Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…
Dos Santos, Sabrina B; Rocha, Gabrielli P; Fernandez, Liana L; de Padua, Analuiza C; Reppold, Caroline T
Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study's Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups ( p spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group. Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease's impact on these constructs.
Sabrina B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Introduction: Positive psychology (PP constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia.Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group.Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study’s Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS.Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.05. The individuals with MCI and mild dementia had lower spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group.Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease’s impact on these constructs.
Ritchie, M A
Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship.
Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda
To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.
Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C
Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.
Ferrari, Joseph R.; Stevens, Edward B.; Legler, Raymond; Jason, Leonard A.
Hopefulness remains unclear in relation to aspects of self-control and self-esteem among adults in substance abuse recovery. The present study explored the relationship between dispositional hope (agency and pathway) with self-esteem (self-liking, self-competency, and self-confidence) and self-regulation (impulse control and self-discipline),…
Parvan, Kobra; Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi, Faranak; Rahmani, Azad; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Azadi, Arman; Golchin, Mehri
Introduction: Patients with hematologic malignancies often experience many emotional reactions which are different based on patient’s culture. Indeed culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship of self-esteem and hope among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 85 leukemic patients admitted to Shahid Ghazi hospital in East-Azerbaijan province, Iran. They were selected using consecutive sampling method. Persian form of Hearth Hope Index and Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to identify patients’ hope and self-esteem. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The overall scores of hope and self-esteem were 33.05 (5.24) and 94.61 (11.51), respectively. There was a positive correlation between hope and self-esteem (rs = 0.73, n = 85, P self-esteem and hope relationship could be similar in different cultures. The findings of this study indicate that nurses could be helpful through designing and implementing appropriate educational programs in order to enhance hope and self-esteem of leukemia patients. PMID:26464838
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with hematologic malignancies often experience many emotional reactions which are different based on patient’s culture. Indeed culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship of self-esteem and hope among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 85 leukemic patients admitted to Shahid Ghazi hospital in East-Azerbaijan province, Iran. They were selected using consecutive sampling method. Persian form of Hearth Hope Index and Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to identify patients’ hope and self-esteem. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The overall scores of hope and self-esteem were 33.05 (5.24 and 94.61 (11.51, respectively. There was a positive correlation between hope and self-esteem (rs = 0.73, n = 85, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Although culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer, but it seems that the self-esteem and hope relationship could be similar in different cultures. The findings of this study indicate that nurses could be helpful through designing and implementing appropriate educational programs in order to enhance hope and self-esteem of leukemia patients.
Wisman, Arnaud; Heflick, Nathan A
Do people lose hope when thinking about death? Based on Terror Management Theory, we predicted that thoughts of death (i.e., mortality salience) would reduce personal hope for people low, but not high, in self-esteem, and that this reduction in hope would be ameliorated by promises of immortality. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience reduced personal hope for people low in self-esteem, but not for people high in self-esteem. In Study 3, mortality salience reduced hope for people low in self-esteem when they read an argument that there is no afterlife, but not when they read "evidence" supporting life after death. In Study 4, this effect was replicated with an essay affirming scientific medical advances that promise immortality. Together, these findings uniquely demonstrate that thoughts of mortality interact with trait self-esteem to cause changes in personal hope, and that literal immortality beliefs can aid psychological adjustment when thinking about death. Implications for understanding personal hope, trait self-esteem, afterlife beliefs and terror management are discussed.
Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.
Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...
Hammond, Vanessa Lea; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Cothran, D. Lisa
Hopelessness is central to prominent mental health problems within American Indian (AI) communities. Apaches living on a reservation in Arizona responded to diverse expressions of hope along with Hopelessness, Personal Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem scales. An Apache Hopefulness Scale expressed five themes of hope and correlated…
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chu, Samuel K W
Previous studies have shown that depression is negatively associated with hope and social support. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the theoretical mechanisms underlying the connections among hope, social support, and depression. This study examined how two types of self-esteem (personal and relational) would mediate the relationship of hope and social support to depression among 384 Hong Kong adolescents (age: 12-18 years; M = 14, SD = 1.19). Participants reported their levels of hope, social support, personal self-esteem, relational self-esteem, and depressive mood. Results of the path analysis showed that both personal and relational self-esteem mediated the associations of hope and social support with depression. Hope and social support were associated with higher levels of personal and relational self-esteem, which were in turn related to decreased levels of depression. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Aydin, Betül; Sari, Serkan Volkan; Sahin, Mustafa
In this study, examining the relationship of parental acceptance/involvement to self-esteem, hope and academic achievement besides, mediating role of hope on the relationship between perception of parental acceptance/involvement, self esteem and academic achievement were aimed. The study was carried out with 297 students from different…
Parvan, Kobra; Jabbarzadeh Tabrizi, Faranak; Rahmani, Azad; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Azadi, Arman; Golchin, Mehri
Introduction: Patients with hematologic malignancies often experience many emotional reactions which are different based on patient’s culture. Indeed culture determines the different ways that patients understand cancer. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship of self-esteem and hope among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was undertaken among 85 leukemic patients admitted to Shahid Ghazi hospital in East-Azerbaijan province, I...
Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Lau, Ying Wen; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lim, Susan; Poh, Chee Lien; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
This study aimed to: (i) determine the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical correlates of internalized stigma and (ii) explore the association between internalized stigma and quality of life, general functioning, hope and self-esteem, among a multi-ethnic Asian population of patients with mental disorders. This cross-sectional, survey recruited adult patients (n=280) who were seeking treatment at outpatient and affiliated clinics of the only tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Internalized stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. 43.6% experienced moderate to high internalized stigma. After making adjustments in multiple logistic regression analysis, results revealed there were no significant socio-demographic or clinical correlates relating to internalized stigma. Individual logistic regression models found a negative relationship between quality of life, self-esteem, general functioning and internalized stigma whereby lower scores were associated with higher internalized stigma. In the final regression model, which included all psychosocial variables together, self-esteem was the only variable significantly and negatively associated with internalized stigma. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role internalized stigma plays in patients with mental illness, and the impact it can have on psychosocial aspects of their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fernández-González, L.; González-Hernández, A.; Trianes-Torres, M. V.
Introduction: This research aims to analyse how optimism, self-esteem and social support help to predict academic stress. Method: The sample consisted of 123 students aged 20 to 31 years old, from the 3rd Year in the Psychology Degree. Students completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Optimism Questionnaire (LOT-R), the…
Vonk, R.; Smit, H.M.M.
We argue that noncontingent, unconditional self-esteem is not optimal but defensive. We introduce the concept of intrinsic contingency, where self-esteem is affected by whether one's actions are self-congruent and conducive to personal growth. Whereas external contingencies, especially social and
Ringer, Jamie M; Buchanan, Erin E; Olesek, Kyle; Lysaker, Paul H
Having an insecure attachment style in schizophrenia has been linked to treatment response and symptom severity in schizophrenia. This study sought to further examine whether attachment style is related to subjective indicators of recovery including hope and self-esteem, independent of symptom level and secondly, whether attachment style in schizophrenia differs from attachment style of persons facing adversity in the form of a prolonged non-psychiatric medical illness. Participants were 52 men with schizophrenia, and 26 with HIV/AIDS who had no history of experiencing severe mental illness. These groups were compared in terms of their endorsement of attachment style. All participants were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of adult attachment style. The schizophrenia group was also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to assess self-esteem, the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a measure of hope, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as an assessment of symptoms. Avoidant attachment in the schizophrenia group was linked with higher levels of hopelessness while anxious attachment was linked to lower levels of self-esteem. The association between anxious attachment and self-esteem persisted after controlling for severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Compared to the HIV/AIDS group, participants with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of anxious attachment but not avoidant attachment style. Attachment style may impact attainment of key subjective domains of recovery in schizophrenia such as self-esteem, independent of symptom severity. If self-esteem and/or hopelessness are identified as a focus of treatment, focusing on attachment style may be an important treatment component. Therapist understanding of patients' attachment style may allow for a better understanding of resistance in the therapeutic relationship. Helping persons with schizophrenia to recognize and
Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Zhen, Rui
Although posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) can co-exist, and several theories suggest that social support, self-esteem, and hope can predict both PTSD and PTG, no study to date has examined the combined role of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. The present study aimed to simultaneously examine the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope in the relations between social support and PTSD, and between social support and PTG. This study included 397 adolescents living in Lushan County, China, who were affected by the Ya'an earthquake. The participants completed the self-report questionnaires at two and a half years after the earthquake. Structural equation models were built to examine the roles of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. Social support directly and negatively predicted PTSD and positively predicted PTG. Moreover, social support negatively predicted PTSD via self-esteem, and positively predicted PTG via hope. In addition, social support positively predicted PTG through multiple mediating paths from self-esteem to hope. PTSD and PTG had different predictive paths. Specifically, social support reduced PTSD through enhanced self-esteem and promoted PTG through hope, or through the path from self-esteem to hope.
Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David
Research has revealed the negative consequences of internalized stigma among people with serious mental illness (SMI), including reductions in self-esteem and hope. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between internalized stigma and subjective quality of life (QoL) by examining the mediating role of self-esteem and hope. Measures of internalized stigma, self-esteem, QoL, and hope were administrated to 179 people who had a SMI. Linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the cross-sectional data. Self-esteem mediated the relation between internalized stigma and hope. In addition, hope partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and QoL. The findings suggest that the effect of internalized stigma upon hope and QoL may be closely related to levels of self-esteem. This may point to the need for the development of interventions that target internalized stigma as well as self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, E H
Self-esteem and optimism have been associated with appraisal and outcomes in a variety of situations. The degree to which the contribution of self-esteem and optimism to outcomes over time is accounted for by the differences in threat (primary) or resource (secondary) appraisal has not been established in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To examine the longitudinal relationship of personality (self-esteem and optimism) on primary and secondary appraisal and outcomes of well-being, mood, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and selected activities. Men (n = 56) and women (n = 42) infected with HIV completed eight self-report measures twice over 18 months. Hierarchical Multiple Regressions were used to examine the relationship of personality variables on appraisals and outcomes. The mediating effects of primary and secondary appraisals were explored. Self-esteem uniquely accounted for 6% of the variance in primary appraisal and 5% in secondary appraisal. Optimism accounted for 8% of the unique variance in secondary appraisal. Primary and secondary appraisal mediated differently between personality and outcome variables. A strong predictor of well-being, mood disturbance, and activity disruption at Time 2 was participants' initial level of these variables. Socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of mood. Self-esteem and optimism are important but different resources for adapting to HIV disease. Strategies for reducing threats and increasing resources associated with HIV may improve an individual's mood and sense of well-being.
Homaei, Rezvan; Bozorgi, Zahra Dasht; Ghahfarokhi, Maryam Sadat Mirbabaei; Hosseinpour, Shima
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between Optimism, Religiosity and Self-esteem with Marital Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction in married university students. The research method was a descriptive study kind of correlation. The sample group included 200 married students that were selected using a simple random…
Jiménez, M. Guadalupe; Montorio, Ignacio; Izal, María
The aim of this study was to test a model of emotional distress, which incorporates the potential mediator role of positive resources (sense of control, self-esteem, and optimism) in the association of age with emotional distress. The study used a cross-sectional design with intentional sampling and the voluntary participation of 325 adults…
Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S
Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P self-esteem (B = -0.047, P = .036) also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. We found significant partner effects of self-esteem on depression for both members and partner effect of optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of sportive and cultural recreative activities on the hope and self-esteem of children who have tendency to involve in a crime. The sample of the research consists of 41 students aged between 8 and 14. The data was collected during the project called "Our future is safe with sport." Personal…
Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Gomez, Veronica; Allemand, Mathias
There is evidence that positive personality characteristics, such as optimism and self-esteem, are important for health. Less is known about possible determinants of positive personality characteristics. To test the relationship of optimism and self-esteem with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration. Sleep parameters, optimism, and self-esteem were assessed by self-report in a community-based sample of 1,805 adults aged between 30 and 84 years in the USA. Moderation of the relation between sleep and positive characteristics by gender and age as well as potential confounding of the association by depressive disorder was tested. Individuals with insomnia symptoms scored lower on optimism and self-esteem largely independent of age and sex, controlling for symptoms of depression and sleep duration. Short sleep duration (self-esteem when compared to individuals sleeping 7-8 h, controlling depressive symptoms. Long sleep duration (>9 h) was also related to low optimism and self-esteem independent of age and sex. Good and sufficient sleep is associated with positive personality characteristics. This relationship is independent of the association between poor sleep and depression.
Toward understanding the insight paradox: internalized stigma moderates the association between insight and social functioning, hope, and self-esteem among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T
Research has paradoxically linked awareness of illness to both better function outcomes and lesser hope and self-esteem. One possible explanation for these findings is that acceptance of having schizophrenia may impact outcomes differently depending on the meanings the person attaches to this acceptance, particularly whether he or she accepts stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness. To explore this possibility we performed a cluster analysis of 75 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders based on single measures of insight using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, internalized stigma using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and compared groups on concurrent assessments of hope and self-esteem. Three groups were produced by the cluster analyses: low in sight/mild stigma (n = 23), high insight/minimal stigma (n = 25), and high insight/moderate stigma (n = 27). As predicted, analysis of variance-comparing groups revealed that the high insight/moderate stigma group had significantly the lowest levels of hope on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and self-esteem using the Multidimensional Self-esteem Inventory. As predicted, the high insight/minimal stigma group also had significantly less impaired social function than the other groups. Implications for assisting persons to come to cope with awareness of illness and stigma are discussed.
Poorthuis, A.; Thomaes, S.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.
The transition from primary to secondary school challenges children's psychological well-being. A cross-transitional longitudinal study (N = 306; mean age = 12.2 years) examined why some children's self-esteem decreases across the transition whereas other children's self-esteem does not. Children's
Morea, Jessica M; Friend, Ronald; Bennett, Robert M
Illness self-concept (ISC), or the extent to which individuals are consumed by their illness, was theoretically described and evaluated with the Illness Self-Concept Scale (ISCS), a new 23-item scale, to predict adjustment in fibromyalgia. To establish convergent and discriminant validity, illness self-concept was compared to self-esteem and optimism in predicting health status, illness intrusiveness, depression, and life satisfaction. The ISCS demonstrated good reliability (alpha = .94; test-retest r = .80) and was a strong predictor of outcomes, even after controlling for optimism or self-esteem. The ISCS predicted unique variance in health-related outcomes; optimism and self-esteem did not, providing construct validation. Illness self-concept may play a significant role in coping with fibromyalgia and may prove useful in the evaluation of other chronic illnesses. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weber, Scott; Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu
Stress, developmental changes and social adjustment problems can be significant in rural teens. Screening for psychosocial problems by teachers and other school personnel is infrequent but can be a useful health promotion strategy. We used a cross-sectional survey descriptive design to examine the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, and optimism in a sample of rural school-based adolescents. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with peer social support, family social support, self-esteem, and optimism. Findings underscore the importance for teachers and other school staff to provide health education. Results can be used as the basis for education to improve optimism, self-esteem, social supports and, thus, depression symptoms of teens.
Fraser, Cira; Keating, Michelle
Creative art has been found to be beneficial to some patients with chronic illness. Little is understood about how creative art can benefit individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the pilot study was to determine if there was a difference in self-esteem, hope, perceived social support, and self-efficacy in individuals with MS after a 4-week creative art program. A one-group, pretest/posttest design was used. The convenience sample of 14 individuals was recruited from MS Centers and the National MS Society. They ranged in age from 29 to 70 years (M = 51.3 years, SD = 12.5 years). Participants included 14 women. The creative art program included week 1-watercolor, week 2-collage making, week 3-beading, and week 4-knitting. Each of the four weekly sessions was facilitated by a registered nurse with expertise in MS and lasted 2 hours. Creative artists instructed participants and provided a hands-on experience for each of the creative projects. Participants were free to share thoughts, experiences, and words of support and encouragement during each session. The variables were measured before starting the creative art program and after the final session. The instruments included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Modified Social Support Survey, the MS Self-Efficacy Scale, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 16.0 was used to analyze the data. There was a significant increase in all variables after the creative art program as follows: self-esteem (t = -3.05, p = 009), hope (t = -3.96, p = .002), social support (t = -2.21, p = .046), self-efficacy to function with MS (t = -2.68, p = .019), and self-efficacy to control MS (t = 3.22, p = .007). The power analysis revealed a large effect size for hope (d = 1.06), self-esteem (d = 0.82), and self-efficacy (control; d = 0.86). A medium effect size was found for self-efficacy (function; d = 0.72) and social support (d = 0
Kapikiran, Sahin; Acun-Kapikiran, Necla
This study examined the role of self-esteem as a mediator in the relationships between optimism and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in university students. A total of 494 undergraduate students, comprising of 253 female and 241 male participated in this study. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 30 (M = 20.85, SD = 1.57).…
Annamaria eDi Fabio
Full Text Available The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM were administered to the participants. In the second study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Life Orientation Test - revised (LOT-r were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella
The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.
Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C
Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.
Lee, Virginia; Robin Cohen, S; Edgar, Linda; Laizner, Andrea M; Gagnon, Anita J
Existential issues often accompany a diagnosis of cancer and remain one aspect of psychosocial oncology care for which there is a need for focused, empirically tested interventions. This study examined the efficacy of a novel psychological intervention specifically designed to address existential issues through the use of meaning-making coping strategies on psychological adjustment to cancer. Eighty-two breast or colorectal cancer patients were randomly chosen to receive routine care (control group) or up to four sessions that explored the meaning of the emotional responses and cognitive appraisals of each individual's cancer experience within the context of past life events and future goals (experimental group). This paper reports the results from 74 patients who completed and returned pre- and post-test measures for self-esteem, optimism, and self-efficacy. After controlling for baseline scores, the experimental group participants demonstrated significantly higher levels of self-esteem, optimism, and self-efficacy compared to the control group. The results are discussed in light of the theoretical and clinical implications of meaning-making coping in the context of stress and illness.
Kaplan, Julie Bass
The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.
Bissessar, Charmaine S.
Teachers who possess high levels of psychological capital and collective self-esteem are better able to cope with the spate of school violence, student/student bullying, and other current issues confronting the education system globally, regionally, and nationally. A teacher psychological capital high in hope, optimism, self-efficacy, resilience,…
Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.
The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…
This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…
Hajek, André; Hans-Helmut-König
While several cross-sectional studies have shown that self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism are associated with the use of routine health check-ups, little is known about this relationship based on longitudinal studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether these factors are associated with routine health check-ups longitudinally. Data were retrieved from a population-based longitudinal study of individuals (≥40years of age) residing in private households in Germany (two waves: 2008 and 2011). Widely established scales were used to quantify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism. Respondents reported whether they used a health check-up in the last two years. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions were used (n=1504), adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. After adjusting for various potential confounders, regression analysis revealed that the use of routine health check-ups increased with self-efficacy [OR: 1.71 (95%-CI: 1.14-2.55)], self-esteem [OR: 1.78 (1.16-2.73)], and optimism [OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.86)]. Furthermore, the use of routine health check-ups increased with changes from employment to retirement [OR: 2.60 (1.34-5.03)], whereas it was not associated with changes in age, marital status, smoking status, the number of physical illnesses, self-rated health and body-mass index. The current study stresses the importance of an association between screening behavior and self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism longitudinally. Interventions aiming at modifying these psychological factors might help to increase the use of routine health check-ups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Kids / Self-Esteem Print en español Sobre la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...
Assesses the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory using a variation of Thurstone's Orthogonal Rotation technique. Also attempted to obtain data on the sources of self-esteem which contribute to global self-esteem. It was hoped that data would reflect the comparative importance of the home, peers, and the school to the global…
Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However, the ......-construction, and thus performative. Future self-esteem research and theory should therefore focus on how people seek to enact, maintain, or defend a desired identity through performative actions....
Steffenhagen, R. A.
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…
By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…
Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.
Tafarodi, Romin W; Milne, Alan B
We argue in this paper for distinguishing two dimensions of global self-esteem, self-competence and self-liking. Studies 1 and 2 identify a corresponding pair of factors in Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale. Studies 3 and 4 examine the predictive value of the two-dimensional approach to self-esteem as reflected in the unique associations of self-competence and self-liking with negative life events and word recognition.
Rodolfo Acosta Padrón; José Alfonso Hernández
The present article gives a panoramic view about self-esteem as a characteristic of the human psyche, and as a social product which is developed in man-world interaction. It also presents some derived results of the researches carried out by the authors about the impact that self-esteem has in the work with individual's self-esteem in the pedagogic contexts.
Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...
In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...
Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala
This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...
The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...
Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer
Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…
Culp, Mara E.
Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…
Jaffee, Lynn; Ricker, Sherri
The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 12 to 17 years of age was explored by this study. The primary goal was to determine if the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. It was also hoped that insight would be gained regarding the factors…
Cooper-Evans, Samantha; Alderman, Nick; Knight, Caroline; Oddy, Michael
This study explored the effects of severe acquired brain injury (ABI) on self-esteem. A within-subjects design investigated 22 severe ABI survivors' self-reported responses on measures of self-esteem, mood and awareness of deficit. Data on cognitive ability and awareness of degree of executive impairment were included in the analysis. Self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg) and psychological distress by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Self-esteem was found to be consistent over a two-week interval. Participants reported that their self-esteem had suffered following ABI when contrasting their current self-esteem with their retrospective perceptions. Self-esteem was highly correlated with psychological distress. More intact cognitive functioning and awareness of deficit were associated with lower self-esteem. The paradoxical finding that survivors who were more impaired cognitively and/or less aware of their deficits reported higher self-esteem poses an ethical dilemma for clinicians. It is hoped that this finding, along with the consistency of self-esteem ratings sparks further debate about how best to address issues of self-esteem among severe ABI survivors, particularly in the context of psychological distress, during rehabilitation.
Baumeister, Roy F; Campbell, Jennifer D; Krueger, Joachim I; Vohs, Kathleen D
directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it
Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala
Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...
Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C
To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.
Introduction: Suicide is a major Public Health concern and self-esteem is given growing interest in our society.Objectives: To assess the correlation between self-esteem and suicidal intent, independently of depression, and to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of self-esteem (total, general, familial, professional and social). We also studied whether poor self-esteem was predictive of suicidal risk.Methods: Two studies were conducted among a Suicide Prevention Departme...
Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel
Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...
Wibowo, Satrio Budi
Self-esteem determines a person's overall mental development, it can even affect human behavior. The debate arose when researchers try to explain, whether student achievement is influenced by self-esteem? The author conducted a meta-analysis studies in attempt to clarify the relationship between the variables of self-esteem with academic achievement variable. This research analyzed over sixteen research journals, in which there are 29 studies that examine a relationship between self-esteem an...
Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…
Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn
The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…
Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…
... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...
Morrison, Thomas L.; Thomas, M. Duane
According to the subscale of the Coopersmith Inventory specifically related to school self-esteem, college students with low self-esteem (1) say less in class, (2) contribute a smaller portion of their thoughts to class discussion, and (3) sit farther back in the classroom than the students with high self-esteem. (RC)
Lundy, Allan; Rosenberg, Judy A.
Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Bem Sex Role Inventory to 194 adults. Found androgyny scale emphasizing masculinity was most predictive of self-esteem, due to strong correlation found between masculinity and self-esteem. Found no effects due to femininity, interaction of femininity and masculinity, or sex. (Author/NB)
Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.
The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as
Brown, R. A.
Self-Esteem, both high and low, has been linked with a wide variety of desirable and undesirable conditions and consequences, including happiness, mental health, and even physiological functioning in general.Most studies have been conducted in North America, and the few that have been conductedelsewhere tend to yield anomalous results. Specifically, measurements of Japanese samples invariably indicate low self-esteem. The present essay argues that apparently low Japanese self-esteem is the re...
Modrcin-Talbott, M A; Pullen, L; Zandstra, K; Ehrenberger, H; Muenchen, B
Over the past decade, nursing has identified the significance of self-esteem in maintaining wellness among adolescents. Low self-esteem has been linked to numerous adolescent risk behaviors such as smoking, drug use, and sexual activity. Adolescents engaging in these risk behaviors may have subsequent health problems, such as alcohol and drug addiction, as well as teen pregnancy. Present treatment modalities for low self-esteem have not been optimally effective. Nursing needs to examine adolescent self-esteem within the discipline of nursing and develop its own prevention and intervention strategies. Guided by the Roy Adaptation Model, our study used a descriptive, correlational design and examined the self-report of self-esteem on age group, gender, exercise participation, smoking, parental alcohol usage, depression, and anger in a nonclinical, community sample of adolescents aged 12-19.
Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others
Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-esteem,” “inflated self-esteem,” and “defensive high self-esteem.” We review research that challenges this belief by showing that narcissism differs m...
Goštautas, Antanas; Grigaitė, Bronislava; Klasavičienė, Rima
Self-esteem of college students of Lithuania was examined inadequately. Three researches were made and data of 228 students' answers were analyzed, 170 females and 58 males. It was found out that reduced self-esteem dominates among the female as well as male students. Having made the factorial analysis of the data, five main factors of self-esteem of males and females were found out. The legalized and not legalized drugs are used among males irrespectively of self-esteem. Females with low sel...
Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…
Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and alcohol dependence was ... Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in self-esteem decreased the ...
Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E
Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor that took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale. Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80-mm Hg (standard error = 0.09, p self-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (standard error = 0.20, p = .015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared with all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure.
Buri, John R.; And Others
Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…
Crocker, Jennifer; Park, Lora E.
Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and…
This article argues that the teacher is not well served by relying on the construct of self-esteem. Although an important idea in psychological health, self-esteem is not of direct importance to the teacher. More useful constructs would be those of self-concept and self-efficacy; both of which can be related directly to academic achievement.
Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)
Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley
Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)
Lee, Annette L.
While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…
Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)
Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.
Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)
Palisi, Anthony T.
The components of the self system include self-concept, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Learning that adds to identity augments self-concept. Learning that leads to self-appraisal relates to self-esteem. Learning that leads to prediction of achievement belongs to self-efficacy. Courage to persist when confronted by a "Gulp!" experience…
Santos, C.; Hutchinson, K.; Khan, J.V.; Markopoulos, P.
Self-esteem is a personality trait utilized to support the diagnosis of several psychological conditions. With this study we investigate the potential that computer games can have in assessing self-esteem. To that end, we designed and developed a platformer game and analyzed how in-game behavior
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.
This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…
Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka
Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…
Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M
The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.
Roese, N J; Olson, J M
Two studies examined the relation between self-esteem and counterfactual thinking (consideration of "might-have-been" alternatives to reality). Ss imagined themselves in scenarios with another actor that resulted in either success or failure. Ss then "undid" the outcome by altering events that preceded the outcome. Following success, high self-esteem (HSE) Ss were more likely than low self-esteem (LSE) Ss to mutate their own actions. Following failure, LSE Ss were more likely than HSE Ss to mutate their own actions. Also, the structure of counterfactuals was influenced by outcome valence but not by self-esteem: Subtractive structures (in which antecedents are removed) were elicited by success, whereas additive structures (in which antecedents are added) were elicited by failure. The importance of the self and individual differences in self-esteem to counterfactual thinking is discussed.
... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...
Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...
Jacono, Andrew; Chastant, Ryan P; Dibelius, Greg
It is well understood that optimal psychological health is imperative to success in aesthetic surgical procedures. Self-esteem is a very sensitive psychological factor that can influence patients' motivations for seeking surgery as well as their perceptions of outcomes. To use the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to correlate the outcome of rhytidectomy as perceived by the patient to further understand the association of self-esteem and the results of aesthetic facial rejuvenation. A prospective study was conducted of 59 consecutive patients undergoing rhytidectomy performed by a single surgeon at a private practice from July 1 to October 31, 2013. The RSES was used to establish preoperative baseline scores and scores at a 6-month postoperative follow-up. A paired t test was used to compare statistical data before and after surgery. Change in self-esteem and the patient's evaluation of the surgical outcome was assessed. Analysis was conducted from July 1 to December 1, 2014. Patients' change in self-esteem level after rhytidectomy, as assessed by the RSES. Of the 59 patients, 50 completed a 6-month postoperative questionnaire; mean age was 58 years (range, 37-73 years); 48 were women; and 44 were nonsmokers. The mean difference between baseline and 6-month scores showed an increase of 0.3 (baseline, 24.3; 6-month follow-up, 24.6), which was not statistically significant (P = .69). Subdivision of patients into groups by self-esteem level showed a statistically significant improvement in self-esteem after surgery in the group with low self-esteem, with a mean difference in the RSES score of 3.7 (P = .01), whereas the group with high self-esteem showed a decrease in the RSES score of -3.1 (P = .03) and the group with average self-esteem showed a nonsignificant increase of 0.5 in the RSES score (P = .59). The perceived change in youthful appearance (mean, 8.9 years) did not correlate with self-esteem changes. Patient's self-esteem before surgery may partially
Full Text Available As one of the most important elements in students’ psychological well-being, self-esteem is often neglected at school. In schools where students are grouped based on their academic abilities (Between Class Ability Grouping or BCAG, or tracking, teachers are likely to have different expectancies toward different group of students; towards high-achieving students, they tend to be academically supportive, while towards low-achieving students, they tend to control students’ behavior in order to avoid disciplinary problems. In turn, students observe their teachers’ classroom behavior and develop different perception towards their teachers’ expectancy. Eventually, self-esteem of the students is affected by their perceived teachers’ expectancy (PTE, where the effect is not always positive. In other words, while most teachers would rather not to teach in mixed classrooms, the practice of BCAG might contribute negative effect to students’ self-esteem. Therefore, any strategy to improve students’ self-esteem might not be able to produce long-lasting result, because teachers’ expectancy towards the students is strongly influenced by the classroom segregation. However, it was discovered recently that Locus of Control (LoC mediates the effect of PTE on students’ self-esteem. In the light of that, there is a hope to develop or maintain students’ self-esteem levels by developing some strategies based on Behavior Modification Theories to alter students’ LoC.
Naci H. Mocan; Erdal Tekin
Obesity is associated with serious health problems, and it can generate adverse economic outcomes. We analyze a nationally-representative sample of young American adults to investigate the interplay between obesity, wages and self-esteem. Wages can be impacted directly by obesity, and they can be influenced by obesity indirectly through the channel of obesity to self-esteem to wages. We find that female wages are directly influenced by body weight, and self-esteem has an impact on wages in ca...
Jordan, Christian H; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P
There is increasing recognition that high self-esteem is heterogeneous. Recent research suggests that individuals who report having high self-esteem (i.e., have high explicit self-esteem) behave more defensively to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The current studies test whether individuals with high explicit self-esteem are more likely to discriminate ethnically, as a defensive technique, to the extent that they have relatively low implicit self-esteem. The results support this prediction. Among participants with high explicit self-esteem, all of whom were threatened by negative performance feedback, those with relatively low implicit self-esteem recommended a more severe punishment for a Native, but not a White, student who started a fist-fight. In Study 2, this pattern was not apparent for participants with relatively low explicit self-esteem.
Edmondson, Donald; Arndt, Jamie; Alcántara, Carmela; Chaplin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E
Objective Recent research suggests that self-esteem may be associated with improved parasympathetic nervous system functioning. This study tested whether high self-esteem is associated with decreased ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) reactivity to anxiety in healthy adults during the waking hours of a normal day. Methods Each of 858 participants completed a short version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and then wore an ABP monitor which took two blood pressure readings per hour for 24 hours. Immediately after each blood pressure reading, participants completed an electronic diary report that included an anxiety rating on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Using multilevel models, we assessed the association of momentary anxiety, high trait self-esteem, and their interaction on momentary ASBP, with adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and body mass index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted examining psychological factors associated with self-esteem: sense of mastery, optimism, social support, and depressive symptoms. Results On average, a 1-point increase in cube root-transformed anxiety was associated with a 0.80 mmHg (SE=0.09, pself-esteem and momentary anxiety was significant, such that this effect was 0.48 (SE=0.20, p=0.015) less in individuals with high self-esteem compared to all others. Results for self-esteem remained significant when adjusting for sex and psychological factors. Conclusions Momentary increases in anxiety are associated with acute increases in ASBP, and high self-esteem buffers the effect of momentary anxiety on blood pressure. Thus, high self-esteem may confer cardiovascular benefit by reducing the acute effects of anxiety on systolic blood pressure. PMID:26230481
Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.
Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)
Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)
Resnick, Harvey; And Others
A positive relationship between vocational crystallization and self esteem was assessed by observing differences on two measures of vocational crystallization in students high and low in self esteem scores. No differences according to self esteem were observed. Differences were observed in the certainty of high and low self esteem students. The…
Rosenberg, Morris; And Others
Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…
Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim
The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...
Setiawan, Jenny Lukito
This article looks at the practical ways of building self-esteem in the early years. It describes the concepts of self-esteem and characteristics of children with high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem. The practical ways of building self-esteem are discussed under the five essential components of self-esteem pointed out by Reasoner and Dusa (1991), which include sense of security, identity, belonging, purpose, and personal competence.Key words: self-esteem, sense of security, sense ...
Wasson, D; Anderson, M A
The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency.
In this study, a self-esteem maintenance model is introduced and is used to test predictions about sibling identification, sibling friction, and the closeness of father-son relationships as they relate to sibling performance. (Author/SS)
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Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T
Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and depression. Self-esteem was operationalized as beliefs about oneself (self-based self-esteem) and beliefs about how other people regard oneself (other-based self-esteem). Each dimension of self-esteem was negatively associated with suicide ideation after controlling for depression and hopelessness. Of the two dimensions of self-esteem, other-based self-esteem was the more robust predictor of suicide ideation. These findings suggest that even in the context of depression and hopelessness, low self-esteem may add to the risk for suicide ideation.
Biro, Frank M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Franko, Debra L; Padgett, Justina; Bean, Judy A
Self-esteem is a major "predictor" of satisfaction with life. This longitudinal study examined mean and individual changes in self-esteem, and how self-esteem is affected by race and body mass. Girls were recruited at ages 9 and 10 years, and followed to age 22 years. The Harter Self-Perception Profile was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the Global Self-Worth Scale, by age or developmental phase: ages 9-12 (I), 13-16 (II), and 17-22 (III). Regression modeling included main effects and interactions between age/phase, race, and body mass index (BMI). Self-worth was greater in black than white women, and greater with lower BMI in both races. In the model with age ("traditional model") (with race and BMI), significant variables included BMI (inverse relationship) and the interactions between age and race, race and BMI, and the triple interaction between age, race, and BMI. In the model with phase ("transitional model") (with race and BMI), BMI, and the interactions between BMI and race, and race and phase, were significant. For example, self-worth was generally lower in Phase II (middle adolescence) for white women. Self-esteem tracked significantly (correlation 0.22, p self-esteem in adolescent girls, race and BMI are important predictors of self-esteem. Self-esteem is consistent across the phases of adolescence, and comparable with other personality traits. As noted by others, lower levels of self-esteem may increase the vulnerability of adolescents to risky behaviors.
Awidat Rose; Awidat Rose; Snait Tamir
This review discusses the issue of self-esteem among Druze women in Israel in light of the challenges faced by the passage from traditional to modern society. It explores how gender roles, cultural dimensions, family structure, education and appearance influence women’s self-esteem. Druze women are breaking the traditional boundaries, while at the same time protecting those boundaries and doing their best to ensure that Druze values are carried, by their community, into the future. They...
Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.
The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using
Bailey, Joseph A
Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.
self - esteem is significantly correlated with a number of behaviors. In comparison to an individual with low self - esteem , an individual with high self ...seems to look at himself and say "I like what I see and I am going to give it its desires and needs," whereas the low self - esteem person seems to say...that May identified with low self - esteem . Therefore, high self - esteem will exist with those who have a recognized and
Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri
The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...
The goal of the proposed study was fourfold: (i) to examine the effects of parental alcoholism on adult offspring's self-esteem; (ii) to identify and test possible mediators and moderators of parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring; (iii) to examine the utility and relevance of attachment theory (Bowlby J. (1969) Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books) in explaining parental alcoholism effects on self-esteem and (iv) to address some of the methodological limitations identified in past research on adult children of alcoholics (ACOA). Participants (N = 515) completed retrospective reports of parental alcoholism, family stressors, family communication patterns, parental attachment and a current measure of self-esteem. The results showed support for the detrimental effects of parental alcoholism on offspring self-esteem and offered partial support for family stressors as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on parental attachment and parental attachment as a mediator of parental alcoholism effects on offspring self-esteem, respectively. Finally, support was found for family communication patterns as a moderator of the effects of family stressors on attachment. The study findings offer preliminary support for the utility of attachment theory in explicating parental alcoholism effects on the self-esteem of adult offspring. Findings from the present study make salient the need to consider factors beyond the identification of parental alcohol abuse when explicating individual differences in offspring self-esteem in adulthood. The identification of protective and risk factors can contribute to the development of optimal intervention strategies to help ACOAs better than simply the knowledge of family drinking patterns.
Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos
This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.
Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.
Thompson, Angus H
It has not been made clear whether self-esteem is associated with the severity of suicidal behavior. To test the association between responses to a self-esteem inventory and levels of suicidal behavior as conceptualized in the notion of the suicide process. Questions on the severity of suicidal behavior over the lifespan (death wishes, ideation, plans, and attempts), as well as a self-esteem inventory, were administered to 227 university undergraduates. A negative relationship was found between the level of suicidality and self-esteem. As hypothesized, there were fewer cases in each succeeding level of seriousness of suicidal behavior. However, nearly all cases from any particular level were contained in the cohort of individuals who had displayed suicidal behavior at a less serious level. This suggests a possible progression through each of the stages of suicidal behavior, with very few cases showing a level of suicidal behavior that was not associated with a previous, less serious, form. It was hypothesized that early entry into the suicidal process may be indicated by low self-esteem, thus, allowing for a more timely preventive intervention.
Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer
This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.
Blöser, Claudia; Stahl, Titus; Zalta, Edward
Discussions of hope can be found throughout the history of philosophy and across all Western philosophical traditions, even though philosophy has traditionally not paid the same attention to hope as it has to attitudes like belief and desire. However, even though hope has historically only rarely
Schoel, Christiane; Bluemke, Matthias; Mueller, Patrick; Stahlberg, Dagmar
We investigated the impact of uncertainty on leadership preferences and propose that the conjunction of self-esteem level and stability is an important moderator in this regard. Self-threatening uncertainty is aversive and activates the motivation to regain control. People with high and stable self-esteem should be confident of achieving this goal by self-determined amelioration of the situation and should therefore show a stronger preference for democratic leadership under conditions of uncertainty. By contrast, people with low and unstable self-esteem should place their trust and hope in the abilities of powerful others, resulting in a preference for autocratic leadership. Studies 1a and 1b validate explicit and implicit leadership measures and demonstrate a general prodemocratic default attitude under conditions of certainty. Studies 2 and 3 reveal a democratic reaction for individuals with stable high self-esteem and a submissive reaction for individuals with unstable low self-esteem under conditions of uncertainty. In Study 4, this pattern is cancelled out when individuals evaluate leadership styles from a leader instead of a follower perspective. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Lorr, M; Wunderlich, R A
Two scales were constructed to assess self-esteem, conceptualized as reflecting (a) feelings of competence and efficacy, and (b) perceived positive appraisal from significant others. To control for response bias a paired choice format was chosen for the items constructed. A buffer scale designed to measure social assertiveness was also included. Data were collected on three samples of high school boys. The item intercorrelations were subjected to principal component analyses followed by Varimax rotations. In each of the three analyses factors of Confidence, Popularity (Social Approval), and Social Assertiveness emerged. The revised self-esteem scales, each defined by 11 items, have been shown to have acceptable reliability and some concurrent validity based on correlations with the well-known Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz
To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.
Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold
Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...
Elvira Rosyida MR
Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence
Joaquín Caso Niebla
Full Text Available The present study intended to explore construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents and update psychometric properties found in previous studies. 1581 Mexican students (850 women and 731 men of a public high school in Mexico City responded to the scale. The sample was split randomly in half. EFA was applied using one sample´s data, and CFA to the other sample´s data. The model, assumed to underlie responses to the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents, satisfactorily fit the data, confirming a structure of 4 factors: self-cognitions, competence cognitions, family relations and rage. Results of the present study corroborate previous data concerning content, criterion-related and construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents.
Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim
The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.
Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Pavalur, Rajitha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Parathasarathy, Nirmala B; Desai, Geetha; Bhola, Poornima; Philip, Mariamma; Chaturvedi, Santosh K
Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals' self-esteem. To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the 'Medication Adherence Rating scale', 'Griffiths work behaviour scale' and the 'Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale'. Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103) between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067) medication adherence and self-esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299) work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness.
Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.
Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101
Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi
Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.
Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.
Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22433387
Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers
The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...
EYLEM GENCER; Ekrem Levent İLHAN
The purpose of this study is to examine badminton athletes’ self-esteem according to some variables. The research was carried out in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship where 12 clubs and 87 athletes participated in 2009. 42 national and 14 non-national totaly 56 badminton athletes whose mean age 18.78±3.46 that participated in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship in 2009 constitute our research sample. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, that was developed by Rosenberg (1963) and adapted to Turkish ...
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
Berger, Charles R.
Two experiments were conducted which assumed that persons with extremely high or low self-esteem would be more defensive than moderate self-esteem persons when receiving ego-threatening communication. (Editor)
Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ... completed a questionnaire comprising of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the General ... in social competence or interpersonal relationship skills and psychological well ...
Prevalence of depression and low self-esteem among medical students in the ... and predisposes students to a range of negative psychological reactions. ... Anxiety and Stress Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, to investigate the ...
Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young adults. ... The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale.
Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.
One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)
Becker, Manfred R.
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a literature review of self-esteem, primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review, self-esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self-esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self-esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary so...
Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur
This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...
Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi
Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for...
Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…
This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...
Eckart, M. L.
The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…
Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.
Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…
Sonstroem, Robert J.
A review of selected research in the area of exercise and self-esteem illustrates recommendations made for improving research in this area. Studies concerning self-esteem theory and static and dynamic relationships between exercise and self-esteem are reported. (CJ)
Fox, Kenneth R.
The article outlines recent theoretical developments in self-esteem research that have not yet been applied to the youth fitness problem, including concepts of self-esteem multidimensionality and hierarchical structuring, and personalization processes. Programmatical implications related to self-esteem promotion and exercise motivation are…
The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...
In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
Valett, Robert E.
Self-esteem, well managed, is a powerful force for effective learning. Research has shown that good self-esteem is associated with analytical thinking, persistence, creative ability, social independence, stability and high expectations, and that the antecedents of positive self-esteem are found in parental models who provide firm guidance in the…
Barlow, Alexandra; Woods, Susan E.
There have been mixed results concerning any association between self-esteem and smoking prevalence in young people. The aim of this paper was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between self-esteem and the uptake of smoking in childhood, and how various sub-components of self-esteem are related to smoking. A sample of…
Beane, James A.
Current efforts to enhance children's self-esteem are critiqued, and an alternative direction is proposed that is based on the notion of self-esteem as a crucial aspect of human dignity. This approach connects self-esteem to both cultural and social conditions and works toward the reconstruction of school and society. (LB)
Cox, Sara Jane; Glazebrook, Cris; Sheard, Charlotte; Ndukwe, George; Oates, Margaret
To  investigate self-esteem during pregnancy after previous infertility and  establish the relationship among self-esteem, anxiety during pregnancy, and parenting self-efficacy. Limited prospective study. A regional infertility clinic and antenatal clinic. Seventy women who had conceived through assisted reproductive technology and 111 women who had conceived naturally. Measures of self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Women who had conceived through IVF treatment did not differ in terms of self-esteem during pregnancy from those who had conceived naturally. All of the women in the present study displayed levels of self-esteem that were within the normal range. Self-esteem increased as pregnancy progressed. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with anxiety during pregnancy. As self-esteem increased, anxiety decreased. Self-esteem at the start of pregnancy (18 weeks) and anxiety in the early stages of parenthood (6 weeks postpartum) predicted parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem in the early stages of pregnancy, for both women who conceived through IVF and women who conceived naturally, is related to self-reported levels of parenting efficacy. Coaching and mentoring through antenatal clinics in the early stages of pregnancy should be tailored to incorporate advice regarding self-esteem in addition to management of pregnancy and psychological well-being.
This account follows on from the research report "Visual impairment and its impact on self-esteem" (Bowen, 2010) published in this journal. The original article reported the results of an investigation of self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with visual impairment. Four children, whose self-esteem was measured as…
Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.
Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the
Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.
The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled
When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…
Palisi, Anthony T.
Like a fire out of control, jealousy can reduce a marriage to rubble. It can leave self-esteem ruined. Although oversimplified, the pathologically jealous person regards even slight signs as conclusive evidence of betrayal. Where jealousy arises exclusively within a relationship then a counselor might examine the jealous person's self-concept and…
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine
Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled
Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.
Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)
Drury, Darrel W.
Discusses a study to determine attitudes among Black and White students in 194 southern high schools regarding desegregation. Data are presented on differences between schools; test-score achievement; and variations in self-esteem among students in predominantly White, Black, and racially mixed schools. Findings are interpreted in light of…
Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.
The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…
Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.
Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…
Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro
This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.
Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Crocker, J.
Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than
de Ruiter, Naomi M.P.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia
The current article proposes a theoretical model of self-esteem called the Self-Organizing Self-Esteem (SOSE) model. The model provides an integrative framework for conceptualizing and understanding the intrinsic dynamics of self-esteem and the role of the context across 3 levels of development: The
Full Text Available Annotation. Studies and analyses the influence of psychological factors on the emotional state of an athlete as personality. Scientific literature elucidates poorly the impact of self-esteem on the emotional state of an athlete as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity, which has made this problem very interesting for the study. The aim of this study is to trace the relationship between the self-esteem level and emotional state of an athlete personality as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis, compilation and systematization of data from scientific literature. Research shows that the level of self-esteem exerts direct effect on the emotional state of an athlete, which predetermines his professional results.
Lundgren, D C; Schwab, M R
Questionnaire data from 595 male and female college students were used to test four hypotheses regarding interpersonal sources of anxiety--i.e., that high anxiety occurs as a function of (a) low subjective public-esteem (perceived negative appraisals of self by others); (b) low self-esteem; (c) discrepancies where subjective public-esteem is more negative than self-esteem; and (d) absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem, regardless of evaluative direction. The results suggested that level of self-esteem and absolute discrepancies between subjective public-esteem and self-esteem are important and relatively independent factors in anxiety.
Wartelsteiner, F; Mizuno, Y; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Welte, A; Fleischhacker, W W; Uchida, H; Hofer, A
Improving quality of life (QoL) is an important objective in the treatment of schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to examine to what extent resilience, self-esteem, hopelessness, and psychopathology are correlated with QoL. We recruited 52 out-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria and 77 healthy control subjects from the general community. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The following scales were used in both patients and control subjects: the Berliner Lebensqualitätsprofil, the Resilience Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale to assess QoL, resilience, self-esteem, and hopelessness respectively. Patients with schizophrenia presented with significantly less QoL, resilience, self-esteem, and hope compared to healthy control subjects. In patients, QoL correlated moderately with resilience, self-esteem, and hopelessness and weakly with symptoms. With respect to the latter, particularly depression and positive symptoms were negatively correlated with QoL. Our results highlight the complex nature of QoL in patients suffering from schizophrenia. They underscore that significant efforts are necessary to enhance resilience and self-esteem and to diminish hopelessness as well as affective and positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Overholser, J C; Adams, D M; Lehnert, K L; Brinkman, D C
Self-esteem can play an important role in suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies in 254 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 288 high school students. The direct relationship between self-esteem and suicidal tendencies was examined by assessing suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. An indirect relationship between self-esteem and suicidality was examined by assessing depression and hopelessness. Differences were found across gender and hospitalization status, with males reporting higher self-esteem than females and high school students scoring higher in self-esteem than psychiatric inpatients. However, correlations among variables remained similar across gender and hospitalization status. Thus, low self-esteem was related to higher levels of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and an increased likelihood of having previously attempted suicide. Furthermore, self-esteem added to the understanding of suicidal ideation beyond what could be explained by depression and hopelessness. Low self-esteem was closely related to feelings of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal tendencies. Assessment of adolescents should include an evaluation of self-esteem, and therapy should attempt to address any self-esteem deficits.
Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.
The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355
Antonio Serrano Muñoz
Full Text Available The following study proposes describing the levels of self-esteem in children and analyzing whether there are differences based on their sex. The sample consists of 1,757 children aged from 3 to 7. For self-esteem assessment, the EDINA questionnaire was administrated, which shows an appropriate reliability rate (0.803. The self-esteem of girls and boys studied is high. Statistical analyzes showed: a significantly higher scores on self-esteem of girls; b a decrease on self-esteem associated to age of children; c significant differences depending on the socioeconomic status; and d higher level of self-esteem in children when they have a woman as advisor of class group. In future researches, we suggest the need to study in depth the evolution of sex differences in relation to self-esteem.
Islam, Umna A; Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ford, Jennifer; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
Fifty-seven percent of children with poor language skills are affected by socio-emotional problems. Despite the importance of language skills to interpersonal functioning and school performance, relatively little is known about how they affect self-esteem in adolescence. Data on youth at high risk for language problems (e.g. those born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; self-esteem during adolescence (12-16 years) in individuals born at ELBW ( N = 138) or normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 grams) ( N = 111). Participants' language skills were assessed using the Verbal Scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Token Test at age 8. In adolescence, participants completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Birth weight status was found to moderate associations between childhood language and adolescent global self-esteem (Token Test ( p = .006), Verbal Intelligence Quotient ( p = .033)) such that better language skills were associated with higher self-esteem in adolescent ELBW survivors, but not in NBW participants. Language skills may play a protective role in the development and maintenance of self-esteem in ELBW youth and could be an important target for optimizing their functioning, particularly before transitioning to the critical adolescent period.
Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Myers, Erin M
The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self- esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.
Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.
Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.
Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.
Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus
Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.
Kernis, Michael H
In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian
Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.
Furnham, A; Cheng, H
This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.
Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye
The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.
Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike
Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing
Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude.
McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara
To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.
Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J
A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.
Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.
Raudah Zaimah Dalimunthe
Full Text Available Bullying behavior is influenced by many factors. This study purpose to describe: 1 Parenting, Self-Esteem and bullying behavior, 2 Parenting and Self-esteem either individually or collectively contributed to the bullying behavior. The population of study is focus in students of SMP Negeri 6 Percut Sei Tuan, with a sample 193 of students, by using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument in this study used a Likert Scale model and inventory (CFSEI. The results of reliability test on parenting 0901 and 0938 for bullying behavior. The validity of instrument on parenting and self-esteem is 0361 and 0.361 for self- esteem. These results indicate that parenting is in good enough category and self-esteem is at a low category, bullying in middle category, and parenting and self-esteem either singly or collectively that contribute to bullying behavior.
Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...
OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha
The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...
Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; Fuentes, María C.; García, Fernando
This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...
Weiss (1977, 1978) has shown that low self esteem workers are more likely to model the role behaviors and work values of superiors than are high self ...task where search is functional. Results showed that, as expected, low self esteem subjects searched for more information, search was functional and low ...situation. He has also argued that high self esteem individuals search for less information on problem solving tasks and are therefore less likely to
Hirschmüller, Sarah; Schmukle, Stefan C; Krause, Sascha; Back, Mitja D; Egloff, Boris
Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Ninety-nine target participants (77 female; M age = 23.5 years) were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged targets' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M = 23s, SD = 7.7). Results showed that both self-reported (r = .31, p = .002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r = .21, p = .040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Davidowitz, Cara; Childs, Jessica
Research surrounding the Self Esteem Hypothesis has produced conflicting results and unresolved issues. Whilst the original hypothesis posited that it is individuals low in self-esteem that are motivated to show intergroup discrimination, subsequent research has found evidence to suggest a pattern of individuals high in self esteem showing greater amounts of intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, the Social Identity Theory suggests that this intergroup discrimination will occur between membe...
Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich
Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneli...
Er, Lim Xing; Zakaria, Sheridean
Dalam kehidupan dan pergaulan harian, sesetengah murid menghadapi masalah tahap self-esteem yang rendah sehingga mempengaruhi prestasi diri dan keyakinan diri untuk melakukan apa-apa sahaja. Kajian ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk meningkatkan self-esteem murid. Pemilihan peserta kajian adalah berdasarkan hasil temubual, pemerhatian dan borang soal selidik yang dapat mengenal pasti tahap self-esteem murid yang rendah. Peserta kajian terdiri daripada 2 orang murid lelaki Tahun 4 dan seorang muri...
Ramanauskienė, Ramunė; Valantinas, Antanas; Endriulaitienė, Auksė
The purpose of this research was to measure the relationships among late adolescents' self-esteem, peer and parents relations. The subjects were 199 students from 9th and 11th grades. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Index of peer relations and Child's attitude toward mother and father scales was used in the investigation. The analysis of the results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem, and peer relations and, for girls only, a significant positive correlation between ...
Wiggins, James D.; Giles, Therese A.
Assigned high or low self-esteem counselors (N=8) to high or low self-esteem sixth-grade students (N=16), who completed the Self-Esteem Inventory after four counseling sessions. Results showed students assigned to high self-esteem counselors showed greater gains in self-esteem. (JAC)
Kolt, G S; Roberts, P D
A volunteer sample of 50 competitive field hockey players completed the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory at pre- and postseason and prospectively collected injury data over a 20-wk. season. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between scores on Self-esteem and the number of injuries, the participation time affected due to injury, and sex of players. Further multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of the more severe injuries significantly predicted scores on Self-esteem. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of the relationship between low self-esteem and injury in sport.
Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Sánchez, Alvaro; Provencio, María; Wickham, Sophie
Psychological models have implicated negative self-esteem as an important factor underlying paranoia. However, research investigating the role of self-esteem in paranoia suffers from poor conceptual and methodological understanding, resulting in conflicting findings. Central to this problem is the use of measures investigating global self-esteem and self-evaluative beliefs interchangeably. In the present study we aimed to analyze differences in self-esteem domains and self-evaluation. The present study used interviews and questionnaires to compare a clinical sample of participants who were currently paranoid (n = 55) with healthy controls (n = 57) on global self-esteem domains and negative evaluative beliefs, in order to investigate the multi-faceted role of "the self". There was no significant difference in self-esteem domains between groups, highlighting that self-esteem is preserved in currently paranoid individuals. However, the paranoid group had significantly more negative evaluative beliefs. Interestingly, our global measures of self-esteem and measures of negative evaluative beliefs were uncorrelated, highlighting the importance of understanding the differences underlying these concepts. This study does not address dynamic aspects of self-esteem and self-evaluation. The present study provides undeniable evidence to investigate self-concept dimensions separately. These findings must be considered by researchers interested in the role of the self in the onset and maintenance of paranoia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schafer, R B; Keith, P M
This is a longitudinal investigation of self-esteem change in an adult population. The analysis addresses two limitations in earlier studies: the use of convenience samples of children and adolescents, and cross-sectional or short-duration longitudinal studies of self-esteem change. Participants are 97 randomly selected married couples interviewed at two points in time separated by 13 years. Two components of the self were measured: self-esteem and reflected appraisals (perception of others' evaluation). Contrary to previous research on self-esteem change, a significant decline was found in all components of the self for both husbands and wives. The decline in self-esteem was not a function of age, education or income. The decline was more likely to occur for high, rather than low, self-esteem participants. This finding is attributed to the demands on higher self-esteem participants to maintain or enhance self-esteem and the caution of low self-esteem participants to engage in behaviours that would threaten the self.
Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.
Stokes, Jeffrey E
Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation. This study examines the impacts of social integration and perceived discrimination on self-esteem, and whether such impacts differ according to individuals' age and/or neuroticism. Random effects models analyzed 2,982 observations from 1,882 individuals who participated in at least one of the two most recent waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2014). Self-esteem displayed a minor cubic trajectory across the age range, including declines after age 70. Social integration, perceived discrimination, and neuroticism were all significantly associated with self-esteem, in the expected directions. Self-esteem trajectories varied according to the level of social integration, such that low social integration exacerbated later life declines in self-esteem. The influence of social integration on self-esteem was also stronger at higher levels of neuroticism. Perceived discrimination's influence on self-esteem did not vary by participants' age or neuroticism. Social ties are influential for well-being across the life course, but may take on added importance in later life. Oldest-old and neurotic adults are at particular risk of experiencing low self-esteem if they lack integration with their community.
Self-esteem has long been considered an essential component of good mental health. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory and Wellingham-Jones Self-esteem Values List applied to handwritings were given to 15- to 19-yr.-old students to explore the former's usefulness in designing programs to enhance self-esteem. Students were from 4 high schools representing the socioeconomic range of a small rural California city. Handwritings of the 25 students scoring highest and the 25 scoring lowest on self-esteem were graphometrically evaluated. Chi squared showed total agreement between the two tests in 62% of the cases, partial agreement in 30%, complete disagreement in 8%. This suggests Coopersmith's inventory may be a useful tool for school administrators, provided its limitations are understood. Similarities and differences between and within the high and low self-esteem groups were discussed.
Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670
Verrocchio, Maria C; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. RESULTS revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Maria Cristina eVerrocchio
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Thomson, Margareta Maria
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the existing relationships between main concepts associated with labelling exceptional students and impact on their self-esteem. The aim was to examine how these concepts are presented in the existing research literature, and what the implications are for educational practice of labelling…
Juliana Cerentini Pacico
Full Text Available This study aimed at adapting and validating the Staats Hope Index for Brazilian adolescents. Participants were 450 high school students aged from 14 to 18 years old being 56% females. They responded to the Staats Hope Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A factor analysis extracted two factors, replicating the structure of the original scale. Coefficients alphas were .83 and .81, for each factor, respectively. The correlations of the Hope Index factors with dispositional hope, optimism and self-esteem were similar to the findings reported in the literature and indicated convergent validity. The results indicate that the Hope Index is valid to be used in Brazil and that hope is perceived similarly by Brazilians and Americans despite of some cultural differences.O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar e validar a escala The Hope Index para adolescentes brasileiros. Participaram 450 estudantes do ensino médio, sendo 56% do sexo feminino. As idades variaram entre 14 e 18 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram the Hope Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R e Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. A análise fatorial revelou duas dimensões, conforme a estrutura original da escala com valores do coeficiente alfa de 0,83 e 0,81. As correlações dos fatores da escala The Hope Index com esperança disposicional, otimismo e autoestima foram similares aos achados da literatura e indicam validade convergente. Esses resultados indicam que a escala é válida para uso no Brasil e que Brasileiros e Americanos percebem a esperança de modo similar, apesar de algumas diferenças culturais.
Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Laisné, François
Studies investigating self-esteem in individuals with severe mental illness, either as a treatment goal, outcome or correlate to other variables, have increased over the past few years. One of the main difficulties in assessing self-esteem is the assessment itself, often measuring global and stable self-esteem as in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, or requiring extensive training and long interviews. The present article aims at demonstrating the relevance of the French and English versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form with individuals with severe mental illness. The instrument's reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of 250 French Canadian college students, 247 British college students and three samples of English- or French-speaking individuals with severe mental illness (N=254, N=150 and N=171). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a shorter version of the instrument (20 items), with a positive and a negative self-esteem factor, had a great validity for all the samples studied. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form, with its positive and negative self-esteem subscales, appears to be a valid and reliable self-esteem measure for individuals with mental health problems. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed.
Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H
This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure. The LSE is a 4-item measure with a 5-point response format using items inspired by established self-esteem scales. The scale is essentially unidimensional and internally consistent, and it converges with existing self-esteem measures across ages 5 to 93 (N = 2,714). Thus, the LSE appears to be a useful measure of global self-esteem suitable for use across the lifespan as well as contexts where a short measure is desirable, such as populations with short attention spans or large projects assessing multiple constructs. Moreover, the LSE is one of the first global self-esteem scales to be validated for children younger than age 8, which provides the opportunity to broaden the field to include research on early formation and development of global self-esteem, an area that has previously been limited.
Self-esteem has been conceptualized as a "social vaccine". The belief is that high self-esteem can inoculate young people, against vulnerability to a wide range of social illnesses. This study gives a contribution in the understanding of the causal relation between self-esteem and sexual behaviour among American adolescents. I analyzes the impact of different levels of early self-esteem on a wide set of risky sexual behaviours. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Hea...
Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen
This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindfred, H; Saalman, R; Nilsson, S; Reichenberg, K
To compare the self-esteem of adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with that of healthy adolescents, and to identify factors affecting self-esteem in the presence of IBD. A self-assessment questionnaire, 'I think I am' (ITIA), was completed by 71 (41 boys) out of 77 adolescents (10-16 years) with IBD. Of the participating adolescents, 23 had Crohn's disease, 44 had ulcerative colitis and 4 had indeterminate colitis. The self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was compared with that of 1037 school children. In this population-based study, children with IBD estimated their self-esteem in the same range as healthy adolescents. Using a multiple regression analysis, the self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was related to disease course severity and cohabitation status of parents. Children with severe disease and children of single parents were found to be most at risk of low self-esteem. This study shows that, as a group, adolescents with IBD have self-esteem in the same range as their healthy peers, but that there are some adolescents with IBD who are at risk of low self-esteem. Special attention should be given to adolescents with a severe disease course and to those with separated parents.
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr
A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.
Isberg, R S; Hauser, S T; Jacobson, A M; Powers, S I; Noam, G; Weiss-Perry, B; Follansbee, D
Relationships between parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem were analyzed in a group of 95 early adolescents from multiple settings. The study was designed to investigate hypotheses regarding associations between observed parental interactions (e.g., accepting and devaluing) and adolescent self-esteem. Parents' verbal interactions with their adolescents were assessed through application of the constraining and enabling coding system to transcribed family discussions, generated through a revealed differences procedure. Adolescent self-esteem was measured with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Parent interaction-self-esteem associations were examined in the pooled sample, as well as in specific sub-groups based on gender, health, and ego development (measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test). Boys had more numerous associations between their self-esteem and parental interactions than girls, and psychiatrically ill boys had particularly high associations. Parental interactions were found to be most strongly related to adolescent self-esteem for adolescents at the lowest levels of ego development. Our findings are consistent with the view that increasing individuation in self-esteem regulation occurs during adolescent development, such that adolescents at higher levels of ego development evaluate themselves more independently of parental feedback than do their less mature peers.
Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O
The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.
Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo
Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Researchers have assumed that global self-esteem (often labeled as general self-concept), being a general aggregate of perceptions of the self, is content free. Recent research has, however, shown that responses to self-esteem survey items are influenced by the context in which the respondents are asked to make their responses--a chameleon effect.…
Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F
A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Authors have long noted the human penchant for self-esteem. Experimental research has revealed that this desire for self-esteem has wide-ranging effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Terror management theory explains that this desire for self-esteem results from a fundamental need for psychological security, which is engendered by humans' awareness of their own vulnerability and mortality. A large body of evidence has supported this explanation. Specifically, substantial lines of research have shown that self-esteem buffers anxiety and reduces defenses against death and that reminders of mortality increase efforts to defend and bolster self-esteem. Complementary findings have helped clarify the role of culture in self-esteem striving and the ways in which people can vary in their level, stability, and sources of self-esteem. I conclude by briefly considering how this contemporary knowledge regarding the quest for self-esteem informs current events and daily life. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Focusing on the goal of character education, this book provides the Catholic educational community with a resource for building in students a strong sense of self, including self-identity, self-worth, and self-esteem. Four pillars of self-esteem are presented: security, autonomy, initiative, and industry. These pillars are illustrated with…
van Zyl, Jacob D.; Cronje, Elsje M.; Payze, Catharine
In this article, the story of 11 male psychotherapeutic patients with low self-esteem is told within the context of the research process. The literature suggests that the concept of "self-esteem" has a significant influence on the way an individual experiences his/her world. Therefore, the meaning that the psychotherapeutic patients…
Lee, Kimberly E.
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott
This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…
Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest
The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…
Bell, Nancy J.; And Others
Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…
Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others
Results suggest that children's communication skills can be increased with a relatiionship enhancement curriculum of relatively short duration. But self-esteem and communication skills are relatively independent phenomena. Teachers interested in increasing self-esteem need to include exercises specifically aimed at self-enhancement. (Author)
Hodges, Linda; Wolf, Carolyn J.
Noting that low self-esteem negatively affects student achievement, this action research project implemented and evaluated a program for increasing student self-esteem through a caring and positive classroom environment incorporating cooperative learning and the use of praise and rewards. The targeted population consisted of fifth grade physical…
Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances
This study investigated the relationships between psychosocial factors and self-esteem for 1,672 Taiwanese senior high school students (779 boys, 893 girls). Students from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, completed a Chinese version of the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), which measures self-esteem, depression, anxiety, stereotyped thinking,…
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente
Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.
This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…
Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David
This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…
Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo
Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)
Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others
Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…
Olthuis, G.J.; Leget, C.J.W.; Dekkers, W.J.M.
This article discusses the relationship between personal and professional qualities in hospice nurses. We examine the notion of self-esteem in personal and professional identity. The focus is on two questions: (1) what is self-esteem, and how is it related to personal identity and its moral
Risch, A.K.; Bubal, A.; Birk, U.; Morina, N.; Steffens, M.C.; Stangier, U.
Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative
The aims of the study were to investigate self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with Visual Impairment (VI). The group was made up of equal numbers of boys and girls from primary and secondary schools. Each child's self-esteem was measured using the BG STEEM Questionnaire (Maines and Robinson, 1993). The results showed that…
Bredehoft, David J.
Over the past decade parent education programs, following either a democratic or behavior modification model, have gained in recognition and support. To investigate the effectiveness of Jean Illsley Clarke's parent education program, Self Esteem: A Family Affair, on self-esteem, conflict resolution, and family togetherness and flexibility, 27…
Creemers, D.H.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.; Wiers, R.W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation,
Davis, Clare; Kellett, Stephen; Beail, Nigel
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with…
Medora, Nilufer P.; von der Hellen, Cheryl
Examined teen mothers' (N=94) romanticism and self-esteem so as to investigate these variables' relationships among ten independent variables, (e.g., age and sexual activity). Results indicate that five variables were significantly related to romanticism (previous abortion, etc.), whereas two variables were connected to self-esteem (age and birth…
Donnelly, Joseph; Young, Michael; Pearson, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.; Hernandez, Aida
The use of illicit and licit drugs continues to be a major public health concern. Many prevention and drug education programs address this issue by attempting to enhance self-esteem. The idea is that increased levels of self-esteem will serve as a protective factor in decreasing the motivation and increasing the resistance to use drugs. This study…
generalized, there is evidence that it may be beneficial to offer self esteem training to children of low SES populations....This replication study examined the effect of a self esteem enhancement program on mid-western sixth graders’ self esteem scores (n=29). The...Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to determine pre and post test self esteem scores for students who participated in a four month self esteem
Full Text Available Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abuse, self-esteem, and object relation models. Results: We found an inverse relationship between self-esteem and Internet addiction scores. We did not find significant associations between problematic Internet use and specific object relation models. Conclusions: It seems appropriate that psychodynamic research on problematic Internet use should focus on variables that may have a negative impact on self-esteem (e.g., real life experiences and that may foster problematic Internet use among adolescents.
Oxley, G M
The incidence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing among adolescents and young adults with some studies linking sexual risk taking and self-esteem. A convenience sample of 39 ethnically diverse adolescents, ages 14-18, participated in a pilot study designed to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and to build self-esteem. Adolescents selected from two centers in California completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Student Health Questionnaire (SHQ) before beginning and after completing a program of six 2-hour educational sessions. These sessions focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge and building self-esteem. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission increased by 2096 from pretest to posttest. Practitioners addressing the needs of adolescents should focus on in-depth information regarding HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of prevention strategies and cultural factors influencing levels of self-esteem.
Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A
Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Schwaba, Ted
We examined the course of self-esteem during the transition to retirement in a sample of 690 retirees (ages 51-81) and a propensity-score matched-comparison group of 515 nonretirees drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal study in the Netherlands. The average retiree decreased in self-esteem in the 5 years before retirement and remained stable in self-esteem in the 5 years following retirement. We also found significant individual differences in retirees' self-esteem trajectories but failed to identify moderators that may account for these individual differences. We discuss the implications of these results for theory and future research on life span self-esteem development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the level of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. A group of 1,560 11th- and 12th-grade Israeli-Arab adolescents answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965). The results revealed significant relationships (a) between global self-esteem and students' evaluations of their scholastic levels, their schools' academic levels, and their plans to take matriculation exams and (b) between self-esteem and family and peer relations. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and community type. Participants living in cities and villages scored higher than those living in Bedouin townships. There were no significant gender differences or differences among grade levels.
James, Spencer L; Amato, Paul R
Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States.
James, Spencer L.; Amato, Paul R.
Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Method Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Results Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Conclusion Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States. PMID:25568500
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent-child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7-11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted higher narcissism-but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Taft, L B
Self-esteem provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long-term care. This article defines self-esteem in relation to self-concept and identifies the antecedents that affect its development. Elements of labeling theory, activity theory, and social exchange theory are explored to account for a potential decline in self-esteem among the elderly. According to this electric theoretical framework, stigmatization, decreased social interaction, and loss of control over the environment are all negatively correlated with self-esteem. Institutionalization intensifies the effect of these forces. Nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem by combating ageism, promoting social interaction, and maximizing the control and participation of elderly residents.
Lee, G R; Shehan, C L
This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.
Reiland, Sarah; Lauterbach, Dean
Self-esteem is often lower among persons who have experienced trauma, but religiosity may ameliorate these psychological effects. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships among religiosity, self-esteem, and childhood exposure to trauma, utilizing data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a large (N = 8,098) nationally representative population survey in the 48 contiguous states of the USA that assessed religious practices, self-esteem, and exposure to trauma. Exposure to trauma in childhood was assessed through self-report of presence or absence of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect. Religiosity was assessed as the sum of responses to 4 self-report items (religious service attendance, use of religion for comfort and guidance, and importance of religion). Self-esteem was assessed on 9 self-report items adapted from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Analysis of variance compared scores for persons who reported exposure to childhood abuse and differed in the value they placed on various religious practices on self-esteem. Persons who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood had significantly lower mean self-esteem than those who did not report these events. There was also a main effect for religiosity in a comparison of persons who reported childhood sexual abuse with those who reported none. The High Religiosity group had higher mean self-esteem than the Medium and Low Religiosity groups. There was a significant interaction as those who reported childhood sexual abuse had lower mean self-esteem than peers who reported none in the Low and Medium Religiosity groups. Mean self-esteem for those who reported childhood sexual abuse was comparable to that of those who reported none in the High Religiosity group.
Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N
Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem among nursing students is important in providing high-quality serviceto clients, yet each study in this field has described only a portion of existing relevant knowledge.Integrative review studies are the best practice for identification of existing nursing knowledge.The purpose of this study was to determine self-esteem challenges among nursing students. Methods: An integrative review was conducted in this study. The databases ProQuest, Medlineon PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Iran Medix were used for the review. The articleswere retrieved in three steps, including searching by search terms, reviewing the proceedingsbased on inclusion criteria and final retrieval and assessment of the available full texts. We used alist of keywords, including nursing, self-esteem and challenges and mixed them with "AND" and"OR" as a search strategy. Papers were included and eligible if they were associated with problemsrelated to nursing students’ self-esteem. Those studies that focused only on the self-esteem ofregistered nurses or patients were excluded. Search results were limited to the years 1960-2014. Results: Our findings showed three major challenges, including challenges associated withinconsistency in determining the level of students’ self-esteem, self-esteem associated challengesin professionalism of students, and the psychosocial challenges pertaining to the consequences oflow self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for more qualitative research to explore thefactors that contribute to self-esteem in nursing students with a particular focus on the factorsthat increase or decrease self-esteem. In addition, strategies to maintain and increase self-esteemneed to be designed, implemented and evaluated.
Ito, Masaya; Kawasaki, Naoki; Kodama, Masahiro
Previous research and theory (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Kernis, 2003) suggests that adaptive self-esteem stems from just being oneself, and is characterized by a sense of authenticity (SOA). Maladaptive self-esteem is derived from meeting external standards and social comparisons, and is characterized by a sense of superiority (SOS). Thus, the qualitative difference between SOA and SOS depends on the sources of self-esteem. We hypothesized that SOA is related to internal sources of self-esteem, while SOS is related to external sources. In order to control for covariance, global self-esteem was also examined in a questionnaire survey of self-esteem that was administered to 273 university students. The results of a partial correlation analysis showed that SOA was positively correlated with internal sources of self-esteem such as committed activities and efforts for self-development. In contrast, SOS was positively correlated with external sources of self-esteem such as approval from others and appearance. These results mainly support our hypotheses.
Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.
Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…
Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer
Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264
Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A
The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on
Afari, Ernest; Ward, Graeme; Khine, Myint Swe
We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess…
Korrelboom, Kees; Marissen, Marlies; van Assendelft, Tanja
Self-esteem is a major concern in the treatment of patients with personality disorders in general. In patients with borderline personality disorder, low self-esteem is associated with factors contributing to suicidal and self-injurious behaviour. At the moment there are no well-proven interventions that specifically target low self-esteem. Recently, a new approach, Competitive Memory Training or COMET, aimed at the enhancement of retrieving beneficial information from memory, appeared to be successful in addressing low self-esteem in different patient populations. To assess whether COMET for low self-esteem is also an effective intervention for patients with personality disorders. 91 patients with personality disorders who were already in therapy in a regular mental health institution were randomly assigned to either 7 group sessions of COMET in addition to their regular therapy or to 7 weeks of ongoing regular therapy. These latter patients received COMET after their “7 weeks waiting period for COMET”. All patients that completed COMET were contacted 3 months later to assess whether the effects of COMET had remained stable. Compared to the patients who received regular therapy only, patients in the COMET + regular therapy condition improved significantly and with large effect sizes on indices of self-esteem and depression. Significant differential improvements on measures of autonomy and social optimism were also in favour of COMET, but had small to intermediate effect sizes. The therapeutic effects of COMET remained stable after 3 months on three out of the four outcome measures. COMET for low self-esteem seems to be an efficacious trans-diagnostic approach that can rather easily be implemented in the treatment of patients with personality disorders.
Todorović Jelisaveta A.
Full Text Available The aim of investigations was to examine what upbringing styles and socio-economic parameters correlate with adolescents’ unstable self-esteem. Self-esteem is an evaluative measure of self-concept whose stability in time reflects personality’s autonomy and integrity. Using the sample of 280 secondary school students, the SSES scale was administered twice, at a 30-day interval, the EMBU scale of upbringing styles, a questionnaire with general data on respondents and socioeconomic parameters. It proved that upbringing style and parental tenderness (of both father and mother correlate with unstable self-esteem in adolescents. Significant correlation between upbringing styles and unstable self-esteem was also found in inconsistency, low control and protection on the part of father. Stable self-esteem is significantly negatively correlated with inconsistency of mother. Of diverse socioeconomic parameters, educational level of father and his profession are of critical importance for stable self-esteem. Upbringing styles produce greater influence on self-esteem level than socio-economic parameters do.
Taibah, Salwa Mahmoud; Al-Hummayani, Fadia Mohammed
Esthetics plays an essential role in orthodontic treatment. The psychological effects of malocclusion are an inspiration to improve one's esthetics and seek treatment. This study aimed to assess relationships between self-esteem and malocclusion severity and type in adolescents using a self-esteem measurement scale and the index of treatment need (IOTN) and to investigate the influence of age, sex, and school type in these relationships. Adolescent students aged 12-19 years randomly selected from four private and two governmental schools were enrolled for this study. After completing the self-esteem questionnaire, participants were examined by researchers to evaluate malocclusion severity and type using the IOTN. The sample consisted of 886 participants: 558 females (62.9%) and 328 males (37.1%) with a mean age of 16 years. Chi-square analysis showed that 17.1% of males and 31% of females showed low levels of self-esteem, with a statistically significant difference ( P self-esteem ( P = 0.018) compared with single-category malocclusion. Anterior teeth spacing, crowding, and overjet malocclusion showed the highest percentages of low self-esteem. The present study supports that malocclusion has negative effects on self-esteem; multiple malocclusions with spacing, crowding, and overjet had the greatest effects.
Merwin, Rhonda M; Ellis, Jon B
Attitudes toward violence and reasons for living in young adolescents with high, moderate, and low self-esteem were examined. The authors devised an Attitudes Toward Violence questionnaire; the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSE) and the Brief Reasons for Living in Adolescents (BRFL-A) was used to assess adaptive characteristics. The independent variables were gender and self-esteem. The dependent variables were total Reasons for Living score and Attitudes Toward Violence score. Participants included 138 boys and 95 girls, ages 11 to 15 years (M = 13.3) from a city middle school. The results showed that for the dependent variable attitudes toward violence, main effects were found for both gender and self-esteem. For the dependent variable reasons for living, a main effect was found for self-esteem but not for gender. An inverse relationship was found between violence and reasons for living. Being male and low self-esteem emerged as predictors of more accepting attitudes toward violence. Low self-esteem was significantly related to fewer reasons for living.
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Andrea D. Warner-Czyz
Full Text Available Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years. Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002 and attention (r = .45, p = .001 temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001. No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.
Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M
Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025
Sun, Bingli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Xingyun; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Tingshao
Self-esteem is an important aspect of individual's mental health. When subjects are not able to complete self-report questionnaire, behavioral assessment will be a good supplement. In this paper, we propose to use gait data collected by Kinect as an indicator to recognize self-esteem. 178 graduate students without disabilities participate in our study. Firstly, all participants complete the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS) to acquire self-esteem score. After completing the RRS, each participant walks for two minutes naturally on a rectangular red carpet, and the gait data are recorded using Kinect sensor. After data preprocessing, we extract a few behavioral features to train predicting model by machine learning. Based on these features, we build predicting models to recognize self-esteem. For self-esteem prediction, the best correlation coefficient between predicted score and self-report score is 0.45 (pself-esteem with a fairly good criterion validity. The gait predicting model can be taken as a good supplementary method to measure self-esteem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with
Erik Franck; Rudi De Raedt; Catherine Barbez; Yves Rosseel
Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as...
Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement. Keywords: Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Achievement
Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A
According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These
Bird, Beverly S.
Persons with low hope are characterized as having an external locus of control that is concerned with protecting an uncertain sense of self-esteem. Strategies are employed to limit negative attributions made by self and others when self-esteem is threatened. Those with high hope, on the other hand, have an internal locus of control, see themselves…
Devin Hassan Fahim
Full Text Available Quality of Work Life (QWL is a multi-dimensional concept that covers employees’ feelings about various dimensions of work. The current study focused on QWL that can contribute to the mental health status and Organisation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE of employees in context of sport organisation in Iran. In this descriptive–correlative study, data was collected using three standard questionnaires: Goldberg’s (1978 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Pierce, Gardner, Cummings and Dunham's (1989 OBSE scale, and Walton’s (1975 QWL questionnaire. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 67 (53 male, 14 female employees of sport and youth organisations of the Northern Khorasan Province of Iran. The alpha value for mental health, OBSE and QWL questionnaires were, respectively, 0.82, 0.80, 0.79. QWL was significantly correlated with mental health status and self-esteem of employees. Thus, it can be concluded that mental health and self-esteem of employees depend on how these employees perceive QWL in organisations. Among QWL subscales, fair and adequate pay along with growth opportunities were the strongest predictors of mental health; growth opportunities along with development of human capabilities were the strongest predictors of self-esteem of employees. Our study adds to the growing body of research on mental health status in relation to factors such as QWL. In view of our findings, we hope that improving work environment as a means of improving one’s mental health status will be more emphasized by organisation managers.
Neugebauer, Sabina Rak
Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…
Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen
Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…
Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Os, Jim
Research on the association between paranoia and self-esteem has yielded inconsistent findings. Some studies have indicated an association between paranoia and low self-esteem, while other studies have shown an association with high self-esteem. A plausible explanation for these inconsistencies is that self-esteem is unstable in paranoid individuals.
Steffenhagen, L. A.; Steffenhagen, R. A.
Measured self-esteem in 61 Vermont alcoholics using the Cornell Index and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Results indicated depression is an intervening variable between self-esteem and alcoholism. A theoretical model describing the relationship of residence, occupation, income, self-esteem, and depression to alcoholism is presented. (JAC)
Scheepers, D.; Spears, R.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Doosje, B.
This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are
Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Doosje, Bertjan
This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are
Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela
Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)
Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Bibi, Fariha; Gul, Asma
One of the characteristics of teachers having great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. Various instruments are available for measuring general self-esteem and professional self-esteem of teachers. For the present study it was deemed appropriate to use a Turkish professional self-esteem scale developed by Aricak…
Samaneh Moein; Mohammad Reza Abedi; Iran Baghban
Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-estee...
M.A. (Clinical Psychology) Humour serves various intrapersonal and interpersonal functions. The affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive and self-defeating humour styles are employed by individuals throughout their interactions and can influence their and others’ intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. Humour styles have been related to positive attributes, such as self-esteem and optimism. Individual differences in the type of humour style displayed could furthermore be influenced by ...
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.
Regan, Judith Weiner
Consistency and self-esteem theories make contrasting predictions about the relationship between a person's self-evaluation and his liking for an evaluator. Laboratory experiments confirmed predictions about these theories. (Editor/RK)
The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio De Castro, Bram
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to
Conclusions: Obesity in school-aged children reveals alterations associated with physical performance, fat mass and negative trends on self-esteem. Despite developing at an early stage, the consequences associated with this condition can already be seen.
Full Text Available This study is based on students’ problem who undergone the decreasing of self-esteem due to bullying that students receive in their environment. The long-term goal which going to be achieved is related to self esteem problem of students bullying victims that is capable to solve problem by using effective and tested product through counseling with assertive training technique. This study used research and development method. The steps are: (1 preliminary research; (2 designing model; (3 developing model; (4 testing model restrictively; (5 analysing model; (6 revising model; (7 testing model widely; (8 dissemination of model; and (9 recommending tested model. The result of study showed that the model of counseling through assertive training was empirically proven effective to improve self esteem of students bullying victims.Keywords: Self Esteem, Bullying, Assertive Training
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 216 subjects from 108 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Ways of Coping Checklist. The results confirm the presence of a relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment in men and women. High self-esteem and marital adjustment are associated with the use of problem solving strategies and less avoidance as a way of coping. Moreover, cross analyses reveal that one’s feelings of self-worth are associated with his/her spouse's marital adjustment. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
Malik, Sadia; Kaiser, Aneeqa
To investigate the impact of emotional maltreatment on self-esteem among adolescents, and to see if gender makes a difference in this context. The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014, and comprised adolescents in the age range of 14 to 18 years who were selected using purposive sampling from various government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha, Punjab. The questionnaire on seven dimensions of emotional maltreatment at home and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. There were 400 subjects; 200(50%) boys and as many girls. The overall mean age was 16.14±1.36 years (range: 14-18 years). Correlation coefficient indicated significant negative relationship between emotional maltreatment and self-esteem (degrading r= -0.33, pself-esteem (isolating?= -0.12, pself-esteem. Emotional maltreatment strongly predicted negative self-esteem among adolescents. Gender was a significant factor in the domain of degrading.
Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)
Meisenhelder, J B
Self-esteem, a positive regard for oneself, is a universal need for every human being and a key component in restoring and maintaining mental and physical health. Yet, this important concept is remarkably neglected in nursing literature and easily overlooked in clinical practice. This article examines the existing research on the antecedents of self-esteem and compiles a list of factors which can facilitate the nurse's therapeutic effect on her client's positive self-concept. From this list, specific nursing interventions are provided for raising and maintaining a client's self-esteem. Since the impact of nursing interventions varies with clinical circumstances, the nursing actions are correlated with their most effective health care settings. This article provides a global and practical approach to the enhancement of clients' self-esteem.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.
Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios
Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.
Introduction: Self-esteem among nursing students is important in providing high-quality serviceto clients, yet each study in this field has described only a portion of existing relevant knowledge.Integrative review studies are the best practice for identification of existing nursing knowledge.The purpose of this study was to determine self-esteem challenges among nursing students. Methods: An integrative review was conducted in this study. The databases ProQuest, Medlineon PubMed, Science Dir...
Christensen, Roger B.
This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...
Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.
Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...
Raffaella Perrella; Giorgio Caviglia
Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abus...
This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement.
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty chil...
Neiss, Michelle; Sedikides, Constantine; Stevenson, Jim
We attempted to clarify the relation between self-esteem level (high vs. low) and perceived self-esteem stability (within-person variability) by using a behavioral genetics approach. We tested whether the same or independent genetic and environmental influences impact on level and stability. Adolescent twin siblings (n = 183 pairs) completed level and stability scales at two time points. Heritability for both was substantial. The remaining variance in each was attributable to non-shared envir...
Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Mohsen Mohammadi
Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a que...
McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Kingsbury, John; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D
Low self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and protective factors in previous studies, but results have been mixed. Our objective was to examine characteristics associated with low self-esteem in a large national sample of young adolescents. We conducted a population-based correlational study. A sample of 6522 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years was surveyed by phone as part of a national study of media and substance use. Self-esteem was measured with 3 questions that assessed global self-worth and physical appearance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sociodemographics, child personality characteristics,weight status, daily TV time, parenting style, school performance,and team sports participation. Interactions among gender, race, and weight status were examined. In multivariate analysis, female gender, Hispanic race, overweight and obesity, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, and daily TV time were each independently associated with lower self-esteem. Teens of black race, with higher parental responsiveness and demandingness, better school performance, or involvement in team sports were less likely to report low self-esteem. Black females were at lower risk and Hispanic males were at higher risk for low esteem than peers of similar gender of other races. Low self-esteem was associated with a number of modifiable risk factors, including obesity, TV time, team sports participation, school performance, and parenting style, that should be discussed with teens and parents at health supervision visits. Further research examining race and gender-specific factors that serve to moderate risk for poor self-esteem in adolescents is warranted.
Raudah Zaimah Dalimunthe; Marjohan Marjohan; Syahniar Syahniar
Bullying behavior is influenced by many factors. This study purpose to describe: 1) Parenting, Self-Esteem and bullying behavior, 2) Parenting and Self-esteem either individually or collectively contributed to the bullying behavior. The population of study is focus in students of SMP Negeri 6 Percut Sei Tuan, with a sample 193 of students, by using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument in this study used a Likert Scale model and inventory (CFSEI). The results of reliabilit...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…
Güloğlu, Berna; Aydın, Gül
This study investigated the factor structure of the Turkish version of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results showed that the inventory had a 21-factor highly complex factor structure. However of the empirically found 21 factors only 10 seemed theoretically meaningful. The results were discussed in comparison to the fndings obtained from the studies that were carried out with the original version of the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory.
K.L. Vivar, MD; L. Kruse, MD
Background: Pediatric skin disorders can affect children’s self-esteem, relationships with caregivers and peers, and performance in school and activities. Objective: This review describes common pediatric congenital and acquired dermatologic disorders and the impact that these disorders can have on children’s self-esteem. Methods: A review of current, English-language literature was conducted with use of the PubMed database. Search terms included atopic dermatitis, acne, infantile heman...
Eisenberger, Naomi I; Inagaki, Tristen K; Muscatell, Keely A; Byrne Haltom, Kate E; Leary, Mark R
On the basis of the importance of social connection for survival, humans may have evolved a "sociometer"-a mechanism that translates perceptions of rejection or acceptance into state self-esteem. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of the sociometer by examining whether neural regions responsive to rejection or acceptance were associated with state self-esteem. Participants underwent fMRI while viewing feedback words ("interesting," "boring") ostensibly chosen by another individual (confederate) to describe the participant's previously recorded interview. Participants rated their state self-esteem in response to each feedback word. Results demonstrated that greater activity in rejection-related neural regions (dorsal ACC, anterior insula) and mentalizing regions was associated with lower-state self-esteem. Additionally, participants whose self-esteem decreased from prescan to postscan versus those whose self-esteem did not showed greater medial prefrontal cortical activity, previously associated with self-referential processing, in response to negative feedback. Together, the results inform our understanding of the origin and nature of our feelings about ourselves.
Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago
This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.
Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit
Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.
Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F
In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.
Alvi, Sajid Mehmood; Turabi, Maleeka Rubab; Ali, Syeda Ayat-E-Zainab; Irfan, Muhammad Shoaib; Afridi, Maryam; Shah, Asghar Ali
Self-esteem among eunuchs is highly influenced by a variety of factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in self-esteem of eunuchs on the basis of education, income, age and marital status. The study was conducted at the University of Haripur, Pakistan, from December 2015 to November 2016. A sample of 140 eunuchs was collected from different areas of Hazara division, through purposive and snowball sampling technique. A self-esteem scale with four sub-scales was used to measure the self-esteem of eunuchs. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine education level differences. The t-test was applied to find out the impact of demographics differences such as marital status, income level, and age on self-esteem of eunuchs. The scale used was found to be quite reliable with alpha coefficient of 0.85. The outcomes are significant and showed that educated, higher income, younger and unmarried eunuchs had higher self-esteem (p<0.05).
Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee
Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.
Benish-Weisman, Maya; Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Möllering, Anna; Knafo-Noam, Ariel
The research examined the relationship between multiple social identifications and self-esteem. Early adolescents (M = 11.4, SD = .95) and mid-adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.18) from Germany and Israel (n = 2337) were studied. Respondents described their social identification as students, family members, and as members of the majority national group and reported self-esteem. A longitudinal, cross-sectional and cross-cultural design revealed, as predicted, multiple social identifications related positively to self-esteem concurrently; they also related positively to self-esteem longitudinally over the course of a year. Moreover, multiple social identifications were found to be antecedent to self-esteem, not vice versa. Finally, multiple social identifications were found to decrease over time. The article discusses the contribution of multiple social identifications to self-esteem at different ages and in various contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan
This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family's performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.
Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Daniel Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing
Few studies have examined the effect of excess television (TV) viewing on specific mental health outcomes, such as self-esteem. We explored the cross-sectional association between TV viewing hours and self-esteem in young children. A total of 70,210 primary 4 (US grade 4) participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service, Hong Kong, in 1998-2000 reported TV viewing hours in a standardized questionnaire. Self-esteem was assessed using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories for Children (SEI) with 4 subscales. Multivariate linear regression yielded beta coefficients (β) for SEI subscale scores by TV hours, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, and highest parental education and occupational status. Only 10.9% of children watched >4 hours per day, while 45.3% watched TV for 1 to ≤2 hours per day. Compared with children who watched Children who watched >2 hours of TV per day had lower SEI scores than those who watched self-esteem among young children. The development of self-esteem among children who report little or excessive TV viewing should be further studied.
Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan
This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them. PMID:29312013
Karpowicz, Ewa; Skärsäter, Ingela; Nevonen, Lauri
Anorexia nervosa (AN) mainly affects girls or women between 13 and 45 years of age. According to previous studies, one of the reasons for the desire to be thin is low self-esteem. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-esteem of 38 female patients with AN between 16 and 25 years of age, before and after 3 months of treatment at a specialist ward for eating disorders in Göteborg, Sweden. A quantitative pre- and post-assessment based on two self-rating questionnaires, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE-S) and three subscales (weight phobia, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness) of Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), together with body mass index (BMI), were used in the study, which was conducted between June 2005 and March 2008. The results reveal that self-esteem, BMI, weight phobia, and body dissatisfaction improved significantly between pre- and post-treatment. The RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness correlate highly with one another, which lends support to convergent validity, and the internal consistency was high for both the RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness. The results indicate that the treatment was effective, as both patients' self-esteem and BMI increased after completed treatment, which was the primary goal of the treatment at this ward. Future studies should focus on follow up and the way self-esteem manifests itself at different points in time within an individual.
a demonstration of the interaction effects of acute self - esteem and perceived competence. Acute self - esteem manipulations (high, low or no) were...On the basis of previous research on conformity it was predicted that subjects who were subjected to acute self - esteem manipulations and perceived...role in conformity. The main effect of self - esteem and the interaction of self - esteem and perceived competence did not prove significant. Results were
Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John
This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.
Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W
The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia
Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697
Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L
A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.
Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert
Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dias, Lynette; Manny, Ruth E; Weissberg, Erik; Fern, Karen D
To evaluate whether contact lens (CL) use was associated with self-esteem in myopic children originally enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), that after 5 years continued as an observational study of myopia progression with CL use permitted. Usable data at the 6-year visit, one year after CL use was allowed (n = 423/469, age 12-17 years), included questions on CL use, refractive error measurements and self-reported self-esteem in several areas (scholastic/athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioural conduct and global self-worth). Self-esteem, scored from 1 (low) to 4 (high), was measured by the Self-Perception Profile for Children in participants under 14 years or the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, in those 14 years and older. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between self-esteem and relevant factors identified by univariate analyses (e.g., CL use, gender, ethnicity), while adjusting for baseline self-esteem prior to CL use. Mean (±S.D.) self-esteem scores at the 6-year visit (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.3 years; mean refractive error = -4.6 ± 1.5 D) ranged from 2.74 (± 0.76) on athletic competence to 3.33 (± 0.53) on global self-worth. CL wearers (n = 224) compared to eyeglass wearers (n = 199) were more likely to be female (p self-esteem or CL use. COMET participants who chose to wear CLs after 5 years of eyeglass use had higher self-esteem compared to those who remained in glasses both preceding and following CL use. This suggests that self-esteem may influence the decision to wear CLs and that CLs in turn are associated with higher self-esteem in individuals most likely to wear them. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.
Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.
In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…
This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…
Kyung Min Park, PhD, RN
Conclusions: The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program.
Hubbard, Dana J.
Self-esteem has long been a subject of discussion regarding its effects on problem behaviors including crime and recidivism. The current literature suggests that low self-esteem is not related to crime for male offenders and perhaps it is inflated self-esteem that is to blame for violence and crime. The literature on females and crime still…
Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Do adopted children show lower self-esteem than nonadopted peers, and do transracial adoptees show lower self-esteem than same-race adoptees? Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of low self-esteem. They may suffer from the consequences of neglect, abuse, and malnutrition in institutions before adoption. They have to cope with their…
Soenens, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Papini, Dennis R.
Although research suggests an interplay between identity development and self-esteem, most studies focused on the role of identity commitment and measured only level of self-esteem. This study examined longitudinal associations between Berzonsky's (2011) styles of identity exploration and two distinct features of self-esteem: level of self-esteem…
Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Aroonpongpaisal, Suwanna; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Rongbutsri, Somchit; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Pimpanit, Wijitra
To compare the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was translated into Thai and its content-validity checked by bacA translation. The reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale compared with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale was ther tested between February and March 2008 on 270 volunteers, including 135 patients with psychiatric illness and 135 normal volunteers. The authors analyzed the internal consistency and factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version and the correlation between it and the Visual Analog Scale. The Cronbach's Alpha for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale-Thai version was 0.849 and the Pearson's correlation between it and the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale 0.618 (p = 0.01). Two factors, viz, the positively and negatively framea items, from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version accounted for 44.04% and 12.10% of the variance, respectively. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version has acceptable reliability. The Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale provides an effective measure of self-esteem.
Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi
This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabino Neto, Miguel; Demattê, Maria Fernanda; Freire, Marcia; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina; Ferreira, Lydia M
Both physical health and psychosocial outcomes are important issues in the evaluation of medical treatment. Women with breast hypertrophy may suffer from low self-esteem and reduced functional capacity because of the size of their breasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on self-esteem and functional capacity in patients with breast hypertrophy. One hundred patients with breast hypertrophy who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years and who had undergone no previous mammary surgery were selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM). They were randomly allocated into two groups (A and B) of 50 patients each. Patients from group A were submitted for reduction mammaplasty while those from group B were placed on the waiting list and used as a control group. At the beginning of the study, all patients were interviewed to collect clinical and demographic data and to have their self-esteem and functional capacity measured. Two Brazilian-validated versions of quality of life measurement instruments were chosen: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Rolland-Morris (to assess functional capacity). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain intensity. Six months after the beginning of the study, these instruments were again administered to both groups. Forty-six out of 50 patients from each group (A and B) completed the study. The mean age of group A was 31.6 years (SD, 11 yrs), and that of group B was 32.3 years (SD, 10 yrs). The mean weight of removed breast tissue from group A patients was 1052 g (SD, 188 g). A decrease on the score of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of patients from group A indicated an improvement of self-esteem (P self-esteem and functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back region in patients with breast hypertrophy.
Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk
In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.
Giovanna Enríquez Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The prevailing cultural model is simplistic in that it envisions the development of life in terms of beginning, fullness and decay. During aging, older adults can witness their physical and mental deterioration, change society qualifies as poor and dependent, the appreciation of low self-esteem in them arises. Given the above, this research has as main purpose to promote the participation of the elderly with neurotic conditions for such that population fits your problem, regardless of its nature, and increase their self-esteem. The objective is to provide comprehensive support to older adults and their caregivers to strengthen in order to promote self-esteem of people with neurotic condition to maintain personal autonomy; apart seeks to provide a comprehensive and continuously support for dependents. The planning and development is based on the explanation of the disease, how it affects the balance of your system and how to achieve this need and how the parties of the client system interact inharmony with the entire system. The purpose is to show how you can achieve optimal care of these people in collaboration with the family, helping in the development of their environment, accepting the changes, and adapt and incorporate new circumstances by enriching their self- improvement to restore their well-being and promoteevery area of your life.
Ebright, Patricia R; Lyon, Brenda
To examine the extent to which antecedent variables and appraisals differentiate levels of hope in women during treatment for breast cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Two large midwestern urban areas. 73 Caucasian women between the ages of 20-73 with first-time diagnosis of breast cancer; recruited through five physician offices; within three months after surgical intervention with planned chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or tamoxifen; and able to read English. Identical surveys mailed to participants 3 and 12 months after surgery. Instruments included Lazarus' Appraisal Components and Themes Scales, Herth Hope Index, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2, Helpfulness of Religious Beliefs Scale, and demographics questionnaire. Appraisal, hope, self-esteem, social support, and helpfulness of religious beliefs. Variables influencing appraisals during breast cancer treatment on both surveys were self-esteem and helpfulness of religious beliefs. Potential for coping appraisals and self-esteem contributed to variation in hope at both time points. Social support was a significant contributor to hope in the 12-month survey. Appraisal themes reflected challenge but not fear. Self-esteem and helpfulness of religious beliefs influence women's appraisals regarding the potential for coping; appraisals and antecedent variables relevant for differentiating hope are beliefs about the potential for coping, self-esteem, and social support. Care of women with breast cancer during the first year of treatment should include assessment of beliefs regarding the potential for coping. Results suggest that support for interventions related to self-esteem, social support, and helpfulness of religious beliefs increase confidence in coping abilities and hope.
von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between employees’ of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10 self-esteem and pertinacity. For this reason, employee’s self-esteem was arranged in two dimensions, which are consistency solidity, emotional inconsistency and pertinacity. The questionnaire is based on Kobasa theory including three sides including commitment, control and defiance. There are two basic and three subsidiary theories. Employee of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10 is statistical society of this research, which includes 80 people. Reference to restricted volume of statistical society, total statistical society is concerned as under evaluation society. The tool of data gathering is two questionnaires, which are Aizenc’s self-esteem questionnaire and Kobasa’s pertinacity standard questionnaire, which are delivered for evaluating society after perpetuity and justifiability determination. The descriptive statistical methods are used for collected questionnaires analyze. Thus, the descriptive statistical method was used to summarize, to categorize and to interpret statistical data’s. In addition, statistical tests such as Pearson and Freidman’s coherency R are used to test the hypothesis of research. The results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity and its sides on employees of East Azarbaijan Melli bank (zone 10. They present maximum relationship between self-esteem and pertinacity control and minimum relationship between pertinacity commitment dimensions.
Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Mendoza, Marcela; Leimberg, María L; Martinez, María A; Vallarino, Varinia; Hidalgo, Luis
To assess self-esteem and affecting factors in a middle-aged Ecuadorian female population using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). This was a cross-sectional study in which 149 women (40-59 years) were requested to fill out the RSES and a general socio-demographic form containing personal and partner data. Mean age of sample was 47.6+/-5.5 years, a 67.8% had less than 12 years of schooling and 33.6% were postmenopausal. At the moment of the survey 2.7% were on hormone therapy, and 2% were taking psychotropic drugs. Mean total RSES score was 26.6+/-3.1 (median 26, range 17-35). A 35.6% and 18.1% of women respectively presented total RSES scores below 26 (median) and 25 (25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. Total scores did not differ when comparing older age, menopausal phases or time since the menopause. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with lower parity and an unhealthy partner were related to lower total RSES scores (below the 25th percentile) suggesting lower self-esteem. In this mid-aged series lower self-esteem was not related to the aging process per se yet to socio-demographic female/male aspects. More research is needed in this regard that incorporates other sociological aspects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vivar, K L; Kruse, L
Pediatric skin disorders can affect children's self-esteem, relationships with caregivers and peers, and performance in school and activities. This review describes common pediatric congenital and acquired dermatologic disorders and the impact that these disorders can have on children's self-esteem. A review of current, English-language literature was conducted with use of the PubMed database. Search terms included atopic dermatitis, acne, infantile hemangiomas, port wine stains, congenital melanocytic nevi, hidradenitis suppurativa, and self-esteem. During infancy and toddlerhood, skin disorders such as infantile hemangiomas primarily affect the attachment between child and caregiver. School-aged children with port wine stains and atopic dermatitis report increased bullying, teasing, and social isolation. Acne and hidradenitis typically affect older children and teens and these conditions are associated with increased risks of depression and suicidal ideation. Effective management of these conditions has been shown to increase patients' self-esteem. Pediatric dermatologic disorders impact self-esteem throughout childhood. In addition to the surgical and medical management of these disorders, clinicians can also take an active role in the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial impact of these skin disorders.
Bjørkvik, Jofrid; Biringer, Eva; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark
This study explored associations between self-esteem and interpersonal functioning in a one-year clinic cohort of psychiatric outpatients (n= 338). At intake, patients completed questionnaires measuring self-esteem, interpersonal problems, interpersonal style, and general symptomatic distress. They were also diagnosed according to the ICD-10. Interpersonal behaviour was measured along the agency and communion dimensions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex [IIP-C]. The results show that lower self-esteem was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems in general. Further, lower self-esteem was first and foremost linked to frustrated agentic motives, as measured by the IIP-C. Hence, the study concludes that fostering patient agency should be considered as an important goal in psychotherapy. Furthermore, the analyses revealed an interaction effect of agency and communion on self-esteem, indicating a need for balancing the two motive dimensions. Finally, some questions are raised concerning the interpretation of the IIP-C subscales in general.
Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Sonia; Cofré-Boladós, Cristian; Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón; Martínez-Martínez, Asunción; Muros-Molina, José Joaquín
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic disease and a problem for the Chilean society. To analyze the relationship between physical condition, body mass index (BMI), level of physical activity and self-esteem. Material ad Methods: Questionnaires to assess self-esteem (Rosemberg scale) and levels of physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for older Children, PAQ-C) were answered by 515 children aged 10.5 ± 0.5 years from 27 schools of Santiago de Chile. BMI was calculated. Course-Navette test was carried out, vertical jump and hand dynamometry were measured. For statistical analysis, structural equations were used. An acceptable goodness of fit for the models was found. There was a positive relationship between BMI and hand dynamometry, as well as a negative relationship between BMI and maximal oxygen consumption, jumping ability, physical activity and self-esteem. Finally, self-esteem was positively related to physical activity engagement. In these children, self-esteem was related to physical activity variables.
Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold
Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...
Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M
The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Masmoudi, Jawaher; Trigui, Dorsa; Feki, Ines; Bâati, Imen; Jaoua, Abdelaziz
Several authors emphasize the close relationship between self-esteem and athletic performance; such a relationship may raise the following question: by saying "strong" or "without any physical condition", is it a fair presentation of the individual's abilities or he reveals the most fundamental aspects of his personality, such as emotional temperament? To evaluate self-esteem, physical self and temperamental profile in a group of sportsmen, and to look for a relationship between these variables and athletic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study in 80 young handball players of the "senior" category. We assessed self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, physical self-using the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI), and temperamental profile using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Athletic performance was evaluated by the team coach by means of a score ranging from 1 to 10. High self-esteem was correlated to female gender (p=0.03), to an early start of physical activity (pself-esteem (pself-esteem (p=0.001). Good athletic performance was associated with hyperthymic (pself-esteem might help to achieve better athletic performance. In this intervention, the individual temperamental profile should be taken into account.
Cambron, M Janelle; Acitelli, Linda K; Steinberg, Lynne
This research examines the role of friendship contingent self-esteem (FCSE), or self-esteem that is dependent on the quality of one's friendships, in predicting depressive symptoms. In Study 1, the authors developed a measure of FCSE. Both FCSE and others' approval correlated with self-esteem and depressive symptoms, but when entered simultaneously in a regression equation, only FCSE significantly predicted self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Study 2 showed that dependency and close friendship competence predicted depressive symptoms only for those high in FCSE. In Study 3, a diary study, FCSE predicted self-esteem instability. Self-esteem instability, in turn, predicted depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a three-way interaction of rumination, FCSE, and the valence of the event predicted momentary self-esteem. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of considering FCSE when investigating interpersonal risk for depression.
Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F
Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D
A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sedikides, Constantine; Rudich, Eric A; Gregg, Aiden P; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl
Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health. Specifically, narcissism is (a) inversely related to daily sadness and dispositional depression, (b) inversely related to daily and dispositional loneliness, (c) positively related to daily and dispositional subjective well-being as well as couple well-being, (d) inversely related to daily anxiety, and (e) inversely related to dispositional neuroticism. More important, self-esteem fully accounted for the relation between narcissism and psychological health. Thus, narcissism is beneficial for psychological health only insofar as it is associated with high self-esteem. Explanations of the main and mediational findings in terms of response or social desirability biases (e.g., defensiveness, repression, impression management) were ruled out. Supplementary analysis showed that the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and psychological health were preponderantly linear. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L
Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline
This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used.
Full Text Available This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child’s development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group and 30 sibling-free children (control group. The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma.
Olthuis, Gert; Leget, Carlo; Dekkers, Wim
This article discusses the relationship between personal and professional qualities in hospice nurses. We examine the notion of self-esteem in personal and professional identity. The focus is on two questions: (1) what is self-esteem, and how is it related to personal identity and its moral dimension? and (2) how do self-esteem and personal identity relate to the professional identity of nurses? We demonstrate it is important that the moral and personal goals in nurses' life coincide. If nurses' personal view of the good life is compatible with their experiences and feelings as professionals, this improves their performance as nurses. We also discuss how good nursing depends on the responses that nurses receive from patients, colleagues and family; they make nurses feel valued as persons and enable them to see the value of the work they do.
Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Carollo, Antonio; Bono, Alessandra; Burgio, Sofia; Perricone, Giovanna
This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child's development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group) and 30 sibling-free children (control group). The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma.
Full Text Available Analysis of influence of the child’s economic value and motivation on self-esteem of child labor in one of the business center in Bogor District was the goal of this research. The study involved 40 child laborers and their parents that were selected by snowball. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression test. The results showed that parents' perceptions of child labor related future of child’s economic value and the child’s economic value currently in the moderate category. Motivation of child labors (intrinsic and extrinsic and self-esteem were also in the moderate category. Self-esteem of child labor increased by increasing length of child to attend formal education and decreased in children who was dropping outs of school. Selfesteem of child labor was also decreased with decreasing extrinsic motivation.
Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A
The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD). However, its precise role in the formation and maintenance of PD is unclear and has been subject to a number of theories: It has been hypothesized that PD function to enhance self-esteem, that they directly reflect negative conceptualizations of the self, that self-esteem follows from the perceived deservedness of the persecution (poor-me versus bad-me-paranoia) and that the temporal instability of self-esteem is relevant to PD. In order to increase our understanding of the relevance of self-esteem to PD, this article systematically reviews the existing research on self-esteem in PD in the light of the existing theories. We performed a literature search on studies that investigated self-esteem in PD. We included studies that either investigated self-esteem a) within patients with PD or compared to controls or b) along the continuum of subclinical paranoia in the general population. We used a broad concept of self-esteem and included paradigms that assessed implicit self-esteem, specific self-schemas and dynamic aspects of self-esteem. The literature search identified 317 studies of which 52 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD. The studies therefore do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self-esteem but underline the theory that they directly reflect specific negative self-schemas. There is evidence that low self-esteem is associated with higher perceived deservedness of the persecution and that PD are associated with instable self-esteem. Only few studies investigated implicit self-esteem and the results of these studies were inconsistent. We conclude by proposing an explanatory model of how self-esteem and PD interact from which we derive clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS, Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES. The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Gajewski, Jakub; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Katarzyna
Self-esteem is the conviction concerning self-satisfaction and self-assessment of one's competence. It can influence the overall emotional state, and determine the motivation to take actions of characteristic teenagers. Presentation of the results of research on predictors of self-esteem in healthy adolescents and their peers with diabetes. Is was investigated whether there were differences in factors that determine directly and indirectly the self-esteem within these groups. The survey was conducted during the school year 2010/2011 as a part of cultural and linguistic adaptation of the CHIP-AE questionnaire (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition). Data were collected from 1177 students with average age of 15.4 years, who attended junior high and high schools of different types, in five provinces of Poland. In this group there were 117 adolescents with diabetes and 1060 healthy peers. The CHIP-AE questionnaire consists of six main dimensions: satisfaction, complaints, protective factors, risk factors, achievements and illness. Students are asked to respond mostly from the perspective of the last 4 weeks. Predictors of self-esteem were selected from the following fields of CHIP-AE questionnaire: physical health, self-efficiency, limitation of daily activities, academic achievement, burden of school work, social support, capability of solving social problems, family relationships, relationships with peers and with teachers. Multivariate regression models and structural equitation models were estimated for both the healthy and the ill adolescents. It has been proved that self-esteem of healthy adolescents was determined differently than that of their peers with diabetes. The most important elements forming self-esteem of adolescents with diabetes were as follows: self-assessment of physical fitness, academic achievements and social support. In the studied group an indirect impact of limitations of physical activity on self-perceived fitness and
Jingyu Shi; Lu Wang; Yuhong Yao; Na Su; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Fazhan Chen
This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. ...
Background : Loneliness become one of vital issues in college student, at any degrees anyone of them have felt of loneliness. Male or female student are both have the opportunity to feel alone depend on their own situation and condition. Self-esteem is become another problem faced by a college student. Low self esteem may impact students live such as lack of self-worth, lack of self-confidence and having no goal pursuit behavior. The objective of this research was to find the relationship be...
Maximova, Katerina; Khan, Mohammad K A; Austin, S Bryn; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J
Underestimating body size hinders healthy behavior modification needed to prevent obesity. However, initiatives to improve body size misperceptions may have detrimental consequences on self-esteem and self-efficacy. Using sex-specific multiple mixed-effect logistic regression models, we examined the association of underestimating versus accurate body size perceptions with self-esteem and self-efficacy in a provincially representative sample of 5075 grade five school children. Body size perceptions were defined as the standardized difference between the body mass index (BMI, from measured height and weight) and self-perceived body size (Stunkard body rating scale). Self-esteem and self-efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating were self-reported. Most of overweight boys and girls (91% and 83%); and most of obese boys and girls (93% and 90%) underestimated body size. Underestimating weight was associated with greater self-efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating among normal-weight children (odds ratio: 1.9 and 1.6 for boys, 1.5 and 1.4 for girls) and greater self-esteem among overweight and obese children (odds ratio: 2.0 and 6.2 for boys, 2.0 and 3.4 for girls). Results highlight the importance of developing optimal intervention strategies as part of targeted obesity prevention efforts that de-emphasize the focus on body weight, while improving body size perceptions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Allen, Jason; Steele, Ric G; Nelson, Michael B; Peugh, James; Egan, Anna; Clements, Mark; Patton, Susana R
To test the longitudinal associations between hope and optimism and health outcomes (i.e., HbA1c and self-monitored blood glucose [SMBG]) among youths with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over a 6-month period. A total of 110 participants (aged 10-16 years) completed study measures at Time 1, and 81 completed measures at Time 2. Analyses examined hope and optimism as predictors of change in health outcomes, and examined SMBG as a mediator of the relationship between hope and optimism, and HbA1c. Change in hope, but not optimism, was associated with change in SMBG and HbA1c. Change in SMBG mediated the relationship between change in hope and HbA1c, but not between optimism and HbA1c. It may be beneficial to assess hope in pediatric T1DM patients to identify youths who may be at risk for poor diabetes management, and to test the benefit of hope-based intervention efforts in clinical studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Johanson, J C
The current paper reports for 80 undergraduates that risk aversion is greater among those with lower self-esteem scores on Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and those with higher scores on Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dual Income Family, Gender and Adolescents´ Self-Esteem. ... Abstract. This study examined the influence of dual income family and gender on adolescents' self-esteem in Enugu, Nigeria. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Stress and gender in relation to self-esteem of university business students. ... gender completed standardized measures of traditional student stress scale and self esteem. The 2x3 (ANOVA) was ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...
Influence of students in other programmes on the self-esteem of agricultural education students in ... The findings showed, inter alia, that Agricultural students possess positive self-esteem against all odds. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
The self-esteem of 120 males with and without specific learning disabilities, at each of two levels of development (preadolescent and adolescent) was measured using Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. (MP)
Kesting, Marie-Luise; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Lincoln, Tania M
The hypothesis that persecutory delusions function to enhance self-esteem implies that patients will show normal explicit, but low implicit self-esteem. As evidence for this has been inconsistent, our study assessed delusional state, explicit and implicit self-esteem and depression in a large sample (n=139) of schizophrenia patients with acute persecutory delusions (n=28), patients with remitted persecutory delusions (n=31), healthy controls (n=59), and depressed controls (n=21). Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit, but normal levels of implicit self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bos, Arjan; Muris, Peter; Mulkens, S.; Schaalma, Herman
textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theoretical overview of self-esteem in children and adolescents is presented, in which recent research on different aspects of self-esteem will be discussed. Subsequently, research on treatment and pri...
Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiru?u, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo
Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was u...
Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen
The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relat...
Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT) self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Sc...
This study examines the comparison between English Department students’ emotional intelligence (EQ), their self-esteem and their academic achievement. Twenty-two students participated in the research by answering EQ test and two Self-Esteem questionnaires. The result shows that there is no relation between students’ GPA and their self-esteem and EQ. This means that academic ability does not correspond to social skills. Though most students have average EQ and self-esteem, one student has High...
Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas
Although the importance of self-esteem in educational achievement is contested, it remains a significant touchstone of multicultural religious education. This study set out to establish differences in demographics and attitudes between high self-esteem and low self-esteem Buddhist teenagers who are a small religious minority in Britain. Low self-esteem teens expressed less well-being, more worry in relationships with their family and friends, low motivation in school, more supernatural belief...
Dorgan, M.; And Others
In a study of the relationship between sex role and self-esteem, different results were obtained with two different self-esteem measures (the Texas Social Behavior Inventory and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory). The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting research results beyond the limits of procedures used. (Author/MJL)
Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung
The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…
Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others
The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…
Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…
Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas
Although the importance of self-esteem in educational achievement is contested, it remains a significant touchstone of multicultural religious education. This study set out to establish differences in demographics and attitudes between high self-esteem and low self-esteem Buddhist teenagers who are a small religious minority in Britain. Low…
Collison, Daniel; Banbury, Samantha; Lusher, Joanne
It has been found that self-esteem is related to alcohol consumption, with the majority of research finding that low self-esteem is associated with high levels of alcohol use and high self-esteem is associated with low levels of alcohol use. The present study examined this relationship among 100 university students aged 18-25 years. Further,…
Chang, Alice F.; And Others
Investigated the influence of teacher and student personality on learning. Empathy was evaluated for 12 graduate teaching assistants, while 447 college students completed a self-esteem measure. Positive effects were found between self-esteem and academic performance and between objective and perceived empathy and self-esteem on all criteria.…
McManus, Freda; Waite, Polly; Shafran, Roz
Low self-esteem is a common, disabling, and distressing problem that has been shown to be involved in the etiology and maintenance of a range of Axis I disorders. Hence, it is a priority to develop effective treatments for low self-esteem. A cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of low self-esteem has been proposed and a cognitive-behavioral…
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…
Righetti, F.; Visserman, M.L.
Low self-esteem is often related to interpersonal difficulties. In fact, low self-esteem people fear rejection and tend to adopt self-protection goals. In the present work, we tested the idea that when low self-esteem individuals decide to sacrifice personal preferences for their relationship, they
van Tuijl, Lonneke
This study tested the role of low self-esteem in depression and anxiety disorders. Low self-esteem could be both a cause and a consequence of depression and anxiety. Moreover, residual low self-esteem in people who have recovered from depression and/or anxiety might set them at risk for recurrence.
Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson; Befort, Christy; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Sollenberger, Sonja; Huser, Laura
The authors investigated the relationships between spirituality, body image, self-esteem, and stress in 204 college freshmen who identified themselves as being highly spiritual. A positive relationship was found between spirituality and self-esteem. Although self-esteem was found to be negatively related to stress, spirituality served as a buffer…
Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja
Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…
Jaquish, Gail A.; Ripple, Richard E.
Explored the relationship between divergent thinking and self-esteem across the adult lifespan. Subjects from 18 to 84 years of age responded to a self-esteem inventory and an exercise in divergent thinking. Self-esteem predicted divergent thinking across age groups, whereas age differences accounted for little variance in divergent thinking.…
This newsletter summarizes the current state of understanding about self-esteem in teenaged girls. It notes that self-esteem is a concept that is difficult to define and to measure. Current research indicates that self-esteem is composed of many factors; however, a reasonable functional definition is the value a person places on herself or…
Guindon, Mary H.
Self-esteem is a common target of intervention, and the proliferation of research on self-esteem attests to the widely held belief of its significance as a personality variable. Despite its popularity, there is limited consistency in the use of its definition, and little evidence suggests that counselors routinely assess levels of self-esteem.…
Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice
Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Extending an earlier study that found high self-esteem to modify the impact of otherwise maladaptive perfectionism on depression, the current study used adult attachment theory to explore the link between perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in college students. Results indicated that self-esteem buffered the effects of maladaptive…
Badayai, Abdul Rahman bin Ahmad; Ismail, Khaidzir bin Haji
Self-esteem has been regarded as one of the most pivotal component in almost every day human daily activities. Trajectory of self esteem development means that on the average, one's self-esteem is relatively high in childhood, then drops during adolescence, later to arise gradually throughout adulthood, and then declines sharply in old age. The…
Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.
In this research we investigated the interplay between celebrities holding positive vs. negative media images and women’s self-esteem and purchase intensions. Study 1 documents that “good” celebrities decrease consumers’ self-esteem while a “bad” celebrity increase self-esteem. Study 2 shows that
Koole, S.L.; Govorun, O.; Chang, C.
Self-reported or explicit self-esteem frequently conflicts with indirectly assessed, implicit self-esteem. The present research investigated whether meditation may reduce such inner conflicts by promoting congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Relative to control conditions,
Geukes, K.; Nestler, S.; Hutteman, R.; Dufner, M.; Küfner, A.C.P.; Egloff, B.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Back, M.D.
Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at
Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich
Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or…
Lee, Eunju J.
This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…
Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana
This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…
Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, H.M.; Creemers, D.; van Lier, P.A.C.
Background: Self-esteem has been the focus of a vast body of literature over the last decades because of its association with psychopathology (e.g. Baumeister, 2003). Most of the research into self-esteem focused on explicit self-esteem. Recently, however, it has been proposed that implicit
Bongers, K.C.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Spears, R.
People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals
Bongers, Karin C. A.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Spears, Russell
People are motivated to establish and maintain a positive self-image. When people fail to attain their goals self-esteem is threatened, and this elicits the motivation to protect or repair self-esteem. We investigated whether success and failure to attain goals affects self-esteem if these goals
Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.
Ninety-six lesbians and gay men completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and modified version of Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Results indicated moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes and self-esteem and positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were…
Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others
Investigated the effects of social learning and symbolic interaction on adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents (N=368) and their parents completed measures of self-esteem, parental behavior and parental power. Results suggested adolescent self-esteem is more a function of social interaction and the reflected appraisals of others than a modeling of…
Scott, Cynthia G.; And Others
Reports a study that examined similarities and differences in perceptions of K-12 school administrators, counselors, and teachers about student self-esteem, and how they perceived their impact on student self-esteem. Surveys yielded noteworthy similarities and differences in their perceptions of student self-esteem and statistical significance…
Stake, Jayne E.; And Others
High school teachers and an experienced leader provided assertiveness training for 148 female students in high school business and homemaking classes. Significant changes in performance self-esteem scores were found between pretesting and a three-month folLow-up. Low-self-esteem subjects showed greater increases than high-self-esteem subjects.…
Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.
We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…
Cutright, Melitta C.
The article discusses self-esteem as the key to parenting a successful, happy child. It notes ways parents can help foster self-esteem starting at a very early age. Ten suggestions for building a child's self-esteem, developed by the National PTA, are listed. (SM)
Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria
This study examined the self-esteem of 50 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities living in central Greece and 50 similar mothers of non-disabled children. Results indicated significantly lower self-esteem for mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. The best predictor of positive maternal self-esteem in the disabled group…
MacMaster, Keith; Donovan, Leslie A.; MacIntyre, Peter D.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of being diagnosed with a learning disability on elementary school children's self-esteem. Findings indicated that self-esteem increased significantly above prediagnosis of a learning disability while self-esteem levels in a control group of children without learning disabilities…
Soldiers, and 915 Army Civilians (Sheftick & Holzer, 2007). Self - Esteem Rosenberg (1965) provided a broad and frequently cited description of self ...Teaching Mental Skills for Self - Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting Jon Hammermeister, Michael A. Pickering and LTC Carl J. Ohlson...The need exists for educational methods which can positively influence self - esteem , especially in demanding military healthcare settings. Warrior
Winkler, Joann B.
This practicum addressed the problems of low self-esteem levels of at-risk students in kindergarten and in grades three and five by implementing a peer facilitator program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the OUNCE Attitude Scale, and a Kindergarten Checklist of Low Self-Esteem Characteristics were used to determine the students'…
Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Jennings, Penelope
The school short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory is a widely used measure of children's global self-esteem. Unlike the full-length scale, however, it has been generally understood that the short form does not allow differentiation between the major individual sources of self-esteem. The present study has examined the internal…
Mullis, Ann K.; And Others
Examined self-esteem of adolescents over three years of high school. Ninth graders (n=270) completed Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for each of three years. Found grade level significantly related to self-esteem in longitudinal but not cross-sectional design. Mediational effects of gender and socioeconomic status were found to be minimal.…
Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others
Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…
Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.
Pradhan, Prakash V; Shah, Henal; Rao, Pradeep; Ashturkar, Dhananjay; Ghaisas, Pradnya
To evaluate psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness. 60 children and their parents were selected to participate in an open study. 30 children had epilepsy and the other 30 had thalassemia. Both the groups consisted of children randomly selected from the Epilepsy Clinic and Thalassemia Centre respectively, of a teaching general hospital. The children and their parents were interviewed and also rated on Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Rosenberg's self esteem scale. The data was analysed using Pearson's chi square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The children were seen to have high psychopathology on CPMS (average score: thalassemia group = 28.56, epilepsy group = 26.06). Depression was the subscale with the maximum elevation in both groups. Behavior problems were high in epilepsy. In addition, sadness and disinterest in life were common symptoms in thalassemia while irritability and panic were high in epilepsy. Children with epilepsy perceived a change in lifestyle after diagnosis. Self-esteem was moderately affected in both groups and this affected compliance with treatment in thalassemia. Chronic illness affects psychological health and self esteem in children. Hence, in addition to the physical aspects it is necessary also, to focus on the psychological health of the child in order to ensure compliance and thus treat the child comprehensively.
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
This study examined the effect of the active pursuit of ballet as a hobby on personality. The study group consisted of 62 members of the junior ballet of the Finnish National Opera, ranging in age from 9 to 17 with the majority under 14. The dancers were given four self-esteem questionnaires which measured empathy, creativity, and other…
An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.
Buri, John R.; And Others
This study examined the relationship of adolescents' self-esteem (SE) to the familial variables of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness and to the cognitive variables of high standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization. Participants (N=99) were college students from a coeducational, liberal arts university.…
This study attempted to determine whether self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength would predict emotional distress in Nigerian university students. 148 students from a Christian university and 158 students from a Secular university responded to measures of the variables listed above.
For most new students, adjusting to an unfamiliar academic setting can induce homesickness. While most studies have investigated homesickness as a negative outcome of relocation, the present study extended the literature by examining the influence of self esteem, self efficacy, and gender on homesickness among ...
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between pupils' academic self-esteem and performance in English language and Mathematics. The sample consisted of 365 pupils selected from 82 primary schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State. Krejcie and Morgan's table for determining sampling ...
Based on this, this study was set out to investigate the influence of self esteem, parental monitoring and parenting styles on adolescents' risky sexual behavior in Ibadan. Cross-sectional research design was used. A total number of 194 adolescents selected from three secondary schools participated in the study.
The thrust of the study was to examine the relationship among achievement motivation, self-esteem, locus of control and academic performance of university students in a Nigerian University. The purpose was to determine the extent university student\\'s academic performance was influenced by these criterion variables.
This study examined the role of self-esteem, gender, family communication style, and parental neglect on aggressive tendencies among secondary school adolescents' in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. A total of two hundred and forty (240) secondary school adolescents drawn from 9 private and 3 public ...
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which sexual harassment, self-esteem, and academic engagement predict academic success of female secondary school students in Gondar city. Correlational design was employed to answer the research questions raised. Respondents were 366 female ...
Ayas, Tuncay; Horzum, Mehmet Baris
Problem: Internet addiction has been emerged as a result of excessive internet misuse. In this study, analyzing the effects of depression, loneliness and self-esteem has been aimed in the prediction of the internet addiction levels of secondary education students. Method: The research is conducted according to the cross-sectional model as one of…
Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Blížkovská, J.; Klimusová, Helena
Roč. 46, č. 2 (2004), s. 97-104 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : self - esteem * five-factor model * life satisfaction Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2004
Recent primate studies suggest that fluctuations in the neurotransmitter serotonin help regulate our level of self-esteem and place within the social hierarchy. The serotonin system helps us cope psychologically in a bad social situation. The best support for a serotonin deficiency is probably the natural system of positive social feedback evolved…
Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.
Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…
K.L. Vivar, MD
Conclusion: Pediatric dermatologic disorders impact self-esteem throughout childhood. In addition to the surgical and medical management of these disorders, clinicians can also take an active role in the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial impact of these skin disorders.
Lindeman, A K
Self-esteem, a hierarchical and multifactorial perception, can be described as the extent to which a person feels positive about himself or herself. Social factors such as life satisfaction, sex, age, and strongly held values can affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a well-recognized trait of those with eating disorders and may be associated with a heightened self-awareness. Body dissatisfaction, common among women in Western society, may enhance this awareness. Athletes, especially those with eating disorders, are perfectionists and have acute body awareness and a sense of loss of control. Control is a crucial issue with these athletes. Before any nutrition counseling starts, readiness to listen should be assessed in conjunction with a mental health professional. Various tools are available to assess the eating disordered athlete's self-esteem, body image, and eating behavior. Nutrition counseling can help the athlete overcome an eating disorder by clarifying misconceptions and focusing on the role of nutrition in promoting health and athletic performance.
Hughes, Brian M
This study sought to establish the impact of performance-related feedback on cardiovascular responses to stressors, and whether this impact is influenced by individual differences in self-esteem. A total of 66 college women were categorized as either high or low in self-esteem on the basis of their scores in a standardized psychometric test. They then took part in a laboratory experiment, in which they were assigned to one of three performance-feedback manipulations. Following the provision of feedback on an initial laboratory task (picture-matching), they undertook a second task (mental arithmetic). Cardiovascular functioning was monitored throughout. Provision of negative feedback to the initial task exerted an adverse impact on cardiovascular responses, suggestive of unhappiness with performance. Provision of positive feedback to the initial task exerted an impact on cardiovascular functioning during the second task, suggestive of task engagement. Importantly, low self-esteem exacerbated the adverse impact of negative feedback. The impact of feedback and the buffering role of self-esteem may have important consequences for cardiovascular health. Further, discrepancies in the findings of previous feedback research may be accounted for by dispositional individual differences.
Sinacore, Ada L.; Akcali, F. Ozge
A study of 72 fathers found that family environment has a limited effect on men's self-esteem and it predicts only three aspects of job satisfaction, possibly because of men's limited involvement in the family and feeling that their role in the family is as provider and disciplinarian. (JOW)
Full Text Available Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD and depersonalization disorder (DPD, fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18, DPD (n=18, and healthy control (n=35 participants. DPD participants had significantly higher implicit self-esteem and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more ‘frontal’ behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.
Landis, H. John
Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…
It has been found that the sexes differ as to social/affective versus instrumental/competence orientation, with females oriented more towards the social domain and males oriented more towards the instrumental domain. Because it has been suggested that the sexes also differ as to the source of self-esteem, with males deriving esteem from task…
This paper defines the term "self-image" or "self-esteem" and defines the term "creativity" from psychoanalytic and humanist interpretations. It then proposes the theory that a positive self-image enhances the possibilities for creative productivity or lifestyle. Practical implications for child rearing are offered. (JDD)
Simmons, Roberta G.
Changes in research findings related to the self-esteem of blacks may be due to the impact of ideology; or to methodological differences, such as the populations studied, the definitions and dimensions of self-image conceptualized, and the measures used. This article is a commentary on the previous Adam article (TM 503 243). (BW)
Middle school students experience substantial changes in their emotion and cognition while they grow. They have mixed feelings, which may negatively affect their motivation, self-esteem, and academic success due to different classroom management strategies of their teachers. There is available research about motivation of middle school students…
Nagorski, Alec P.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between a gay male's low self-esteem and environmental oppression, thereby establishing guidelines for the counselor in directing the client toward a more positive gay identity. This document is divided into the following sections: (1) Initial Interview; (2) Theory of…
Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Jackson, Claire; Cavenagh, Penny; Clibbens, John
Background: It is estimated that around 50-90% of people with learning disabilities experience difficulties in communicating. Previous research has linked communication difficulties and self-esteem in other populations, yet this relationship has not previously been investigated for people with Down syndrome. Aims: To explore the relationship…
The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…
Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun
We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…
Rudman, Laurie A; Dohn, Matthew C; Fairchild, Kimberly
Four experiments demonstrated implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) in response to threats involving gender identity (Experiment 1), implicit racism (Experiment 2), and social rejection (Experiments 3-4). Under conditions in which people might be expected to suffer a blow to self-worth, they instead showed high scores on 2 implicit self-esteem measures. There was no comparable effect on explicit self-esteem. However, ISEC was eliminated following self-affirmation (Experiment 3). Furthermore, threat manipulations increased automatic intergroup bias, but ISEC mediated these relationships (Experiments 2-3). Thus, a process that serves as damage control for the self may have negative social consequences. Finally, pretest anxiety mediated the relationship between threat and ISEC (Experiment 3), whereas ISEC negatively predicted anxiety among high-threat participants (Experiment 4), suggesting that ISEC may function to regulate anxiety. The implications of these findings for automatic emotion regulation, intergroup bias, and implicit self-esteem measures are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Kort-Butler, Lisa A.
Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…
Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba
A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…
Jeree Pawl, PhD, former clinical professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco and past director of the Infant-Parent Program located at San Francisco General Hospital responds to questions about how parents and caregivers can support the development of self-esteem in very young children. Contrary to the idea that…
Coopersmith, Stanley; And Others
Results of the study show that several features of figure drawing identify the children who differ in self esteem. These differentiating features are associated with behavioral expressions of esteem rather than with self-appraisals of personal worth. (Author/DEP)
Johnson, Matthew D.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J.; Horne, Rebecca M.
Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model…
Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan
Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…
Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 465 Turkish first year university students regarding overall wellness and four of its dimensions (cognitive emotional wellness-CEW, relational wellness-RW, life goal-LG, and physical wellness-PW) in terms of self-esteem levels and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Rosenberg…
Camila C. Brito
Conclusion: the findings indicate a large number of students involved in the several roles of bullying, identifying an association between these characteristics and sex/gender and self-esteem of those involved. The present study has identified the need for further studies on the nature of the event.
Johnson, Brian W.
Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…
Noller, Patricia; Shugm, David
The reliability and validity of the Self-Esteem Inventory developed by S. C. Coopersmith (1975) were evaluated via item-total correlation, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, and analysis of variance of data for 352 Australian adults. The instrument had high internal consistency and discriminated well between subjects with high and low…
Nolan, R. F; And Others
One hundred thirty-five adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI). On the CDI, male adolescents responded more severely on an item involving fighting with others when they could be identified. There were no significant differences among responses on CSEI items.…
Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Shahar, Eldad
The objective of the current study is to explore optimism as a predictor of personal and collective fear, as well as hope, following laboratory-induced stress. Students (N = 107; 74 female, 33 male) were assigned randomly to either the experimental (stress--political violence video clip) or the control group (no-stress--nature video clip). Questionnaires of fear and hope were administered immediately after the experiment (Time 1) and 3 weeks later (Time 2). Structural equation modeling indicated the following: (a) Optimism significantly predicted both fear and hope in the stress group at Time 1, but not in the no-stress group. (b) Optimism predicted hope but not fear at Time 2 in the stress group. (c) Hope at Time 1 significantly predicted hope at Time 2, in both the stress and the no-stress groups. (d) Gender did not predict significantly fear at Time 1 in the stress group, despite a significant difference between genders. This study supports previous studies indicating that optimism plays an important role in people's coping with stress. However, based on our research the data raise the question of whether optimism, by itself, or environmental stress, by itself, may accurately predict stress response.
Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L
The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.
Gutiérrez-Saldaña, Pedro; Camacho-Calderón, Nicolás; Martínez-Martínez, Martha L
To determine the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem and family function in adolescents. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. State secondary school in Querétaro state, Mexico. Seventy-four adolescents of both sexes between the ages of 10 and 17, enrolled in a state secondary school. Two groups of 37 pupils were formed, chosen by simple randomized sampling according to high or low academic achievement. Participants were clinically healthy and prior informed consent for their participation was obtained. Self-esteem based on self-concept format A, family function based on FACES III and academic achievement based on the school evaluation scale. A descriptive statistical analysis and the chi2 test were used (P self-esteem, 68% (P = .00007; OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.39-24.84); a functional family, 54% (P = .011); were mainly female, 73% (P = .018); age, 13 (60%) (P = .062); school in the morning, 95% (P = .000); and were in second grade, 46% (P = .026). Pupils with low academic achievement had low self-esteem, 78% (P = .00007; OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.39-24.84); came from borderline-function families, 43% (P = .47); were male, 54% (P = .018; OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.08-9.48); age 13, 38% (P = .062); in afternoon school, 76% (P = .00); and were in first grade, 43% (P = .144). Upon establishing a relationship between academic achievement and family dynamics, it was found that family dysfunction is a risk factor (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.42-34). Low self-esteem and family dysfunction are risk factors for low academic achievement.
The present study focused on the discrepancy between explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem, using the Name Letter Task with 86 graduate students. In line with suggestions from previous research, participants high in explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem (called "defensive high self-esteem") showed higher in-group favoritism than participants who had high explicit and implicit self-esteem (called "secure high self-esteem"). Participants with defensive self-esteem reported higher levels of depression than secure self-esteem participants. These results strengthen the generalizability for the conceptualizations of "defensive" and "secure" high self-esteem. However, participants with low self-esteem did not show significant interactions with any variables.
de Ruiter, Naomi Michelle Praise
Self-esteem (eigenwaarde) wordt meestal benaderd als iets dat vast is, en dat weergegeven kan worden met een score. In tegenstelling tot deze gangbare methode, was de doelstelling van dit proefschrift om de onderliggende processen te ontrafelen die ten grondslag liggen aan het ontstaan van
Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C
Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.
Wafa Khurram; Kamariah Bte Ismail; Syed Khurram Ali Jafri; Khairiah Soehod
This study is an attempt to investigate prevalence of positive organizational behavior in the organizations in the service sector of Pakistan. We tested effects of organization based self-esteem, role stressors (role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity), leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support on positive organizational behavior as well as mediation of organization-based-self-esteem in this regard. Moreover, moderation of global self-esteem was also estimated in rel...