lesions of traumatic or vascular aetiology, aged 12-18 years, was compared with that of 18 typically-developing subjects. Moreover, within the clinical group, patients with TBI were compared with patients with vascular lesions. The psychological and adaptive profile of the adolescents was assessed by a specific protocol, including CBCL, VABS, RSES, EDI-2 and BES. Adolescents with brain lesions showed more marked psychological problems than their healthy peers; they also presented with a greater impairment of adaptive skills and a lower self-esteem. No significant differences were found between patients with traumatic lesions and patients with vascular lesions. Adolescents with acquired brain lesions were at higher risk to develop psychological and behavioural difficulties. Furthermore, in the clinical sample, some variables such as the long hospitalization and isolation from family and peers were associated to a greater psychological burden than the aetiology of the brain damage.

  1. Failure causes fear: the effect of self-esteem threat on death-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Clay

    2012-01-01

    According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.

  2. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with

  3. Family factors of self-esteem stability in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Jelisaveta A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigations was to examine what upbringing styles and socio-economic parameters correlate with adolescents’ unstable self-esteem. Self-esteem is an evaluative measure of self-concept whose stability in time reflects personality’s autonomy and integrity. Using the sample of 280 secondary school students, the SSES scale was administered twice, at a 30-day interval, the EMBU scale of upbringing styles, a questionnaire with general data on respondents and socioeconomic parameters. It proved that upbringing style and parental tenderness (of both father and mother correlate with unstable self-esteem in adolescents. Significant correlation between upbringing styles and unstable self-esteem was also found in inconsistency, low control and protection on the part of father. Stable self-esteem is significantly negatively correlated with inconsistency of mother. Of diverse socioeconomic parameters, educational level of father and his profession are of critical importance for stable self-esteem. Upbringing styles produce greater influence on self-esteem level than socio-economic parameters do.

  4. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  5. The regulatory function of self-esteem: testing the epistemic and acceptance signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Danu Anthony; Logel, Christine; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V; Forest, Amanda L; Gaucher, Danielle; Fitzsimons, Grainné M; Kath, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    The authors draw on sociometer theory (e.g., Leary, 2004) and self-verification theory (e.g., Swann, 1997) to propose an expanded model of the regulatory function of self-esteem. The model suggests that people not only possess an acceptance signaling system that indicates whether relational value is high or low but also possess an epistemic signaling system that indicates whether social feedback is consistent or inconsistent with chronic perceived relational value (i.e., global self-esteem). One correlational study and 5 experiments, with diverse operationalizations of social feedback, demonstrated that the epistemic signaling system responds to self-esteem consistent or inconsistent relational-value feedback with increases or deceases in epistemic certainty. Moreover, Studies 3-6 demonstrated that the acceptance and epistemic signaling systems respond uniquely to social feedback. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 provide evidence that the epistemic signaling system is part of a broader self-regulatory system: Self-esteem inconsistent feedback caused cognitive efforts to decrease the discrepancy between self-views and feedback and caused depleted self-regulatory capacity on a subsequent self-control task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (...

  7. The Role of Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in Detecting Responses to Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    self -efficacy on a novel task may be a function of self - esteem and initial instruction on the task. It may be that low SEs initial self ...than will persons low in self -efficacy. This may also have implications for the interaction between self -efficacy and self - esteem . In situations...feedback than persons with low SE. Persons with low self - esteem are likely to perceive 32 greater feedback seeking costs (as noted earlier).

  8. Relationships between paranoid thinking, self-esteem and the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, R.; Rowse, G.; Slade, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecuti...

  9. Authenticity and Relationship Satisfaction: Two Distinct Ways of Directing Power to Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Nan

    2015-01-01

    Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants’ communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem. PMID:26720814

  10. Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Roberts, Brent W

    2008-09-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly correlated in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about their prospective effects on each other. The vulnerability model hypothesizes that low self-esteem serves as a risk factor for depression, whereas the scar model hypothesizes that low self-esteem is an outcome, not a cause, of depression. To test these models, the authors used 2 large longitudinal data sets, each with 4 repeated assessments between the ages of 15 and 21 years and 18 and 21 years, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem predicted subsequent levels of depression, but depression did not predict subsequent levels of self-esteem. These findings held for both men and women and after controlling for content overlap between the self-esteem and depression scales. Thus, the results supported the vulnerability model, but not the scar model, of self-esteem and depression.

  11. Authenticity and Relationship Satisfaction: Two Distinct Ways of Directing Power to Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Nan

    2015-01-01

    Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants' communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem.

  12. Are implicit self-esteem measures valid for assessing individual and cultural differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carl F; Heine, Steven J; Takemura, Kosuke; Zhang, Cathy X J; Hsu, Chih-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self-esteem: 1) implicit self-esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self-esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self-esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2). In Study 1, Euro-Canadians (N = 107), Asian-Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self-esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self-esteem and included self-report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self-concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self-competence related implicit attitudes. Across both studies, explicit self-esteem measures far outperformed implicit self-esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations. Implicit self-esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross-cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Self-esteem stability and depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation: methodological and conceptual expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Evans, Clea C; Sepehri, Arash; Jabeen, Linsa N; Gayden, Monee

    2009-08-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and other moderating variables with depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty participants completed measures of state self-esteem, perceived recovery, hospitalization-based hassles, impairment-related distress, and tendency to overgeneralize negative self-connotations of bad events. Self-report of depressive symptoms was collected at admission and on discharge. Four regression analyses explored the relationship of self-esteem level and stability and each of 4 moderating variables (perceived recovery, hassles, impairment-related distress, and overgeneralization) with depressive symptoms at discharge. Analyses indicated significant 3-way interactions in the 4 regression models. In general, individuals with unstable high self-esteem endorsed greater depressive symptoms under conditions of vulnerability (e.g., lower perceived recovery) than did individuals with stable high self-esteem. Under conditions of vulnerability, participants with stable low self-esteem indicated the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability interact with psychological, environmental, and stroke-specific variables to predict depressive symptoms at discharge from stroke rehabilitation. This suggests the viability of self-esteem stability in exploring depressive symptoms in this setting and the complexity of emotional adjustment early after stroke. (c) 2009 APA

  14. The influence of self-esteem and social support on the relationship between stigma and depressive symptomology in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, J; Muldoon, O; Gallagher, S

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the synergistic relationship between stigma, self-esteem and social support, as predictors of depressive symptomology in parents of children with disabilities (e.g. Autism and Down syndrome). One hundred and seventy-three parents (115 parents of children with disabilities and 58 control parents) completed measures of perceived stigma, self-esteem, social support and depressive symptoms. Parents of children with disabilities reported more depressive symptomology; additionally, stigma, self-esteem and social support were associated with depressive symptomology. Moreover, the association between stigma and depressive symptomology was mediated by self-esteem, i.e. parents who reported higher stigma were lower on self-esteem and more depressed. Further, this path varied as a function of emotional support. Results highlight the need for tailored interventions that offer parents effective strategies in dealing with stigma through social support and self-esteem. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Parental Interest in Children's Education, Children's Self-Esteem and Locus of Control, and Later Educational Attainment: Twenty-Six Year Follow-Up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…

  16. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...

  17. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  18. Irish nursing students' changing self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation during their preregistration programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cecily M; White, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    Studies on Irish nursing and midwifery professions have demonstrated that stress and bullying are frequent problems that may lead to depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem is linked to social anxiety and is therefore related to fear of negative evaluation. It is important to study nursing students' feelings about self-esteem and negative evaluation, and to assess whether or not both these constructs change as students progress through their preregistration education programme. This study explored nursing students' perceived levels of self-esteem and their fear of negative evaluation prior to, and nearing the completion of, their 3-year preregistration programme. A descriptive, quantitative, comparative survey design was used. All students in the first intake of 1995 in two general nursing schools in Southern Ireland agreed to take part (n = 72). A questionnaire developed from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Watson and Friend Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale was used to collect data at the start of their programme and again 2 months before completion. In general, students' reported self-esteem rose as they neared the end of their education programme and their fear of negative evaluation decreased; however, their overall self-esteem levels at their highest were only average. Many of the studies examining self-esteem have produced contradictory results. An examination of the organizational factors that contribute to self-esteem may increase our understanding of the phenomenon. Self-esteem is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. While there is no single factor that can increase or decrease a person's self-esteem, this study has explored the potential impact of the fear of negative evaluation on self-esteem. Nursing students' self-esteem might be increased by expansion of intrinsic job characteristics, improving their job satisfaction and providing frequent positive feedback.

  19. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  20. Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  1. Parental conflict and self-esteem: the rest of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.

  2. Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-12-29

    Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.

  3. Impact of self-esteem and sex on stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2017-12-08

    Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.

  4. The effect of caesarean section on self-esteem amongst primiparous women in South-Western Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loto, Olabisi M; Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ajenifuja, Olusegun K; Orji, Ernest O; Owolabi, Alexander T; Ogunniyi, Solomon O

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to assess the level of self-esteem of newly delivered mothers who had caesarean section (CS) and evaluate the sociodemographic and obstetrics correlates of low self-esteem in them. Newly delivered mothers who had CS (n = 109) and who had spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (n = 97) completed questionnaires on sociodemographic and obstetrics variables within 1 week of delivery. They also completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. RESULTS. Women with CS had statistically significant lower scores on the self-esteem scale than women with SVD (p = 0.006). Thirty (27.5%) of the CS group were classified as having low self-esteem compared with 11 (11.3%) of the SVD group (p = 004). The correlates of low self-esteem in the CS group included polygamy (odd ratio (OR) 4.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-15.33) and emergency CS (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.55-16.75). CS in South-Western Nigerian women is associated with lowered self-esteem in the mothers.

  5. Iraqi adolescents: self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-02-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.

  6. Effects of Home Access to Active Videogames on Child Self-Esteem, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Anxiety Related to Electronic Games: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.

  7. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2003-05-01

    directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it

  8. The role of social support in dialysis patients' feelings of autonomy and self-esteem: is support more beneficial for patients with specific illness perceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Kaptein, Ad A; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Dekker, Friedo W; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether effects of various types of support on dialysis patients' perceived autonomy and self-esteem depend on patients' perceived concerns and personal control regarding their illness. One hundred sixty-six patients completed written questionnaires. Main and interaction effects of support, concern, and personal control on autonomy and self-esteem were examined using linear regression analyses. General emotional support was positively related to autonomy in highly concerned patients (p autonomy (p emotional support (p autonomy appears to depend on patients' illness perceptions, whereas the role of support in patients' self-esteem does not. These findings suggest that dialysis patients' personal views about their illness can provide insight into whether patients could benefit from support, and that the provision of support should be tailored to patients' individual needs.

  9. Narcissistic self-esteem or optimal self-esteem? A Latent Profile Analysis of self-esteem and psychological entitlement

    OpenAIRE

    Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...

  10. Professional Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Teacher Burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezerlou, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at measuring the perceived Professional Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) of Iranian (n = 230) and Turkish (n = 156) EFL teachers and determining the prediction role of Professional Self-esteem in EE, DP, and PA processes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey…

  11. "It's Good for Their Self-Esteem": The Substance beneath the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an informed and critical understanding of the concept of self-esteem. It explores this psychological construct in relation to its use in adventure education and outdoor learning. Enhancing a participant's self-esteem is perceived to be fundamentally a good thing and is culturally linked to the Hahnian notion that implies…

  12. Self-Esteem and Mental Health in Early Adolescence: Development and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Monique; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study of a general population (n=219; M age 12, 13, and 14), was carried out between 1990 and 1993 over 3 years in Lausanne (Switzerland). Sought information on global changes in self-esteem during early adolescence, ways in which young people perceive themselves, differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, and…

  13. Attributions to Discrimination and Self-Esteem: The Role of Group Identification and Appraisals

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston , Collette P.; Major , Brenda N.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that appraisals of discrimination (i.e. its perceived severity, global aspects, stability, and uncontrollability) mediate the relationship between attributions to discrimination and personal self-esteem. It also tested three models of how ethnic group identification is related to discrimination attributions, discrimination appraisals, and personal self-esteem. In ...

  14. Sources of Self-Esteem in Work: What's Important for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 250 workers in five manufacturing firms examined sources of self-esteem in work. Responses suggest that, in the workplace, self-perceived competence is the most important source of self-esteem, followed by reflected appraisals and social comparisons. (JOW)

  15. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.

  16. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family's performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.

  17. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them. PMID:29312013

  18. Understanding the Different Realities, Experience, and Use of Self-Esteem between Black and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Portia E.

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent females possess higher self-esteem than any other racial or ethnic adolescent female group. This article tests two popular empirically supported explanations for Black high self-esteem: "contingency of self-esteem theory" and the "locus of control model". This article builds on past research to illustrate the specific…

  19. The role of self-esteem for outcome in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vracotas, Nadia; Iyer, Srividya N; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem may be associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders. However, the relationship between self-esteem and outcome in psychosis has not been adequately examined, especially early in the course of the illness. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of self-esteem in individuals who presented for treatment of a first episode of psychosis on outcome early in the course of the illness. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale (SERS) was administered to 121 individuals with first-episode psychosis following entry into a specialized programme. Symptoms and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were assessed at six months after beginning treatment. A correlational analysis was followed by a linear regression controlling for potential confounds. Self-esteem assessed early in the course of treatment was positively correlated with GAF at six months (r = 0.281, p self-esteem as predictors and GAF at six months as the outcome variable revealed only self-esteem to be a significant predictor of GAF at six months (β = 0.290, p self-esteem and remission at six months (β = 0.003, p > 0.05). Self-esteem is associated with global functional outcome at six months but not with remission of symptoms. Efforts should be made to provide interventions that may improve low self-esteem in the attempt to influence functional outcome.

  20. Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents-gender and age as potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2013-12-01

    The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated. A total of 1,239 adolescents from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions. The results showed that boys scored higher than girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender × self-esteem or age × self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction. The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents' life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.

  1. The Effectiveness of a Nurse-Led Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on the Quality of Life, Self-Esteem and Mood Among Filipino Patients Living With Heart Failure: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajanding, Ruff Joseph Macale

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis and complications associated with heart failure (HF) have been very well established to adversely impact an individual's physical and psychosocial well-being, and interventions such as cognitive-behavioral techniques have demonstrated potential positive benefits among patients with HF. However, the effects of such interventions among Filipino HF patients have not been studied. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a nurse-led cognitive-behavioral intervention program on the quality of life, self-esteem and mood among Filipino patients with HF. A randomized control two-group design with repeated measures and collected data before and after the intervention was used in this study. Participants were assigned to either the control (n=48) or the intervention group (n=52). Control group participants received traditional care. Intervention participants underwent a 12-week nurse-led cognitive-behavioral intervention program focusing on patient education, self-monitoring, skills training, cognitive restructuring and spiritual development. Measures of quality of life, self-esteem and mood were obtained at baseline and after the intervention. At baseline, participants in both groups have poor quality of life, low self-esteem, and moderate depressive symptom scores. After the 12-week intervention period, participants in the intervention group had significant improvement in their quality of life, self-esteem and mood scores compared with those who received only standard care. Nurse-led cognitive-behavioral intervention is an effective strategy in improving the quality of life, self-esteem and mood among Filipino patients living with HF. It is recommended that this intervention be incorporated in the optimal care of patients with this cardiac condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Puffed-up but shaky selves: State self-esteem level and variability in narcissists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Katharina; Nestler, Steffen; Hutteman, Roos; Dufner, Michael; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Egloff, Boris; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D

    2017-05-01

    Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the effects of two theoretically distinct facets of narcissism (i.e., admiration and rivalry) on the two aspects of state self-esteem (i.e., level and variability). We report on data from a laboratory-based and two field-based studies (total N = 596) in realistic social contexts, capturing momentary, daily, and weekly fluctuations of state self-esteem. To estimate unbiased effects of narcissism on the level and variability of self-esteem within one model, we applied mixed-effects location scale models. Results of the three studies and their meta-analytical integration indicated that narcissism is positively linked to self-esteem level and variability. When distinguishing between admiration and rivalry, however, an important dissociation was identified: Admiration was related to high (and rather stable) levels of state self-esteem, whereas rivalry was related to (rather low and) fragile self-esteem. Analyses on underlying processes suggest that effects of rivalry on self-esteem variability are based on stronger decreases in self-esteem from one assessment to the next, particularly after a perceived lack of social inclusion. The revealed differentiated effects of admiration and rivalry explain why the analysis of narcissism as a unitary concept has led to the inconsistent past findings and provide deeper insights into the intrapersonal dynamics of grandiose narcissism governing state self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Self-esteem and suicide risk

    OpenAIRE

    perrot, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...

  4. Self-esteem and Individual Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...

  5. Benarkah Self Esteem Mempengaruhi Prestasi Akademik?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Satrio Budi

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem determines a person's overall mental development, it can even affect human behavior. The debate arose when researchers try to explain, whether student achievement is influenced by self-esteem? The author conducted a meta-analysis studies in attempt to clarify the relationship between the variables of self-esteem with academic achievement variable. This research analyzed over sixteen research journals, in which there are 29 studies that examine a relationship between self-esteem an...

  6. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  7. The Educational Importance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkany, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…

  8. Self-Esteem: Justifying Its Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn

    1998-01-01

    The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…

  9. A Brief Primer on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…

  10. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  11. Self-Esteem and Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; Thomas, M. Duane

    1975-01-01

    According to the subscale of the Coopersmith Inventory specifically related to school self-esteem, college students with low self-esteem (1) say less in class, (2) contribute a smaller portion of their thoughts to class discussion, and (3) sit farther back in the classroom than the students with high self-esteem. (RC)

  12. Androgyny, Masculinity, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Allan; Rosenberg, Judy A.

    1987-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Bem Sex Role Inventory to 194 adults. Found androgyny scale emphasizing masculinity was most predictive of self-esteem, due to strong correlation found between masculinity and self-esteem. Found no effects due to femininity, interaction of femininity and masculinity, or sex. (Author/NB)

  13. Raising trophy kids: The role of mothers' contingent self-esteem in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Wuyts, Dorien; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mageau, Geneviève A; Brenning, Katrijn

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of mothers' child-invested contingent self-esteem, that is, their tendency to hinge their self-worth on their child's achievements, in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, as perceived by adolescents. It was also examined whether maternal promotion of extrinsic goals would, in turn, relate to adolescents' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Participants were 184 mothers and their adolescent children (66% female). Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem predicted adolescent-perceived maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, even when taking into account the variance shared between the promotion of extrinsic goals and mothers' use of a controlling parenting style. Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem also moderated associations between mothers' personal pursuit of extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals, such that the association between mothers' own extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals was significant only among mothers high on child-invested contingent self-esteem. Maternal promotion of extrinsic goals was, in turn, related to adolescent SDO, suggesting that the dynamics examined in this study ultimately relate to adolescents' social and ideological development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. State self-esteem ratings in women with bulimia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Karen A; Jimerson, David C; Heatherton, Todd F; Metzger, Eran D; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2008-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with low self-esteem. This study was designed to assess whether low self-esteem persists in nondepressed individuals who have recovered from BN (BN-R). Study groups included BN (n = 22), BN-R (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 42). Participants were medication-free, and none met criteria for current major depression. Assessment instruments included the State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES), a self-rating scale designed to measure state-related changes in self-esteem. Consistent with previous reports, SSES scores for BN were lower than for controls (p p p p low self-esteem following recovery from BN. Follow-up studies are needed to assess whether low self-esteem contributes to recurrent dieting and risk for relapse.

  15. The effects of a self-esteem program incorporated into health and physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Lu, Chang-Ming; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chou, Wei-Lun; Wen, Wan-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Self-esteem, a key construct of personality, influences thoughts, actions, and feelings. Adolescence is a critical stage to the development of self-esteem. Taiwan currently offers no self-esteem building curriculum in the public education system. Therefore, incorporating self-esteem-related teaching activities into the existing curriculum represents a feasible approach to enhance self-esteem in middle school students. This study aimed to explore the effects on junior high school students' self-esteem of a self-esteem program incorporated into the general health and physical education curriculum. A quasi-experimental research design was used, and 184 seventh-grade students at two junior high schools in Taipei City were randomly selected and separated into two groups. The experimental group received one 32-week self-esteem program incorporated into their regular health and physical education curriculum, which was administered in three 45-minute-session classes each week. The control group received the regular health and physical education with no specially designed elements. During the week before the intervention began and the week after its conclusion, each participant's global and academic, physical, social, and family self-esteem was assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. For all participants, the experimental group was significantly superior to the control group in respect to physical self-esteem (p = .02). For girls, the experimental group was significantly superior to the control group in family self-esteem (p = .02). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of global self-esteem. This study provides preliminary evidence that incorporating self-esteem activities into the regular school health and physical education curriculum can result in minor effects in students' physical self-esteem and family self-esteem. Findings may provide teachers and school administrators with information to help them design

  16. Implicit but not explicit self-esteem predicts future depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; De Houwer, Jan

    2007-10-01

    To date, research on the predictive validity of implicit self-esteem for depressive relapse is very sparse. In the present study, we assessed implicit self-esteem using the Name Letter Preference Task and explicit self-esteem using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in a group of currently depressed patients, formerly depressed individuals, and never depressed controls. In addition, we examined the predictive validity of explicit, implicit, and the interaction of explicit and implicit self-esteem in predicting future symptoms of depression in formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. The results showed that currently depressed individuals reported a lower explicit self-esteem as compared to formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls. In line with previous research, all groups showed a positive implicit self-esteem not different from each other. Furthermore, after controlling for initial depressive symptomatology, implicit but not explicit self-esteem significantly predicted depressive symptoms at six months follow-up. Although implicit self-esteem assessed with the Name Letter Preference Test was not different between formerly depressed individuals and never depressed controls, the findings suggest it is an interesting variable in the study of vulnerability for depression relapse.

  17. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  18. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2005-04-01

    The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.

  19. Original article Self-esteem and achievement motivation level in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Radziwiłłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight is a global trend, whereas the number of studies devoted to the psycho-social functioning of the overweight young is comparatively small. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between the occurrence of overweight and obesity during adolescence and achievement motivation and self-esteem levels, taking into consideration the sex and age of subjects. Participants and procedure Altogether, 72 subjects were included in the study. Of them, 36 were overweight (n = 16; BMI = 25-29.9 or obese (n = 20; BMI ≥ 30, whereas the control group (n = 36 comprised individuals with standard body weight. Both the overweight/obese group and the control group were composed of 18 females and 18 males. The age range of subjects was 14-21 (M = 17.32; SD = 2.61. The M. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Questionnaire of Measuring Achievement Motivation (by M. Widerszal-Bazyl, and also a socio-demographic survey, were applied. Results Overweight and obese individuals are characterized by lower (average or low self-esteem and achievement motivation (they are characterized by a lower perseverance level while performing tasks, perceive time in a less dynamic way, are less future-oriented, and their self-confidence level is lower than individuals with standard body weight, and who are characterized by high self-esteem and average achievement motivation. In the scope of school mark average, and also of planning higher academic education, there are no intergroup differences. Sex, and also age, does not differentiate overweight or obese individuals in the scope of self-esteem or achievement motivation. Differences occur in the case of comparing individuals of the same sex. Overweight or obese women are characterized by a lower self-esteem level than those whose body mass index is normal. Overweight or obese men are characterized by a lower self-esteem and achievement motivation

  20. Blind and Deaf to Acceptance: The Role of Self-Esteem in Capitalizing on Social Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Luerssen, Anna Maud

    2013-01-01

    Across two studies, we evaluated whether people with low self-esteem are less likely to capitalize on, or take full advantage of, their romantic partners' accepting behaviors. We conceptualized capitalization as the tendency to perceive acceptance when it occurs, and to experience positive changes in affect and relationship satisfaction when acceptance is perceived. We found that participants with low self-esteem under-perceived their partners' acceptance, both in daily life and in the labora...

  1. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.

  2. Turkish female academician self-esteem and health beliefs for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Kumcagiz, Hatice; Altinel, Busra; Caloglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse female academician health beliefs for breast cancer screening and levels of self-esteem. This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2010 and March 2011, covering female academicians working in all faculties and vocational schools at Ondokuz Mayis University, except for the ones in the field of health (n=141). Data was collected using a questionnaire developed by researchers in the light of the related literature, the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Breast Cancer, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Descriptive statistics, the t-test, Mann-Whitney U and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data with the SPSS 13.0 statistical package. 53.8% of the participants were single, 58.6% did not have children, 80.7% had regular menstrual cycles, 28.3% was taking birth control pills, 17.9% were undergoing hormone therapy, 11% suffered breast problems, 8.3% had relatives with breast cancer, 78,6% knew about breast self-examination (BSE), 68.3% was performing BSE, 16.2% were performing BSE monthly, 17.9% had had mammograms, and 30.3% had undergone breast examinations conductedby physicians. The women who had breast physical examinations done by physicians had higher susceptibility, self-efficacy and health motivation, and fewer barriers to mammography than those who did not have breast physical examinations. There was a relationship between the female academician self-esteem and their perceived seriousness of breast cancer, perceived barriers to BSE and health motivation. Our Turksih female academicians had medium levels of self-esteem.

  3. Associations of self-esteem with body mass index and body image among Saudi college-age females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAhmari, Tasneem; Alomar, Abdulaziz Z; ALBeeybe, Jumanah; Asiri, Nawal; ALAjaji, Reema; ALMasoud, Reem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2017-12-27

    To examine the association of self-esteem with the body mass index (BMI), perceived body image (BI), and desired BI of college-age Saudi females. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 907 randomly selected females using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Self-esteem and BI were assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, respectively. The prevalence of low self-esteem was only 6.1% among college females; however, this percentage was higher (9.8%) among overweight or obese participants. The total self-esteem scores showed significant negative correlations with actual BMI and perceived BI, but not with desired BI. Meanwhile, multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in total self-esteem scores according to obesity/overweight status and perceived BI group, but not desired BI group. Despite the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabia, few Saudi college females have low self-esteem. In addition, body weight, BMI, perceived BI, and the BMI corresponding to the perceived BI all significantly differed between females with low self-esteem and those with normal self-esteem. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  4. Self-esteem and functional capacity outcomes following reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino Neto, Miguel; Demattê, Maria Fernanda; Freire, Marcia; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2008-01-01

    Both physical health and psychosocial outcomes are important issues in the evaluation of medical treatment. Women with breast hypertrophy may suffer from low self-esteem and reduced functional capacity because of the size of their breasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on self-esteem and functional capacity in patients with breast hypertrophy. One hundred patients with breast hypertrophy who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years and who had undergone no previous mammary surgery were selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM). They were randomly allocated into two groups (A and B) of 50 patients each. Patients from group A were submitted for reduction mammaplasty while those from group B were placed on the waiting list and used as a control group. At the beginning of the study, all patients were interviewed to collect clinical and demographic data and to have their self-esteem and functional capacity measured. Two Brazilian-validated versions of quality of life measurement instruments were chosen: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Rolland-Morris (to assess functional capacity). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain intensity. Six months after the beginning of the study, these instruments were again administered to both groups. Forty-six out of 50 patients from each group (A and B) completed the study. The mean age of group A was 31.6 years (SD, 11 yrs), and that of group B was 32.3 years (SD, 10 yrs). The mean weight of removed breast tissue from group A patients was 1052 g (SD, 188 g). A decrease on the score of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of patients from group A indicated an improvement of self-esteem (P self-esteem and functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back region in patients with breast hypertrophy.

  5. Self-esteem in children after traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Children with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulties in adjusting to their injury and altered abilities, and may be at risk of low self-esteem and loss of confidence. However, few studies have examined self-esteem in this client group. The current study measured the self-esteem of a group of children who were, on average, two years post-TBI and compared this to their performance on other psychometric measures. Participants were 96 children with TBI and 31 peer controls, their parents and teachers. Self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI). CSEI scores were compared with performance on Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-III), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); Children's Memory Scale (CMS), Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and Parental Stress Index (PSI). Self-esteem was highly correlated with IQ; HADS anxiety and depression; and parental stress (pChildren with TBI had significantly lower self-esteem than controls and population norms (p=0.015). Many children with TBI demonstrate low self-esteem and this is closely linked with anxiety and depression. This may hamper academic performance and could lead to further psychosocial problems. It is recommended that self-esteem is routinely assessed after brain injury and rehabilitation strategies implemented to promote a sense of self-worth.

  6. Influence of self-esteem on perceived orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life in children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragt, Lea; Wolvius, Eppo B; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-05-25

    Self-esteem (SE) is suggested to influence the relationship between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), but evidence lacks. The aim of the present study was to investigate SE in the relationship between subjective orthodontic need and OHRQoL in children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a multi-ethnic population-based cohort. In total, 3796 10-year old children participated in the present study. OHRQoL, measured with the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-ortho, and subjective orthodontic need were assessed within parental questionnaires. SE was measured with a modified version of the Harter's self-perception profile rated by the children. The role of SE in the association between SOT and OHRQoL was evaluated with linear regression models. Furthermore, the difference in this association between children with high and low SE was investigated. Higher subjective orthodontic need was associated with lower OHRQoL scores (borderline: β [95% CI] = -0.55 [-0.77, -0.33]; definite: -1.65 [-1.87, -1.54]). Children with lower SE scores showed a stronger relationship between borderline and definite subjective orthodontic need with OHRQoL (β [95% CI] = -0.56 [-0.81, -0.31] respectively -1.68 [-1.94, -1.42]) than children with higher SE scores did (β [95% CI] = -0.51 [-0.97, -0.04] respectively -1.43 [-1.90, -0.95]). The relationship between subjective orthodontic need and OHRQoL is not based on the SE of children. However, SE modifies the relationship between subjective orthodontic need and OHRQoL. Work still needs to be done to find an explanation for the effect modification by SE in the relationship between subjective health perceptions and OHRQoL.

  7. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  8. Adolescents’ Self-Esteem in Single and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents’ self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants’ self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants’ self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents’ self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pparenting styles and improve self-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested. PMID:25349847

  9. Adolescents' self-esteem in single and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Ali; Khosravan, Shahla; Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Pakravan, Fateme; Hosseni, Fateme

    2014-04-01

    Self-esteem is one of the basic needs for all individuals especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine associations between adolescents' self-esteem and perceived maternal parenting styles as well as its dimensions in terms of family type. In this analytic cross-sectional study, 356 high school students (250 two-parent nuclear family and 106 single-parent family) participated and filled out the Coppersmith self-esteem and the Robinson and colleagues (2001) perceived parenting styles questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18. To assess the relationship between participants' self-esteem and parenting styles and dimensions, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test was used to adjust the effect of potential confounder variables. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. From a total of 370 questionnaires, 356 questionnaires were completed. The mean±SD of the participants' self-esteem score was 38.49±6.55. Mean±SD of self-esteem score among the two-parent and single-parent students was 39.06±6.36 and 37.42±7.28, respectively (P=0.034). Dominant parenting style in both families was authoritative style. There were significant associations between the respondents' self-esteem and their perceived parenting styles, after matching sex, family income, level of education, and parents job (Pparenting styles and improve self-esteem. Therefore, considering the relationship between child-rearing style and adolescent self-esteem, assessing other relating factors with adolescent self-esteem especially in single-parent family, such as father absence stigma, is suggested.

  10. Assessment of implicit self-esteem in bipolar manic and euthymic patients using the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Won-Jung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2014-04-01

    Although self-esteem is thought to be an important psychological factor in bipolar disorder, little is known about implicit and explicit self-esteem in manic patients. In this study, we investigated differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem among bipolar manic patients, bipolar euthymic patients, and healthy controls using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants included 19 manic patients, 27 euthymic patients, and 27 healthy controls. Participants completed a self-esteem scale to evaluate explicit self-esteem and performed the self-esteem IAT to evaluate implicit self-esteem. There were no differences among groups in explicit self-esteem. However, there were significant differences among groups in implicit self-esteem. Manic patients had higher IAT scores than euthymic patients and a trend toward higher IAT scores than healthy controls. Our findings suggest that, on the latent level, a manic state is not simply the opposite of a depressed state. Furthermore, there may be a discontinuity of implicit self-esteem between manic and euthymic states. These unexpected results may be due to characteristics of the study participants or the methods used to assess implicit self-esteem. Nevertheless, they provide greater insights on the psychological status of manic patients. © 2014.

  11. Association of sociodemographic and clinical factors with self-image, self-esteem and locus of health control in patients with an intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Alves de Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to patients with an intestinal stoma and to correlate them with locus of health control, self-esteem and self-image. Method: 44 patients with an intestinal stoma participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Scale for Locus of Health Control, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale. Results: With regard to Locus Health Control variables, sociodemographic variables with alterations were: unemployed (28.13; retirees (27.79; age up to 50 years (28.44; and singles (27.89. Regarding Body Investment Scale, the sociodemographic variables with alterations were: age up to 50 years (21.79; single (19.15 or married (17.53; retired (18.79 or unemployed (19.83; and can read and write (20.13. Regarding Rosenberg-EPM Self-esteem Scale, all sociodemographic variables were altered. Conclusions: Ostomized patients presented alterations in the following variables: unemployed, retired, aged up to 50 years and unmarried. There were also alterations in individuals whose cause of the stoma was neoplasia, a temporary stoma, stoma time <4 years, and ostomized non-participants of an association or support group, and who also did not practice physical activities. We conclude from these findings that ostomized individuals who participated in the study and who were included in these variables showed negative feelings about their body and believed that only they could control their health and that the people involved in their care and rehabilitation did not could contribute to their improvement. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos relativos aos pacientes com estoma intestinal e correlacioná-los a locus de controle da saúde, autoestima e autoimagem. Método: 44 pacientes com estoma intestinal participaram do estudo. Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Escala para Locus de Controle da Saúde, Escala de Autoestima de

  12. Depression signs, Teasing and Low Self-esteem in Female Obese Adolescents: a clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Maria Merlo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the study identifies the presence of the signs of depression, teasing and self-esteem in obese female adolescents compared to a control group. Methods: the studied group consisted of female subjects (N= 106 obese adolescents and 106 control group aged from 12 to 18. In the study, the subjects were administered measures of body image, Montgomery Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS, Scale of perceived Teasing, Self-Liking (SL and Self-competence (SC to appraise self-esteem. Results: the comparative assessment highlighted that obese adolescents are significantly depressed. Regarding the teasing, the adolescents were affected from a physical viewpoint. A significant difference also emerged in relation to self-esteem. Conclusion: the emotional consequences should be carefully weighed  in consideration of the possible psychopathologies that may arise, i.e. mood signs. In relation to the signs, the prevention  with psychological interventions is important for eating disorders and  improve psychosocial health.

  13. The relationship between employees’ self-esteem and pertinacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Beikzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between employees’ of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10 self-esteem and pertinacity. For this reason, employee’s self-esteem was arranged in two dimensions, which are consistency solidity, emotional inconsistency and pertinacity. The questionnaire is based on Kobasa theory including three sides including commitment, control and defiance. There are two basic and three subsidiary theories. Employee of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10 is statistical society of this research, which includes 80 people. Reference to restricted volume of statistical society, total statistical society is concerned as under evaluation society. The tool of data gathering is two questionnaires, which are Aizenc’s self-esteem questionnaire and Kobasa’s pertinacity standard questionnaire, which are delivered for evaluating society after perpetuity and justifiability determination. The descriptive statistical methods are used for collected questionnaires analyze. Thus, the descriptive statistical method was used to summarize, to categorize and to interpret statistical data’s. In addition, statistical tests such as Pearson and Freidman’s coherency R are used to test the hypothesis of research. The results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity and its sides on employees of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10. They present maximum relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity control and minimum relationship between pertinacity commitment dimensions.

  14. Suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents: different factors contribute to self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrøm, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-10-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's Self-Perceived Profile for Adolescents, self-concept stability, seeking support, loneliness, and depression. Self-concept stability, loneliness, and peer support correlated differently with self-esteem. In multivariate regression analyses, variance in self-esteem was explained by depression and loneliness, and among nonsuicidal adolescents also by self-concept stability, support, and competencies. Loneliness and self-concept stability related differently to self-esteem in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. When the aim is to enhance self-esteem, this difference may delineate suicidal subgroups that need special interventions.

  15. The longitudinal effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period.

  16. Problematic Internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Yau, Yvonne H C; Chai, Jingxin; Guo, Jinhua; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Given the prevalence of Internet use among youth, there is concern that a subset of Internet-using youth may exhibit problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. The present study examines the association between problematic Internet use (PIU), demographic variables, and health-related measures among Chinese adolescents. Survey data from 1552 adolescents (male=653, mean age=15.43years) from Jilin Province, China, were collected. According to the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), 77.8% (n=1207), 16.8% (n=260), and 5.5% (n=85) showed adaptive, maladaptive, and problematic Internet use, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and family income per month differed between youth showing problematic and adaptive patterns of Internet use. Well-being, self-esteem, and self-control were related to severity of problematic Internet use, with greater severity typically associated with poorer measures in each domain. The findings that severity of problematic Internet use is associated with specific socio-demographic features and temperamental and well-being measures suggest that specific groups of youth may be particularly vulnerable to developing problematic Internet use. Early prevention/intervention programs targeting at-risk groups may help improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between paranoid thinking, self-esteem and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rosalind; Rowse, Georgina; Slade, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether paranoid experiences and levels of self-esteem fluctuate over the menstrual cycle and whether levels of self-esteem are lower when perceived persecution is felt to be deserved. Measures of anxiety, depression, persecution, deservedness and self-esteem were completed on-line by 278 women over their menstrual cycle. Responses were compared at the paramenstrual (3 days before and after menses onset) and mid-cycle phase. At the paramenstrual phase persecution, negative self-esteem, anxiety and depression were higher and positive self-esteem was lower than at mid-cycle. A greater proportion of women experienced persecution as deserved at the paramenstrual phase. This was associated with higher depression and negative self-esteem scores. Increased levels of deservedness significantly strengthened the relationship between persecution and negative, but not positive, self-esteem. These findings suggest that the paramenstrual phase is a time of vulnerability to increased paranoid experiences, an increased likelihood that feelings of persecution will feel deserved and lowered self-esteem. The findings support the view that interpersonal sensitivities may be key to menstrual cycle symptoms and have an impact on relationships. Further, the study illustrated that ideas developed for psychosis could make a valuable contribution to understanding and managing this aspect of menstruation-related distress.

  18. A comparative study on self-esteem among tribal and non-tribal students in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Uday Narayan Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Self esteem is defined as the positive or negative attitude about self, the degree of liking or satisfaction within self, and owns feeling of perceived worth as compared with others. Healthy self-esteem is important to be successful and happy throughout one’s life. The aim of this study was to compare the self esteem among tribal and non-tribal student in Udupi Taluk. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in November 2012 in government school of Brahmavar, Udupi ...

  19. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, L.; Asghar, K.; Seff, I.; Cislaghi, B.; Yu, G.; Tesfay Gessesse, T.; Eoomkham, J.; Assazenew Baysa, A.; Falb, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Methods. Ordi...

  20. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  1. Hope, Self-Esteem, and Self-Regulation: Positive Characteristics among Men and Women in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Stevens, Edward B.; Legler, Raymond; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Hopefulness remains unclear in relation to aspects of self-control and self-esteem among adults in substance abuse recovery. The present study explored the relationship between dispositional hope (agency and pathway) with self-esteem (self-liking, self-competency, and self-confidence) and self-regulation (impulse control and self-discipline),…

  2. Impact of Group Sandtray Therapy on the Self-Esteem of Young Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers’ Parenting Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures (Mage = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers’ educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents’ social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents’ and mothers’ reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented. PMID:24244049

  4. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-esteem, and Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan

    2013-06-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study used a prospective longitudinal, multiple-reporter design to examine how social support from a mother figure during pregnancy interacted with Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' self-esteem to inform their parenting efficacy when their children were 10 months old. Using reports of perceived social support by adolescent mothers ( M age = 16.24, SD =099) and their mother figures ( M age = 40.84, SD = 7.04) in 205 dyads, and controlling for demographic factors (i.e., adolescent age, adolescent nativity, family income, mothers' educational attainment, adolescent-mother coresidence) and adolescents' social support from a significant other, findings indicated that social support during pregnancy was positively associated with adolescent mothers' future parenting efficacy when adolescent mothers had relatively lower self-esteem. Findings were consistent for adolescents' and mothers' reports, and emphasize the value of social support from a mother figure among adolescent mothers with lower self-esteem. Implications for interventions are presented.

  6. Sibship and self-esteem in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Polizzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child’s development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group and 30 sibling-free children (control group. The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma.

  7. Sibship and Self-esteem in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Carollo, Antonio; Bono, Alessandra; Burgio, Sofia; Perricone, Giovanna

    2016-06-15

    This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child's development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group) and 30 sibling-free children (control group). The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma.

  8. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem and their relationship to symptoms of depression and mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Self-esteem is a key feature of bipolar symptomatology. However, so far no study has examined the interaction between explicit and implicit self-esteem in individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional design was employed. Thirty children of parents with bipolar disorder and 30 offspring of control parents completed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale, the Self-esteem Rating Scale and the Implicit Association Test. No differences between groups were revealed in levels of explicit or implicit self-esteem. However, bipolar offspring showed increased levels of symptoms of depression and mania. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were associated with low explicit self-esteem, whilst symptoms of mania were associated with low implicit self-esteem. When self-esteem discrepancies were examined, damaged self-esteem (i.e., low explicit but high implicit self-esteem) was associated with depression, whilst no associations between mania and self-esteem discrepancies were found. Not only explicit, but also implicit self-esteem, and the interactions between the two are of relevance in bipolar symptoms. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Explicit as well as implicit SE, and particularly their relationship, are relevant for mental health. Fluctuations in implicit SE may serve as an early indicator for risk of bipolarity. Psychotherapeutic approaches may be more suitable for one kind of SE challenge than the other. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. [Self-esteem predictors in adolescents with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Gajewski, Jakub; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the conviction concerning self-satisfaction and self-assessment of one's competence. It can influence the overall emotional state, and determine the motivation to take actions of characteristic teenagers. Presentation of the results of research on predictors of self-esteem in healthy adolescents and their peers with diabetes. Is was investigated whether there were differences in factors that determine directly and indirectly the self-esteem within these groups. The survey was conducted during the school year 2010/2011 as a part of cultural and linguistic adaptation of the CHIP-AE questionnaire (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition). Data were collected from 1177 students with average age of 15.4 years, who attended junior high and high schools of different types, in five provinces of Poland. In this group there were 117 adolescents with diabetes and 1060 healthy peers. The CHIP-AE questionnaire consists of six main dimensions: satisfaction, complaints, protective factors, risk factors, achievements and illness. Students are asked to respond mostly from the perspective of the last 4 weeks. Predictors of self-esteem were selected from the following fields of CHIP-AE questionnaire: physical health, self-efficiency, limitation of daily activities, academic achievement, burden of school work, social support, capability of solving social problems, family relationships, relationships with peers and with teachers. Multivariate regression models and structural equitation models were estimated for both the healthy and the ill adolescents. It has been proved that self-esteem of healthy adolescents was determined differently than that of their peers with diabetes. The most important elements forming self-esteem of adolescents with diabetes were as follows: self-assessment of physical fitness, academic achievements and social support. In the studied group an indirect impact of limitations of physical activity on self-perceived fitness and

  10. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Paradox of Japanese Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Self-Esteem, both high and low, has been linked with a wide variety of desirable and undesirable conditions and consequences, including happiness, mental health, and even physiological functioning in general.Most studies have been conducted in North America, and the few that have been conductedelsewhere tend to yield anomalous results. Specifically, measurements of Japanese samples invariably indicate low self-esteem. The present essay argues that apparently low Japanese self-esteem is the re...

  12. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  13. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  14. Characteristics of High and Low Self-Esteem in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathleen I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined background and personality characteristics associated with low and high self-esteem in the elderly by studying 250 men and women age 65 and older. Results indicated the low self-esteem group had poorer self-reported health, higher scores on depression, anxiety, somatization, and a more external locus of control orientation. (Author)

  15. Self-Esteem and Institutionalized Delinquent Offenders: The Role of Background Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, B. Jerome; Bersani, Carl A.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis studied was derived from the work of control theorists: that self-esteem would be higher for offenders "removed" from conventional ties, lower for those maintaining conventional attachments. Family background and self-esteem scores of 75 male delinquents strongly supported this hypothesis. Implications for incarceration are drawn.…

  16. Parenting Styles as They Relate to Self-Esteem and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigward, Timothy M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between parental styles and the components of self-esteem that correspond to Damon and Hart's conceptualization of the self. Specifically, high levels of both parental control and parent acceptance were hypothesized to be positively related to self-esteem. Undergraduate students (N=225) rated…

  17. Self-Esteem And Self-Estimates Of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…

  18. Separating narcissism from self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-esteem,” “inflated self-esteem,” and “defensive high self-esteem.” We review research that challenges this belief by showing that narcissism differs m...

  19. Peculiarities of college students' self - esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Goštautas, Antanas; Grigaitė, Bronislava; Klasavičienė, Rima

    2004-01-01

    Self-esteem of college students of Lithuania was examined inadequately. Three researches were made and data of 228 students' answers were analyzed, 170 females and 58 males. It was found out that reduced self-esteem dominates among the female as well as male students. Having made the factorial analysis of the data, five main factors of self-esteem of males and females were found out. The legalized and not legalized drugs are used among males irrespectively of self-esteem. Females with low sel...

  20. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  1. The moderating impact of self-esteem on self-affirmation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Camilla; Jessop, Donna C

    2015-05-01

    This study explored whether self-esteem would moderate the effectiveness of a self-affirmation manipulation at increasing openness to personally relevant health-risk information. The study employed a prospective experimental design. Participants (N = 328) completed either a self-affirmation manipulation or a control task, prior to reading information detailing the health-related consequences of taking insufficient exercise. They then completed a series of measures assessing their cognitions towards exercise and their derogation of the information. Exercise behaviour was assessed at 1-week follow-up. Self-esteem moderated the impact of self-affirmation on the majority of outcomes. For participants with low self-esteem, the self-affirmation manipulation resulted in more positive attitudes and intentions towards exercise, together with lower levels of derogation of the health-risk information. By contrast, there was no effect of the self-affirmation manipulation on outcomes for participants with high self-esteem. Findings suggest that self-affirmation manipulations might be of particular benefit for those with low self-esteem in terms of promoting openness towards health-risk information. This is promising from a health promotion perspective, as individuals with low self-esteem often represent those most in need of intervention. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-affirmation has been shown to result in more open processing of personally relevant health-risk information. Individuals low in self-esteem tend to process such information more defensively than those high in self-esteem. What does this study add? It explores whether self-esteem moderates the impact of self-affirmation on responses to health-risk information. Findings suggest that individuals with low self-esteem benefit most from the self-affirmation manipulation. This has important applied implications, as individuals with low self-esteem may be most in need of

  2. Body Image, Self-esteem, and Quality of Life in Patients with Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hulya; Nazik, Selcuk; Gul, Feride C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that may affect the visible areas of body. Hence, the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image can be affected in psoriasis patients. We aimed in the present study to assess the effects of psoriasis on the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image. The study included 92 patients with psoriasis, along with 98 control participants. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were assessed, their Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores were calculated to determine the clinical severity of the psoriasis, and the values were recorded. In addition, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Body Image Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale results were evaluated. When the control and psoriasis groups were evaluated regarding the DLQI, self-esteem, and body image, quality of life was found to be more negatively affected in the psoriasis group than the controls, which was statistically significant ( P self-esteem ( P self-esteem ( P self-esteem ( r = 0.448), however, it was negatively correlated with the body image ( r = -0.423). Psoriasis may negatively affect quality of life, self-esteem, and body image, and may also cause psychosocial problems. An assessment of new approaches on this issue may contribute to developments in the treatment of and rehabilitation from this disease.

  3. Professional self-esteem as a predictor of teacher burnout across Iranian and Turkish EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khezerlou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at measuring the perceived Professional Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Depersonalization (DP, and Personal Accomplishment (PA of Iranian (n = 230 and Turkish (n =156 EFL teachers and determining the prediction role of Professional Self-esteem in EE, DP, and PA processes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES was used to measure the perceived burnout levels of the participants, and a shortened English version of Professional Self-esteem Scale developed by Aricak (1999 was employed to measure the participants’ self-esteem perceptions in five dimensions of satisfaction, knowledge development, commitment, adaptation and communication. The internal reliability of the professional self-esteem scale was r = 0.821. The results revealed that professional selfesteem was strongly correlated with EE, DP, and PA burnout. They also showed that EE, DP, and PA processes were better predicted by Satisfaction, Commitment, and Knowledge Development dimensions of Professional Self-esteem in the case of both Iranian and Turkish teachers, respectively. Moreover, the EE and PA prediction variances of Iranian group were greater than that of Turkish group, whereas the DP prediction variance of Turkish group was greater than that of Iranian group. The study highlights the significance of professional self-esteem in education and offers strategies for teachers and authorities to combat burnout for better teacher productivity.

  4. Psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prakash V; Shah, Henal; Rao, Pradeep; Ashturkar, Dhananjay; Ghaisas, Pradnya

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness. 60 children and their parents were selected to participate in an open study. 30 children had epilepsy and the other 30 had thalassemia. Both the groups consisted of children randomly selected from the Epilepsy Clinic and Thalassemia Centre respectively, of a teaching general hospital. The children and their parents were interviewed and also rated on Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Rosenberg's self esteem scale. The data was analysed using Pearson's chi square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The children were seen to have high psychopathology on CPMS (average score: thalassemia group = 28.56, epilepsy group = 26.06). Depression was the subscale with the maximum elevation in both groups. Behavior problems were high in epilepsy. In addition, sadness and disinterest in life were common symptoms in thalassemia while irritability and panic were high in epilepsy. Children with epilepsy perceived a change in lifestyle after diagnosis. Self-esteem was moderately affected in both groups and this affected compliance with treatment in thalassemia. Chronic illness affects psychological health and self esteem in children. Hence, in addition to the physical aspects it is necessary also, to focus on the psychological health of the child in order to ensure compliance and thus treat the child comprehensively.

  5. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  6. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.

  7. Self-esteem and depression: ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Warner, V; Wickramaratne, P; Weissman, M

    1999-01-01

    The association between maternal bonding style, offspring low self-esteem and offspring depression status was assessed by maternal depression status. Sixty mothers and 137 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a ten year follow-up study. Assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Among daughters of mothers with a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was associated with daughter low self-esteem which was associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up. Among daughters of mothers without a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was not associated with daughter low self-esteem, which was not associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up but which was associated with a history of childhood depression. None of these associations were found to be significant among sons. As self-esteem was not measured at ten year follow-up, among offspring the stability of self-esteem could not be assessed, nor could the association between adult self-esteem and adult depression. Clinical presentation of low self-esteem in girls should be assessed in the context of maternal depression status.

  8. The relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E

    2003-03-01

    To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.

  9. Correlation of self-concept and self-esteem with aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marčič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were interested in the correlation of aggressiveness with independent self-concept, codependent self-concept and level of self-esteem. Some previous research gave contradictory results about correlations between aggressiveness, self-concept and self-esteem. Researchers report of negative correlation, but also of positive and no correlation. One hundred and fifty-eight participants, aged from 19 to 51, with average age of 21 participated in the research. Fifty participants were males and 108 were females. Self-concept was measured with the Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory – ASSEI (Elovson & Fleming, 1989, level of self-esteem with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale – RSES (Rosenberg, 1965 and aggressiveness with The Aggression Questionnaire – AQ (Buss & Perry, 1992. The results showed that aggressiveness is negatively correlated with co-dependent self-concept, but is not correlated with independent self-concept, even if we control for the level of self-esteem. The level of self-esteem is negatively correlated with anger, hostility, and overall aggression, but not with physical and verbal aggression, even if we control for the self-concept. We can conclude that only certain areas of self-concept are relevant in the research of the relationship between self-concept and aggressiveness, and that the level of self-esteem is to be taken into account only in some forms of aggressiveness, like anger and hostility, but not in physical and verbal aggression.

  10. TEKNIK BERMAIN PERAN PADA LAYANAN BIMBINGAN KELOMPOK UNTUK MENINGKATKAN SELF-ESTEEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addahri Hafidz Awlawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery from this research are: (1 condition of self-esteem of high school students in particular 8 students experiment is still relatively low. (2 There were significant differences between students’ Self-Esteem in pre-test and post-test from Experimental group. (3 There was no significant defferences between Self-Esteem in pre-test and post-test from control group students. (4 There were significant differences between students’ Self–Esteem  in post-test from Control group and post-test from Experimental group. Based on the discovery above, we can conclude that implemeting role playing  is effective to be used in group guidance service to increase students’ Self-Esteem.  This research shows that is important to apply role playing in group guidance service that espoused with supervision from teacher and counselor at school, so that it can increase students’ Self-Esteem.

  11. A comparison of self-esteem and perfectionism in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andrea S; Thomas, Jennifer J; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Matheny, Natalie L; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic similarities between anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which share the common feature of negative body image. Studies comparing endophenotypes that may cut across both disorders-as suggested by the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria-are limited. Sixty-nine individuals (AN, n = 24; BDD, n = 23; mentally healthy controls [MHCs], n = 22) completed diagnostic interviews and self-reports assessing self-esteem and perfectionism. Clinical groups showed greater perfectionism in almost all subdimensions as well as poorer self-esteem compared with MHCs, with no clinical group differences when controlling for level of depression. Depression was a mediator of the relationship between symptom severity and self-esteem in both clinical groups. Comparable low self-esteem and greater perfectionism in AN and BDD corroborated existing etiological models and previous studies. Depression was a significant contributor to negative self-esteem in both disorders.

  12. Effects of self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with a group in the classroom for the experimental group. Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire was used to measure problematic behavior. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire, and peer attachment was measured using the Inventory of Parent and Attachment. Measuring was performed right after the program was done (post 1) and 1 month after the program was finished (post 2). To compare the differences in self-esteem and peer attachment between groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Most participants in the experimental group were 10 years old (62.5%, range 10-11), male (52.0%) and with middle grade point average (64.0%). The self-esteem scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 26.64, p < .001). The peer attachment scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 6.48, p = .014). The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Suspiciousness and low self-esteem as predictors of misattributions of anger in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul Henry; Davis, Louanne Whitman; Tsai, Jack

    2009-04-30

    While it is widely recognized that many with schizophrenia have significant difficulties in correctly identifying the emotions of others, less is known about the causes and correlates of particular forms of misattribution, including mistakenly seeing anger in others. One possibility is that persons with high levels of suspiciousness and low levels of self-esteem are at risk to attribute their poor feelings about themselves to the malice of others. To explore this possibility, we identified 52 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder who made significant numbers of errors on the Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Test. We then performed a cluster analysis based on measures of suspiciousness from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and self-esteem from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule, and found the following four groups: a) High Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; b) Mild Suspiciousness/High Self-Esteem; c) High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem; and d) Minimal Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem. Comparisons between groups revealed that as predicted the High Suspiciousness/Low Self-Esteem group made significantly more misattributions of anger than other groups, even when levels of depression were controlled for statistically. Implications for addressing the misattributions of anger in schizophrenia are discussed.

  14. Multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Paula; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Howard, Ruth; Grierson, David; Yellowlees, Alex

    2016-03-30

    Self-esteem improvement is one of the main targets of inpatient eating disorder programmes. The present study sought to examine multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in eating psychopathology among adults participating in a specialist inpatient treatment programme for anorexia nervosa. A standardised assessment battery, including multi-dimensional measures of eating psychopathology and self-esteem, was completed pre- and post-treatment for 60 participants (all white Scottish female, mean age=25.63 years). Statistical analyses indicated that self-esteem improved with eating psychopathology and weight over the course of treatment, but that improvements were domain-specific and small in size. Global self-esteem was not predictive of treatment outcome. Dimensions of self-esteem at baseline (Lovability and Moral Self-approval), however, were predictive of magnitude of change in dimensions of eating psychopathology (Shape and Weight Concern). Magnitude of change in Self-Control and Lovability dimensions were predictive of magnitude of change in eating psychopathology (Global, Dietary Restraint, and Shape Concern). The results of this study demonstrate that the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder is far from straightforward, and suggest that future research and interventions should focus less exclusively on self-esteem as a uni-dimensional psychological construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-esteem and alcohol dependence as predictors of contemplation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and alcohol dependence was ... Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in self-esteem decreased the ...

  16. General Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands and the Reflected Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1988-01-01

    Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…

  17. Body dissatisfaction prospectively predicts depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2006-12-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys (n = 764, Time 1 M age = 15.9 years). After controlling for Time 1 of the relevant dependent variable, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, Time 1 body dissatisfaction was a unique predictor of Time 2 depressive mood and low self-esteem in early-adolescent girls (depressive mood: F = 4.80, p self-esteem: F = 9.64, p p self-esteem: F = 9.38, p low self-esteem in both girls and boys but in different phases of adolescence.

  18. An implementation of 7E Learning Cycle Model to Improve Student Self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, F.; Priatna, N.; Suhendra, S.

    2017-09-01

    One of the affective factors that affect student learning outcomes is student self-esteem in mathematics, learning achievement and self-esteem influence each other. The purpose of this research is to know whether self-esteem students who get 7E learning cycle model is better than students who get conventional learning. This research method is a non-control group design. Based on the results obtained that the normal and homogeneous data so that the t test and from the test results showed there are significant differences in self-esteem students learning with 7E learning cycle model compared with students who get conventional learning. The implications of the results of this study are that students should be required to conduct many discussions, presentations and evaluations on classroom activities as these learning stages can improve students’ self-esteem especially pride in the results achieved.

  19. Sexual self-esteem in mothers of normal and mentally-retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Amiri, Mostafa; Nejad, Fahimeh Rastgoo

    2017-06-01

    Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (pself-esteem including skill and experience, attractiveness, control, moral judgment, and adaptiveness in mothers of mentally-retarded children were significantly less than those of mothers with normal children (p self-esteem, especially the sexual one, be taught to mothers of mentally-retarded children by specialists.

  20. Self-esteem, personality, and gender self-perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: No significant difference was found between males in the high and low market value conditions either on explicit self-perceived gender (t(26 = -.418, p = .679 or on visual SPG (t(26 = .390, p = .700. Nor did females in the market value conditions differ significantly (explicit SPG: t(64 = -.365, p = .716; visual SPG: t(64 = .684, p = .497. Relationships between SPG, self-esteem, and personality measures were reported. Conclusions: Self-esteem and particular personality traits are possible mediators in shifting an observer’s self-perceived gender. However, no definitive demonstration of these relationships was found with this study. Suggestions for future work were explored in light of these results.

  1. Parenting and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…

  2. The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Park, Lora E.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and…

  3. Should We Raise Pupils' Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that the teacher is not well served by relying on the construct of self-esteem. Although an important idea in psychological health, self-esteem is not of direct importance to the teacher. More useful constructs would be those of self-concept and self-efficacy; both of which can be related directly to academic achievement.

  4. Self-Esteem and Service Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)

  5. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  6. The Politics of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)

  7. An Indian Perspective of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)

  8. Self-Esteem and Couples Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisi, Anthony T.

    1992-01-01

    The components of the self system include self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Learning that adds to identity augments self-concept. Learning that leads to self-appraisal relates to self-esteem. Learning that leads to prediction of achievement belongs to self-efficacy. Courage to persist when confronted by a "Gulp!" experience…

  9. Measuring self-esteem with games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.; Hutchinson, K.; Khan, J.V.; Markopoulos, P.

    Self-esteem is a personality trait utilized to support the diagnosis of several psychological conditions. With this study we investigate the potential that computer games can have in assessing self-esteem. To that end, we designed and developed a platformer game and analyzed how in-game behavior

  10. Adolescent Self-Esteem and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Keith B.

    This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…

  11. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  12. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  13. Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.

  14. (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.

  15. Relationship Among Achievement Motivation, Self-Esteem, Locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of the study was to examine the relationship among achievement motivation, self-esteem, locus of control and academic performance of university students in a Nigerian University. The purpose was to determine the extent university student\\'s academic performance was influenced by these criterion variables.

  16. Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eHedrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD and depersonalization disorder (DPD, fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18, DPD (n=18, and healthy control (n=35 participants. DPD participants had significantly higher implicit self-esteem and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more ‘frontal’ behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.

  17. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Self-esteem level and stability, admission functional status, and depressive symptoms in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Sepehri, Arash; Evans, Clea C; Jabeen, Linsa N

    2009-11-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and admission functional status on discharge depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty stroke survivors serially completed a measure of state self-esteem during inpatient rehabilitation and completed a measure of depressive symptoms at discharge. Functional status was rated at admission using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Regressions explored main effects and interactions of self-esteem level and stability and admission FIM self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning on discharge depressive symptoms. After controlling for potential moderating variables, self-esteem level interacted with FIM self-care and cognitive functioning to predict discharge depressive symptoms, such that survivors with lower self-rated self-esteem and poorer functional status indicated higher levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem stability interacted with FIM mobility functioning, such that self-esteem instability in the presence of lower mobility functioning at admission was related to higher depressive symptoms at discharge. These results suggest that self-esteem variables may moderate the relationship between functional status and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability may differentially moderate functional domains, although this conclusion requires further empirical support.

  19. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  20. Self-esteem and counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, N J; Olson, J M

    1993-07-01

    Two studies examined the relation between self-esteem and counterfactual thinking (consideration of "might-have-been" alternatives to reality). Ss imagined themselves in scenarios with another actor that resulted in either success or failure. Ss then "undid" the outcome by altering events that preceded the outcome. Following success, high self-esteem (HSE) Ss were more likely than low self-esteem (LSE) Ss to mutate their own actions. Following failure, LSE Ss were more likely than HSE Ss to mutate their own actions. Also, the structure of counterfactuals was influenced by outcome valence but not by self-esteem: Subtractive structures (in which antecedents are removed) were elicited by success, whereas additive structures (in which antecedents are added) were elicited by failure. The importance of the self and individual differences in self-esteem to counterfactual thinking is discussed.

  1. Comparison of self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahane, Sandeep; Shah, Henal; Nagarale, Vivek; Kamath, Ravindra

    2013-09-01

    To compare self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and their unaffected siblings. This cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in an urban setting. It comprised of 31 pairs of children with a learning disability, their unaffected siblings and input from their mothers. All children were assessed with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Mothers were asked to fill Index of parental attitude (IPA) and semi structured proforma with demographic data and questionnaire about her children with a learning disability and his/her unaffected sibling. Self-esteem was found to be lower in children with learning disability. They felt they do not have much to be proud of and have a fewer number of good qualities. They are also inclined to consider themselves as failures. In factors affecting self-esteem, index of parental attitude was found to be unfavorable towards children with learning disability. Mothers felt child was interfering with their activities and was getting on their nerves. In addition, they also felt that they do not understand their child, feel like they do not love their child and wished that child was more like others they know off. More academic failures, academic difficulties and negative school report were also perceived by mother as lowering child's self-esteem. Self-esteem was lower in children with learning disability. In factors affecting self-esteem maternal attitude, academic difficulties, academic failure and negative school reports was found to be unfavorable.

  2. The thinner the better: self-esteem and low body weight in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Bents, Hinrich; Kämmerer, Annette; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between self-esteem, motive satisfaction, and body weight in acute (acAN) and recovered (recAN) inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in healthy controls. Both acAN and recAN showed lower levels of self-esteem as compared with healthy controls but did not differ from each other. In acAN, decreased body weight was associated with increased self-esteem. Satisfaction of an achievement motive but not satisfaction of a superiority motive mediated this association. No such correlations could be observed in the other groups. This is the first study to show an often assumed association between decreased body weight and increased self-esteem in AN patients. These preliminary results strengthen the assumption that low body weight may foster self-esteem in patients with acAN, mainly through the satisfaction of an achievement motive. Self-esteem should be focused very early in the treatment of AN since weight gain may deprive the patient of an important source of self-esteem. Treatment interventions should be attuned to underlying motives of threatened self-esteem; in AN patients, the enhancement of self-esteem via weight loss seems to be rather fuelled by the satisfaction of an achievement motive than by the satisfaction of a superiority motive. Specific trainings to improve self-esteem in AN patients seem to be promising as an add-on to regular treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Self-esteem of physical education students: sex differences and relationships with intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Guszkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem of physical education and sport students, its diversification according to sex, as well as relationships between self-esteem and the following variables: fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and academic performance. Participants and procedure A total of 385 first-year undergraduates aged 18-26 years studying physical education and sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw participated in the study. The following research tools were used: the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory, Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the Social Competence Questionnaire. The average of marks obtained for all courses taken during the first year was adopted as an indicator of academic performance. Results The obtained results attest to the high self-esteem of the first-year students. Male students gave higher ratings for their body appearance and body functioning, personal power and likeability, self-control, and competence. They also indicated a higher level of global self-esteem and identity integration. The highest number of significant positive correlations connected self-esteem and emotional intelligence; slightly fewer correlations existed between self-esteem and social competence. The lowest number of significant relationships was established for fluid intelligence. Only one positive predictor of average evaluations was established in male students (self-control and female students (competence. Conclusions The profile of self-esteem of physical education students demonstrates their high self-esteem, especially in areas related to their field of study. Some variations in the components of self-esteem of male and female students reflect the differences between sexes typical for the Polish adult population.

  4. Konseling Kelompok Teknik Spirituality-Cognitive Restructuring untuk Meningkatkan Self-Esteem Siswa

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    Dwi Bhakti Indri M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study, it was found that group counseling done in SMA Negeri Kota Semarang was still using a conventional technique. In addition, the planning in implementing group counseling was still low. It was regarding the ratio of a number of students were unbalanced, even more, what make it more difficult was the students’ positive perspective toward counseling was still low. Regarding the level of students’ self-esteem, there were 19,59% or 87 students were indicated having low self-esteem, and 68,47% or 304 students have medium self-esteem. Nonetheless, there were only 11,94% or 54 students were indicated having high self-esteem according to CSEI (Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory system. In this case, we need more appropriate intervention in handling low self-esteem for some students. Furthermore, it wasn’t found any media which is specifically developed to handle students’ self-esteem. In theoretical perspective, self-esteem is a self-assessment about honor and significant showed through individual’s manner to him self. This study was using experimental group design: pretest and post test control group design. The result of the study showed that experimental group could increase their self-esteem, but control group showed the same result. Wilcoxon test result showed assume sig (2-tailed approximately 0.026 < 0.05, which means was accepted and that was declined in the experimental group. Therefore, this study suggests the counseling teachers implement counseling group by using spirituality-cognitive restructuring to improve students’ self-esteem. The researcher is also expected to implement the integrated approach in wider regions.

  5. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...

  6. More negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among patients diagnosed with IBS compared with patients without IBS - a case-control study in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzinsky, Ewa; Walter, Susanna; Viktorsson, Lisa; Carlsson, Ann-Kristin; Jones, Michael P.; Olsen Faresjö, Ashild

    2015-01-01

    Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal disorder,that affects approximately 10% of the general population and the majority are diagnosed  in primary care. IBS has been reported to be associated with altered psychological and cognitive functioning such as mood disturbances, somatization, catastrophizing or altered visceral interoception by negative emotions and stress. The aim was to  investigate the psychosocial constructs of self-esteem and sense of...

  7. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, K.; Wood, C.; Barton, J.; Cohen, D.; Sandercock, G.

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year ...

  8. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile

    OpenAIRE

    María del Mar Molero Jurado; María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes; José Jesús Gázquez Linares; José Jesús Gázquez Linares; Ana Belén Barragán Martín

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome.Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout.Method: The sample was made up of 719 ...

  9. THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF SELF-ESTEEM AND LEARNING ATTITUDE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERCEIVED PARENTING STYLE AND SCHOOL LIFE ADJUSTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Youn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of middle school students’ perceived parenting style on their school life adjustment focusing on the mediation effect of selfesteem and learning attitude. The author carried out analysis of covariance structure using the 1st wave(2010) data of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey(KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute and consists of 2,351 first year middle school students and their parents. The results indicated that when middle school studen...

  10. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  11. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  12. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...

  13. Internet addiction and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Effects of anxiety, depression and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Özlem; Demirci, Esra Özdemir

    2018-06-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Behavioral disinhibition, poor neurocognitive skills and immediate reward preference in children with ADHD have been suggested as risk factors for Internet addiction (IA). The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the relationship between IA and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents with ADHD, and to identify the features of Internet use that predict IA. We studied 111 patients with ADHD aged 12-18 years, and 108 healthy controls. The ADHD patients and controls were asked to complete a sociodemographic data form, the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Children's Depression Inventory, Childhood Screening Scale for Anxiety in Children, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. IAS total score in the adolescents with ADHD was significantly higher than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the ADHD group depression scale score was significantly higher, and self-esteem score significantly lower (P self-esteem score. The relationship between IA scale score and depression, anxiety and self-esteem scale scores were similar in the ADHD and the control group. In addition, IAS subscale and total scores were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the control group, even after controlling for the effects of self-esteem, depression and anxiety scores. Thus, ADHD is thought to be an independent risk factor for depression, anxiety and self-esteem, and, hence, for IA. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Self-esteem: its application to eating disorders and athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, A K

    1994-09-01

    Self-esteem, a hierarchical and multifactorial perception, can be described as the extent to which a person feels positive about himself or herself. Social factors such as life satisfaction, sex, age, and strongly held values can affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a well-recognized trait of those with eating disorders and may be associated with a heightened self-awareness. Body dissatisfaction, common among women in Western society, may enhance this awareness. Athletes, especially those with eating disorders, are perfectionists and have acute body awareness and a sense of loss of control. Control is a crucial issue with these athletes. Before any nutrition counseling starts, readiness to listen should be assessed in conjunction with a mental health professional. Various tools are available to assess the eating disordered athlete's self-esteem, body image, and eating behavior. Nutrition counseling can help the athlete overcome an eating disorder by clarifying misconceptions and focusing on the role of nutrition in promoting health and athletic performance.

  15. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez-Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Gázquez Linares, José Jesús; Barragán Martín, Ana Belén

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome. Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout. Method: The sample was made up of 719 healthcare professionals with a mean of 38.52 years of age. The Short Questionnaire of Burnout, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire and the Basic Empathy Scale were used. Results: The results of a cluster analysis with self-esteem, empathy, and perceived social support showed four groups/profiles. Two of them, which included professionals with low self-esteem, differed in the rest of the characteristics. Furthermore, significant differences in burnout scores were found among the groups identified. Conclusion: The results show the need to study burnout with attention to individual and or social characteristics, where self-esteem is shown to be one of the explanatory variables making the main differences among the groups.

  16. Burnout in Health Professionals According to Their Self-Esteem, Social Support and Empathy Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Molero Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professionals in the healthcare field are in situations that could be a source of stress and sometimes develop burnout syndrome. Self-esteem, social support, and empathy are variables which intervene and influence the appearance of this syndrome.Objective: Identify healthcare professional profiles based on self-esteem, empathy and perceived social support, and analyze the extent to which these profiles show differences in developing burnout.Method: The sample was made up of 719 healthcare professionals with a mean of 38.52 years of age. The Short Questionnaire of Burnout, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Questionnaire and the Basic Empathy Scale were used.Results: The results of a cluster analysis with self-esteem, empathy, and perceived social support showed four groups/profiles. Two of them, which included professionals with low self-esteem, differed in the rest of the characteristics. Furthermore, significant differences in burnout scores were found among the groups identified.Conclusion: The results show the need to study burnout with attention to individual and or social characteristics, where self-esteem is shown to be one of the explanatory variables making the main differences among the groups.

  17. Implicit self-esteem compensation: automatic threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Association of Lower Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, Optimism and Hope Scores With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sabrina B; Rocha, Gabrielli P; Fernandez, Liana L; de Padua, Analuiza C; Reppold, Caroline T

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study's Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups ( p spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group. Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease's impact on these constructs.

  19. Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: A mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Mara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cella, Stefania; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To investigate dysfunctional eating behaviors and psychological variables typically associated to eating disturbances such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, shame, perceived parental care and protectiveness in obese and normal weight adolescents and to examine how the main powerful eating disorder risk factors interact with each other which explains eating psychopathology vulnerability. 111 high school students (68 males; age range 13-19years) classified as obese and 111 age-, sex- and social status-homogeneous normal weight controls were included in the current study. All participants were asked to fill out self-report measures of parental behavior as perceived by the offspring, eating disturbance attitudes and behaviors, self-esteem, perfectionism and shame. Significant differences between the two groups in relation to dysfunctional eating behaviors emerged. Body shame had the strongest relationship to eating problems vulnerability and acted as a mediator in the relationship between low self-esteem and eating disorder risk among both obese and non-obese youngsters. These findings further our understanding of a potential underlying mechanism for eating pathology development in youngsters in general and in obese adolescents in particular, which is of great importance in terms of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-esteem evaluation in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Luigi; Postorino, Valentina; Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mannino, Valeria; Armando, Marco; Fatta, Laura; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies investigated the relationship between self-esteem and ADHD, however, the results are still controversial. In the present study we analyze the characteristics of self-esteem in a sample of children and adolescents suffering from ADHD, with a particular focus on the relationship between ADHD symptoms severity and treatment strategies. A total of 85 patients with ADHD (44 drug-free and 41 drug-treated, 23 of which atomoxetine-treated and 18 Methylphenidate-treated) and 26 healthy controls were enrolled in the study in order to evaluate self-esteem using the Self-esteem Multidimensional Test (TMA). ADHD subjects revealed lower scores on all self-esteem domains compared to controls. Both ADHD drug-free (47.1%) and ADHD drug-treated (44.1%) groups showed significantly higher rates of subjects in the pathological range as compared to normal control group (8.8%) (p self-esteem scores as compared to the atomoxetine group. A lower self-esteem profile is more common in subjects suffering from ADHD than in healthy controls, suggesting the importance of an early detection of psychological well-being in these children in order to reduce the ADHD symptoms long-term impacts.

  1. Effects of Self-esteem Improvement Program on Self-esteem and Peer Attachment in Elementary School Children with Observed Problematic Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with ...

  2. When grandiosity and vulnerability collide: Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Ritter, Kathrin; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is characterized by reports of grandiosity including exaggerated illusions of superiority and entitlement (DSM-IV-TR, APA, 2000). Based on clinical theories (e.g., Kernberg, 1975), many researchers argue that high explicit self-esteem in narcissists masks underlying implicit vulnerability (low implicit self-esteem). Conversely, based on social learning theories (i.e., Millon, 1981), people with NPD are characterized by implicit grandiosity (high implicit self-esteem). We test these competing hypotheses in patients diagnosed with NPD. The present study examined implicit self-esteem (using an Implicit Association Test) and explicit self-esteem (using a self-report questionnaire) in patients with NPD in comparison to non-clinical and clinical, non-NPD (Borderline Personality Disorder, BPD) control groups. Patients with NPD scored lower on explicit self-esteem than non-clinical controls. In comparison to patients with BPD, NPD patients scored higher on explicit and implicit self-esteem. Moreover, within the group of NPD patients, damaged self-esteem (i.e., low explicit, high implicit) was associated with higher narcissistic psychopathology. In both clinical groups we included participants seeking psychiatric treatment, which might influence explicit self-esteem. Longitudinal studies are needed to further assess self-esteem stability in NPD patients in comparison to the control groups. Our findings are indicative of vulnerable facets in patients with NPD (i.e., low explicit self-esteem). Furthermore, damaged self-esteem is connected to specific psychopathology within the NPD group. Implications for research on NPD are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond self-esteem: influence of multiple motives on identity construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Golledge, Jen; Scabini, Eugenia

    2006-02-01

    Diverse theories suggest that people are motivated to maintain or enhance feelings of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, efficacy, and meaning in their identities. Four studies tested the influence of these motives on identity construction, by using a multilevel regression design. Participants perceived as more central those identity elements that provided a greater sense of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, and meaning; this was found for individual, relational, and group levels of identity, among various populations, and by using a prospective design. Motives for belonging and efficacy influenced identity definition indirectly through their direct influences on identity enactment and through their contributions to self-esteem. Participants were happiest about those identity elements that best satisfied motives for self-esteem and efficacy. These findings point to the need for an integrated theory of identity motivation. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. When rejection stings: how self-esteem constrains relationship-enhancement processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra L; Rose, Paul; Bellavia, Gina M; Holmes, John G; Kusche, Anna Garrett

    2002-09-01

    Three experiments examined how needs for acceptance might constrain low versus high self-esteem people's capacity to protect their relationships in the face of difficulties. The authors led participants to believe that their partner perceived a problem in their relationship. They then measured perceptions of the partner's acceptance, partner enhancement, and closeness. Low but not high self-esteem participants read too much into problems, seeing them as a sign that their partner's affections and commitment might be waning. They then derogated their partner and reduced closeness. Being less sensitive to rejection, however, high self-esteem participants affirmed their partner in the face of threat. Ironically, chronic needs for acceptance may result in low self-esteem people seeing signs of rejection where none exist, needlessly weakening attachments.

  5. Professional values, self-esteem, and ethical confidence of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Trisha A; Daly, Barbara J; Lindell, Debbie; Griffin, Mary Quinn

    2013-06-01

    Professional identity and competent ethical behaviors of nursing students are commonly developed through curricular inclusion of professional nursing values education. Despite the enactment of this approach, nursing students continue to express difficulty in managing ethical conflicts encountered in their practice. This descriptive correlational study explores the relationships between professional nursing values, self-esteem, and ethical decision making among senior baccalaureate nursing students. A convenience sample of 47 senior nursing students from the United States were surveyed for their level of internalized professional nursing values (Revised Professional Nursing Values Scale), level of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale), and perceived level of confidence in ethical decision making. A significant positive relationship (p self-esteem. The results of this study can be useful to nursing educators whose efforts are focused on promoting professional identity development and competent ethical behaviors of future nurses.

  6. Self esteem and self agency in first episode psychosis: Ethnic variation and relationship with clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Simone; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; Fearon, Paul; Boydell, Jane; Hutchinson, Gerard; Demjaha, Arsjme; Girardi, Paolo; Doody, Gill A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-06-30

    The impact of self esteem and Locus of Control (LoC) on clinical presentation across different ethnic groups of patients at their first psychotic episode (FEP) remains unknown. We explored these constructs in 257 FEP patients (Black n=95; White British n=119) and 341 controls (Black n=70; White British n=226), and examined their relationship with symptom dimensions and pathways to care. FEP patients presented lower self-esteem and a more external LoC than controls. Lower self esteem was associated with a specific symptoms profile (more manic and less negative symptoms), and with factors predictive of poorer outcome (longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and compulsory mode of admission). A more external LoC was associated with more negative symptoms and an insidious onset. When we explored these constructs across different ethnic groups, we found that Black patients had significantly higher self esteem than White British. This was again associated with specific symptom profiles. While British patients with lower self esteem were more likely to report delusions, hallucinations and negative symptoms, Black patients with a lower self esteem showed less disorganization symptoms. These findings suggest that self esteem and LoC may represent one way in which social experiences and contexts differentially influence vulnerable individuals along the pathway to psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does verruca vulgaris affect social anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Dilek; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan

    2017-05-24

    Objective Sensitivity about appearance is one of the sine qua non of adolescence and adolescents' self-esteem effecting their socialization processes. We explored if verruca vulgaris, a common visible infectious skin disease, affects social anxiety levels and self-esteem in adolescents compared to controls. Also, the difference in sociodemographic properties between two groups and the effect of clinical properties (the distribution and number of warts) on these parameters were investigated in the patient group. Materials and methods The study group consisted 98 adolescents (49 controls and 49 patients) without other medical/psychiatric diseases. The Sociodemographic form (SDF), the Çapa Social Phobia Scale for Children and Adolescents (ÇCASPS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were completed by both groups. Results There was no difference in social anxiety levels and self-esteem between the two groups. Also, the control and patient groups were found matched. However, lower self-esteem was the only factor that increased the risk for social phobia in the patient group. Conclusion Verruca vulgaris distributed in hands and face in adolescents were not found to be related with higher social anxiety and lower self-esteem. However, clinicians should monitor psychiatric symptoms and especially lower self-esteem should be taken into account.

  8. Obesity, Self-esteem and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Naci H. Mocan; Erdal Tekin

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with serious health problems, and it can generate adverse economic outcomes. We analyze a nationally-representative sample of young American adults to investigate the interplay between obesity, wages and self-esteem. Wages can be impacted directly by obesity, and they can be influenced by obesity indirectly through the channel of obesity to self-esteem to wages. We find that female wages are directly influenced by body weight, and self-esteem has an impact on wages in ca...

  9. Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: how implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2005-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that high self-esteem is heterogeneous. Recent research suggests that individuals who report having high self-esteem (i.e., have high explicit self-esteem) behave more defensively to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The current studies test whether individuals with high explicit self-esteem are more likely to discriminate ethnically, as a defensive technique, to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The results support this prediction. Among participants with high explicit self-esteem, all of whom were threatened by negative performance feedback, those with relatively low implicit self-esteem recommended a more severe punishment for a Native, but not a White, student who started a fist-fight. In Study 2, this pattern was not apparent for participants with relatively low explicit self-esteem.

  10. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of written emotional disclosure on implicit self-esteem and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Hurling, Robert; Hendrickx, Hilde; Osborne, Gabrielle; Hall, Josephine; Walklet, Elaine; Whaley, Ann; Wood, Helen

    2011-09-01

    Negative body image has a significant impact on self-esteem, disordered eating, and general health. Writing about distressing events and experiences has been found to have beneficial effects on psychological and physical health outcomes. This study investigated whether a written self-disclosure intervention, compared to a writing about body image success stories (WSS) intervention, had beneficial effects on self-esteem and body image. One hundred and fifty-eight women (aged 18-22 years) were allocated to either: written emotional disclosure (WED); WSS; or a control, non-emotional writing condition. All measures were completed at baseline and at follow-up 4 weeks later. A condition by time interaction was observed for implicit self-esteem, such that levels of self-esteem were improved 4 weeks later in the WED condition. Implicit self-esteem was also found to be greater following WED compared to the control condition, but not following WSS. This is the first study to demonstrate that WED has beneficial effects on implicit outcome measures such as self-esteem indicating that the positive effects of expressive writing may initially operate by influencing automatically activated attitudes towards the self. The impact of WED on implicit self-esteem may have implications for future health. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Self-Esteem and Locus of Causality as Vulnerability Factors for the Development of Actual/Ideal Self-Discrepancies in Late Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Di Blas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-discrepancies influence psychological well-being and self-acceptance across several domains. Middle to late childhood is a critical age for the development of self-discrepancies (SD. The present study was aimed at investigating antecedents of actual/ideal self-discrepancies in 9- to 11-year-old children by adopting a repeated measure design, with two measurement occasions. At the baseline (T1, children (N=261 completed a self-esteem questionnaire, a measure of actual/ideal SDs we developed around the Five Factor Model domains, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 4 months later (T2 a subsample (N=96 provided self-ratings again. Children's parents (N=195 referred on their own feelings towards their children along the Profile of Mood States as well as on their perceived locus of control of their children's undesirable behaviors; a subsample of parents (N=80 provided ratings again 4 months later. Principal component analyses from children's self-discrepancies at T1 yielded four domains: Intellect, Emotional Stability, Impulse Control, and Sociability. Self-rated discrepancies across time were moderately stable. Concurrently, higher SDs in Intellect were associated with lower children's self-esteem. Cross-lagged pattern analyses showed that lower self-esteem predicted increases in children's SDs, but not vice versa; in addition, change levels in SDs were correlated with change levels in self-esteem. Parents' perceived internal locus of causality of their children's undesirable behaviors also accounted for changes in children's SDs. Parents' feelings of depression accounted for increases in girls' SDs. The present findings further support the association between self-esteem and SDs, indicate the direction of association across time, and suggest possible mechanisms by which parents affect the development of the children's self-views.

  13. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10-16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence

  14. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S.; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence

  15. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  16. How Low Self-Esteem Affects Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)

  17. Vocational Crystallization and Self Esteem in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Harvey; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A positive relationship between vocational crystallization and self esteem was assessed by observing differences on two measures of vocational crystallization in students high and low in self esteem scores. No differences according to self esteem were observed. Differences were observed in the certainty of high and low self esteem students. The…

  18. Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…

  19. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  20. Self-esteem in adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders: The roles of tic severity, treatment, and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Scahill, Lawrence; Hoeppner, Susanne; Peterson, Alan L; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Piacentini, John; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2018-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTD) are stigmatizing disorders that may significantly impact self-esteem. Alternatively, comorbid psychiatric illnesses may affect self-esteem more than tics themselves. Extant research on self-esteem in TS/CTD is limited, has inconsistently examined the effect of comorbidities on self-esteem, and yields mixed findings. This study aimed to clarify the roles of tics versus comorbid diagnoses on self-esteem in a large, carefully diagnosed sample of adults with TS/CTD (N = 122) receiving 10 weeks of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) or Psychoeducation and Supportive Therapy (PST). Baseline self-esteem did not differ between adults with TS/CTD only and normative means, whereas self-esteem was significantly lower among adults with TS/CTD with a comorbid psychiatric illness. In a multiple regression testing the baseline association between tic severity, presence of comorbid psychiatric illness, and depression severity with self-esteem, comorbidity and depression severity were significantly associated with self-esteem, whereas tic severity was not. Finally, using a generalized linear model, we tested the effects of treatment assignment, comorbidity, and their interaction on changes in self-esteem across treatment, controlling for baseline depression severity. Results showed that for those with a comorbid illness, self-esteem improved significantly more with CBIT than with PST. Comorbid illnesses appear to affect self-esteem more so than tics among adults with TS/CTD. Therapeutic attention should be paid to treating comorbid diagnoses alongside tics when treating TS/CTD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.