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Sample records for self-cooled flibe blanket

  1. Neutronics investigation of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems in helical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Muroga, T.; Youssef, M.Z.

    2006-10-01

    Neutronics performances of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems have been investigated in design activity of the helical-type reactor FFHR2. In the present study, a new three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics calculation system has been developed for the helical-type reactor to enhance quick feedback between neutronics evaluation and design modification. Using this new calculation system, advanced Flibe-cooled and Li-cooled liquid blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 have been evaluated to make clear design issues to enhance neutronics performance. Based on calculated results, modification of the blanket dimensions and configuration have been attempted to achieve the adequate tritium breeding ability and neutron shielding performance in the helical reactor. The total tritium breeding ratios (TBRs) obtained after modifying the blanket dimensions indicated that all the advanced blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 would achieve adequate tritium self-sufficiency by dimension adjustment and optimization of structures in the breeder layers. Issues in neutron shielding performance have been investigated quantitatively using 3-D geometry of the helical blanket system, support structures, poloidal coils etc. Shielding performance of the helical coils against direct neutrons from core plasma would achieve design target by further optimization of shielding materials. However, suppression of the neutron streaming and reflection through the divertor pumping areas in the original design is important issue to protect the poloidal coils and helical coils, respectively. Investigation of the neutron wall loading indicated that the peaking factor of the neutron wall load distribution would be moderated by the toroidal and helical effect of the plasma distribution in the helical reactor. (author)

  2. The impact of tritium solubility and diffusivity on inventory and permeation in liquid breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.; Gervasini, G.; Reiter, F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors reviewed hydrogen solubility and diffusivity data for liquid lithium-based compounds which are potential breeding blanket materials in NET-type fusion devices. These data have been used to assess tritium permeation and inventory in separately cooled NET blankets and in self cooled blankets with a vanadium first wall. The results for the separately cooled NET-liquid breeder show that tritium permeation is negligible for lithium, a serious problem for Pb-17Li and a critical one for Flibe. The total tritium inventory is lowest in lithium, high in Pb-17Li and very high in Flibe. The high tritium partial pressure for Flibe or Pb-17Li can be reduced in a self cooled blanket with a vanadium first wall. Permeation into the plasma reduces the blanket tritium inventory and permeation. Tritium recovery can be combined with the plasma exhaust

  3. Evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of a sphere-packed pipe for Flibe blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Ebara, Shinji; Sagara, Akio; Hashizume, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    A Flibe blanket has been proposed to be used in FFHR. Since Flibe has poor heat transfer performance, heat transfer promoter is required, and a sphere-packed pipe (SPP) has been proposed to enhance the heat transfer performance in the Flibe blanket. In this paper, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in the SPP is evaluated numerically using a k–ε turbulent model for the flow field and an algebraic model for the thermal field. As a result, it was shown that bypass flows in the SPP play a significant role in heat transfer. Also it is thought that the turbulent energy can strongly affect heat transfer performance

  4. Tritium inventory and permeation in liquid breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, F.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews studies of the transport of hydrogen isotopes in the DEMO relevant water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket to be tested in NET and in a self-cooled blanket which uses Pb-17Li or Flibe as a liquid breeder material and V or Fe as a first wall material. The time dependences of tritium inventory and permeation in these blankets and of deuterium and tritium recycling in the self-cooled blanket are presented and discussed

  5. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  6. Self-cooled liquid-metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Barleon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A blanket concept for the Next European Torus (NET) where 83Pb-17Li serves both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The concept is based on the use of novel flow channel inserts for a decisive reduction of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and employs beryllium as neutron multiplier in order to avoid the need for breeding blankets at the inboard side of the torus. This study includes the design, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, stresses, MHDs, corrosion, tritium recovery, and safety of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The results of the investigations indicate that the self-cooled blanket is an attractive alternative to other driver blanket concepts for NET and that it can be extrapolated to the conditions of a DEMO reactor

  7. Self-shielding characteristics of aqueous self-cooled blankets for next generation fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    The present study examines self-shielding characteristics for two aqueous self-cooled tritium producing driver blankets for next generation fusion devices. The aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept (ASCB) is a very simple blanket concept that relies on just structural material and coolant. Lithium compounds are dissolved in water to provide for tritium production. An ASCB driver blanket would provide a low technology and low temperature environment for blanket test modules in a next generation fusion reactor. The primary functions of such a blanket would be shielding, energy removal and tritium production. One driver blanket considered in this study concept relates to the one proposed for the Next European Torus (NET), while the second concept is indicative for the inboard shield design for the Engineering Test Reactor proposed by the USA (TIBER II/ETR). The driver blanket for NET is based on stainless steel for the structural material and aqueous solution, while the inboard shielding blanket for TIBER II/ETR is based on a tungsten/aqueous solution combination. The purpose of this study is to investigate self-shielding and heterogeneity effects in aqueous self-cooled blankets. It is found that no significant gains in tritium breeding can be achieved in the stainless steel blanket if spatial and energy self-shielding effects are considered, and the heterogeneity effects are also insignificant. The tungsten blanket shows a 5 percent increase in tritium production in the shielding blanket when energy and spatial self-shielding effects are accounted for. However, the tungsten blanket shows a drastic increase in the tritium breeding ratio due to heterogeneity effects. (author) 17 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Applications of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Varsamis, G.; Wrisley, K.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a novel water-cooled blanket concept is examined. This concept, designated the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB), employs water with small amounts of dissolved fertile compounds as both the coolant and the breeding medium. The ASCB concept is reviewed and its application in three different contexts is examined: (1) power reactors; (2) near-term devices such as NET; and (3) fusion-fission hybrids

  9. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has significant potential safety advantages. There is a strong incentive for designing fusion plants to ensure that inherent safety will be achieved. Accordingly, both the Tokamak Power Systems Studies and MINIMARS have identified inherent safety as a design goal. A necessary condition is for the blanket to maintain its configuration and integrity under all credible accident conditions. A main problem is caused by afterheat removal in an accident condition. In this regard, it is highly desirable to achieve the required level of protection of the plant capital investment and limitation of radioactivity release by systems that rely only on inherent properties of matter (e.g., thermal conductivity, specific heat, etc.) and without the use of active safety equipment. This paper assesses the conditions under which inherent safety is feasible. Three types of accident conditions are evaluated for two blankets. The blankets evaluated are a self cooled vanadium/lithium blanket and a self-cooled vanadium/Flibe blanket. The accident conditions evaluated are: (1) loss-of-flow accident; (2) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA); and (3) partial loss-of-coolant accident

  10. Aqueous self-cooled blanket concepts for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Deutsch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel aqueous self-cooled blanket (ASCB) concept has been proposed. The water coolant also serves as the tritium breeding medium by dissolving small amounts of lithium compound in the water. The tritium recovery requirements of the ASCB concept may be facilitated by the novel in-situ radiolytic tritium separation technique in development at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. In this separation process deuterium gas is bubbled through the blanket coolant. Due to radiation induced processes, the equilibrium constant favors tritium migration to the deuterium gas stream. It is expected that the inherent simplicity of this design will result in a highly reliable, safe and economically attractive breeding blanket for fusion reactors. The available base of relevant information accumulated through water-cooled fission reactor programs should greatly facilitate the R and D effort required to validate the proposed blanket concept. Tests for tritium separation and corrosion compatibility show encouraging results for the feasibility of this concept

  11. Neutronics analysis for aqueous self-cooled fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Jaffa, R.; Steiner, D.; Deutsch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The tritium breeding performance of several Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) configurations for fusion reactors has been evaluated. The ASCB concept employs small amounts of lithium compound dissolved in light or heavy water to serve as both coolant and breeding medium. The inherent simplicity of this concept allows the development of blankets with minimal technological risk. The tritium breeding performance of the ASCB concept is a critical issue for this family of blankets. Contrary to conventional blanket designs there will be a significant contribution to the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the water coolant/breeder of duct shields, and the 3-D TBR will therefore be similar to the 1-D TBR. The tritium breeding performance of an ASCB for a MARS-like-tandem reactor and an ASCB based breeding-shield for the Next European Torus (NET) are assessed. Two design options for the MARS-like blanket are discussed. One design employs a vanadium first wall, and zircaloy for the structural material. The trade-offs between light water and heavy water cooling options for this zircaloy blanket are discussed. The second design option for MARS relies on the use of a vanadium alloy as the stuctural material, and heavy water as the coolant. It is demonstrated that both design options lead to low-activation blankets that allow class C burial. The breeder-shield for NET consists of a water-cooled stainless steel shield

  12. Numerical Analyses of a single-phase natural convection system for Molten Flibe using MARS-FLIBE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sarah; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These advantages make the MSR attractive and to be one of the six candidates for the Generation IV Reactor. Therefore, the researches related to the MSR are being conducted. To analyze the molten salt-cooled systems in the laboratory, this study generated the properties of molten salt using MARS-LMR. In this research, the implemented salts were Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. Table 1 indicates the comparison of thermal properties of various coolants in nuclear power plants. Molten salt was added to the MARS-LMR code to support the analysis of Flibe-cooled systems. The molten salt includes LiF-BeF{sub 2} in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. MARS-LMR code for liquid metals uses the soft sphere model based on Monte Carlo calculations for particles interacting with pair potentials. Although MARS was originally intended for a safety analysis of light water reactor, Flibe properties were newly added to this code as so-called MARS-FLIBE which is applicable for Flibe-cooled systems. By using this thermodynamic property table file, the thermal hydraulic systems of Flibe can be simulated for numerical and parametric studies. In this study, the natural convection phenomena in the rectangular natural convection loop and IVR-ERVC in APR 1400 were simulated. Through the simulations in Flibe-cooled systems, the temperature distribution and mass flowrate of Flibe can be calculated and the heat transfer coefficients of Flibe in natural convection loop will be calculated by adding the related heat transfer correlations in the MARS-FLIBE code. MARS-FLIBE code will be used to predict and design of Flibe-cooled systems.

  13. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations

  14. Effect of using FLiBe and FLiNaBe molten salts bearing plutonium fluorides on the neutronic performance of PACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acir, Adem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of using FLiBe and FLiNaBe Molten Salts Bearing Plutonium Fluorides on the neutronic performance of the PACER are investigated. The optimum radial thickness for tritium self-sufficiency of the blankets addition of plutonium fluorides to FLiNaBe (LiF-/NaF BeF 2 ) and FLiBe (LiF-/BeF 2 ) of a dual purpose modified PACER concept are determined. The calculations are carried out with the one dimensional transport code XSDRNPM/SCALE5. The tritium breeding capacities of FLiNaBe and FLiBe with addition of plutonium fluorides in molten salt zone are investigated and compared. The optimum molten salt zone thickness is computed as 155 cm for tritium self-sufficiency of the blankets using FLiBe +1% PuF 4 whereas, the optimum thickness with FLiNaBe +1% PuF 4 is calculated as 170 cm. In addition, neutron transport calculations have been performed to evaluate the energy multiplication factor, total fission rate, displacement per atom and helium gas generation for optimal radial thickness in the blanket. Also, the tritium production and the radiation damage limits should be evaluated together in a fusion blanket for determining the optimum thickness of molten salt layer. (orig.)

  15. Trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of this study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. The primary results of the study are as follows: a) the lithium-lead blanket achieves a higher TBR with a smaller blanket thickness relative to the lithium blanket; b) the lithium blanket generates more energy per fusion neutron relative to the lithium-lead blanket; c) among the possible reflector materials, the carbon reflector produces the highest TBR; d) the high-Z reflector materials (Mo, Cu, W, or steel) generate more energy per fusion neutron and produce smaller TBRs relative to the carbon reflector; e) lithium-6 enrichment is required for the lithium-lead blanket to reduce the total blanket thickness; and f) the energy deposition per fusion neutron reaches a saturation as the blanket thickness, the fraction of the high-Z material in the reflector, or the reflector zone thickness increases (this allows one to design the blanket for a specific TBR without reducing the energy production)

  16. The equation of state of liquid Flibe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiang M.; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) is a candidate material for the liquid blanket in the HYLIFE-2 fusion reactor. The thermodynamic properties of the material are important for the study of thermohydraulic behavior of the concept design, including the compressible analysis of the blanket isochoric heating problem and resulting jet breakup. The equation of state provides the relationship between all the thermodynamic properties. Previously, a soft sphere model of liquid equation of state was used for describing a number of liquid metals. In this paper we have fitted the available experimental data for liquid Flibe with a modified soft sphere model. 5 refs

  17. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 1: Self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Sebening, H.; Barleon, L.; Bogusch, E.; Bojarsky, E.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Buehler, L.; Casal, V.; Deckers, H.; Feuerstein, H.; Fischer, U.; Frees, G.; Graebner, H.; John, H.; Jordan, T.; Kramer, W.; Krieg, R.; Lenhart, L.; Malang, S.; Meyder, R.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, J.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Schnauder, H.; Stieglitz, R.; Oschinski, J.; Wiegner, E.

    1991-12-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket for a fusion DEMO-reactor and the status of the development programme is described as a part of the European development programme of DEMO relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4907) contains a summary, Volume 2 (KfK 4908) a more detailed version of the report. Both volumes contain sections on previous studies on self-cooled liquid metal breeder blankets, the reference blanket design for a DEMO-reactor, a typical test blanket design including the ancillary loop system and the building requirements for NET/ITER together with the present status of the associated R and D-programme in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium removal and recovery, liquid metal compatibility and purification, ancillary loop system, safety and reliability. An outlook is given regarding the required R and D-programme for the self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the relevant test programme to be performed in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  18. Test module in NET for a self-cooled liquid metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.

    1989-01-01

    The application of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket concept to the condition of a DEMO-reactor and its testing in NET is described. The neutronics analysis shows that tritium self-sufficiency can be achieved without beryllium multiplier if breeding blankets are arranged at both outboard and inboard side of the torus or, using beryllium as multiplier, with outboard breeding only. First estimates indicate that it should be possible to test all relevant features of the concept in one of the horizontal plug positions of NET. (author). 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Prospects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snykers, M.; Bruggeman, A.; Bogaerts, W.F.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Daenner, W.

    1989-01-01

    A low-technology Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept has been proposed for the Next European Torus (NET). This concept relies on structural material and cooling water, with small amounts of lithium compounds for tritium production. Following preliminary investigations, LiOH, LiNO 3 , LiNO 2 and Li 2 SO 4 are currently under consideration as tritium breeding materials in solution. The concept may benefit from the proven technologies from the PWRs and from the CANDU tritium extraction systems. It combines good shielding and breeding capabilities. It would serve as a reliable environment for experimenting with several DEMOnstration reactor-relevant blanket modules in NET. Since net tritium breeding is not a design requirement for NET, sufficient tritium breeding can be obtained without the application of external neutron multipliers if enrichment in 6 Li is utilized. For a DEMOnstration reactor ASCB-based blanket, neutron multipliers have to be incorporated and temperature and pressure have to be increased. Radiolysis and corrosion aspects are of particular concern and need further investigation. (orig.)

  20. Trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets with respect to the main functions in a fusion reactor, and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main purpose is to improve the reactor economics by maximizing the blanket energy multiplication factor, reduce the capital cost of the reactor, and satisfy the design requirements. The main parameters during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the 6 Li enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, the impact of different reactor design choices on the performance parameters was analyzed. The effect of the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket, and the neutron source distribution were part of the trade-off study. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed to study the impact of the use of different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance and the negative effect of high TBR on the energy multiplication motivated the benchmark calculations

  1. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  2. Thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of two European breeder blanket concepts for DEMO. Pt. 1 and Pt. 2. Pt. 1: BOT helium cooled solid breeding blanket. Pt. 2: Dual coolant self-cooled liquid metal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1995-06-01

    Two different breeding blanket concepts are being elaborated at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within the framework of the DEMO breeding blanket development, the concept of a helium cooled solid breeding blanket and the concept of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The breeder material used in the first concept is Li 4 SiO 4 as a pebble bed arranged separate from the beryllium pebble bed, which serves as multiplier. The breeder material zone is cooled by several toroidally-radially configurated helium cooling plates which, at the same time, act as reinforcements of the blanket structures. In the liquid metal blanket concept lead-lithium is used both as the breeder material and the coolant. It flows at low velocity in poloidal direction downwards and back in the blanket front zone. In both concepts the First Wall is cooled by helium gas. This report deals with the thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of the two blanket concepts. The performance data derived from the Monte-Carlo computations serve as a basis for the design calculations. The coolant inlet and outlet temperatures are chosen with the design criteria and the economics aspects taken into account. Uniform temperature distribution in the blanket structures can be achieved by suitable branching and routing of the coolant flows which contributes to reducing decisively the thermal stress. The computations were made using the ABAQUS computer code. The results obtained of the stresses have been evaluated using the ASME code. It can be demonstrated that all maximum values of temperature and stress are below the admissible limit. (orig.) [de

  3. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 1: Self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket. Vol. 2. Detailed version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, H.; Malang, S.; Sebening, H.

    1991-12-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket for a fusion DEMO-reactor and the status of the development programme is described as a part of the European development programme of DEMO relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4907) contains a summary. Volume 2 (KfK 4908) a more detailed version of the report. Both volumes contain sections on previous studies on self-cooled liquid metal breeder blankets, the reference blanket design for a DEMO-reactor, a typical test blanket design including the ancillary loop system and the building requirements for NET/ITER together with the present status of the associated RandD-programme in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium removal and recovery, liquid metal compatibility and purification, ancillary loop system, safety and reliability. An outlook is given regarding the required RandD-programme for the self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the relevant test programme to be performed in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  4. Corrosion characteristics of an aqueous self-cooled fusion blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaerts, W.F.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.; Deutsch, L.; Jackson, D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel aqueous self-cooled blanket concept (ASCB) has recently been proposed. This blanket concept, as applied to a MARS-like tandem mirror reactor, consists of disks of spiraling tubes of Zircaloy-4 housed in a structural container of vanadium alloy (V-15 Ti-5 Cr). The Zircaloy tubes are cooled by a mixture of light and heavy water with 9 g of LiOH per 100 cm 3 of water dissolved in the coolant. A major issue for the feasibility of the integrated blanket coil concept is the chemical compatibility of the coolant and Zircaloy. Initial corrosion tests have been undertaken in order to resolve this question. Results clearly show that successful alloy heats can be prepared, for which corrosion problems will probably not be the limiting factor of the ASCB design concept. As is quite well known from fission engineering studies, small variations in the alloy compositions or in the metallurgical structure may, however, be able to cause significant alterations in the oxidation or corrosion rates. Further tests will be necessary to resolve the remaining uncertainties and to determine the behavior of successful alloy heats in the presence of trace impurities in order to address the sensitivity to localized corrosion phenomena such as pitting, stress corrosion cracking, and intergranular attack

  5. Design of self-cooled, liquid-metal blankets for tokamak and tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Gohar, Y.; Hassanein, A.M.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Smith, D.L.; Szo, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of the self-cooled, liquid-metal blanket design from the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) are summarized. The objectives of the BCSS project are to define a small number (about three) of blanket concepts that should be the focus of the blanket research and development (RandD) program, identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts, and provide technical input necessary to develop a blanket RandD program plan. Two liquid metals (lithium and lithium-lead (17Li-83Pb)) and three structural materials (primary candidate alloy (PCA), ferritic steel (FS) (HT-9), and vanadium alloy (V-15 Cr-5 Ti)) are included in the evaluations for both tokamaks and tandem mirror reactors (TMRs). TMR is of the tube configuration similar to the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study design. Analyses were performed in the following generic areas for each blanket concept: MHD, thermal hydraulics, stress, neutronics, and tritium recovery. Integral analyses were performed to determine the design window for each blanket design. The Li/Li/V blanket for tokamak and the Li/Li/V, LiPb/LiPb/V, and Li/Li/HT-9 blankets for the TMR are judged to be top-rated concepts. Because of its better thermophysical properties and more uniform nuclear heating profile, liquid lithium is a better coolant than liquid 17Li83Pb. From an engineering point of view, vanadium alloy is a better structural material than either FS or PCA since the former has both a higher allowable structural temperature and a higher allowable coolant/structure interface temperature than the latter. Critical feasibility issues and design constraints for the self-cooled, liquid-metal blanket concepts are identified and discussed

  6. The soft-sphere equation of state for liquid Flibe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Molten Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) salt is a candidate material for the liquid blanket in the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion reactor. The thermodynamic properties of the liquid are very important for the study of the thermohydraulic behavior of the concept design, particularly, the compressible analysis of the blanket isochoric heating problem. In this paper, a soft sphere model equation of state, which was used for describing liquid metals previously, is deployed with slight modifications for fitting the available experimental data for liquid Flibe. It is found that within the available temperature range the model gives a good agreement with experimental data for density, enthalpy and speed of sound. Additionally the model provides reasonable isotherms, spinodal line and predicts a 'critical point'. The results show that the model has good thermodynamic behavior, although for a material like Flibe the 'critical point' phenomenon is more complex than for pure component material

  7. Applications of the aqueous self-cooled blanket (ASCB) concept to the Next European Torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrechts, M.J.; Bogaerts, W.; Cardella, A.; Chazalon, M.; Danner, W.; Dinner, P.; Libin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket Concept (ASCB) leads to a low-technology blanket design that relies on just structural material and coolant with small amounts of lithium compound dissolved in the coolant to provide for tritium production. The application of the ASCB concept in NET is being considered as a driver blanket that would operate at low temperature and low pressure and provide a reliable environment for machine operation during the technology phase. Shielding and tritium production are the primary objectives for such a low-technology blanket. Net tritium breeding is not a design requirement per se for a driver blanket for NET. A DEMO relevant ASCB based blanket test module with (local) tritium self-sufficiency and energy recovery as primary objectives might also be tested in NET if future developments confirm their viability

  8. Improved structure and long-life blanket concepts for heliotron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Mitarai, O.

    2005-01-01

    New design approaches are proposed for the LHD-type heliotron D-T demo-reactor FFHR2 to solve the key engineering issues of blanket space limitation and replacement difficulty. A major radius of over 14m is selected to permit a blanket-shield thickness of about 1m and to reduce the neutron wall loading and toroidal field, while achieving an acceptable cost of electricity. Two sets of optimization are successfully carried out. One is to reduce the magnetic hoop force on the helical coil support structures by adjustment of the helical winding coil pitch parameter and the poloidal coils design, which facilitates expansion of the maintenance ports. The other is a long-life blanket concept using carbon armour tiles that soften the neutron energy spectrum incident on the self-cooled flibe-reduced activation ferritic steel blanket. In this adaptation of the spectral-shifter and tritium breeder blanket (STB) concept a local tritium breeding ratio over 1.2 is feasible by optimized arrangement of the neutron multiplier Be in the carbon tiles, and the radiation shielding of the superconducting magnet coils is also significantly improved. Using constant cross sections of a helically winding shape, the 'screw coaster' concept is proposed to replace in-vessel components such as the STB armour tiles. The key R and D issues for developing the STB concept, such as radiation effects on carbon and enhanced heat transfer of Flibe, are elucidated. (author)

  9. Improved structure and long-life blanket concepts for heliotron reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Mitarai, O.; Dolan, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kubota, Y.; Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Mizuguchi, N.; Muroga, T.; Noda, N.; Kaneko, O.; Yamada, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Uda, T.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.

    2005-04-01

    New design approaches are proposed for the LHD-type heliotron D-T demo-reactor FFHR2 to solve the key engineering issues of blanket space limitation and replacement difficulty. A major radius of over 14 m is selected to permit a blanket-shield thickness of about 1 m and to reduce the neutron wall loading and toroidal field, while achieving an acceptable cost of electricity. Two sets of optimization are successfully carried out. One is to reduce the magnetic hoop force on the helical coil support structures by adjustment of the helical winding coil pitch parameter and the poloidal coils design, which facilitates expansion of the maintenance ports. The other is a long-life blanket concept using carbon armour tiles that soften the neutron energy spectrum incident on the self-cooled flibe-reduced activation ferritic steel blanket. In this adaptation of the spectral-shifter and tritium breeder blanket (STB) concept a local tritium breeding ratio over 1.2 is feasible by optimized arrangement of the neutron multiplier Be in the carbon tiles, and the radiation shielding of the superconducting magnet coils is also significantly improved. Using constant cross sections of a helically winding shape, the 'screw coaster' concept is proposed to replace in-vessel components such as the STB armour tiles. The key R&D issues for developing the STB concept, such as radiation effects on carbon and enhanced heat transfer of Flibe, are elucidated.

  10. Radiolysis and corrosion aspects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Snykers, M.; Bogaerts, W.F.; Waeben, R.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion and radiolysis aspects of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept, proposed as a potential shielding breeding blanket for near term fusion devices and fusion reactors, have been investigated. On the basis of preliminary results for selected aqueous solutions of lithium compounds, no particular corrosion problems have been revealed for the low-temperature concept envisaged for NET and radiolysis effects might be controlled by appropriate countermeasures. For the reactor-relevant high-temperature concept particular attention has to be paid to intergranular stress-corrosion and to the synergistic radiolysis-corrosion effects. Further information is needed from tests performed in relevant operational conditions. (orig.)

  11. Self-cooled blanket concepts using Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Deckers, H.; Fischer, U.; John, H.; Meyder, R.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, J.; Reiser, H.; Rust, K.

    1991-01-01

    A blanket design concept using Pb-17Li eutectic alloy as both breeder material and coolant is described. Such a self-cooled blanket for the boundary conditions of a DEMO-reactor is under development at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in the frame of the European blanket development program. Results of investigations in the areas of design, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, thermo-mechanics, ancillary loop systems, and safety are reported. Based on recent progress, it can be concluded that the boundary conditions of a DEMO-reactor can be met, tritium self-sufficiency can be obtained without using beryllium as an additional neutron multiplier, and tritium inventory and permeation are acceptably low. However, to complete judge the feasibility of the proposed concept, further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding of the magneto-hydrodynamic phenomena and their effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of a fusion reactor blanket. (orig.)

  12. Improved thermal/MHD design of self-cooled blankets for high-power-density fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedehi, S.; Lund, K.O.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, an improved self-cooled blanket design is conceived that seeks to minimize the induced current and pressure loss, while maintaining effective cooling and power output. Standard solutions for fully developed MHD flows in rectangular ducts are utilized to describe the magnetic pressure drop in rectangular ducts in terms of the duct aspects ratio. A newly available analytical result for developing and fully developed temperatures is utilized in determining the maximum wall temperature and outlet temperature. Based on results from rectangular ducts, improved annular-type duct designs are proposed and evaluated. The results from the rectangular duct analysis indicate reduced pressure drop and increased thermal performance for large aspect ratio (ratio of duct width in the toroidal B-field direction to width normal to B-field). An infinite aspect ratio occurs for the annular duct design and it is shown that this configuration has superior characteristics as a self-cooled blanket design concept

  13. Flibe-D2 Permeation Experiment and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Schuetz, S.T.; O'Brien, J.E.; Nishimura, H.; Hatano, Y.; Terai, T.; Petti, D.A.; Sze, D.-K.; Tanaka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of D 2 permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment is proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ni/Flibe/D 2 permeation experiment, and (vii) Ni/Flibe/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describes results of the single and dual Ni/D 2 permeation experiments in detail

  14. Liquid metal flows in insulating elements of self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokov, S.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid metal flows in insulating rectangular ducts in strong magnetic fields are considered with reference to poloidal concepts of self-cooled blankets. Although the major part of the flow in poloidal blanket concepts is close to being fully developed, manifolds, expansions, contractions, elbows, etc., which are necessary elements in blanket designs, cause three-dimensional effects. The present investigation demonstrates the flow pattern in basic insulating geometries for actual and more advanced liquid metal blanket concepts and discusses the ways to avoid pressure losses caused by flow redistribution. Flows in several geometries, such as symmetric and non-symmetric 180 turns with and without manifolds, sharp and linear expansions with and without manifolds, etc., have been considered. They demonstrate the attractiveness of poloidal concepts of liquid metal blankets, since they guarantee uniform conditions for heat transfer. If changes in the duct cross-section occur in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field (ideally a coolant should always flow in the radial-poloidal plane), the disturbances are local and the slug velocity profile is reached roughly at a distance equivalent to one duct width from the manifolds, expansions, etc. The effects of inertia in these flows are unimportant for the determination of the pressure drop and velocity profiles in the core of the flow but may favour heat transfer characteristics via instabilities and strongly anisotropic turbulence. (orig.)

  15. Neutron streaming analysis of an aqueous self-cooled blanket applied to MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsamis, G.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A novel fusion reactor blanket concept, the Aqueous Self Cooled Blanket concept (ASCB), has recently been proposed. One of the first applications of this concept was to a MARS-like tandem mirror reactor. The design employs spiraling tubes of zircaloy-4 housed in a structural casing made of a vanadium alloy (V-15Cr-5Tl). One potential problem area for this design is the possibility for neutron streaming between the zircaloy tubes. This work examines this potential streaming path using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The results of the total and the uncollided flux indicate a noticeable streaming effect on the uncollided flux only. An analysis of the energy deposition behind the blanket indicates that this effect is small, and therefore design modifications due to this streaming effect are not anticipated

  16. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  17. Flibe use in fusion reactors: An initial safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF 2 ) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material

  18. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  19. Conceptual design and analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Min; Lv, Zhongliang; Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Qianwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Ye, Minyou

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A helium cooled solid blanket was proposed as a candidate blanket concept for CFETR. • Material selection, basic structure and gas flow scheme of the blanket were introduced. • A series of performance analyses for the blanket were summarized. - Abstract: To bridge the gap between ITER and DEMO and to realize the fusion energy in China, a fusion device Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was proposed and is being designed mainly to demonstrate 50–200 MW fusion power, 30–50% duty time factor, tritium self-sustained. Because of the high demand of tritium production and the realistic engineering consideration, the design of tritium breeding blanket for CFETR is a challenging work and getting special attention. As a blanket candidate, a helium cooled solid breeder blanket has been designed with the emphasis on conservative design and realistic blanket technology. This paper introduces the basic blanket scheme, including the material selection, structural design, cooling scheme and purge gas flow path. In addition, some results of neutronics, thermal-hydraulic and stress analysis are presented.

  20. Design study of blanket structure based on a water-cooled solid breeder for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Youji; Tobita, Kenji; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tokunaga, Shinji; Hoshino, Kazuo; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronics design of a water-cooled solid mixed breeder blanket was presented. • The blanket concept achieves a self-sufficient supply of tritium by neutronics analysis. • The overall outlet coolant temperature was 321 °C, which is in the acceptable range. - Abstract: Blanket concept with a simplified interior for mass production has been developed using a mixed bed of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles, coolant conditions of 15.5 MPa and 290–325 °C and cooling pipes without any partitions. Considering the continuity with the ITER test blanket module option of Japan and the engineering feasibility in its fabrication, our design study focused on a water-cooled solid breeding blanket using the mixed pebbles bed. Herein, we propose blanket segmentation corresponding to the shape and dimension of the blanket and routing of the coolant flow. Moreover, we estimate the overall tritium breeding ratio (TBR) with a torus configuration, based on the segmentation using three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo N-particle calculations. As a result, the overall TBR is 1.15. Our 3D neutronics analysis for TBR ensures that the blanket concept can achieve a self-sufficient supply of tritium.

  1. Beryllium research on FFHR molten salt blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sze, D.-K.

    2000-01-01

    Force-free helical reactor, FFHR, is a demo-relevant heliotron-type D-T fusion reactor based on the great amount of R and D results obtained in the LHD project. Since 1993, collaboration works have made great progress in design studies of FFHR with standing on the major advantage of current-less steady operation with no dangerous plasma disruptions. There are two types of reference designs, FFHR-1 and FFHR-2, where molten Flibe (LiF-BeF2) is utilized as tritium breeder and coolant. In this paper, we present the outline of FFHR blanket design and some related R and D topics focusing on Be utilization. Beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier in the design and Be pebbles are placed in the front part of the tritium breeding zone. In a Flibe blanket, HF (TF) generated due to nuclear transmutation will be a problem because of its corrosive property. Though nickel-based alloys are thought to be intact in such a corrosive environment, FFHR blanket design does not adopt the alloys because of their induced radioactivity. The present candidate materials for the structure are low-activated ferritic steel (JLF-1), V-4Cr-4Ti, etc. They are capable to be corroded by HF in the operation condition, and Be is expected to work as a reducing agent in the system as well. Whether Be pebbles placed in a Flibe flow can work well or not is a very important matter. From this point, Be solubility in Flibe, reaction rate of the Redox reaction with TF in the liquid and on the surface of Be pebbles under irradiation, flowing behavior of Flibe through a Be pebble bed, etc. should be investigated. In 1997, in order to establish more practical and new data bases for advanced design works, we started a collaboration work of R and D on blanket engineering, where the Be research above mentioned is included. Preliminary dipping-test of Be sheets and in-situ tritium release experiment from Flibe with Be sheets have got started. (orig.)

  2. Carbon tiles as spectral-shifter for long-life liquid blanket in LHD-type reactor FFHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Tanaka, T.; Muroga, T.; Kubota, Y.; Dolan, T.; Hashizume, H.; Kunugi, T.; Fukada, S.; Shimizu, A.; Terai, T.; Mitarai, O.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of engineering feasibility for long-life Flibe blanket in LHD-type reactor FFHR, the Spectral-shifter and Tritium breeder Blanket (STB) concept is evaluated by taking neutron irradiation effects into account under system integration such as Flibe cooling and components replacement. FEM calculations for the neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m 2 show that the temperature of the STB armor tile can be kept below 2000 K by optimizing the first metal wall thickness. The heat load experiment on the STB armor mockup confirms feasibility of the temperature control and mechanical joining. Degradation of STB armor tiles due to neutron irradiation requires replacement of them every few years by means of remote handling 'screw coasters' using helical winding, where the replaced tiles are low level wastes. Although the STB concept is feasible within nuclear and thermal properties, more detailed structural optimization is needed including the mechanical and chemical properties

  3. Electrochemical approach to corrosion behavior of ferritic steels in Flibe melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.; Kondo, M.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A mixture of LiF-BeF 2 , Flibe, is considered as a candidate material for tritium breeding in a fusion liquid blanket. Flibe has favorable characteristics such as high chemical stability and low electric conductivity. However, it produces TF with neutron irradiation, which is corrosive to structural materials. Therefore, the compatibility of structural materials with Flibe is a critical issue. Up to the present, the compatibility of some materials with Flibe was examined by carrying out simple immersion tests under limited conditions. By visual observations and analyses such as XRD on the surfaces after washing out Flibe from specimens, it was found that ferritic steels seemed to have good compatibility. However, strictly speaking, surface condition of the specimens should not be same as that during immersion in melt because these specimens were subjected to heat treatments and washing processes in order to remove solidified Flibe. Therefore, we planed electrochemical experiment to observe corrosion behavior during immersion. In this study, by carrying out cyclic voltammetry on specimens to observe alteration of surface condition of specimen in Flibe melt from moment to moment, the compatibility of ferritic steel with Flibe melt was discussed on. JLF-1 JOYO-II heat ferritic steel (Fe-9.000r-1.98W-0.09C-0.49Mn-0.20V-0.083Ta) which is a candidate low activation ferritic steel as a structural material of fusion reactor was chosen as a test specimen. Fe-9Cr and Fe-2W alloys were also chosen for comparison. The size of all specimens was 20 x 10 x 1 mm. A electrochemical cell was assembled using these specimens as working electrodes. Pt was chosen as a material for quasi-reference electrode. A Ni crucible which was the container of electrolyte, Flibe, was used as a counter electrode. 600 grams of Flibe was prepared and purified by HF/H 2 bubbling before being filled in the Ni crucible. Each specimen was dunked into Flibe at 773, 823 and

  4. The evolution of US helium-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares four helium-cooled fusion reactor blanket designs. These designs represent generic configurations of using helium to cool fusion reactor blankets that were studied over the past 20 years in the United States of America (US). These configurations are the pressurized module design, the pressurized tube design, the solid particulate and gas mixture design, and the nested shell design. Among these four designs, the nested shell design, which was invented for the ARIES study, is the simplest in configuration and has the least number of critical issues. Both metallic and ceramic-composite structural materials can be used for this design. It is believed that the nested shell design can be the most suitable blanket configuration for helium-cooled fusion power and experimental reactors. (orig.)

  5. Heat transfer problems in gas-cooled solid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    In all fusion reactors using the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle, a large fraction approximately 80 percent of the fusion energy will be released as approximately 14 MeV neutrons which must be slowed down in a relatively thick blanket surrounding the plasma, thereby, converting their kinetic energy to high temperature heat which can be continuously removed by a coolant stream and converted in part to electricity in a conventional power turbine. Because of the primary goal of achieving minimum radioactivity, to date Brookhaven blanket concepts have been restricted to the use of some form of solid lithium, with inert gas-cooling and in some design cases, water-cooling of the shell structure. Aluminum and graphite have been identified as very promising structural materials for fusion blankets, and conceptual designs based on these materials have been made. Depending on the thermal loading on the ''first'' wall which surrounds the plasma as well as blanket design, heat transfer problems may be noticeably different in gas-cooled solid blankets. Approaches to solution of heat removal problems as well as explanation of: (a) the after-heat problems in blankets; (b) tritium breeding in solids; and (c) materials selection for radiation shields relative to the minimum activity blanket efforts at Brookhaven are discussed

  6. A Feasible DEMO Blanket Concept Based on Water Cooled Solid Breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Y.; Tobita, K.; Utoh, H.; Hoshino, K.; Asakura, N.; Nakamura, M.; Tanigawa, H.; Mikio, E.; Tanigawa, H.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T., E-mail: someya.yoji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: JAEA has conducted the conceptual design study of blanket for a fusion DEMO reactor SlimCS. Considering DEMO specific requirements, we place emphasis on a blanket concept with durability to severe irradiation, ease of fabrication for mass production, operation temperature of blanket materials, and maintainability using remote handling equipment. This paper present a promising concept satisfying these requirements, which is characterized by minimized welding lines near the front, a simplified blanket interior consisting of cooling tubes and a mixed pebble bed of breeder and neutron multiplier, and approximately the same outlet temperature for all blanket modules. Neutronics calculation indicated that the blanket satisfies a self-sufficient production of tritium. An important finding is that little decrease is seen in tritium breeding ratio even when the gap between neighboring blanket modules is as wide as 0.03 m. This means that blanket modules can be arranged with such a significant clearance gap without sacrifice of tritium production, which will facilitate the access of remote handling equipment for replacement of the blanket modules and improve the access of diagnostics. (author)

  7. Deuterium permeation through Flibe facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Experiment of deuterium permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment has been proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 , permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ar/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment using the dual Ni probe, and (vii) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describe results until the Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment in detail. (author)

  8. The transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barleon, Leopold; Wong, Clement

    2002-01-01

    To achieve high thermal performance at high power density the EVOLVE concept was investigated under the APEX program. The EVOLVE W-alloy first wall and blanket concept proposes to use transpiration cooling of the first wall and boiling or vaporizing lithium (Li) in the blanket zone. Critical issues of this concept are: the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure losses of the Li circuit, the evaporation through a capillary structure and the needed superheating of the Li at the first wall and blanket zones. Application of the transpiration concept to the blanket region results in the integrated transpiration cooling concept (ITCC) with either toroidal or poloidal first wall channels. For both orientations the routing of the liquid Li and the Li vapor has been modeled and the corresponding pressure losses have been calculated by varying the width of the supplying slot and the capillary diameter. The concept works when the sum of the active and passive pumping head is higher than the total system pressure losses and when the temperature at the inner side of the first wall does not override the superheating limit of the coolant. This cooling concept has been extended to the divertor design, and the removal of a surface heat flux of up to 10 MW/m 2 appears to be possible, but this paper will focus on the transpiration cooled first wall and blanket concept assessment

  9. Radiolysis aspects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept and the problem of tritium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Snykers, M.; DeRegge, P.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept, an aqueous 6 Li solution in a metallic structure is used as a fusion reactor shielding-breeding blanket. Radiolysis effects could be very important for the design and the use of an ASCB. Although many aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and dilute aqueous solutions are now reasonably well understood, it is not possible to predict the radiochemical behaviour of the concentrated candidate ASCB solutions quantitatively. However, by means of a worst case calculation for a possible ASCB for the Next European Torus (NET) it is shown that even with an important rate of water decomposition the ASCB concept is still workable. Gas bubbles and explosive mixtures can be avoided by increasing the pressure in the neutron irradiated zone and by extracting and/or recombining the radiolytically produced hydrogen and oxygen. This could require an additional inert gas loop, which could also be used as part of the tritium extraction installation

  10. Liquid metal cooled blanket concept for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Casal, V.; Arheidt, K.; Fischer, U.; Link, W.; Rust, K.

    1986-01-01

    A blanket concept for NET using liquid lithium-lead both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The need for inboard breeding is avoided by using beryllium as neutron multiplier in the outboard blanket. Novel flow channel inserts are employed in all poloidal ducts to reduce the MHD pressure drop. The concept offers a simple mechanical design and a higher tritium breeding ratio compared to water- and gas-cooled blankets. (author)

  11. Tritium loss in molten flibe systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A. [Idaho National Eng. and Environ. Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scott Willms, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    2000-04-01

    An emerging issue relative to beryllium technology in fusion involves tritium interactions with molten beryllium-bearing salts. Innovative designs for fusion reactors, both magnetic and inertially confined, feature the molten salt mixture 2LiF.BeF{sub 2}, commonly called Flibe, as a tritium breeder and coolant. Tritium is bred in the Flibe as neutrons from the plasma are absorbed by Li atoms, which then transmute to tritium and helium. Transmutation of tritium from Be also occurs. Among the issues to be resolved for such coolant systems is the potential loss of tritium from the Flibe coolant to the walls of the system, particularly through heat exchanger tubes, and from there into secondary coolants or working fluids and the environment. Effectively removing tritium from Flibe in clean-up units is also important. In quiescent or low Reynolds number flow, tritium movement through Flibe is governed by diffusion. For Flibe in turbulent flow, as in heat exchanger tubes, transport is by turbulent mixing, and the same flow conditions and structural design features that maximize heat transfer to the heat exchanger walls will enhance the transport of tritium to those same surfaces. Analyses have been performed to estimate the fractional loss of tritium through heat exchanger tubes and release rates from Flibe droplets in vacuum disengagers in molten Flibe systems. The calculations suggest unacceptably large losses of tritium through heat exchanger tubes. The gravity of the implications of these estimates calls for experimental verification to determine if tritium losses through molten Flibe heat exchangers or other Flibe systems can really be so high and whether vacuum disengagers will really work. There is also a need for better information on evolution of tritium from Flibe droplets in a vacuum. Several experiments are presently being planned to address these issues and are discussed. These include experiments to induce tritium in Flibe using spontaneous fission neutrons

  12. Tritium loss in molten flibe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Scott Willms, R.

    2000-01-01

    An emerging issue relative to beryllium technology in fusion involves tritium interactions with molten beryllium-bearing salts. Innovative designs for fusion reactors, both magnetic and inertially confined, feature the molten salt mixture 2LiF.BeF 2 , commonly called Flibe, as a tritium breeder and coolant. Tritium is bred in the Flibe as neutrons from the plasma are absorbed by Li atoms, which then transmute to tritium and helium. Transmutation of tritium from Be also occurs. Among the issues to be resolved for such coolant systems is the potential loss of tritium from the Flibe coolant to the walls of the system, particularly through heat exchanger tubes, and from there into secondary coolants or working fluids and the environment. Effectively removing tritium from Flibe in clean-up units is also important. In quiescent or low Reynolds number flow, tritium movement through Flibe is governed by diffusion. For Flibe in turbulent flow, as in heat exchanger tubes, transport is by turbulent mixing, and the same flow conditions and structural design features that maximize heat transfer to the heat exchanger walls will enhance the transport of tritium to those same surfaces. Analyses have been performed to estimate the fractional loss of tritium through heat exchanger tubes and release rates from Flibe droplets in vacuum disengagers in molten Flibe systems. The calculations suggest unacceptably large losses of tritium through heat exchanger tubes. The gravity of the implications of these estimates calls for experimental verification to determine if tritium losses through molten Flibe heat exchangers or other Flibe systems can really be so high and whether vacuum disengagers will really work. There is also a need for better information on evolution of tritium from Flibe droplets in a vacuum. Several experiments are presently being planned to address these issues and are discussed. These include experiments to induce tritium in Flibe using spontaneous fission neutrons

  13. Neutronics study on hybrid reactor cooled by helium, water and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zaixin; Feng Kaiming; Zhang Guoshu; Zheng Guoyao; Zhao Fengchao

    2009-01-01

    There is no serious magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem when helium,water or molten salt of Flibe flows in high magnetic field. Thus helium, water and Flibe were proposed as candidate of coolant for fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on magnetic confinement. The effect on neutronics of hybrid reactor due to coolant was investigated. The analyses of neutron spectra and fuel breeding of blanket with different coolants were performed. Variations of tritium breeding ratio (TBR), blanket energy multiplication (M) and keff with operating time were also studied. MCNP code was used for neutron transport simulation. It is shown that spectra change greatly with different coolants. The blanket with helium exhibits very hard spectrum and good tritium breeding ability. And fission reactions are mainly from fast neutron. The blanket with water has soft spectrum and high energy multiplication factor. However, it needs to improve TBR. The blanket with Flibe has hard spectrum and less energy release. (authors)

  14. Minimum thickness blanket-shield for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, Y.; Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    A lower bound on the minimum thickness fusion reactor blankets can be designed to have, if they are to breed 1.267 tritons per fusion neutron, is identified by performing a systematic nucleonic optimization of over a dozen different blanket concepts which use either Be, Li 17 Pb 83 , W or Zr for neutron multiplication. It is found that Be offers minimum thickness blankets; that the blanket and shield (B/S) thickness of Li 17 Pb 83 based blankets which are supplemented by Li 2 O and/or TiH 2 are comparable to the thickness of Be based B/S; that of the Be based blankets, the aqueous self-cooled one offers one of the most compact B/S; and that a number of blanket concepts might enable the design of B/S which is approximately 12 cm and 39 cm thinner than the B/S thickness of, respectively, conventional self-cooled Li 17 Pb 83 and Li blankets. Aqueous self-cooled tungsten blankets could be useful for experimental fusion devices provided they are designed to be heterogeneous. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Mattas, R.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R ampersand D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns

  16. Environmental considerations for alternative fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Young, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Comparisons of alternative fusion reactor blanket/coolant systems suggest that environmental considerations will enter strongly into selection of design and materials. Liquid blankets and coolants tend to maximize transport of radioactive corrosion products. Liquid lithium interacts strongly with tritium, minimizing permeation and escape of gaseous tritium in accidents. However, liquid lithium coolants tend to create large tritium inventories and have a large fire potential compared to flibe and solid blankets. Helium coolants minimize radiation transport, but do not have ability to bind the tritium in case of accidental releases. (auth)

  17. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  18. Ceramic BOT type blanket with poloidal helium cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, A.; Daenenr, W.; Iseli, M.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Rado, V.; Simbolotti, G.; Violante, V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the work done and results achieved over the past two years on the ceramic breeder BOT blanket with poloidal helium cooling. A conclusive remark on the brick/plate option described previously is followed by short descriptions of the low and high performance pebble bed options elaborated as alternatives for both NET and DEMO. The results show, togethre with those about the poloidal cooling of the First Wall, good prospects for this blanket type provided that the questions connected wiht an extensive use of beryllium find a satisfactor answer. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Tritium transport in the water cooled Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, F.; Tominetti, S.; Perujo, A.

    1992-01-01

    The code TIRP has been used to calculate the time dependence of tritium inventory and tritium permeation into the coolant and into the first wall boxes in the water cooled Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO. The calculations have been performed for the martensitic steel MANET and the austenitic steel AISI 316L as blanket structure materials, for water or helium cooling and for convective or no motion of the liquid breeder in the blanket. Tritium inventories are rather low in blankets with MANET structure and higher in those with AISI 316L structure. Tritium permeation rates are too high in both blankets. Further calculations on tritium inventory and permeation are therefore presented for blankets with TiC permeation barriers of 1 μm thickness on various surfaces of the blanket structure and for blankets with any permeation barriers in function of their thickness, tritium diffusivities, tritium surface recombination rates and atomic densities. These last calculations have been performed for a blanket with coatings on the outer surfaces of the blanket and with a tritium residence time of 10 4 s and for a blanket with coatings on both sides of the cooling tubes and stagnant Pb-17Li in the blanket. The second case for a blanket with MANET structure presents a very interesting solution for tritium recovery by permeation into and pumping from the first wall boxes. (orig.)

  20. Effects of fertile blanket on 600 MWth gas-cooled fast reactors: reactor and fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2002-07-01

    A physics study has been performed to search for an optimum size of blanket for a 600 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor under fixed fuel and core specifications. The variables considered in this study are the reflector material, reflector thickness and blanket volume. The parametric calculations have shown that a positive breeding gain can be obtained by deploying 8 m 3 natural uranium blanket on the axial and radial boundaries of the core, surrounded by 40 cm Zr 3 Si 2 reflector. However the blanket core has disadvantages compared to the no-blanket core from the viewpoints of fuel fabrication cost and proliferation risk. On the other hand, the no-blanket core has large uncertainties in the possibility of achieving a positive breeding gain. Therefore further studies are recommended for the no-blanket option to improve the breeding gain and achieve a fissile self-sufficient fuel cycle, which is also proliferation-resistant. As an alternative, the blanket option can be considered, that ensures a positive breeding gain

  1. Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.

  2. Status on DEMO Helium Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket thermo-mechanical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, G.; Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kiss, B. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Morin, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. The DEMO HCLL breeding blanket design capitalizes on the experience acquired on the HCLL Test Blanket Module designed for ITER. Design improvements are being implemented to adapt the design to DEMO specifications and performance objectives. • Thermal and mechanical analyses have been carried out in order to justify the design of the HCLL breeding blanket showing promising results for tie rods modules’ attachments system and relatively good behavior of the box in case of LOCA when comparing to RCC-MRx criteria. • CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit have enabled the consolidation of the results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. - Abstract: The EUROfusion Consortium develops a design of a fusion power demonstrator (DEMO) in the framework of the European “Horizon 2020” innovation and research program. One of the key components in the fusion reactor is the breeding blanket surrounding the plasma, ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, heat removal for conversion into electricity, and neutron shielding. The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the concepts which is investigated for DEMO. It is made of a Eurofer structure and uses the eutectic liquid lithium–lead as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and helium gas as coolant. Within the EUROfusion organization, CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. This paper presents the status of the thermal and mechanical analyses carried out on the HCLL breeding blanket in order to justify the design. CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit including stiffening plates and cooling plates have been performed with ANSYS in order to consolidate results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. Moreover in order to expand the justification of the HCLL Breeding blanket design, the most loaded area of

  3. Conceptual design of power conversion system for a fusion power reactor with self-cooled LiPb-blanket. EFDA Task TW2-TRP-PPCS12 - Deliverable 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieider, Gottfried

    2002-05-01

    For FPRs with self-cooled LiPb-blanket and He-cooled first wall and divertor a conceptual design of the power conversion system is developed with emphasis on component feasibility, safety, reliability and thermal efficiency. The resulting power conversion system with a steam turbine is based on proven technology for Na- and He-cooled fission reactors and is assessed to yield an overall net thermal plant efficiency of ∼40 % provided the high primary coolant temperatures of ∼700 deg C can be achieved. The required complexity of the five linked cooling systems can be expected to influence plant cost and reliability

  4. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  5. Water-cooled, fire boom blanket, test and evaluation for system prototype development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahovec, J. G.; Urban, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Initial development of actively cooled fire booms indicated that water-cooled barriers could withstand direct oil fire for several hours with little damage if cooling water were continuously supplied. Despite these early promising developments, it was realized that to build reliable full-scale system for Navy host salvage booms would require several development tests and lengthy evaluations. In this experiment several types of water-cooled fire blankets were tested at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Test Tank (OHMSETT). After the burn test the blankets were inspected for damage and additional tests were conducted to determine handling characteristics for deployment, recovery, cleaning and maintenance. Test results showed that water-cooled fire boom blankets can be used on conventional offshore oil containment booms to extend their use for controlling large floating-oil marine fires. Results also demonstrated the importance of using thermoset rubber coated fabrics in the host boom to maintain sufficient reserve seam strength at elevated temperatures. The suitability of passively cooled covers should be investigated to protect equipment and boom from indirect fire exposure. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  6. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled pebble bed blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Grief, Andrew; Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul; Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael; Murgatroyd, Julian T.; Owen, Simon; Poitevin, Yves; Peers, Karen; Lyons, Alex; Heaton, Adam; Scott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Test Blanket Systems (TBS) DEMO breeding blankets (BB) safety demonstration. • Comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena. • Development of accident analysis specifications (AAS) via the use of phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT). • PIRT application to identify required physical models for BB accidents analysis, code assessment and selection. • Development of MELCOR and RELAP5 codes TBS models. • Qualification of the models via comparison with finite element calculations, code-tocode comparisons, and sensitivity studies. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. The methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCPB TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  7. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled pebble bed blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona E-08019 (Spain); Grief, Andrew [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael; Murgatroyd, Julian T.; Owen, Simon [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona E-08019 (Spain); Peers, Karen; Lyons, Alex; Heaton, Adam; Scott, Richard [Amec Foster Wheeler, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Test Blanket Systems (TBS) DEMO breeding blankets (BB) safety demonstration. • Comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena. • Development of accident analysis specifications (AAS) via the use of phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT). • PIRT application to identify required physical models for BB accidents analysis, code assessment and selection. • Development of MELCOR and RELAP5 codes TBS models. • Qualification of the models via comparison with finite element calculations, code-tocode comparisons, and sensitivity studies. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. The methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCPB TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  8. The EC conceptual design proposal of a water-cooled convertible blanket for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Baraer, L.; Bielak, B.; Raepsaet, X.; Salavy, J.F.; Sedano, L.; Szczepanski, J.; Quintric-Bossy, J.; Severi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    For several years the EC laboratories have developed breeding blankets for DEMO. From this experience, it has been derived a proposal of tritium breeding blanket for the Extended Performance Phase (EPP) of ITER. The general basic ideas are the following: (i) the switch from the shielding blanket used during the BPP to the breeding blanket for the EPP should not require segments replacement ('convertible' blanket): (ii) its use should not have significant impact on the Basic Performance Phase (BPP); (iii) design and used materials should assure good safety standards and acceptable public perception; (iv) the blanket coolant should be compatible with the coolant required in the high heat-flux components (e.g. divertor, etc.; (v) the required R and D should fit with the ITER time schedule; (vi) the blanket should be able to withstand large power excursions and to accept long downtimes. The proposed design consists of a water-cooled liquid metal blanket, using the eutectic Pb-17Li during the EPP and a non-breeding Pb-alloy (Pb-18Mg or Pb-50Bi) during the BPP. Each segment is basically formed by a box containing the alloy, cooled by an array of poloidal hairpin-type cooling tubes and reinforced by toroidal and radial stiffeners. The coolant tubes are double-walled tubes allowing leak detections. The selected First Wall (FW) is a toroidally-drilled steel plate with brazed water-cooling U-tube. The structural material is austenitic stainless steel (316L(N)) which limits the maximum acceptable neutron fluence to about 1 MWa/m 2 . The advantages of using other structural materials requiring longer leadtimes, such as ferritic/martensitic steels, are also briefly discussed

  9. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.E.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the TBR to group structure and weighting spectrum increases and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ blankets

  10. Complete Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Experiments with MSRE FLiBe Salt and Perform Comparison with Molten Salt Cooled and Molten Salt Fueled Reactor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In September 2016, reactor physics measurements were conducted at Research Centre Rez (RC Rez) using the FLiBe (2 7LiF + BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments were intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems using FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with RC Rez, performed sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analyses of these experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objectives of these analyses were (1) to identify potential sources of bias in fluoride salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactor simulations resulting from cross section uncertainties, and (2) to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a final report on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. In the future, these S/U analyses could be used to inform the design of additional FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE. The key finding of this work is that, for both solid and liquid fueled fluoride salt reactors, radiative capture in 7Li is the most significant contributor to potential bias in neutronics calculations within the FLiBe salt.

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  12. Updated neutronics analyses of a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket for the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaokang, ZHANG; Songlin, LIU; Xia, LI; Qingjun, ZHU; Jia, LI

    2017-11-01

    The water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket employing pressurized water as a coolant is one of the breeding blanket candidates for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Some updating of neutronics analyses was needed, because there were changes in the neutronics performance of the blanket as several significant modifications and improvements have been adopted for the WCCB blanket, including the optimization of radial build-up and customized structure for each blanket module. A 22.5 degree toroidal symmetrical torus sector 3D neutronics model containing the updated design of the WCCB blanket modules was developed for the neutronics analyses. The tritium breeding capability, nuclear heating power, radiation damage, and decay heat were calculated by the MCNP and FISPACT code. The results show that the packing factor and 6Li enrichment of the breeder should both be no less than 0.8 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. The nuclear heating power of the blanket under 200 MW fusion power reaches 201.23 MW. The displacement per atom per full power year (FPY) of the plasma-facing component and first wall reach 0.90 and 2.60, respectively. The peak H production rate reaches 150.79 appm/FPY and the peak He production reaches 29.09 appm/FPY in blanket module #3. The total decay heat of the blanket modules is 2.64 MW at 1 s after shutdown and the average decay heat density can reach 11.09 kW m-3 at that time. The decay heat density of the blanket modules slowly decreases to lower than 10 W m-3 in more than ten years.

  13. Benchmark calculations for fusion blanket development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Benchmark problems representing the leading fusion blanket concepts are presented. Benchmark calculations for self-cooled Li 17 Pb 83 and helium-cooled blankets were performed. Multigroup data libraries generated from ENDF/B-IV and V files using the NJOY and AMPX processing codes with different weighting functions were used. The sensitivity of the tritium breeding ratio to group structure and weighting spectrum increases as the thickness and Li enrichment decrease with up to 20% discrepancies for thin natural Li 17 Pb 83 blankets. (author)

  14. Quantitative measurement of beryllium-controlled redox of hydrogen fluoride in molten Flibe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Smolik, Galen R.; Sharpe, John P.; Anderl, Robert A.; Petti, David A.; Hatano, Yuji; Hara, Masanori; Oya, Yasuhisa; Fukada, Satoshi; Tanaka, Satoru; Terai, Takayuki; Sze, Dai-Kai

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the viability of using Be as a redox agent in a molten Flibe (2LiF-BeF 2 ) blanket, a series of kinetics experiments were performed in which HF was bubbled through Flibe with varying concentrations of dissolved Be. The feed gas consisted of 910-1800 ppm HF and 0.1-0.2 vol.% H 2 , with the balance comprised of He. A cylindrical rod of Be was contacted with the salt for periods of time ranging from 600 to 3600 s, resulting in mole fractions in the salt ranging from 4.3 x 10 -5 to 2.6 x 10 -4 . Initially, high HF conversion levels in excess of 90% were observed. As HF reacted with the Be, the conversion levels slowly dropped over a period of several hours to a few days. A simple kinetic model, which is first order in both HF and Be concentration has been coupled with a non-mixed reactor model to yield a good fit to the data. Application of this model indicates that Be should be suitable for keeping the TF concentration in the salt below 0.02 ppb

  15. ITER blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Parker, R.; Rebut, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER first wall, blanket, and shield system is being designed to handle 1.5±0.3 GW of fusion power and 3 MWa m -2 average neutron fluence. In the basic performance phase of ITER operation, the shielding blanket uses austenitic steel structural material and water coolant. The first wall is made of bimetallic structure, austenitic steel and copper alloy, coated with beryllium and it is protected by beryllium bumper limiters. The choice of copper first wall is dictated by the surface heat flux values anticipated during ITER operation. The water coolant is used at low pressure and low temperature. A breeding blanket has been designed to satisfy the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase of ITER operation for the Test Program. The breeding blanket design is geometrically similar to the shielding blanket design except it is a self-cooled liquid lithium system with vanadium structural material. Self-healing electrical insulator (aluminum nitride) is used to reduce the MHD pressure drop in the system. Reactor relevancy, low tritium inventory, low activation material, low decay heat, and a tritium self-sufficiency goal are the main features of the breeding blanket design. (orig.)

  16. Blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor with liquid- metal cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, I.K.; Fedorovich, E.P.; Paramonov, P.M.; Zhokhov, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Blanket design of a hybrid thermopuclear reactor with a liquid metal coolant is described. To decrease MHD-resistance for uranium zone fuel elements a cylindrical shape is suggested and movement of liquid-metal coolant in fuel element packets is presumed to be in perpendicular to the magnetic field and fuel element axes direction. The first wall is cooled by water, blanket-by lithium-lead alloy

  17. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Grief, Andrew; Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  18. Updated conceptual design of helium cooling ceramic blanket for HCCB-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suhao [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Cao, Qixiang; Wu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Feng, Kaiming, E-mail: fengkm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An updated design of Helium Cooled Ceramic breeder Blanket (HCCB) for HCCB-DEMO is proposed in this paper. • The Breeder Unit is transformed to TBM-like sub-modules, with double “banana” shape tritium breeder. Each sub-module is inserted in space formed by Stiffen Grids (SGs). • The performance analysis is performed based on the R&D development of material, fabrication technology and safety assessment in CN ITER TBM program. • Hot spots will be located at the FW bend side. - Abstract: The basic definition of the HCCB-DEMO plant and preliminary blanket designed by Southwestern Institution of Physics was proposed in 2009. The DEMO fusion power is 2550 MW and electric power is 800 MW. Based on development of R&D in breeding blanket, a conceptual design of helium cooled blanket with ceramic breeder in HCCB-DEMO was presented. The main design features of the HCCB-DEMO blanket were: (1) CLF-1 structure materials, Be multiplier and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} breeder; (2) neutronic wall load is 2.3 MW/m{sup 2} and surface heat flux is 0.43 MW/m{sup 2} (2) TBR ≈ 1.15; (3) geometry of breeding units is ITER TBM-like segmentation; (4)Pressure of helium is 8 MPa and inlet/outlet temperature is 300/500 °C. On the basis of these design, some important analytical results are presented in aspects of (i) neutronic behavior of the blanket; (ii) design of 3D structure and thermal-hydraulic lay-out for breeding blanket module; (iii) structural-mechanical behavior of the blanket under pressurization. All of these assessments proved current stucture fulfill the design requirements.

  19. Design and technology development of solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoeda, M.; Kosaku, Y.; Hatano, T.; Kuroda, T.; Miki, N.; Honma, T.; Akiba, M.; Konishi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Sato, S.; Furuya, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents results of conceptual design activities and associated R&D of a solid breeder blanket system for demonstration of power generation fusion reactors (DEMO blanket) cooled by supercritical water. The Fusion Council of Japan developed the long-term research and development programme of the blanket in 1999. To make the fusion DEMO reactor more attractive, a higher thermal efficiency of more than 40% was strongly recommended. To meet this requirement, the design of the DEMO fusion reactor was carried out. In conjunction with the reactor design, a new concept of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was proposed and design and technology development of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was performed. By thermo-mechanical analyses of the first wall, the tresca stress was evaluated to be 428 MPa, which clears the 3Sm value of F82H. By thermal and nuclear analyses of the breeder layers, it was shown that a net TBR of more than 1.05 can be achieved. By thermal analysis of the supercritical water power plant, it was shown that a thermal efficiency of more than 41% is achievable. The design work included design of the coolant flow pattern for blanket modules, module structure design, thermo-mechanical analysis and neutronics analysis of the blanket module, and analyses of the tritium inventory and permeation. Preliminary integration of the design of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was achieved in this study. In parallel with the design activities, engineering R&D was conducted covering all necessary issues, such as development of structural materials, tritium breeding materials, and neutron multiplier materials; neutronics experiments and analyses; and development of the blanket module fabrication technology. Upon developing the fabrication technology for the first wall and box structure, a hot isostatic pressing bonded F82H first wall mock-up with embedded rectangular cooling channels was

  20. Optimization of the breeder zone cooling tubes of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Forte, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone cooling tubes. • Attention has been focused on the toroidal–radial breeder zone cooling tubes lay out. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Five different configurations have been investigated to optimize the breeder zone cooling tubes arrangement fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: The determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone (BZ) cooling tubes is one of the most important issues in the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) breeding blanket R&D activities, since BZ cooling tubes spatial distribution should ensure an efficient heat power removal from the breeder, avoiding hotspots occurrence in the thermal field. Within the framework of R&D activities supported by the HORIZON 2020 EUROfusion Consortium action on the DEMO WCLL breeding blanket design, a campaign of parametric analyses has been launched at the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (DEIM), in close cooperation with ENEA-Brasimone, in order to assess the potential influence of BZ cooling tubes number on the thermal performances of the DEMO WCLL outboard breeding blanket equatorial module under the nominal steady state operative conditions envisaged for it, optimizing their geometric configuration and taking also into account that a large number of cooling pipes can deteriorate the tritium breeding performances of the module. In particular, attention has been focused on the toroidal-radial option for the BZ tube bundles lay-out and a parametric study has been carried out taking into account different tube bundles arrangement within the module. The study has been carried out following a numerical approach, based on the finite element method (FEM), and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. Results

  1. Conceptual design of solid breeder blanket system cooled by supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato; Ohara, Yoshihiro

    2001-12-01

    This report is a summary of the design works, which was discussed in the design workshop held in 2000 for the demonstration (DEMO) blanket aimed to strengthen the commercial competitiveness and technical feasibility simultaneously. The discussion of the Fusion Council in 1999 updated the assessment of the mission of DEMO blanket. Updated mission of the DEMO blanket is to be the prototype of the commercially competitive power plant. The DEMO blanket must supply the feasibility and experience of the total design of the power plant and the materials. From such standing point, the conceptual design study was performed to determine the updated strategy and goal of the R and D of the DEMO blanket which applies the supercritical water cooling proposed in A-SSTR, taking into account the recent progress of the plasma research and reactor engineering technology. The DEMO blanket applies the solid breeder materials and supercritical water cooling. The product tritium is purged out by helium gas stream in the breeder region. In the breeder region, the pebble bed concept was applied to withstand instable cracking of the breeder and multiplier materials in high neutron irradiation and high temperature operation. Inlet temperature of the coolant is planned to be 280degC and final outlet temperature is 510degC to obtain high energy conversion efficiency up to 43%. Reduced activation ferritic steel, F82H and ODS ferritic steel were selected as the structural material. Lithium ceramics, Li 2 TiO 3 or Li 2 O were selected as the breeder materials. Beryllium or its inter-metallic compound Be12Ti was selected as the neutron multiplier materials. Basic module structure was selected as the box type structure which enables the remote handling replacement of the module from in-vessel access. Dimension of the box is limited to 2 m x 2 m, or smaller, due to the dimension of the replacement port. In the supercritical water cooling, the high coolant temperature is the merit for the energy

  2. Economic evaluation of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The economic impact of employing the highly ranked blankets in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) was evaluated in the context of both a tokamak and a tandem mirror power reactor (TMR). The economic evaluation criterion was determined to be the cost of electricity. The influencing factors that were considered are the direct cost of the blankets and related systems; the annual cost of blanket replacement; and the performance of the blanket, heat transfer, and energy conversion systems. The technical and cost bases for comparison were those of the STARFIRE and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study conceptual design power plants. The economic evaluation results indicated that the nitrate-salt-cooled blanket concept is an economically attractive concept for either reactor type. The water-cooled, solid breeder blanket is attractive for the tokamak and somewhat less attractive for the TMR. The helium-cooled, liquidlithium breeder blanket is the least economically desirable of higher ranked concepts. The remaining self-cooled liquid-metal and the helium-cooled blanket concepts represent moderately attractive concepts from an economic standpoint. These results are not in concert with those found in the other BCSS evaluation areas (engineering feasibility, safety, and research and development (R and D) requirements). The blankets faring well economically had generally lower cost components, lower pumping power requirements, and good power production capability. On the other hand, helium- and lithium-cooled systems were preferred from the standpoints of safety, engineering feasibility, and R and D requirements

  3. Composite beryllium-ceramics breeder pin elements for a gas cooled solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Chevreau, G.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.

    1986-06-01

    Helium coolant have main advantages compared to water for solid blankets. But limitations exist too and the development of attractive helium cooled blankets based on breeder pin assemblies has been essentially made possible by the derivation from recent CEA neutronic studies of an optimized composite beryllium/ceramics breeder arrangement. Description of the proposed toroidal blanket layout for Net is made together with the analysis of its main performance. Merits of the considered composite Be/ceramics breeder elements are discussed

  4. Fusion-driven sub-critical dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weihua; Wu Yican; Ke Yan; Kang Zhicheng; Wang Hongyan; Huang Qunying

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB), as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper is mainly involved with the basic structure design and thermal-hydraulics analysis of DWTB. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal temperature gradients and structure analysis made with a comprehensive finite element method (FEM) have been performed with the computer code ANSYS5.7 and computational fluid dynamic finite element codes. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating condition of an outboard blanket segment. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions have been also taken into account. All the above loads have been combined as an input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated. Finally, the structure design and Pb-17Li flow velocity has been optimized according to the calculations and analysis

  5. Conceptual design of solid breeder blanket system cooled by supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This report is a summary of the design works, which was discussed in the design workshop held in 2000 for the demonstration (DEMO) blanket aimed to strengthen the commercial competitiveness and technical feasibility simultaneously. The discussion of the Fusion Council in 1999 updated the assessment of the mission of DEMO blanket. Updated mission of the DEMO blanket is to be the prototype of the commercially competitive power plant. The DEMO blanket must supply the feasibility and experience of the total design of the power plant and the materials. From such standing point, the conceptual design study was performed to determine the updated strategy and goal of the R and D of the DEMO blanket which applies the supercritical water cooling proposed in A-SSTR, taking into account the recent progress of the plasma research and reactor engineering technology. The DEMO blanket applies the solid breeder materials and supercritical water cooling. The product tritium is purged out by helium gas stream in the breeder region. In the breeder region, the pebble bed concept was applied to withstand instable cracking of the breeder and multiplier materials in high neutron irradiation and high temperature operation. Inlet temperature of the coolant is planned to be 280degC and final outlet temperature is 510degC to obtain high energy conversion efficiency up to 43%. Reduced activation ferritic steel, F82H and ODS ferritic steel were selected as the structural material. Lithium ceramics, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} or Li{sub 2}O were selected as the breeder materials. Beryllium or its inter-metallic compound Be12Ti was selected as the neutron multiplier materials. Basic module structure was selected as the box type structure which enables the remote handling replacement of the module from in-vessel access. Dimension of the box is limited to 2 m x 2 m, or smaller, due to the dimension of the replacement port. In the supercritical water cooling, the high coolant temperature is the merit for

  6. Design and analysis of breeding blanket with helium cooled solid breeder for ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Tao; Feng Kaiming; Chen Zhi; Wang Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    Test blanket module (TBM) is one of important components in ITER. Some of related blanket technologies of future fusion, such as tritium self-sufficiency, the exaction of high-grade heat, design criteria and safety requirements and environmental impacts, will be demonstrated in ITER-TBM. In ITER device, the three equatorial ports have allocated for TBM testing. China had proposed to develop independently the ITER-TBM with helium cooled solid breeder in 12th meeting of test blanket workgroup (TBWG-12). In this work, the preliminary design and analysis for Chinese HCSB TBM will be carried out. The TBM must be contains the function of the first wall, breeding blanket, shield and structure. Finally, in the period of preliminary investigation, HCSB TBM design adopt modularization concept which is helium as coolant and tritium purge gas, ferritic/martensitic steel as structural material, Lithium orthosilicate (Li 4 SiO 4 ) as tritium breeder, beryllium pebble as neutron multiplier. TBM is allocated in standard vertical frame port. HCSB TBM consist of first wall, backplate, breeding sub-modules, caps, grid and support plate, and breeding sub-modules is arranged by layout of 2 x 6 in blanket box. In this paper, main components of HCSB TBM will be described in detail, also performance analysis of main components have been completed. (authors)

  7. Conceptual design of two helium cooled fusion blankets (ceramic and liquid breeder) for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Taczanowski, S.

    1983-08-01

    Neutronic and heat transfer calculations have been performed for two helium cooled blankets for the INTOR design. The neutronic calculations show that the local tritium breeding ratios, both for the ceramic blanket (Li 2 SiO 3 ) and for the liquid blanket (Li 17 Pb 83 ) solutions, are 1.34 for natural tritium and about 1.45 using 30% Li 6 enrichment. The heat transfer calculations show that it is possible to cool the divertor section of the torus (heat flux = 1.7 MW/m 2 ) with helium with an inlet pressure of 52 bar and an inlet temperature of 40 0 C. The temperature of the back face of the divertor can be kept at 130 0 C. With helium with the same inlet conditions it is possible to cool the first wall as well (heat flux = 0.136 MW/m 2 ) and keep the back-face of this wall at a temperature of 120 0 C. For the ceramic blanket we use helium with 52 bar inlet pressure and 400 0 C inlet temperature to ensure sufficiently high temperatures in the breeder material. The maximum temperature in the pressure tubes containing the blanket is 450 0 C, while the maximum breeder particle temperature is 476 0 C. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Blanket design study for a Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Green, L.; Lee, A.Y.; Culbert, M.E.; Kelly, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The results are presented of a study on two blanket design concepts for application in a Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). Both blankets operate on the U-Pu cycle and are designed to achieve tritium self-sufficiency while maximizing the fissile fuel production within thermal and mechanical design constraints. The two blanket concepts that were evaluated were: (1) a UC fueled, stainless steel clad and structure, helium cooled blanket; and (2) a UO 2 fueled, zircaloy clad, stainless steel structure, boiling water cooled blanket. Two different tritium breeding media, Li 2 O and LiH, were evaluated for use in both blanket concepts. The use of lead as a neutron multiplier or reflector and graphite as a reflector was also considered for both blankets

  9. Design and safety analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Guangming; Lv, Zhongliang; Jin, Cheng; Chen, Hongli [University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-05-15

    This paper reports the design and safety analysis results of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket of the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Materials selection and basic structure of the blanket have been presented. Performance analysis including neutronics analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis has shown good results. And the safety analysis of the blanket under Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions has been described. Results showed the current design can deal well with the selected accident scenarios.

  10. Material Issues of Blanket Systems for Fusion Reactors - Compatibility with Cooling Water -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    Environmental assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the material issues for the reactor core components of light water power reactors(LWRs). Much experience and knowledge have been obtained about the EAC in the LWR field. They will be useful to prevent the EAC of water-cooled blanket systems of fusion reactors. For the austenitic stainless steels and the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels, they clarifies that the EAC in a water-cooled blanket does not seem to be acritical issue. However, some uncertainties about influences on water temperatures, water chemistries and stress conditions may affect on the EAC. Considerations and further investigations elucidating the uncertainties are discussed.

  11. Method of operating water cooled reactor with blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the production amount of fissionable plutonium by increasing the burnup degree of blanket fuels in a water cooled reactor with blanket. Method: Incore insertion assemblies comprising water elimination rods, fertile material rods or burnable poison rods are inserted to those fuel assemblies at the central portion of the reactor core that are situated at the positions not inserted with control rods in the earlier half of the operation cycle, while the incore reactor insertion assemblies are withdrawn at the latter half of the operation cycle of a nuclear reactor. As a result, it is possible to increase the power share of the blanket fuels and increase the fuel burnup degree to thereby increase the production amount of fissionable plutonium. Furthermore, at the initial stage of the cycle, the excess reactivity of the reactor can be suppressed to decrease the reactivity control share on the control rod. At the final stage of the cycle, the excess reactivity of the reactor core can be increased to improve the cycle life. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten-fluoride blanket for incineration of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Matyushechkin, V.M.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Blagovolin, P.P.; Kazaritsky, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a tentative design description and evaluation of the basic parameters of a lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten fluoride blanket. The proton beam of a 1 GeV accelerator strikes the blanket from below and generates spallation neutrons in the flow of lead, which serves as a target. These neutrons leave the target zone and get into a heterogeneous blanket with separated volumes of molten salts and lead. Fissile materials are dissolved in the salt. On getting into the molten salt volume the neutrons cause fission (transmutation) of the actinides, the produced heat being removed by circulation of molten lead. Two versions of the blanket design are examined. The first version: molten salt circulates in the fuel channels, while lead cools the channels flowing through the interchannel space (the salt channel design). The second version: it is lead that circulates in the channels, while molten salt takes up the interchannel space (the lead channel design). A preliminary blanket design study showed that both blanket designs possess a potential for improving performance. At present time the blanket design, mentioned above as the salt channel design, seems to be more promising. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1995-10-01

    A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed

  14. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  15. Neutronic performance of two European breeder-inside-tube (BIT) blankets for DEMO: the helium-cooled ceramic LiAlO2 with Be multiplier and the water-cooled liquid Li17Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.

    1995-01-01

    In support of ENEA activity in the European Community Test Programme, neutron analysis has been performed on the two latest blanket designs: helium-cooled ceramic breeder-inside-tube (BIT) (with LiAlO 2 and Be multiplier) and water-cooled liquid Li 17 Pb in cylindrical modules (CM). The powerful MCNP Monte Carlo code was used (version 4.2). A detailed and accurate description of the geometrical model has been performed by inserting the main reactor details and avoiding breeder material dilution inside the modules. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) performance is low for the solid breeder BIT blanket (with 10 ports 1.011) due mainly to low blanket coverage near the exhaust duct, and this solution should be revised. The CM Li 17 Pb blanket reaches a sufficient TBR (1.059, with ports) to rely on tritium self-sufficiency. Shielding properties, with respect to the toroidal field coils, have been estimated in a simplified model by means of the ANISN code, supplied with a nuclear data library consistent with that used by MCNP. The analysis suggests that a careful shield thickness/composition design should be used to ensure the shielding capability of the whole blanket plus shield system. (orig.)

  16. R and D status on Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Nakajima, Motoki; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2014-10-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing the development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket. Regarding the blanket module fabrication technology development using F82H, the fabrication of a real scale mockup of the back wall of TBM was completed. In the design activity of the TBM, electromagnetic analysis under plasma disruption events and thermo-mechanical analysis under steady state and transient state of tokamak operation have been performed and showed bright prospect toward design justification. Regarding the development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for DEMO blanket, fabrication technology development of Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble and BeTi pebble was performed. Regarding the research activity on the evaluation of tritium generation performance, the evaluation of tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in JAEA.

  17. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, C.; Casini, G.; Viola, A.

    1995-01-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.)

  18. A vacuum disengager for tritium removal from HYLIFE-II Reactor Flibe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R.; Garcia-Otero, E.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a vacuum disengager system to remove tritium from the Flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) molten salt coolant of the HYLIFE-II fusion reactor. There is a two-stage vacuum disengager in each of three intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) loops. Each stage consists of a vacuum chamber 4 m in diameter and 7 m tall. As 0.2 mm diameter molten salt droplets fall vertically downward into the vacuum, most of the tritium diffuses out of the droplets and is pumped away. A fraction Φ ∼10 -5 of the 8.6 MCi/day tritium source (from breeding in the Flibe and from unburned fuel) remains in the Flibe as it leaves the vacuum disengagers, and about 21% of that permeates into the intermediate coolant loop, so about 20 Ci/day leak into the steam system. With Flibe primary coolant and a vacuum disengager, it appears that an intermediate coolant loop is not needed to prevent tritium from leaking into the steam system. An experiment is needed to demonstrate Flibe vacuum disengager operation

  19. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse.

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 2: BOT helium cooled solid breeder blanket. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Bojarsky, E.; Deckers, H.; Dienst, W.; Doerr, L.; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Guenther, E.; Haefner, H.E.; Hofmann, P.; Kappler, F.; Knitter, R.; Kuechle, M.; Moellendorf, U. von; Norajitra, P.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.; Schulz, B.; Schumacher, G.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Sordon, G.; Tsukiyama, T.; Wedemeyer, H.; Weimar, P.; Werle, H.; Wiegner, E.; Zimmermann, H.

    1991-10-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for a fusion Demo reactor and the status of the R and D program is presented. This is the KfK contribution to the European Program for the Demo relevant test blankets to be irradiated in NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4928) contains the summary, volume 2 (KfK 4929) a more detailed version of the report. In both volumes are described the reasons for the selected design, the reference blanket design for the Demo reactor, the design of the test blanket including the ancillary systems together with the present status of the relative R and D program in the fields of neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations, of the electromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, of the development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, of the tritium release and recovery, and of the technological investigations. An outlook is given on the required R and D program for the BOT Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the proposed test program in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  1. Neutronic analysis of the European reference design of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for a DEMOnstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.

    1994-01-01

    Water cooled lithium lead blankets, using liquid Pb-17Li eutectic both as breeder and neutron multiplier material, and martensitic steel as structural material, represent one of the four families under development in the European DEMO blanket programme. Two concepts were proposed, both reaching tritium breeding self-sufficiency: the 'box-shaped' and the 'cylindrical modules'. Also to this scope a new concept has been defined: 'the single box'. A neutronic analysis of the 'single box' is presented. A full 3-D model including the whole assembly and many of the reactor details (divertors, holes, gaps) has been defined, together with a 3-D neutron source. A tritium breeding ration (TBR) value of 1.19 confirms the tritium breeding self-sufficiency of the design. Selected power densities, calculated for the different materials and zones, are here presented. Some shielding capability considerations with respect to the toroidal field coil system are presented too. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. RF DEMO ceramic helium cooled blanket, coolant and energy transformation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.; Leshukov, A.; Poliksha, V.; Popov, A.; Strebkov, Yu.; Borisov, A.; Shatalov, G.; Demidov, V.; Kapyshev, V.

    2004-01-01

    RF DEMO-S reactor is a prototype of commercial fusion reactors for further generation. A blanket is the main element unit of the reactor design. The segment structure is the basis of the ceramic blanket. The segments mounting/dismounting operations are carried out through the vacuum vessel vertical port. The inboard/outboard blanket segment is the modules welded design, which are welded by back plate. The module contains the back plate, the first wall, lateral walls and breeding zone. The 9CrMoVNb steel is used as structural material. The module internal space formed by the first wall, lateral walls and back plate is used for breeding zone arrangement. The breeding zone design based upon the poloidal BIT (Breeder Inside Tube) concept. The beryllium is used as multiplier material and the lithium orthosilicate is used as breeder material. The helium at 0.1 MPa is used as purge gas. The cooling is provided by helium at 10 MPa. The coolant supply/return to the blanket modules are carrying out on the two independent circuits. The performed investigations of possible transformation schemes of DEMO-S blanket heat power into the electricity allowed to make a conclusion about the preferable using of traditional steam-turbine facility in the secondary circuit. (author)

  3. European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) test blanket. ITER design description document. Status 1.12.1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Dalle Donne, M.; Fischer, U.; Gordeev, S.; Hutter, E.; Kleefeldt, K.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, G.; Ruatto, P.; Schleisiek, K.; Schnauder, H.

    1997-04-01

    The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is based on the use of separate small lithium orthosilicate and beryllium pebble beds placed between radial toroidal cooling plates. The cooling is provided by helium at 8 MPa. The tritium produced in the pebble beds is purged by the flow of helium at 0.1 MPa. The structural material is martensitic steel. It is foreseen, after an extended R and D work, to test in ITER a blanket module based on the HCPB design, which is one of the two European proposals for the ITER Test Blanket Programme. To facilitate the handling operation the Blanket Test Module (BTM) is bolted to a surrounding water cooled frame fixed to the ITER shield blanket back plate. For the design of the test module, three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutronic calculations and thermohydraulic and stress analyses for the operation during the Basic Performance Phase (BPP) and during the Extended Performance Phase (EPP) of ITER have been performed. The behaviour of the test module during LOCA and LOFA has been investigated. Conceptual designs of the required ancillary loops have been performed. The present report is the updated version of the Design Description Document (DDD) for the HCPB Test Module. It has been written in accordance with a scheme given by the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) and accounts for the comments made by the JCT to the previous version of this report. This work has been performed in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhne and it is supported by the European Union within the European Fusion Technology Program. (orig.) [de

  4. Manufacturing aspects in the design of the breeder unit for Helium Cooled Pebble Bed blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, J.; Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Polixa, C.

    2007-01-01

    The breeding blanket programme has been in the focus of European fusion research for more than a decade. Recently, it has been driven by the EU Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS), investigating the potential of fusion energy in a future economic environment. On the way to the first commercial nuclear fusion reactor (DEMO) new studies for reactor in-vessel components have been initiated. One central focus is the design and manufacturing of the blankets that have to ensure the breeding process to maintain the fuel cycle and are also responsible for the extraction of the main part of the reactor heat for power generation. Two kinds are established: One is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the other the Helium Cooled Liquid Lead (HCLL) blanket. Both designs employ three different cooling plate assemblies. The outer, cooled U-shaped shell, namely the First Wall (FW), with two caps builds the blanket box. The structural strength of the blanket box is realized by integrating Stiffening Grids (SG) that separate the equally spaced Breeder Unit (BU) and allow the box, in case of faulted conditions, to withstand an internal pressure of 8 MPa. The cooled SG constitute the side walls of the BU and are also cooled. The BU consists of a dedicated Cooling Plate (CP) assembly. In present studies about the fabrication of Cooling Plates two kinds of diffusion welding processes are focused on. One is based on a Hot Isostatic Gas Process (HIP). The second is a uni-axial Diffusion Welding Process (DWP). In both cases the bond between the two halves of the cooling plate structure is reached by controlled pressure and heat cycles. Approaching larger, realistic scaled components the uncertainty of ensuring uniform process parameters across the bonding zone increases the risk of defect sources and, therefore, makes it difficult to guarantee the required bonding penetration. This study presents an alternative manufacturing strategy. The premises for this strategy are the reduction of

  5. Probabilistic safety assessment of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The subcritical dual-cooled waste transmutation (DWT) blanket is one of the key components of fusion-driven subcritical system (FDS-I). The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) can provide valuable information on safety characteristics of FDS-I to give recommendations for the optimization of the blanket concepts and the improvement of the design. Event tree method has been adopted to probabilistically analyze the safety of the DWT blanket for FDS-I using the home-developed PSA code RiskA. The blanket melting frequency has been calculated and compared with the core melting frequencies of PWRs and a fast reactor. Sensitivity analysis of the safety systems has been performed. The results show that the current preliminary design of the FDS-I is very attractive in safety

  6. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  7. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper will address the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (i.e., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data will be used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment

  8. The State of the Art Report on the Development and Manufacturing Technology of Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Baek, J. H.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of the present R and D on breeder blanket is the development of test blanket modules (TBMs) to be installed and tested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the program of the blanket development, a blanket module test in the ITER is scheduled from the beginning of the ITER operation, and the performance test of TBM in ITER is the most important milestone for the development of the DEMO blanket. The fabrication of TBMs has been required to test the basic performance of the DEMO blanket, i.e., tritium production/recovery, high-grade heat generation and radiation shielding. Therefore, the integration of the TBM systems into ITER has been investigated with the aim to check the safety, reliability and compatibility under nuclear fusion state. For this reason, in the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) as an activity of the International Energy Association (IEA), a variety of ITER TBMs have been proposed and investigated by each party: helium-cooled ceramic (WSG-1), helium-cooled LiPb (WSG-2), water-cooled ceramic (WSG-3), self-cooled lithium (WSG-4) and self-cooled molten salt (WSG-5) blanket systems. Because we are still deficient in investigation of TBM development, the need of development became pressing. In this report, for the development of TBM sub-module and mock-up, it is necessary to analyze and examine the state of the art on the development of manufacturing technology of TBM in other countries. And we will be applied as basic data to establish a manufacturing technology

  9. Blanket Manufacturing Technologies : Thermomechanical Tests on HCLL Blanket Mocks Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Taraud, P.; Challet, F.; Rampal, G.; Salavy, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Blanket concept, the lithium lead plays the double role of breeder and multiplier material, and the helium is used as coolant. The HCCL Blanket Module are made of steel boxes reinforced by stiffening plates. These stiffening plates form cells in which the breeder is slowly flowing. The power deposited in the breeder material is recovered by the breeder cooling units constituted by 5 parallel cooling plates. All the structures such as first wall, stiffening and cooling plates are cooled by helium. Due to the complex geometry of these parts and the high level of pressure and temperature loading, thermo-mechanical phenomena expected in the '' HCLL blanket concept '' have motivated the present study. The aim of this study, carried out in the frame of EFDA Work program, is to validate the manufacturing technologies of HCLL blanket module by testing small scale mock-up under breeder blanket representative operating conditions.The first step of this experimental program is the design and manufacturing of a relevant test section in the DIADEMO facility, which was recently upgraded with an He cooling loop (pressure of 80 bar, maximum temperature of 500 o C,flow rate of 30 g/s) taking the opportunity of synergies with the gas-cooled fission reactor R-and-D program. The second step will deal with the thermo-mechanical tests. This paper focuses on the program made to support the cooling plate mock up tests which will be carried out on the DIADEMO facility (CEA) by thermo-mechanical calculations in order to define the relevant test conditions and the experimental parameters to be monitored. (author)

  10. A 2D Finite Element Modelling of Tritium Permeation Through Cooling Plates for The HCLL DEMO Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, F.; Escuriol, Y.; Dabbene, F.; Salavy, J.F.; Giancarli, L.; Gastaldi, O.

    2006-01-01

    As the Tritium self sufficiency is one of the major challenges for fusion reactor, breeding blankets represent one of the major technological breakthroughs required from passing from ITER to the next step reactor, usually called DEMO. One of the two blanket concepts developed in the EU is the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket which uses the eutectic Pb-15.7Li metal liquid as both breeder and neutron multiplier. The structures, made of EUROFER, a low activation ferritic martensitic steel, are cooled by pressurized helium at 8 MPa and inlet/outlet temperature 300/500 o C. In this concept, the LiPb is fed from the top of the blanket and distributed in parallel vertical channels among pairs of cells (one cell for the radial movement towards the plasma, the other for the return). The liquid metal fills the in-box volume and is slowly re-circulated (few mm per seconds) to remove the produced tritium. In this paper, a local finite element modelling of the tritium permeation rate through the HCLL breeder unit cooling plates is presented. The tritium concentration in the helium circuit and remaining in the lithium lead circuit are evaluated by solving partial differential equations governing the tritium concentration balance, the thermal field and the lithium lead velocity field for a simplified 2D geometrical representation of the breeder unit. This allows estimating the sensitivity effect of coupling these different equations in order to deduce a relevant but simplified modelling for tritium permeation. This is to compare with tritium inventories studies, were the tritium permeation rate is estimated using simplified analytical modelling which generally leads to over estimate the tritium permeation rate to the coolant and so has strong influence on the coolant purification plant design. The finite element modelling performed shows that the Tritium permeation is considerable lower than the one obtained in previous estimations where nominal values of the governing

  11. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  12. Status report. KfK contribution to the development of DEMO-relevant test blankets for NET/ITER. Pt. 2: BOT helium cooled solid breeder blanket. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Bojarsky, E.; Deckers, H.; Dienst, W.; Doerr, L.; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Guenther, E.; Haefner, H.E.; Hofmann, P.; Kappler, F.; Knitter, R.; Kuechle, M.; Moellendorf, U. von; Norajitra, P.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.; Schulz, B.; Schumacher, G.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Sordon, G.; Tsukiyama, T.; Wedemeyer, H.; Weimar, P.; Werle, H.; Wiegner, E.; Zimmermann, H.

    1991-10-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Helium Cooled Breeder Blanket for a fusion Demo reactor and the status of the R and D program is presented. This is the KfK contribution to the European Program for the Demo relevant test plankets to be irradiated in NET/ITER. Volume 1 (KfK 4928) contains the summary, volume 2 (KfK 4929) a more detailed version of the report. In both volumes are described the reasons for the selected design, the reference blanket design for the Demo reactor, the design of test blanket including the ancillary systems together with the present status of the relative R and D program in the fields of neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations, of the electromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, of the development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, of the tritium release and recovery, and of the technological investigations. An outlook is given on the required R and D program for the BOT Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket prior to tests in NET/ITER and the proposed test program in NET/ITER. (orig.) [de

  13. Blankets for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Fukumoto, Hideshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To produce tritium more than consumed, through thermonuclear reaction. Constitution: The energy spectrum of neutron generated by neutron multiplying reaction in a neutron multiplying blanket and moderated neutrons has a large ratio in a low energy section. In the low-energy absorption region of stainless steel which is a material of cooling pipes constituting a neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel, the neutrons are absorbed, lessening the neutron multiplying effect. To prevent this, the neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel is covered with tritium breeding blankets, thereby enabling the production of a substantially great amount of tritium more than the amount of tritium to be consumed by the thermonuclear reaction by preventing neutron absorption by the component materials of the cooling channel, improving the tritium breeding ratio by 20 to 25 %, and increasing the efficiency of use of neutrons for tritium generation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Manufacturing experiment on a cooling plate for a blanket breeder unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weth, A. von der; Aktaa, J.

    2008-01-01

    Plates with curved cooling channels will be used as structural elements in a breeding blanket of a future fusion power plant. Such power plants are a promising attempt for future electrical energy production. The central manufacturing process of such cooling plates is a diffusion welding process. Such a process has been 'available' on a laboratory scale for years. But this diffusion welding process has not yet been applied on an industrial scale. This contribution documents our first attempt to transfer this to industry, a so-called uniaxial diffusion welding setup. The industrial transfer was attempted in two steps: (1) On a small cooling plate mock-up and (2) On a true-scale cooling plate. The problems with the technical transfer of the diffusion welding process from the laboratory scale to the true scale were outlined

  15. MHD considerations for poloidal-toroidal coolant ducts of self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.; Walker, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals through sharp elbow ducts with rectangular cross sections and with thin conducting walls in the presence of strong uniform magnetic fields are examined. The geometries simulate the poloidaltoroidal coolant channels in fusion tokamak blankets. Analysis for obtaining the three-dimensional numerical solutions are described. Results for pressure drop, velocity profiles and flow distribution are predicted for the upcoming joint ANL/KfK sharp elbow experiment. Results from a parametric study using fusion relevant parameters to investigate the three-dimensional pressure drop are presented for possible applications to blanket designs. 10 refs., 9 refs

  16. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas, Jr.

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids---flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF)---from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate in a high-temperature low-pressure design space that has beneficial safety and economic implications. In 2012, UC Berkeley was charged with developing a pre-conceptual design of a commercial prototype FHR---the Pebble Bed- Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)---as part of the Nuclear Energy University Programs' (NEUP) integrated research project. The Mark 1 design of the PB-FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR) is 236 MWt flibe cooled pebble bed nuclear heat source that drives an open-air Brayton combine-cycle power conversion system. The PB-FHR's pebble bed consists of a 19.8% enriched uranium fuel core surrounded by an inert graphite pebble reflector that shields the outer solid graphite reflector, core barrel and reactor vessel. The fuel reaches an average burnup of 178000 MWt-d/MT. The Mk1 PB-FHR exhibits strong negative temperature reactivity feedback from the fuel, graphite moderator and the flibe coolant but a small positive temperature reactivity feedback of the inner reflector and from the outer graphite pebble reflector. A novel neutronics and depletion methodology---the multiple burnup state methodology was developed for an accurate and efficient search for the equilibrium composition of an arbitrary continuously refueled pebble bed reactor core. The Burnup Equilibrium Analysis Utility (BEAU) computer program was developed to implement this methodology. BEAU was successfully benchmarked against published results generated with existing equilibrium depletion codes VSOP

  17. Hydrogen permeation through Flinabe fluoride molten salts for blanket candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, Ryosuke, E-mail: r.nishiumi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fukada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} diffusivity, solubility and permeability in Flinabe as T breeder are determined. • Effects in composition differences among Flibe, Fnabe and Flinabe are compared. • Changes of pressure dependence of Flinabe permeation rate are clarified. - Abstract: Fluoride molten salt Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}) is a promising candidate for the liquid blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor, because of its large advantages of tritium breeding ratio and heat-transfer fluid. Since its melting point is higher than other liquid candidates, another new fluoride molten salt Flinabe (LiF + NaF + BeF{sub 2}) is recently focused on because of its lower melting point while holding proper breeding properties. In this experiment, hydrogen permeation behavior through the three molten salts of Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}), Fnabe (NaF + BeF{sub 2}) and Flinabe are investigated in order to clarify the effects of their compositions on hydrogen transfer properties. After making up any of the three molten salts and purifying it using HF, hydrogen permeability, diffusivity and solubility of the molten salts are determined experimentally by using a system composed of tertiary cylindrical tubes. Close agreement is obtained between experimental data and analytical solutions. H{sub 2} permeability, diffusivity and solubility are correlated as a function of temperature and are compared among the three molten salts.

  18. Numerical research on the neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling characteristics of the optimized helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Shijie; Zhang, Dalin; Cheng, Jie; Tian, Wenxi; Su, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the candidate tritium breeding blankets for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket has recently been proposed. The neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the blanket directly affect its tritium breeding and safety performance. Therefore, neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling analyses are of vital importance for a reliable blanket design. In this work, first, three-dimensional neutronics analysis and optimization of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No. 12) were performed for the comprehensive optimal scheme. Then, thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the scheme under both normal and critical conditions were performed and coupled with the previous neutronic calculation results. With thermal-hydraulic boundaries, thermo-mechanical analyses of the structure materials under normal, critical and blanket over-pressurization conditions were carried out. In addition, several parametric sensitivity studies were also conducted to investigate the influences of the main parameters on the blanket temperature distributions. In this paper, the coupled analyses verify the reasonability of the optimized conceptual design preliminarily and can provide an important reference for the further analysis and optimization design of the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket.

  19. Numerical research on the neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling characteristics of the optimized helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Shijie; Zhang, Dalin, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Cheng, Jie; Tian, Wenxi; Su, G.H.

    2017-01-15

    As one of the candidate tritium breeding blankets for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket has recently been proposed. The neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the blanket directly affect its tritium breeding and safety performance. Therefore, neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling analyses are of vital importance for a reliable blanket design. In this work, first, three-dimensional neutronics analysis and optimization of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No. 12) were performed for the comprehensive optimal scheme. Then, thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the scheme under both normal and critical conditions were performed and coupled with the previous neutronic calculation results. With thermal-hydraulic boundaries, thermo-mechanical analyses of the structure materials under normal, critical and blanket over-pressurization conditions were carried out. In addition, several parametric sensitivity studies were also conducted to investigate the influences of the main parameters on the blanket temperature distributions. In this paper, the coupled analyses verify the reasonability of the optimized conceptual design preliminarily and can provide an important reference for the further analysis and optimization design of the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket.

  20. Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)

  1. Fusion blanket design and optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In fusion reactors, the blanket design and its characteristics have a major impact on the reactor performance, size, and economics. The selection and arrangement of the blanket materials, dimensions of the different blanket zones, and different requirements of the selected materials for a satisfactory performance are the main parameters, which define the blanket performance. These parameters translate to a large number of variables and design constraints, which need to be simultaneously considered in the blanket design process. This represents a major design challenge because of the lack of a comprehensive design tool capable of considering all these variables to define the optimum blanket design and satisfying all the design constraints for the adopted figure of merit and the blanket design criteria. The blanket design techniques of the First Wall/Blanket/Shield Design and Optimization System (BSDOS) have been developed to overcome this difficulty and to provide the state-of-the-art techniques and tools for performing blanket design and analysis. This report describes some of the BSDOS techniques and demonstrates its use. In addition, the use of the optimization technique of the BSDOS can result in a significant blanket performance enhancement and cost saving for the reactor design under consideration. In this report, examples are presented, which utilize an earlier version of the ITER solid breeder blanket design and a high power density self-cooled lithium blanket design for demonstrating some of the BSDOS blanket design techniques

  2. Neutronics analysis of water-cooled energy production blanket for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jieqiong; Wang Minghuang; Chen Zhong; Qiu Yuefeng; Liu Jinchao; Bai Yunqing; Chen Hongli; Hu Yanglin

    2010-01-01

    Neutronics calculations were performed to analyse the parameters of blanket energy multiplication factor (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for energy production named FDS (Fusion-Driven hybrid System)-EM (Energy Multiplier) blanket. The most significant and main goal of the FDS-EM blanket is to achieve the energy gain of about 1 GWe with self-sustaining tritium, i.e. the M factor is expected to be ∼90. Four different fission materials were taken into account to evaluate M in subcritical blanket: (i) depleted uranium, (ii) natural uranium, (iii) enriched uranium, and (iv) Nuclear Waste (transuranic from 33 000 MWD/MTU PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and depleted uranium) oxide. These calculations and analyses were performed using nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) and a home-developed code VisualBUS. The results showed that the performance of the blanket loaded with Nuclear Waste was most attractive and it could be promising to effectively obtain tritium self-sufficiency and a high-energy multiplication.

  3. Nuclear and thermal analyses of supercritical-water-cooled solid breeder blanket for fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshihiko; Sato, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kikuchi, Shigeto; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Kosaku, Yasuo; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    Within a design study of a fusion DEMO reactor aiming at demonstrating technologies of fusion power plant, supercritical water is applied as a coolant of solid breeder blanket to attain high thermal efficiency. The blanket has multi-layer composed of solid breeder pebbles (Li{sub 2}O) and neutron multiplier pebbles (Be) which are radially separated by cooling panels. The first wall and the breeding region are cooled by supercritical water below and above the pseudo-critical temperature, respectively. Temperature distribution and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) have been estimated by one-dimensional nuclear and thermal calculations. The local TBR as high as 1.47 has been obtained after optimization of temperature distribution in the breeder region under the following conditions: neutron wall loading of 5 MW/m{sup 2}, {sup 6}Li enrichment of 30% and coolant temperature at inlet of breeder region of 380degC. In the case of the higher coolant temperature 430degC of the breeder region the local TBR was reduced to be 1.40. This means that the net TBR higher than 1.0 could be expected with the supercritical-water-cooled blanket, whose temperature distribution in the breeder region would be optimized by following the coolant temperature, and where a coverage of the breeder region is assumed to be 70%. (author)

  4. Progress in blanket designs using SiCf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Golfier, H.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Wong, C.; Yamada, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most recent design activities concerning the use of SiC f /SiC composite as structural material for fusion power reactor breeding blanket. Several studies have been performed in the past. The most recent proposals are the TAURO blanket concept in the European Union, the ARIES-AT concept in the US, and DREAM concept in Japan. The first two concepts are self-cooled lithium-lead blankets, while DREAM is an helium-cooled beryllium/ceramic blanket. Both TAURO and ARIES-AT blankets are essentially formed by a SiC f /SiC box acting as a container for the lithium-lead which has the simultaneous functions of coolant, tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and, finally, tritium carrier. The DREAM blanket is characterized by small modules using pebble beds of Be as neutron multiplier material, of Li 2 O (or other lithium ceramics) as breeder material and of SiC as shielding material. The He coolant path includes a flow through the pebble beds and a porous partition wall. For each blanket, this paper describes the main design features and performances, the most recent design improvements, and the proposed manufacturing routes in order to identify specific issues and requirements for the future R and D on SiC f /SiC

  5. Neutronics optimization of LiPb-He dual-cooled fuel breeding blanket for the fusion-driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the liquid Li 17 Pb 83 and Helium gas dual-cooled Fuel Breeding Blanket (FBB) for the Fusion-Driven sub-critical System (FDS) is presented and analyzed. Taking self-sustaining tritium (TBR > 1.05) and annual output of 100 kg or more fissile 239 Pu (FBR > 0.238) as objective parameters, and based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4A, a neutronics-optimized calculation of different cases was carried out and the concept is proved feasible. In addition, the total breeding ratio (Br = Tbr + Fbr) is listed corresponding to different cases

  6. The blanket interface to TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Naruse, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements of tritium technology are centered in three main areas, (1) fuel processing, (2) breeder tritium extraction, and (3) tritium containment. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) now in operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is dedicated to developing and demonstrating the tritium technology for fuel processing and containment. TSTA is the only fusion fuel processing facility that can operate in a continuous closed-loop mode. The tritium throughput of TSTA is 1000 g/d. However, TSTA does not have a blanket interface system. The authors have initiated a study to define a Breeder Blanket Interface (BBIO) for TSTA. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. Various methods of tritium recovery from liquid lithium were assessed: yttrium gettering, permeation windows, and molten salt extraction. The authors' evaluation concluded that the best method was molten salt extraction

  7. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.).

  8. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accident in the ITER-EDA first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the analysis of the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour inside the first wall/blanket cooling system and the resulting temperature response inside the first wall and blanket of the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - Engineering Design Activities) reactor design during a: - Loss-of-coolant accident caused by a reputure of the pump suction pipe; - loss-of-flow accident caused by a trip of the recirculation pump. (orig.)

  9. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  10. Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.

    1999-01-01

    Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study

  11. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  12. Economic performance of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor and gas-cooled fast reactor radial blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.; Jankhah, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The economic performance of the radial blanket of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been studied based on the calculation of the net financial gain as well as the value of the levelized fuel cost. The necessary reactor physics calculations have been performed using the code CITATION, and the economic analysis has been carried out with the code ECOBLAN, which has been written for that purpose. The residence time of fuel in the blanket is the main variable of the economic analysis. Other parameters that affect the results and that have been considered are the value of plutonium, the price of heat, the effective cost of money, and the holdup time of the spent fuel before reprocessing. The results show that the radial blanket of both reactors is a producer of net positive income for a broad range of values of the parameters mentioned above. The position of the fuel in the blanket and the fuel management scheme applied affect the monetary gain. There is no significant difference between the economic performance of the blanket of an LMFBR and a GCFR

  13. Design development and manufacturing sequence of the European water-cooled Pb-17Li test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, M.A.; Bielak, B.; Deffain, J.P.; Giancarli, L.; Li Puma, A.; Salavy, J.F.; Szczepanski, J. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). FDRN/DMT/SERMA; Dellis, C. [CEA Grenoble, DTA-CEREM/SGM, Grenoble (France); Nardi, C. [ENEA Frascati, ERG-FUS-TECN-MEC, Frascati (Italy); Schleisiek, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    1998-09-01

    In 1996, the European Community started the development of a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket test module for ITER. First tests are currently scheduled to start with the beginning of the basic performance phase prior to D-T operation. The test module is designed to be a representative for a DEMO breeding blanket and relies on the liquid alloy Pb-17Li as both tritium breeder and neutron multiplier material, and water at PWR pressure and temperature as coolant. The structural material is martensitic steel. The straight, box-like structure of this blanket confines a pool of liquid Pb-17Li which is slowly circulated for ex-situ tritium extraction and lithium adjustment. The box and the Pb-17Li pool are separately cooled, the former with toroido-radial tubes, the latter with a bundle of double-walled U-tubes, equally made of martensitic steel and equipped with a permeation barrier. This paper presents the latest design and three manufacturing schemes with different degrees of technology. Advanced techniques such as solid or powder HIP are proposed to provide design flexibility. With a 3D neutronics analysis, the power and tritium generation were determined. (orig.) 11 refs.

  14. Water-cooled lithium-lead box-shaped blanket concept for Demo: thermo-mechanical optimization and manufacturing sequence proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraer, L.; Dinot, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the water-cooled lithium-lead box-shaped blanket concept for DEMO has now reached the stage of thermo-mechanical optimization. In the previous design phases the preliminary dimensioning of the cooling circuit has permitted to define the water proportions required in the breeder region and to demonstrate, after a minimization of steel proportion and thicknesses, that this concept could reach tritium breeding self-sufficiency. In the present analysis the location of the coolant pipes has been optimized for the whole equatorial plane cross-section of both inboard and outboard segments in order to maintain the maximum Pb-17Li/steel interface temperature below 480 deg C and to minimize the thermal gradients along the steel structures. The consequent thermo-mechanical analysis has shown that the thermal stresses always remain below the allowable limits. Segment fabricability and removal are the next design issues to be analyzed. Within this strategy, a first manufactury sequence for the outboard segment is proposed

  15. Considerations on techniques for improving tritium confinement in helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Leger, D.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium control issues such as the development of permeation barriers and the choice of the coolant and purge-gas chemistry are of crucial importance for solid breeder blankets. In order to quantify these problems for the helium-cooled ceramic breeder-inside-tube (BIT) blanket concept, the tritium leakage into the coolant was evaluated and the consequent tritium losses into the steam circuit were determined. The results indicate that under certain specified conditions the total tritium release from the coolant can be limited to approximately 10 Ci/d, but only on the assumption that experimental data for tritium permeation barriers can be attained under realistic operating conditions. An experimental study on the impact of the gas chemistry on tritium losses is proposed. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  16. On the use of tin-lithium alloys as breeder material for blankets of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Aiello, G.; Barbier, F.; Giancarli, L.; Poitevin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Szczepanski, J.; Li Puma, A.; Ruvutuso, G.; Vella, G.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-lithium alloys have several attractive thermo-physical properties, in particular high thermal conductivity and heat capacity, that make them potentially interesting candidates for use in liquid metal blankets. This paper presents an evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks caused by the substitution of the currently employed alloy lead-lithium (Pb-17Li) by a suitable tin-lithium alloy: (i) for the European water-cooled Pb-17Li (WCLL) blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as the structural material; (ii) for the European self-cooled TAURO blanket with SiC f /SiC as the structural material. It was found that in none of these blankets Sn-Li alloys would lead to significant advantages, in particular due to the low tritium breeding capability. Only in forced convection cooled divertors with W-alloy structure, Sn-Li alloys would be slightly more favorable. It is concluded that Sn-Li alloys are only advantageous in free surface cooled reactor internals, as this would make maximum use of the principal advantage of Sn-Li, i.e., the low vapor pressure

  17. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  18. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a ''Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit approx-gt 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant

  19. Key achievements in elementary R and Ds on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER Test Blanket Module in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.; Hayashi, K.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents significant progress in research and development (R and D) of key elementary technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armors, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup, and tritium release behavior from Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed under neutron pulsed operation condition are summarized. By the improvement of heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H, can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 deg C followed by normalizing at 930 deg C after the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armor and an F82H structural material was developed by using a solid state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it was found that the thermal fatigue lifetime of F82H can be predicted by using Manson-Coffin's law. As for R and Ds on a breeder material, Li 2 TiO 3 , effective thermal conductivity of Li 2 TiO 3 pebble was measured under compressive force simulating the ITER TBM environment. The increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed was about 2.5 % at the compressive strain of 0.9 % at 400 deg C. Neutronic performance of the blanket module mockup has been carried out by the 14 MeV neutron irradiation. It was confirmed that the measured tritium production rate agreed with the calculated values within about 10% difference. Also, tritium release from a Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed was measured under pulsed neutron irradiation conditions simulating the ITER operation. (author)

  20. Key achievements in elementary R and D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R and D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 0 C followed by normalizing it at 930 0 C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R and D on the breeder material, Li 2 TiO 3 , the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation

  1. Thermostructural design of the first wall/blanket for the TITAN-RFP fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, G.E.; Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The mass power density, which is defined as the average power per unit mass within the magnet boundary, is a rough and general measure of economic competitiveness. Conn et al. (1985) have identified a target value of 100 kW(e)/tonne as a reasonable threshold for 'compact' commercial fusion systems. In pursuit of this goal, Hagenson et al. (1984) and Najmabadi et al. (1987) have pointed out the inherent characteristics of the RFP toroidal confinement concept which allow it to exceed this target value. It is inevitable that the compactness of the fusion power core will introduce a unique set of design issues. The special design concerns stem from high thermal surface fluxes, high bulk energy deposition by neutrons, and a relatively short blanket structural lifetime. In the TITAN-RFP, study Najmabadi et al. (1987) investigate a number of blanket (B) and first wall (FW) options suitable for high power density fusion reactors. Final choices were made for two designs: A high pressure aqueous blanket and a vanadium/lithium self-cooled blanket. The first design utilizes a pressurized aqueous loop containing a lithium compound dissolved in water, while the second design is based upon a self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket. In this paper, we consider the beginning-of-life (BOL) thermostructural design and analysis of only the second concept. (orig./GL)

  2. Preliminary accident analysis of Loss of Off-Site Power and In-Box LOCA for the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qiang; Cui, Shijie [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi, E-mail: wxtian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Dalin; Su, G.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Lab. of Advanced Nuclear Energy and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The CFETR HCSB blanket has been investigated using RELAP5. • Loss of Off-Site Power is investigated. • The parametric analyses during In-Box LOCA are investigated. • The HCSB blanket for CFETR is designed with sufficient decay heat removal capability. - Abstract: As one of three candidate tritium breeding blanket concepts for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB) blanket was recently proposed. In this paper, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No.12) have been carried out using RELAP5/Mod3.4 code. Two design basis accidents are investigated based on the steady-state initialization, including Loss of Off-Site Power and In-Box Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The differences between circulator coast down and circulator rotor locked under Loss of Off-Site Power are compared. Regarding the In-Box LOCA, the influences of different break sizes and locations are thoroughly analyzed based on a relatively accurate modeling method of the heat structures in sub-modules. The analysis results show that the blanket and the combined helium cooling system (HCS) are designed with sufficient decay heat removal capability for both accidents, which can preliminarily verify the feasibility of the conceptual design. The research work can also provide an important reference for parameter optimization of the blanket and its HCS in the next stage.

  3. Conceptual design of the blanket mechanical attachment for the helium-cooled lithium-lead reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G.; Branas, B.; Lucas, J.; Doncel, J.; Medrano, M.; Garcia, A.; Giancarli, L.; Ibarra, A.; Li Puma, A.; Maisonnier, D.; Sardain, P.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design of a new type of fusion reactor based on the helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) blanket has been performed within the European Power Plant Conceptual Studies. As part of this activity, a new attachment system suitable for the HCLL blanket modules had to be developed. This attachment is composed of two parts. The first one is the connection between module and the first part of a shield, called high temperature shield, which operates at a temperature around 500 deg. C, close to that of the blanket module. This connection must be made at the lateral walls, in order to avoid openings through the first wall and breeding zone thus avoiding complex design and fabrication issues of the module. The second connection is the one between the high temperature shield and a second shield called low temperature shield, which has a temperature during reactor operation around 150 deg. C. The design of this connection is complex because it must allow the large differential thermal expansion (up to 30 mm) between the two components. Design proposals for both connections are presented, together with the results of finite element mechanical analyses which demonstrate the feasibility to support the blanket and shield modules during normal and accidental operation conditions

  4. Numerical simulation of the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system under the draining operational procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Vallone, E., E-mail: eug.vallone@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER blanket cooling system hydraulic behaviour is studied under draining transient. • A computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed. • Draining efficiency has been assessed in term of transient duration and residual water. • Transient duration ranges from ∼40 to 50 s, under the reference draining scenario. • Residual water is predicted to range from few tens of gram up to few kilograms. - Abstract: Within the framework of the research and development activities supported by the ITER Organization on the blanket system issues, an intense analysis campaign has been performed at the University of Palermo with the aim to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system of a standard 20° sector of ITER blanket during the draining transient operational procedure. The analysis has been carried out following a theoretical-computational approach based on the finite volume method and adopting the RELAP5 system code. In a first phase, attention has been focused on the development and validation of the finite volume models of the cooling circuits of the most demanding modules belonging to the standard blanket sector. In later phase, attention has been put to the numerical simulation of the thermal-hydraulic transient behaviour of each cooling circuit during the draining operational procedure. The draining procedure efficiency has been assessed in terms of both transient duration and residual amount of coolant inside the circuit, observing that the former ranges typically between 40 and 120 s and the latter reaches at most ∼8 kg, in the case of the cooling circuit of twinned modules #6–7. Potential variations to operational parameters and/or to circuit lay-out have been proposed and investigated to optimize the circuit draining performances. In this paper, the set-up of the finite volume models is briefly described and the key results are summarized and critically discussed.

  5. European research and development programme for water-cooled lithium-lead blankets: present status and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Leroy, P.; Proust, E.; Raepsaet, X.

    1992-01-01

    The European R and D programme in support of the development of water-cooled Pb-17Li blankets for DEMO aims at improving the data base concerning tritium behaviour and compatibility between blanket materials. The four main areas of the experimental programme are structural material corrosion by Pb-17Li, tritium extraction and permeation control.=, Pb-17Li physico-chemistry, and water/Pb-17Li interaction. This paper describes the most significant results obtained to date in the various experiments performed in Europe and the future programme required to complete the data base by 1994. 28 refs

  6. Sensisivity and Uncertainty analysis for the Tritium Breeding Ratio of a DEMO Fusion reactor with a Helium cooled pebble bed blanket

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenmann, Elena; Fischer, Ulrich; Stieglitz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was performed for the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of a fusion power plant of the European DEMO type using the MCSEN patch to the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The breeding blanket was of the type Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB), currently under development in the European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) programme for a fusion power demonstration reactor (DEMO). A suitable 3D model of the DEMO reactor with HCPB blanket modules, as routinely used for blanket design c...

  7. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis methodology for multiple modules of water-cooled breeder blanket in fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A methodology to simulate the K-DEMO blanket system was proposed. • The results were compared with the CFD, to verify the prediction capability of MARS. • 46 Blankets in a single sector in K-DEMO were simulated using MARS-KS. • Supervisor program was devised to handle each blanket module individually. • The calculation results showed the flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures. - Abstract: According to the conceptual design of the fusion DEMO reactor proposed by the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea, the water-cooled breeding blanket system incorporates a total of 736 blanket modules. The heat flux and neutron wall loading to each blanket module vary along their poloidal direction, and hence, thermal analysis for at least one blanket sector is required to confirm that the temperature limitations of the materials are satisfied in all the blanket modules. The present paper proposes a methodology of thermal analysis for multiple modules of the blanket system using a nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS-KS. In order to overcome the limitations of the code, caused by the restriction on the number of computational nodes, a supervisor program was devised, which handles each blanket module separately at first, and then corrects the flow rate, considering pressure drops that occur in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a single sector were simulated; the calculation results of the parameters, such as mass flow, pressure drops, and temperature distribution in the multiple blanket modules showed that the multi-module analysis method can be used for efficient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  8. Thermal-hydraulic analysis on the whole module of water cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kecheng; Ma, Xuebin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Lin, Shuang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Huang, Kai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The 3D thermal hydraulic analysis on the whole module of WCCB is performed by CFD method. • Temperature field and mass flow distribution have been obtained. • The design of WCCB is reasonable from the perspective of thermal-hydraulics. • The scheme for further optimization has been proposed. - Abstract: The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder blanket (WCCB) is being researched for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The thermal-hydraulic analysis is essential because the blanket should remove the high heat flux from the plasma and the volumetric heat generated by neutrons. In this paper, the detailed three dimensional (3D) thermal hydraulic analysis on the whole module of WCCB blanket has been performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, which is capable of solving conjugate heat transfer between solid structure and fluid. The main results, including temperature field, distribution of mass flow rate and coolant pressure drop, have been calculated simultaneously. These provides beneficial guidance data for the further structural optimization and for the design arrangement of primary and secondary circuit. Under the total heat source of 1.23 MW, the coolant mass flow rate of 5.457 kg/s is required to make coolant water corresponding to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) condition (15.5 MPa, 285 °C–325 °C), generating the total coolant pressure drop (△P) of 0.467 MPa. The results show that the present structural design can make all the materials effectively cooled to the allowable temperature range, except for a few small modifications on the both sides of FW. The main components, including the first wall (FW), cooling plates (CPs), side wall (SWs)&stiffening plates (SPs) and the manifold(1–4), dominate 4.7%/41.7%/13%/40.6% of the total pressure drop, respectively. Additionally, the mass flow rate of each channel has been obtained, showing the peak relative deviation of 3.4% and 2% from the average for the paratactic

  9. Preliminary electromagnetic analysis of Helium Cooled Solid Blanket for CFETR by MAXWELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Cheng; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A FEM model of the blanket and magnetic system was built. • Electromagnetic forces and moments of the typical blanket for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials were computed and analyzed. • Maxwell forces and Lorentz forces were computed and compared. • Eddy current in the blanket was analyzed under MD condition. - Abstract: A Helium Cooled Solid Blanket (HCSB) for CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) was designed by USTC. The structural and thermal-hydraulic analysis has been carried out, while electromagnetic analysis was not carefully researched. In this paper, a FEM (finite element method) model of the HCSB was developed and electromagnetic forces as well as moments was computed by a FEM software called MAXWELL integrated in ANSYS Workbench. In the geometrical model, flow channels and small connecting parts were neglected because of the extreme complication and the reasonable conservative assumption by neglecting these circumstantial details. As for electromagnetic (EM) analysis, Lorentz forces due to eddy currents caused by main disruption and Maxwell forces due to the magnetization of RAFM steel (i.e. EUROFER97) were computed. Since the unavailability of the details of the plasma in CFETR, when disruptions happen, the condition where a linear current quench of main disruption occurs was assumed. The maximum magnitude of the electromagnetic forces was 356.45 kN and the maximum value of the coupled electromagnetic moments was 1899.40 N m around the radial direction. It is feasible to couple electromagnetic analysis, structural analysis and thermal-hydraulic analysis in the future since MAXWELL has good channels to exchange data between different analytic parts.

  10. Uranium self-shielding in fast reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiroglu, O.K.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of heterogeneity on resonance self-shielding are examined with particular emphasis on the blanket region of the fast breeder reactor and on its dominant reaction--capture in /sup 238/U. The results, however, apply equally well to scattering resonances, to other isotopes (fertile, fissile and structural species) and to other environments, so long as the underlying assumptions of narrow resonance theory apply. The heterogeneous resonance integral is first cast into a modified homogeneous form involving the ratio of coolant-to-fuel fluxes. A generalized correlation (useful in its own right in many other applications) is developed for this ratio, using both integral transport and collision probability theory to infer the form of correlation, and then relying upon Monte Carlo calculations to establish absolute values of the correlation coefficients. It is shown that a simple linear prescription can be developed for the flux ratio as a function of only fuel optical thickness and the fraction of the slowing-down source generated by the coolant. This in turn permitted derivation of a new equivalence theorem relating the heterogeneous self-shielding factor to the homogeneous self-shielding factor at a modified value of the background scattering cross section per absorber nucleus. A simple version of this relation is developed and used to show that heterogeneity has a negligible effect on the calculated blanket breeding ratio in fast reactors.

  11. A method for measuring the corrosion rate of materials in spallation neutron source target/blanket cooling loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ongoing evaluation of the susceptibility of materials in accelerator target/blanket cooling loops to corrosion. To simulate the exposure environment in a target/blanket cooling loop, samples were irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam at the A6 Target Station of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). To accomplish this, a cooling water loop capable of exposing corrosion samples to an 800 MeV proton beam at currents upwards of 1 mA was constructed. This loop allowed control and evaluation hydrogen water chemistry, water conductivity, and solution pH. Specially designed ceramic sealed samples were used to measure the real-time corrosion rates of materials placed directly in the proton beam using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS was also used to measure real-time corrosion rates of samples that were out of the proton beam and downstream from the in-beam samples. These out-of-beam probes primarily examined the effects of long lived water radiolysis products from proton irradiation on corrosion rates. An overview of the LANSCE corrosion loop, the corrosion probes, and data from an in-beam alloy 718 probe are presented

  12. Tritium permeation and recovery for the Flibe/He blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.

    1984-10-01

    This study assumes tritium to be a gas dissolved in molten salt, with TF formation suppressed. Tritium permeates readily through the hot steel tubes of the reactor and steam generator and will leak into the steam system at the rate of about one gram per day in the absence of special permeation barriers, assuming that 1% of the helium coolant flow rate is processed for tritium recovery at 90% efficiency per pass. Tritiated water in the steam system is a personnel hazard at concentration levels well below one part per million and this level would soon be reached without costly isotopic processing. Alternatively, including a combination of permeation barriers on reactor and steam generator tubes and molten salt processing is estimated to reduce the leak rate into the steam system by over two orders of magnitude. For the option with the lowest estimated leak rate, 55 Ci/d, it may be possible to purge the steam system continuously to prevent tritiated water buildup. At best, isotopic separation of dilute tritiated water may not be necessary and for higher leak-rate options the isotopic processing rate can be reduced. The proposed permeation barrier for the reactor tubes is a 10 μm layer of tungsten which, in principle, will reduce tritium blanket permeation by a factor of about 300 below the bare-steel rate

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  14. Safety and environmental impact of the BOT helium cooled solid breeder blanket for DEMO. SEAL subtask 6.2, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.; Dammel, F.; Gabel, K.

    1996-03-01

    The European Union has been engaged since 1989 in a programme to develop tritium breeding blankets for application in a fusion power reactor. There are four concepts under development, namely two of the solid breeder type and two of the liquid breeder type. At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe one blanket concept of each line has been pursued so far with the so-called breeder outside tube (BOT) type representing the solid breeder line. In the BOT concept, Li 4 SiO 4 is used as ceramic breeding material in the form of pebble beds in combination with beryllium pebbles serving as neutron multiplier. Breeder and multiplier materials are arranged in radial-toroidal layers, separated by cooling plates. The coolant is high pressure helium which is circulated in series, at first through the first wall structure and subsequently through the cooling plates. The safety and environmental impact of the BOT blanket concept has been assessed as part of the blanket concept selection exercise, a European concerted action aiming at selecting the two most promising concepts for further development. The topics investigated are: (a) Blanket materials and toxic materials inventory, (b) energy sources for mobilisation, (c) fault tolerance, (d) tritium and activation product release, and (e) waste generation. No insurmountable safety problems have been identified for the BOT concept. The results of the assessment are described in this report. The information collected is also intended to serve as input to the EU 'Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion long-term Programme' (SEAL). The unresolved issues pertaining to the BOT blanket which need further investigations in future programmes are outlined herein. (orig.) [de

  15. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  16. Heat deposition, damage, and tritium breeding characteristics in thick liquid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The advanced power extraction (APEX) study aims at exploring new and innovative blanket concepts that can efficiently extract power from fusion devices with high neutron wall load. Among the concepts under investigation is the free liquid FW/liquid blanket concept in which a fast flowing liquid FW (∼2-3 cm) is followed by thick flowing blanket (B) of ∼40-50 cm thickness with minimal amount of structure. The liquid FW/B are contained inside the vacuum vessel (VV) with a shielding zone (S) located either behind the VV and outside the vacuum boundary (case A) or placed after the FW/B and inside the VV (case B). In this paper we investigate the nuclear characteristics of this concept in terms of: (1) attenuation capability of the liquid FW/B/S and protection of the VV and magnet against radiation damage; (2) profiles of tritium production rate and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) for several liquid candidates; and (3) profiles of heat deposition rate and power multiplication. The candidate liquid breeders considered are Li, Flibe, Li-Sn, and Li-Pb. Parameters varied are (1) FW/B thickness, L, (2) Li-6 enrichment and (3) thickness of the shield

  17. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic considerations for designing a lithium-cooled tokamak blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Mikic, B.; Todreas, N.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for the design of lithium cooled blankets is developed. The thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and interactions between them are extensively investigated. In thermal hydraulics, two models illustrate the methodology used to obtain the acceptable ranges for a set of design parameters. The methodology can be used to identify the limiting constraints for a particular design. A complete neutronic scheme is set up for the calculations of the volumetric heating rate as a function of the distance from the first wall, the breeding ratio as a function of the amount of structural material in the blanket, and the radiation damage in terms of atom displacements and gas production rate. Different values of the volume percent of Type-316 stainless steel are assigned in four breeding zones to represent a nonuniformly distributed structural material which satisfies various thermal-hydraulic requirements. The role that the radiation damage plays in the overall design methodology is described. The product of the first wall lifetime and neutron loading is limited by the radiation damage which degrades the mechanical properties of the material

  18. Loss-of-Coolant and Loss-of-Flow Accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) and three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the SEAFP reactor design. The analyses deal with the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour inside the cooling systems and the temperature development inside the nuclear components. As it appears, the temperature increase in the first wall Be-coating is limited to 30 K when an emergency plasma shutdown is initiated within 10 s following pump trip. (orig.)

  19. Loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) and three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the SEAFP reactor design. The analyses deal with the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour inside the cooling systems and the temperature development inside the nuclear components. As it appears, the temperature increase in the first wall Be-coating is limited to 30 K when an emergency plasma shutdown is initiated within 10 s following pump trip. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary Analysis on Decay Heat Removal Capability of Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu Young; Cho, Seung Yon; Kim, Duck Hoi; Lee, Eun Seok; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    One of the main ITER goals is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to DEMO or fusion power plants. Korea Helium-Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed with overall objectives of achieving this goal. The TBM employs high pressure helium to cool down the First Wall (FW), Side Wall (SW) and Breeding Zone (BZ). Therefore, safety consideration is a part of the design process. Each ITER Party performing the TBM program is requested to reach a similar level of confidence in the TBM safety analysis. To meet ITER's request, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) studies have been performed on the TBM to identify the Postulated Initial Event (PIE). Although FMEA on the KO TBM has not been completed, in-vessel, in-box and ex-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) are considered as enveloping cases of PIE in general. In this paper, accidental analyses for the three selected LOCA were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability of the TBM. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior of the TBM for the selected scenarios, RELAP5/MOD3.2 code was used

  1. Overview of the Last Progresses for the European Test Blanket Modules Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavy, J.-F.; Rampal, G.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Meyder, R.; Neuberger, H.; Laesser, R.; Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Rigal, E.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term objective of the EU Breeding Blankets programme is the development of DEMO breeding blankets, which shall assure tritium self-sufficiency, an economically attractive use of the heat produced inside the blankets for electricity generation and a sufficiently high shielding of the superconducting magnets for long time operation. In the short-term so-called DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) of these breeder blanket concepts shall be designed, manufactured, tested, installed, commissioned and operated in ITER for first tests in a fusion environment. The Helium Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) breeder blanket and the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) concepts are the two breeder blanket lines presently developed by the EU. The main objective of the EU test strategy related to TBMs in ITER is to provide the necessary information for the design and fabrication of breeding blankets for a future DEMO reactor. EU TBMs shall therefore use the same structural and functional materials, apply similar fabrication technologies, and test adequate processes and components. This paper gives an overview of the last progresses in terms of system design, calculations, test program, safety and R-and-D done these last two years in order to cope with the ambitious objective to introduce two EU TBM systems for day-1 of ITER operation. The engineering design of the two systems is mostly concluded and the priority is now on the development and qualification of the fabrication technologies. From calculations point of view, the last modelling efforts related to the thermal-hydraulic of the first wall, the tritium behaviour, and the box thermal and mechanical resistance in accidental conditions are presented. Last features of the TBM and cooling system designs and integration in ITER reactor are highlighted. In particular, this paper also describes the safety and licensing analyses performed for each concept to be able to include the TBM systems in the ITER preliminary safety report

  2. Multiple Module Simulation of Water Cooled Breeding Blankets in K-DEMO Using Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Code MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A preliminary concept for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) has been studied by the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) based on the National Fusion Roadmap of Korea. The feasibility studies have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the breeding blanket. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting thermal design, evaluation and validation of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of MARS-KS to the overall blanket system analysis which includes 736 blanket modules in total. The strategy for the multi-module blanket system analysis using MARS-KS is introduced and the analysis result of the 46 blanket modules of single sector was summarized. A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for a nuclear reactor safety, MARS-KS, was applied for thermal analysis of the conceptual design of the K-DEMO breeding blanket. Then, a methodology to simulate multiple blanket modules was proposed, which uses a supervisor program to handle each blanket module individually at first and then distribute the flow rate considering the pressure drop that occurs in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a sector, which are connected with each other through the common headers for the sector inlet and outlet, were simulated. The calculation results of flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures showed the validity of the calculation. Because of parallelization using the MPI system, the computational time could be reduced significantly. In future, this methodology will be extended to an efficient simulation of multiple sectors, and further validation for transient simulation will be carried out for more practical applications.

  3. Progress of R&D on water cooled ceramic breeder for ITER test blanket system and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: kawamura.yoshinori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Konno, Chikara; Edao, Yuki; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Yamanishi, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-hydraulic calculation in the TBM at the water ingress event has been done. • Shielding calculations for the ITER equatorial port #18 were conducted by using C-lite model. • Prototypic pebbles of Be{sub 17}Ti{sub 2} and Be{sub 12}V had a good oxidation property similar to Be{sub 12}Ti pebble. • Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were successfully fabricated using the emulsion method by controlling sintering atmosphere. • New tritium production/recovery experiments at FNS have been started by using ionization chamber as on-line gas monitor. - Abstract: The development of a water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) test blanket module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and development of DEMO blanket, R&D has been performed on the module fabrication technology, breeder and multiplier pebble fabrication technology, tritium production rate evaluation, as well as structural and safety design activities. The fabrication of full-scale first wall, side walls, breeder pebble bed box and back wall was completed, and assembly of TBM with box structure was successfully achieved. Development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for higher chemical stability was continued for future DEMO blanket application. From the view point of TBM test result evaluation and DEMO blanket performance design, the development of the blanket tritium transport simulation technology, investigation of the TBM neutron measurement technology and the evaluation of the tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the fusion neutron source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper provides an overview of the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in Japan.

  4. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuming; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  5. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuming, E-mail: Yuming.chen@kit.edu; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  6. Magnetoconvection in HCLL blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistrangelo, C.; Buehler, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we consider magneto-convective flows in one of the proposed European liquid metal blankets that will be tested in the experimental fusion reactor ITER. Here the PbLi alloy is used as breeder material and helium as coolant. In order to finalize the design of the helium cooled lead lithium (HCLL) blanket, studies are still required to fully understand the behavior of the electrically conducting breeder under the influence of the intense magnetic field that confines the fusion plasma and in case of non-uniform thermal conditions. Liquid metal HCLL blanket flows are expected to be mainly driven by buoyancy forces caused by non-isothermal operating conditions due to neutron volumetric heating and cooling of walls, since only a weak forced ow is foreseen for tritium extraction in external ancillary systems. Buoyancy can therefore become very important and modify the velocity distribution and related heat transfer performance of the blanket. The present numerical study aims at clarifying the influence of electromagnetic and thermal coupling of neighboring fluid domains on magneto-convective flows in geometries relevant for the HCLL blanket concept. According to the last design review two internal cooling plates subdivide the fluid domain into three slender flow regions, which are thermally and electrically coupled through common walls. First a uniform volumetric heat source is considered to identify the basic convective patterns that establish in the liquid metal. Results are then compared with those obtained by applying a realistic radial distribution of the power density as obtained from a neutronic analysis. Velocity and temperature distributions are discussed for various volumetric heat sources and magnetic field strengths.

  7. ITER shielding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avsjannikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baryshev, M [NIAT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blinov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, G [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinnikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernjagin, A [DYNAMICA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A reference non-breeding blanket is under development now for the ITER Basic Performance Phase for the purpose of high reliability during the first stage of ITER operation. More severe operation modes are expected in this stage with first wall (FW) local heat loads up to 100-300Wcm{sup -2}. Integration of a blanket design with protective and start limiters requires new solutions to achieve high reliability, and possible use of beryllium as a protective material leads to technologies. The rigid shielding blanket concept was developed in Russia to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements. The concept is based on a copper alloy FW, austenitic stainless steel blanket structure, water cooling. Beryllium protection is integrated in the FW design. Fabrication technology and assembly procedure are described in parallel with the equipment used. (orig.).

  8. Numerical Analysis for Heat transfer characteristic of Helium cooling system in Helium cooled ceramic reflector Test Module Blanket (HCCR-TBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main objectives of ITER project can be summarized into three types as follows - Plasma operation for a long time - Large tokamak device technology - Test blanket module (TBM) installation and verification The thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in the He cooling channel in the BZ region of the HCCR TBM. The maximum temperature in the breeder material is equal to the limit temperature in the present design cooling channel. Nuclear fusion energy has advantage in terms of safety, resource availability, cost and waste management. There is not enough experimental results about the fusion reactor due to the severe experiments restrictions like vacuum environment, plasma production and significant nuclear heating at the same time. Much research and time is required for the commercial fusion reactor. For technical verification against the commercialization of fusion reactor, 7 countries which are EU, USA, Japan, Russia, China, India, and South Korea are building an ITER in the south of France. New designed cooling channels were proposed to improve the cooling performance. The swirl flow accelerates the mixture flow in the channels.

  9. Phase change of First Wall in Water-Cooled Breeding Blankets of K-DEMO for Vertical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geon Woo; Lee, Jeong Hun; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl; Im, Ki Hak

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to simulate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a single blanket module when plasma disruption occurs. Plasma disruptions, such as vertical displacement events (VDE), with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and also burnout of coolant channels. The thermal design, evaluation and validation have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting transient thermal-hydraulic analysis to confirm the integrity of blanket system for plasma disruption events. Vertical displacement events (VDE) with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials (PFCs) and also burnout of coolant channels. In order to simulate melting of first wall in blanket module when VDE occurs, one-dimensional heat conduction equations were solved numerically with modification of the specific heat of the first wall materials using effective heat capacity method. Temperature profiles in first wall for VDE are shown in fig 7 - 9. At first, temperature of tungsten rapidly raised and even exceeded its melting temperature. When VDE just ended at 0.1 second, 0.83 mm thick of tungsten melted. But the other materials including vanadium and RAFM didn't exceed their melting temperatures after 500 seconds

  10. Phase change of First Wall in Water-Cooled Breeding Blankets of K-DEMO for Vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo; Lee, Jeong Hun; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ki Hak [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to simulate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a single blanket module when plasma disruption occurs. Plasma disruptions, such as vertical displacement events (VDE), with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and also burnout of coolant channels. The thermal design, evaluation and validation have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting transient thermal-hydraulic analysis to confirm the integrity of blanket system for plasma disruption events. Vertical displacement events (VDE) with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials (PFCs) and also burnout of coolant channels. In order to simulate melting of first wall in blanket module when VDE occurs, one-dimensional heat conduction equations were solved numerically with modification of the specific heat of the first wall materials using effective heat capacity method. Temperature profiles in first wall for VDE are shown in fig 7 - 9. At first, temperature of tungsten rapidly raised and even exceeded its melting temperature. When VDE just ended at 0.1 second, 0.83 mm thick of tungsten melted. But the other materials including vanadium and RAFM didn't exceed their melting temperatures after 500 seconds.

  11. Evaluation on the heat removal capacity of the first wall for water cooled breeder blanket of CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kecheng, E-mail: jiangkecheng@ipp.ac.cn; Cheng, Xiaoman; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Ma, Xuebin; Liu, Songlin

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Heat removal capacity of the FW is evaluated under BWR, PWR and He coolant inlet conditions. • Heat transfer property of the gas–liquid two phase and the two boiling crises are analyzed. • Heat removal capacity of water is larger than helium coolant. - Abstract: The water cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is being researched for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). As an important component of the blanket, the FW should satisfy with the thermal requirements in any case. In this paper, three parameters including the heat removal capacity, coolant pressure drop as well as the temperature rise of the FW were investigated under different coolant velocity and heat flux from the plasma. Using the same first wall structure, two main water cooled schemes including Boiling Water Reactor (BWR, 7 MPa pressure and 265 °C temperature inlet) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR, 15 MPa pressure and 285 °C temperature inlet) conditions are discussed in the thermal hydraulic calculation. For further research, the thermal hydraulic characteristics of using helium as coolant (8 MPa pressure, 300 °C temperature inlet) are also explored to provide CFETR blanket design with more useful data supports. Without regard to the outlet coolant condition requirements of the blanket, the results indicate that the ultimate heat flux that the FW can resist is 2.2 MW/m{sup 2} at velocity of 5 m/s for BWR, 2.0 MW/m{sup 2} at velocity of 5 m/s for PWR and 0.87 MW/m{sup 2} for helium at velocity 100 m/s under the chosen operation condition. The detrimental departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) crisis would occur at the velocity of 1 m/s under the heat flux of 3 MW/m{sup 2} and dry out crisis appears at the velocity of less than 0.2 m/s with the heat flux of more than 1 MW/m{sup 2} for BWR. The further blanket/FW optimization design is provided with more useful data references according to the abundant calculation results.

  12. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  13. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  14. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  15. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 deg C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project 'two-zone' blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 deg C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case. (author)

  16. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  17. Blanket Cooling Plates Mock-ups Manufactured in different Diffusion Weld Setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Der Weth, A.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The breeding blanket box is considered as one of the most important components of a future fusion power plant. It will be assembled by so called cooling plates (CP) with a system of internal cooling channels. Such a CP is produced by two symmetric half pieces with half milled-in channels. Both pieces will be joined by a diffusion weld (DW) process. Within recent years a two step DW process for different EUROFER batches has been developed. It has been first applied to small laboratory scaled samples with dimensions of 25 mm x 30 mm x 40 mm. Then the DW process had then been successfully transferred to so called compact mock ups which are small CPs with dimensions of 67 mm x 70 mm x 50 mm. As third step this process has been used to manufacture a CP (465 mm x 205 mm x 50 mm) of a breeder unit in an industrial uniaxial diffusion weld setup. This paper treats the manufacturing sequence of a cooling plate and a first wall mock up in an industrial hot isostatic pressing (HIP) setup. The firstly laboratory specimens scaled diffusion weld process has been adjusted to different cooling channel dimensions and a different DW setup. The weld quality is investigated by tensile and Charpy impact testing. This allows comparison of the weld quality of mock ups welded in different DW setups. (authors)

  18. Design and development of ceramic breeder demo blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoeda, M.; Sato, S.; Hatano, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ceramic breeder blanket development has been widely conducted in Japan from fundamental researches to project-oriented engineering scaled development. A long term R and D program has been launched in JAERI since 1996 as a course of DEMO blanket development. The objectives of this program are to provide engineering data base and fabrication technologies of the DEMO blanket, aiming at module testing in ITER currently scheduled to start from the beginning of the ITER operation as a near-term target. Two types of DEMO blanket systems, water cooled blanket and helium cooled blanket, have been designed to be consistent with the SSTR (Steady State Tokamak Reactor) which is the reference DEMO reactor design in JAERI. Both of them utilize packed small pebbles of breeder Li 2 O or Li 2 TiO 3 as a candidate) and neutron multiplier (Be) and rely on the development of advanced structural materials (a reduced activation ferritic steel F82H) compatible with high temperature operation. (author)

  19. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A consistent model for the equilibrium thermodynamic functions of partially ionized flibe plasma with Coulomb corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2003-01-01

    Flibe (2LiF-BeF2) is a molten salt that has been chosen as the coolant and breeding material in many design studies of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) chamber. Flibe plasmas are to be generated in the ICF chamber in a wide range of temperatures and densities. These plasmas are more complex than the plasma of any single chemical species. Nevertheless, the composition and thermodynamic properties of the resulting flibe plasmas are needed for the gas dynamics calculations and the determination of other design parameters in the ICF chamber. In this paper, a simple consistent model for determining the detailed plasma composition and thermodynamic functions of high-temperature, fully dissociated and partially ionized flibe gas is presented and used to calculate different thermodynamic properties of interest to fusion applications. The computed properties include the average ionization state; kinetic pressure; internal energy; specific heats; adiabatic exponent, as well as the sound speed. The presented results are computed under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and electro-neutrality. A criterion for the validity of the LTE assumption is presented and applied to the computed results. Other attempts in the literature are assessed with their implied inaccuracies pointed out and discussed

  1. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.; Dagher, Mohamad; Smolentsev, S.; Merrill, Brad; Youssef, M.; Reyes, Susanna; Sze, Dai Kai; Morley, Neil B.; Sharafat, Shahran; Calderoni, P.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Fogarty, Paul J.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Abdou, Mohamed A.

    2006-02-01

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17LI is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Ph-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure.

  2. A helium-cooled blanket design of the low aspect ratio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Cerbone, R.; Cheng, E.T.

    1998-03-01

    An aggressive low aspect ratio scoping fusion reactor design indicated that a 2 GW(e) reactor can have a major radius as small as 2.9 m resulting in a device with competitive cost of electricity at 49 mill/kWh. One of the technology requirements of this design is a high performance high power density first wall and blanket system. A 15 MPa helium-cooled, V-alloy and stagnant LiPb breeder first wall and blanket design was utilized. Due to the low solubility of tritium in LiPb, there is the concern of tritium migration and the formation of V-hydride. To address these issues, a lithium breeder system with high solubility of tritium has been evaluated. Due to the reduction of blanket energy multiplication to 1.2, to maintain a plant Q of > 4, the major radius of the reactor has to be increased to 3.05 m. The inlet helium coolant temperature is raised to 436 C in order to meet the minimum V-alloy temperature limit everywhere in the first wall and blanket system. To enhance the first wall heat transfer, a swirl tape coolant channel design is used. The corresponding increase in friction factor is also taken into consideration. To reduce the coolant system pressure drop, the helium pressure is increased from 15 to 18 MPa. Thermal structural analysis is performed for a simple tube design. With an inside tube diameter of 1 cm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm, the lithium breeder can remove an average heat flux and neutron wall loading of 2 and 8 MW/m(2), respectively. This reference design can meet all the temperature and material structural design limits, as well as the coolant velocity limits. Maintaining an outlet coolant temperature of 650 C, one can expect a gross closed cycle gas turbine thermal efficiency of 45%. This study further supports the use of helium coolant for high power density reactor design. When used with the low aspect ratio reactor concept a competitive fusion reactor can be projected at 51.9 mill/kWh

  3. Review: BNL Tokamak graphite blanket design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The BNL minimum activity graphite blanket designs are reviewed, and three are discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a 30 cm or thicker graphite screen. Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy, which is then radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma. (Auth.)

  4. On blanket concepts of the Helias reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.; Harmeyer, E.; Herrnegger, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses various options for a blanket of the Helias reactor HSR22. The Helias reactor is an upgrade version of the Wendelstein 7-X device. The dimensions of the Helias reactor are: major radius 22 m, average plasma radius 1.8 m, magnetic field on axis 4.75 T, maximum field 10 T, number of field periods 5, fusion power 3000 MW. The minimum distance between plasma and coils is 1.5 m, leaving sufficient space for a blanket and shield. Three options of a breeding blanket are discussed taking into account the specific properties of the Helias configuration. Due to the large area of the first wall (2600 m 2 ) the average neutron power load on the first wall is below 1 MWm .2 , which has a strong impact on the blanket performance with respect to lifetime and cooling requirements. A comparison with a tokamak reactor shows that the lifetime of first wall components and blanket components in the Helias reactor is expected to be at least two times longer. The blanket concepts being discussed in the following are: the solid breeder concept (HCPB), the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blanket concept and the water-cooled Pb-17Li concept (WCLL). (orig.)

  5. Fusion blanket high-temperature heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Deep penetration of 14 MeV neutrons makes two-temperature region blankets feasible. A relatively low-temperature (approx. 300 0 C) metallic structure is the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, while the interior of the blanket, which is a simple packed bed of nonstructural material, operates at very high temperatures (>1000 0 C). The water-cooled shell structure is thermally insulated from the steam-cooled interior. High-temperature steam can dramatically increase the efficiency of electric power generation, as well as produce hydrogen and oxygen-based synthetic fuels at high-efficiency

  6. Filbe molten salt research for tritium breeder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Petti, D.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Flibe (2Lif·BeF 2 ) molten salt research activities conducted at the INEEL as part of the Japan-US JUPITER-II joint research program. The research focuses on tritium/chemistry issues for self-cooled Flibe tritium breeder applications and includes the following activities: (1) Flibe preparation, purification, characterization and handling, (2) development and testing of REDOX strategies for containment material corrosion control, (3) tritium behavior and management in Flibe breeder systems, and (4) safety testing (e.g., mobilization of Flibe during accident scenarios). This paper describes the laboratory systems developed to support these research activities and summarizes key results of this work to date. (author)

  7. Initial three-dimensional neutronics calculations for the EU water cooled lithium-lead test blanket module for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, J.; Poitevin, Y.; Li Puma, A.; Kirov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper summarizes the main results of the initial three-dimensional radiation transport analysis of the EU water-cooled lithium-lead test blanket module performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Estimates of tritium production rate, nuclear energy deposition and cumulative fluence effects such as radiation damage through atomic displacement and production of He and H are presented. (author)

  8. Integration of test modules in the main blanket and vacuum vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-07-01

    Typical test modules for water-cooled and helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets have been designed, and their major design parameters are summarized. Among various candidates studied in Japan at present, BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) type of blanket is exemplified here. The integration scheme of the test module into ITER basic machine is also shown. Even with other type of blanket, the integration scheme won't be affected. The composition and space requirement of cooling and tritium recovery systems for the test module have also been studied. (author)

  9. Neutronic investigation and activation calculation for CFETR HCCB blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuling, XU; Mingzhun, LEI; Sumei, LIU; Kun, LU; Kun, XU; Kun, PEI

    2017-12-01

    The neutronic calculations and activation behavior of the proposed helium cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) blanket were predicted for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) design model using the MCNP multi-particle transport code and its associated data library. The tritium self-sufficiency behavior of the HCCB blanket was assessed, addressing several important breeding-related arrangements inside the blankets. Two candidate first wall armor materials were considered to obtain a proper tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Presentations of other neutronic characteristics, including neutron flux, neutron-induced damages in terms of the accumulated dpa and helium production were also conducted. Activation, decay heat levels and contact dose rates of the components were calculated to estimate the neutron-induced radioactivity and personnel safety. The results indicate that neutron radiation is efficiently attenuated and slowed down by components placed between the plasma and toroidal field coil. The dominant nuclides and corresponding isotopes in the structural steel were discussed. A radioactivity comparison between pure beryllium and beryllium with specific impurities was also performed. After a millennium cooling time, the decay heat of all the concerned components and materials is less than 1 × 10-4 kW, and most associated in-vessel components qualify for recycling by remote handling. The results demonstrate that acceptable hands-on recycling and operation still require a further long waiting period to allow the activated products to decay.

  10. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are: (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li 2 O/H 2 O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li 2 O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO 2 /He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. (author)

  11. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  12. Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed

  13. A robust helium-cooled shield/blanket design for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Bourque, R.F.; Baxi, C.B.

    1993-11-01

    General Atomics Fusion and Reactor Groups have completed a helium-cooled, conceptual shield/blanket design for ITER. The configuration selected is a pressurized tubes design embedded in radially oriented plates. This plate can be made from ferritic steel or from V-alloy. Helium leakage to the plasma chamber is eliminated by conservative, redundant design and proper quality control and inspection programs. High helium pressure at 18 MPa is used to reduce pressure drop and enhance heat transfer. This high gas pressure is believed practical when confined in small diameter tubes. Ample industrial experience exists for safe high gas pressure operations. Inboard shield design is highlighted in this study since the allowable void fraction is more limited. Lithium is used as the thermal contacting medium and for tritium breeding, its safety concerns are minimized by a modular, low inventory design that requires no circulation of the liquid metal for the purpose of heat removal. This design is robust, conservative, reliable, and meets all design goals and requirements. It can also be built with present-day technology

  14. Thermoelectric self-cooling for power electronics: Increasing the cooling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Astrain, David; Aranguren, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric self-cooling was firstly conceived to increase, without electricity consumption, the cooling power of passive cooling systems. This paper studies the combination of heat pipe exchangers and thermoelectric self-cooling, and demonstrates its applicability to the cooling of power electronics. Experimental tests indicate that source-to-ambient thermal resistance reduces by around 30% when thermoelectric self-cooling system is installed, compared to that of the heat pipe exchanger under natural convection. Neither additional electric power nor cooling fluids are required. This thermal resistance reaches 0.346 K/W for a heat flux of 24.1 kW/m"2, being one order of magnitude lower than that obtained in previous designs. In addition, the system adapts to the cooling demand, reducing this thermal resistance for increasing heat. Simulation tests have indicated that simple system modifications allow relevant improvements in the cooling power. Replacement of a thermoelectric module with a thermal bridge leads to 33.54 kW/m"2 of top cooling power. Likewise, thermoelectric modules with shorter legs and higher number of pairs lead to a top cooling power of 44.17 kW/m"2. These results demonstrate the applicability of thermoelectric self-cooling to power electronics. - Highlights: • Cooling power of passive systems increased. • No electric power consumption. • Applicable for the cooling of power electronics. • Up to 44.17 kW/m"2 of cooling power, one order of magnitude higher. • Source-to-ambient thermal resistance reduces by 30%.

  15. Overview of the TFTB lithium blanket module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an ∼ 80-cm 3 module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. This paper summarizes the design, development, and construction of the LBM, and indicates the present status of the LBM program

  16. Status of fusion reactor blanket evaluation studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Chevereau, G.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.

    1985-03-01

    In the frame of recent CEA studies aiming at the evaluation and at the comparison of various candidate blanket concepts in moderate power conditions (Psub(n) approximately 2 MW/m 2 ), the present work examines the neutronic and thermomechanical performances of a water cooled Li 17 Pb 83 tubular blanket and those of a helium cooled canister blanket taking advantage of the excellent breeding capability of composite Beryllium/LiAlO 2 (85/15%) breeder elements. The purpose of the following discussion is to justify the impetus for these reference concepts and to summarize the state of their evaluation studies updated by the continuous assimilation of calculations and experiments in progress

  17. Molten salt cooling/17Li-83Pb breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-02-01

    A description of a fusion breeding blanket concept using draw salt coolant and static 17 Li- 83 Pb is presented. 17 Li- 83 Pb has high breeding capability and low tritium solubility. Draw salt operates at low pressure and is inert to water. Corrosion, MHD, and tritium containment problems associated with the MARS design are alleviated because of the use of a static LiPb blanket. Blanket tritium recovery is by permeation toward the plasma. A direct contact steam generator is proposed to eliminate some generic problems associated with a tube shell steam generator

  18. The thermo-mechanical design of the water cooled PB-17Li test blanket module for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, C.; Palmieri, A.; Pinna, T.; Porfini, M.T.; Rapisarda, M.; Roccella, M.; Futterer, M.; Lucca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket is one of the two European concepts to be further developed. A Test Blanket Module (TBM) representative of the DEMO blanket shall be tested in ITER. This paper reports on the activities related to the thermo-mechanical design analysis, taking into account the electromagnetic and neutronic loads in normal and off normal conditions. These loads were applied to a finite elements model of the structure, and the structural response was compared to the allowable value, dependent on the operating conditions. Besides the loads assumed by the design specifications (pressure, temperature, etc), electro-mechanical and thermal loads have been evaluated. A model of the TBM has been performed to compute the loads related to the electromagnetic effects of a centered plasma disruption. The thermal loads have been evaluated considering the heat deposition from the plasma and from the neutrons. The neutronic analysis has been carried out also in order to evaluate the shielding characteristics of the TBM. Taking into account the thermal and mechanical loads a fracture mechanics analysis has been carried out. From this analysis the J Ic parameter was evaluated at the crack tip and compared with the allowable value. The work carried out showed that the TBM present design fulfills ITER normal operation requirements. (authors)

  19. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Dong Won; Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  20. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  1. Activation analysis and waste management for dual-cooled lithium lead breeder (DLL) blanket of the fusion power reactor FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingliang; Huang Qunying; Li Jingjing; Zeng Qin; Wu Yican

    2005-01-01

    The calculation and analysis on the activation levels of the different regions of dual-cooled lithium-lead (DLL) breeder blanket of FDS-II, including afterheat, dose rate, activity and biological hazard potential after shutdown, were carried out with the neutronics code system VisualBUS and multi-group working library HENDL1.0/MG. The safety and environment assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) strategy for the management of activated material is here applied to the DLL blanket, to define the suitable recycling (reuse of activated material) procedure and the possibility of clearance (declassification of the material with low activity level to non-active waste). (authors)

  2. Thermal safety analysis for pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie

    1998-01-01

    Pebble bed blanket hybrid reactor may have more advantages than slab element blanket hybrid reactor in nuclear fuel production and nuclear safety. The thermo-hydraulic calculations of the blanket in the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor developed in China are carried out using the Code THERMIX and auxiliary code. In the calculations different fuel pebble material and steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow accident conditions are included. The results demonstrate that the conceptual design of the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor with dump tank is feasible and safe enough only if the suitable fuel pebble material is selected and the suitable control system and protection system are established. Some recommendations for due conceptual design are also presented

  3. Thermal-hydraulic investigations on the CEA-ENEA DEMO relevant helium cooled poloidal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, G.; Polazzi, G.; Vallette, F.; Proust, E.; Eid, M.

    1994-01-01

    The CEA-ENEA design of an Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket (HCSBB) for the DEMO reactor, with a breeder in tube (BIT) poloidal arrangement, is based on the use of lithium ceramic pellets, the ENEA γ-LiAlO 2 or the CEA Li 2 ZrO 3 . Due to the geometry of the DEMO reactor plasma chamber, these breeder bundles are adapted to the Vacuum Vessel with a strong poloidal curvature. This curvature influences the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the coolant flowing inside the bundle. The paper presents the CEA-ENEA first results of the experimental and theoretical programme, aiming at optimizing the breeder module thermal hydraulic design. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  4. European DEMO BOT Solid Breeder Blanket: the concept based on the use of cooling plates and beds of beryllium and Li4SiO4 pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Fischer, U.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, G.; Reiser, H.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an important modification of the European DEMO BOT Solid Breeder Blanket. The new design uses cooling plates rather than tubes. This allows a considerable simplification of the blanket and the separation of the beryllium from the Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles. The neutronic, thermohydraulic and tritium performance of the new design is quite good and equivalent to that of the previous one. (orig.)

  5. Mirror hybrid reactor blanket and power conversion system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Backus, G.A.; Baxi, C.B.; Dee, J.B.; Estrine, E.A.; Rao, R.; Veca, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a gas-cooled mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor is presented. The designs of the fuel, blanket module and power conversion system are based on existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology that has been developed at General Atomic Company. The uranium silicide fuel is contained in Inconel-clad rods and is cooled by helium gas. The fuel is contained in 16 spherical segment modules which surround the fusion plasma. The hot helium is used to raise steam for a conventional steam cycle turbine generator. The details of the method of support for the massive blanket modules and helium ducts remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the conceptual design appears to be technically feasible with existing gas-cooled technology. A preliminary safety analysis shows that with the development of a satisfactory method of primary coolant circuit containment and support, the hybrid reactor could be licensed under existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations

  6. Preliminary Analysis for K-DEMO Water Cooled Breeding Blanket Using MARS-KS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Kim, Geon-Woo; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Im, Kihak

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, thermal-hydraulic analyses for the blanket concept are being conducted using the Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARSKS) code, which has been used for the safety analysis of a pressurized water reactor. The purposes of the analyses are to verify the applicability of the code for the proposed blanket system, to investigate the departure of nucleate boiling (DNB) occurrence during the normal and transient conditions, and to extend the capability of MARS-KS to the entire blanket system which includes a few hundreds of single blanket modules. In this paper, the thermal analysis results of the proposed blanket design using the MARS-KS code are presented for the normal operation and an accident condition of a reduced coolant flow rate. Afterwards, the plan for the whole blanket system analysis using MARSKS is introduced and the result of the first trial for the multiple blanket module analysis is summarized. In the present study, thermal-hydraulic analyses for the blanket concept were conducted using the MARS-KS code for a single blanket module. By comparing the MARS calculation results with the CFD analysis results, it was found that MARS-KS can be applied for the blanket thermal analysis with less number of computational meshes. Moreover, due to its capability on the two-phase flow analysis, it can be used for the transient or accident simulation where a phase change may be resulted in. In the future, the MARS-KS code will be applied for the anticipated transient and design based accident analyses. The investigation of the DNB occurrence during the normal and transient conditions will be of special interest of the analysis using it. After that, a methodology to simulate the entire blanket system was proposed by using the DLL version of MARS-KS. A supervisor program, which controls the multiple DLL files, was developed for the common header modelling. The program explicitly determines the flow rates of each module which can equalize

  7. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket and vessel for ITER-FEAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K. E-mail: iokik@itereu.de; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Osaki, T.; Rozov, V.; Sannazzaro, G.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoshimura, H

    2001-11-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel and FW/blanket for ITER-FEAT. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs of the radially cooled shield block with flat separable FW panels have been developed. The ITER blanket R and D program covers different materials and fabrication methods in order make a final selection based on the results. Separate manifolds have been designed and analysed for the blanket cooling. The vessel design with flexible support housings has been improved to minimise the number of continuous poloidal ribs. Most of the R and D performed so far during EDA are still applicable.

  8. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket and vessel for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Osaki, T.; Rozov, V.; Sannazzaro, G.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoshimura, H.

    2001-01-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel and FW/blanket for ITER-FEAT. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs of the radially cooled shield block with flat separable FW panels have been developed. The ITER blanket R and D program covers different materials and fabrication methods in order make a final selection based on the results. Separate manifolds have been designed and analysed for the blanket cooling. The vessel design with flexible support housings has been improved to minimise the number of continuous poloidal ribs. Most of the R and D performed so far during EDA are still applicable

  9. Heat transfer in the lithium-cooled blanket of a pulsed fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.E.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The transient temperature distribution in the lithium-cooled blanket of a pulsed fusion reactor has been calculated using a finite-element heat-conduction computer program. An auxiliary program was used to predict the coolant transient velocity in a network of parallel and series flow passages with constant driving pressure and varying magnetic field. The coolant velocity was calculated by a Runge-Kutta numerical integration of the conservation equations. The lithium coolant was part of the finite-element heat-conduction mesh with the velocity terms included in the total matrix. The matrix was solved implicitly at each time step for the nodal point temperatures. Slug flow was assumed in the coolant passages and the Boussinesq analogy was used to calculate turbulent heat transfer when the magnetic field was not present

  10. Thermosyphoning analysis with the CATHENA model of the blanket and first wall cooling loop for the SEAFP reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the thermosyphoning analysis which was performed with the CATHENA network model of one of the blanket and first wall cooling loops of the SEAFP reactor design. This thermosyphoning analysis includes four simulations, each with a slightly different model feature or assumption. These simulations are performed to assess the primary heat transport system behaviour for a complete loss of electrical power event (total loss of flow) and to estimate the rate and extent of heat-up of the incore components. For each event, a description of some of the important aspects of the transient thermalhydraulic behaviour including coolant temperatures, circuit and sector flows, circuit pressure, pressurizer level and outflow, and first wall and blanket temperatures is provided. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 32 figs

  11. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.; Dagher, Mohamad; Smolentsev, S.; Merrill, Brad; Youssef, M.; Reyes, Susanna; Sze, Dai Kai; Morley, Neil B.; Sharafat, Shahran; Calderoni, P.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Fogarty, Paul J.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Abdou, Mohamed A.

    2006-07-05

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiCf/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactor design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperture of 700C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which inlude the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effectrs with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R&D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time, we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.

  12. Potential and problems of an aqueous lithium salt solution blanket for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechle, M.; Bojarsky, E.; Dorner, S.; Fischer, U.; Reimann, J.; Reiser, H.

    1987-07-01

    The report describes design studies on a water cooled in-vessel shield blanket for NET and its modification into an aqueous lithium salt blanket. The shield blankets are exchangable against breeding blankets and fulfill their shielding and heat removal functions. Emphasis is on simplicity and reliability. The water cooled shield is a large steel container in the shape of the blanket segment which is filled by water and containes a grid structure of poloidally arranged steel plates. The water flows several times in poloidal direction through the channels formed by the steel plates and is thereby heated up from 40degC to 70degC. When the water is replaced by an aqueous lithium salt solution the shield can be converted into a tritium breeding blanket without any design modification or invessel component replacement. When compared with other concepts this blanket has the advantage that the solution can replace water cooling also in the divertor and in segments dedicated to plasma heating and diagnostics, what increases the coverage considerably. Extensive three-dimensional neutronics calculations were done which, together with literature studies on candidate materials, corrosion, and tritium recovery led to a first assessment of the concept. There is an indication that no major corrosion problems are to be expected in the low temperature region envisaged. Tritium recovery capital costs were estimated to be in the 20 MECU to 50 MECU range and tritium breeding ratio is comparable to the best breeding blanket. (orig./GG) [de

  13. First wall and blanket design for the STARFIRE commercial tokamak power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Cramer, B.A.; Bowers, D.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The first wall and blanket design concepts being evaluated for the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor study are presented. The two concepts represent different approaches to the mechanical design of a tritium breeding blanket using the reference materials options. Each concept has a separate ferritic steel first wall cooled by heavy water (D 2 O), and a ferritic steel blanket with solid lithium oxide breeder cooled by helium. A separate helium purge system is used in both concepts to extract tritium. The two concepts are compared and relative advantages and disadvantages for each are discussed

  14. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  15. Neutronic performance optimization study of Indian fusion demo reactor first wall and breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, H.L.; Danani, C.

    2015-01-01

    In frame of design studies of Indian Nuclear Fusion DEMO Reactor, neutronic performance optimization of first wall and breeding blanket are carried out. The study mainly focuses on tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and power density responses estimation of breeding blanket. Apart from neutronic efficiency of existing breeding blanket concepts for Indian DEMO i.e. lead lithium ceramic breeder and helium cooled solid breeder concept other concepts like helium cooled lead lithium and helium-cooled Li_8PbO_6 with reflector are also explored. The aim of study is to establish a neutronically efficient breeding blanket concept for DEMO. Effect of first wall materials and thickness on breeding blanket neutronic performance is also evaluated. For this study 1 D cylindrical neutronic model of DEMO has been constructed according to the preliminary radial build up of Indian DEMO. The assessment is being done using Monte Carlo based radiation transport code and nuclear cross section data file ENDF/B- VII. (author)

  16. Japanese contributions to ITER testing program of solid breeder blankets for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Maki, Koichi; Mori, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tatsushi; Hirata, Shingo; Miura, Hidenori.

    1991-04-01

    ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA), which has been conducted by four parties (Japan, EC, USA and USSR) since May 1988, has been finished on December 1990 with a great achievement of international design work of the integrated fusion experimental reactor. Numerous issues of physics and technology have been clarified for providing a framework of the next phase of ITER (Engineering Design Activity; EDA). Establishment of an ITER testing program, which includes technical test issues of neutronics, solid breeder blankets, liquid breeder blankets, plasma facing components, and materials, has been one of the goals of the CDA. This report describes Japanese proposal for the testing program of DEMO/power reactor blanket development. For two concepts of solid breeder blanket (helium-cooled and water-cooled), identification of technical issues, scheduling of test program, and conceptual design of test modules including required test facility such as cooling and tritium recovery systems have been carried out as the Japanese contribution to the CDA. (author)

  17. NET test blanket design and remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.; Hubert, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NET machine has three horizontal ports reserved for testing tritium breeding blanket designs during the physics phase and possibly five during the technology phase. The design of the ports and test blankets are modular to accept a range of blanket options, provide radiation shielding and allow routine replacement. Radiation levels during replacement or maintenance require that all operations must be carried out remotely. The paper describes the problems overcome in providing a port design which includes attachment to the vacuum vessel with double vacuum seals, an integrated cooled first wall and support guides for the test blanket module. The method selected to remotely replace the test module whilst controlling the spread of contamination is also adressed. The paper concludes that the provisions of a test blanket facility based on the NET machine design is feasible. (orig.)

  18. Tritium transport analysis for CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Wanli; Li, Yuanjie; Ge, Zhihao; Nie, Xingchen; Gao, Zhongping

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A simplified tritium transport model for CFETR WCSB blanket was developed. • Tritium transport process in CFETR WCSB blanket was analyzed. • Sensitivity analyses of tritium transport parameters were carried out. - Abstract: Water Cooled Solid Breeder (WCSB) blanket was put forward as one of the breeding blanket candidate schemes for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). In this study, a simplified tritium transport model was developed. Based on the conceptual engineering design, neutronics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of CFETR WCSB blanket, tritium transport process was analyzed. The results show that high tritium concentration and inventory exist in primary water loop and total tritium losses exceed CFETR limits under current conditions. Conducted were sensitivity analyses of influential parameters, including tritium source, temperature, flow-rate capacity and surface condition. Tritium performance of WCSB blanket can be significantly improved under a smaller tritium impinging rate, a larger flow-rate capacity or a better surface condition. This work provides valuable reference for the enhancement of tritium transport behavior in CFETR WCSB blanket.

  19. Impact of material system thermomechanics and thermofluid performance on He-cooled ceramic breeder blanket designs with SiCf/SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Alice Y.; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko; Abdou, Mohamed; Kohyama, Akira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from a recent effort initiated under the JUPITER-II collaborative program for high temperature gas-cooled blanket systems using SiC f /SiC as a structural material. Current emphasis is to address issues associated with the function of the helium gas considered in the DREAM and ARIES-I concepts by performing thermomechanical and thermofluid analysis. The objective of the analysis is to guide future research focus for a task in the project. It is found that the DREAM concept has the advantage of achieving uniform temperature without threatening blanket pebble bed integrity by differential thermal stress. However, its superiority needs to be further justified by investigating the feasibility and economic issues involved in the tritium extraction technology

  20. Impact of material system thermomechanics and thermofluid performance on He-cooled ceramic breeder blanket designs with SiCf/SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.; Yokomine, T.; Shimizu, A.; Kohyama, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a recent effort initiated under the JUPITER-II collaborative program for high temperature gas-cooled blanket systems using SiC/SiC as a structural material. Current emphasis is to address issues associated with the function of the helium gas considered in the DREAM and ARIES-I concepts by performing thermomechanical and thermofluid analysis. The objective of the analysis is to guide future research focus for a task in the project. It is found that the DREAM concept has the advantage of achieving uniform temperature without threatening blanket pebble bed integrity by differential thermal stress. However, its superiority needs to be further justified by investigating the feasibility and economic issues involved in the tritium extraction technology. (author)

  1. Neutronic design and analysis on dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the fusion driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican; Gao Chunjing; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Zhu Xiaoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design and analysis of dual-cooled multi-functional waste transmutation blanket (DWTB) for the fusion driven sub-critical system (FDS) are performed to ensure the system be able to meet the requirements of fuel-sufficiency and more waste transmutation ratio with low initial loading fuel inventory, which is based on 1-D burn-up calculations with home-developed code Visual BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups-42 Gamma groups coupled) data library HENDL1.0/MG (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). (authors)

  2. A computational procedure for coupled electromagnetic-structural dynamic problems and its application to a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1993-09-01

    A method is presented in order to couple quasistationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid. This method allows to compute forces, strains and stresses in structures subjected to transient magnetic fields. An important application was to determine the dynamic loading of the self-cooled liquid metal blanket during a plasma distruption. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Reduction of circulation power for helium-cooled fusion reactor blanket using additive CO{sub 2} gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon-Gun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju-si 690-756, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Woong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Nuclear Fusion Engineering Development Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeokdaero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Helium (He) cooling requires large circulation power to remove high heat from plasma side and nuclear heating by high energy neutron in fusion reactors due to its low density. Based on the recent findings that the heat transfer capability of the light gas can be enhanced by mixing another heavier gas, this study adds CO{sub 2} to a reference helium coolant and evaluates the cooling performance of the binary mixture for various compositions. To assess the cooling performance, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses on the KO HCML (Korea Helium Cooled Molten Lithium) TBM are conducted. As a result, it is revealed that the binary mixing of helium, which has favorable thermophysical properties but the density, with a heavier noble gas or an unreactive gas significantly reduces the required circulation power by an order of magnitude with meeting the thermal design requirements. This is attributed to the fact that the density can be highly increased with small amount of a heavier gas while other gas properties are kept relatively comparable. The optimal CO{sub 2} mole fraction is estimated to be 0.4 and the circulation power, in this case, can be reduced to 13% of that of pure helium. This implies that the thermal efficiency of a He-cooled blanket system can be fairly enhanced by means of the proposed binary mixing.

  4. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy ( and lt; 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level

  5. Effects of Buffer Thickness on ATW Blanket Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level. (authors)

  6. An overview of dual coolant Pb-17Li breeder first wall and blanket concept development for the US ITER-TBM design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)]. E-mail: wongc@fusion.gat.com; Malang, S. [Fusion Nuclear Technology Consulting, Linkenheim (Germany); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Dagher, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smolentsev, S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Merrill, B. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sze, D.K. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Morley, N.B. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sharafat, S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Calderoni, P. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sviatoslavsky, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Kurtz, R. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Fogarty, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zinkle, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdou, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-02-15

    An attractive blanket concept for the fusion reactor is the dual coolant Pb-17Li liquid (DCLL) breeder design. Reduced activation ferritic steel (RAFS) is used as the structural material. Helium is used to cool the first wall and blanket structure, and the self-cooled breeder Pb-17Li is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC{sub f}/SiC composite insert is used as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) insulation to reduce the impact from the MHD pressure drop of the circulating Pb-17Li and as the thermal insulator to separate the high temperature Pb-17Li from the helium cooled RAFS structure. For the reference tokamak power reactor design, this blanket concept has the potential of satisfying the design limits of RAFS while allowing the feasibility of having a high Pb-17Li outlet temperature of 700 deg. C. We have identified critical issues for the concept, some of which include the first wall design, the assessment of MHD effects with the SiC-composite flow coolant insert, and the extraction and control of the bred tritium from the Pb-17Li breeder. R and D programs have been proposed to address these issues. At the same time we have proposed a test plan for the DCLL ITER-Test Blanket Module program.

  7. Thermomechanical analysis of the DFLL test blanket module for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongli; Wu Yican; Bai Yunqing

    2006-01-01

    The finite element code is used to simulate two kinds of blanket design structure, which are SLL (Quasi-Static Lithium Lead) and DLL (Dual-cooled Lithium Lead) blanket concepts for the Dual Functional Lithium Lead-Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) submitted to the ITER test blanket working group. The temperature and stress distributions have been presented for the two kinds of blanket structure on the basis of the structural design, thermal-hydraulic design and neutronics analysis. Also the mechanical performance is presented for the high temperature component of blanket structure according to the ITER Structural Design Criteria (ISDC). The rationality and feasibility of the two kinds of blanket structure design of DFLL-TBM have been analyzed based on the above results which also acted as the theoretical base for further optimized analysis. (authors)

  8. Status of helium-cooled nuclear power systems. [Development potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melese-d' Hospital, G.; Simnad, M

    1977-09-01

    Helium-cooled nuclear power systems offer a great potential for electricity generation when their long-term economic, environmental, conservation and energy self-sufficiency features are examined. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has the unique capability of providing high-temperature steam for electric power and process heat uses and/or high-temperature heat for endothermic chemical reactions. A variation of the standard steam cycle HTGR is one in which the helium coolant flows directly from the core to one or more closed cycle gas turbines. The effective use of nuclear fuel resources for electric power and nuclear process heat will be greatly enhanced by the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) currently being developed. A GCFR using thorium in the radial blanket could generate sufficient U-233 to supply the fuel for three HTGRs, or enough plutonium from a depleted uranium blanket to fuel a breeder economy expanding at about 10% per year. The feasibility of utilizing helium to cool a fusion reactor is also discussed. The status of helium-cooled nuclear energy systems is summarized as a basis for assessing their prospects. 50 references.

  9. Engineering structure design and fabrication process of small sized China helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zeming; Chen Lu; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design and analysis for china helium-cooled solid breeder (CHHC-SB) test blanket module (TBM) have been carried out recently. As partial verification that the original size module was reasonable and the development process was feasible, fabrication work of a small sized module was to be carried out targetedly. In this paper, detailed design and structure analysis of small sized TBM was carried out based on preliminary design work, fabrication process and integrated assembly process was proposed, so a fabrication for the trial engineering of TBM was layed successfully. (authors)

  10. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  11. Blanket for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Maki, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a blanket of a thermonuclear device which produces tritium fuels consumed in plasmas while converting neutrons generated in the plasmas into heat energy. That is, zirconium is coated to at least one of neutron breeder pebbles and breeder pebbles, to suppress reaction between them by being in direct contact with each other at a high temperature. Further, fins are attached to a cooling pipe at a pitch smaller than the diameter of both of the pebbles, to prevent direct contact at whole surface of the pebbles and the cooling pipe, which would lower a temperature excessively. The length of the fin is controlled to control the thickness of a helium gas gap. With such constitution, direct contact of neutron breeder pebbles and the breeder pebble which are to be filled and mixed, and tend to react at a high temperature, can be prevented. The temperature of the breeding blanket is reliably prevented from lowering below a tritium emitting temperature. The structure is simplified and the production is facilitated. (I.S.)

  12. Activation analysis of Chinese ITER helium cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingru; Chen Yixue; Ma Xubo; Wang Shouhai; Forrest, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Chinese ITER helium cooled solid breeder(CH-HCSB) test blanket module (TBM) of the 3 x 6 sub-modules options, the activation characteristics of the TBM were calculated. Three-dimensional neutronic calculations were performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and the nuclear data library FENDL/2. Furthermore, the activation calculations of HCSB-TBM were carried out with the European activation system EASY-2007. At shutdown the total activity is 1.29 x 10 16 Bq, and the total afterheat is 2.46 kW. They are both dominated by the Eurofer steel. The activity and afterheat are both in the safe range of TBM design, and will not have a great impact on the environment. Meanwhile,on basis of the calculated contact dose rate, the activated materials can be re-used following the remote handling recycling options. The activation results demonstrate that the current HCSB-TBM design can satisfy the ITER safety design requirements from the activation point of view. (authors)

  13. A study of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor with thorium blanket for supply of U-233 to high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Nishimura, H.; Osugi, T.

    1978-08-01

    Symbiotic energy system between fast breeder reactor and thermal reactor would have a potential merit for nuclear proliferation problem. And when using HTGR as the thermal reactor in the system, the energy system appears to be promising as an energy system self-sufficient in fuels, which can generate both electricity and high temperature process heat. In the system the fast breeder reactor has to supply sufficient amount of fissile plutonium to keep the reactor going, and also produce U-233 necessary to the associated U-233 fuelled process heat production HTGR. Three types of LMFBR concepts with thorium blanket, conventional homogeneous core LMFBR, and axial and radial parfait heterogeneous core LMFBRs, have been investigated to find out suitable configurations of LMFBR for supply of U-233 to the HTGR with relatively high conversion ratio of 0.85, in the symbiotic energy system between LMFBR and HTGR. The investigation on LMFBR has been made on fuel sufficiency of the system, inherent safety such as sodium-void and Doppler coefficients, and fuel cycle cost. The followings were revealed; (1) Conventional homogeneous core LMFBR with thorium radial blanket well satisfies the condition of fuel sufficiency, if adequate radial blanket thickness is chosen. However, the sodium-void coefficient and fuel cycle cost are inferior to the other concepts. (2) Axial parfait heterogeneous core LMFBR can be regarded as one of the best LMFBR concepts installed in the symbiotic energy system, from the viewpoints of fuel sufficiency, inherent safety and fuel cycle cost. However, further investigations should be needed on reliability and operationability of the concept. (3) Radial parfait heterogeneous core LMFBR seems inadequate as the LMFBR in the system, because the configurations based on this concept does not satisfy plutonium and U-233 breedings, simultaneously. This LMFBR concept, however, has excellent breeding performance in the internal radial blanket. So further

  14. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, G.; Zou, Y.; Xu, H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of thorium fuel in a Pebble-Bed Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (PBFHR) is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative Flibe (2LiF-BeF_2) salt Temperature Reactivity Coefficient (TRC). Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tri-structural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle system for increasing fuel loading and decreasing excessive moderation. To analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared two refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern) and two kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite). This method found that the feasible region of breeding and negative Flibe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% fuel loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, Flibe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong "9Be(n,2n) reaction and low neutron absorption of "6Li (even at 1000 ppm) in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows a good safety margin. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the decades irradiation time of the pebble fuel. (A.C)

  15. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  16. Corrosion of 316 stainless steel in high temperature molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Guiqiu, E-mail: guiqiuzheng@gmail.com; Kelleher, Brian; Cao, Guoping; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-06-15

    In support of structural material development for the fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), corrosion tests of 316 stainless steel were performed in the potential primary coolant, molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) at 700 °C for an exposure duration up to 3000 h. Tests were performed in both 316 stainless steel and graphite capsules. Corrosion in both capsule materials occurred by the dissolution of chromium from the stainless steel into the salt which led to the depletion of chromium predominantly along the grain boundaries of the test samples. The samples tested in graphite capsules showed a factor of two greater depth of corrosion attack as measured in terms of chromium depletion, compared to those tested in 316 stainless steel capsules. The samples tested in graphite capsules showed the formation of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} particulate phases throughout the depth of the corrosion layer. Samples tested in both types of capsule materials showed the formation of MoSi{sub 2} phase due to increased activity of Mo and Si as a result of Cr depletion, and furthermore corrosion promoted the formation of a α-ferrite phase in the near-surface regions of the 316 stainless steel. Based on the corrosion tests, the corrosion attack depth in FLiBe salt was predicted as 17.1 μm/year and 31.2 μm/year for 316 stainless steel tested in 316 stainless steel and in graphite capsules respectively. It is in an acceptable range compared to the Hastelloy-N corrosion in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt.

  17. Limiter and first wall of the fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, I.; Skladnov, K.; Kolganov, V.

    1994-01-01

    Previous designing of the first wall and limiter has allowed to determine their possible embodiment depending on the parameters and operation conditions of the blanket. As a rule limiter is a separate structure located on the plasma facing surface of the blanket assembly. Possible versions of the limiter/FW which may be considered: (1) limiters with mechanical attachment of the protective part; (2) limiters with the attachment with brazing; (3) limiters with common/separate cooling system; (4) limiter as a substitute of the FW. Generally the FW/limiter structure includes protective shield and its cooling system which consist of protective coating, heat accumulator, conductive layer and attachment locks

  18. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using an 840 MWt LBE cooled ATW design, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performances have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performances have been estimated by a series of calculations using MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance change are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. As the irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. The results show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable

  19. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems

  20. Low activity blanket designs and heat transfer for experimental power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.; Tichler, P.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two minimum activity blanket designs are described, based on the ANL TEPR circular design parameters. A first wall loading (plasma on) of 1.0 MW(th)/m 2 has been assumed. The first option is composed of SAP (sintered aluminum product) modules. The oval shaped SAP shell, in which approximately 45 percent of the fusion energy is removed, is maintained at a temperature of approximately 400 0 C by a He coolant stream. The remaining 55 percent of the fusion energy is deposited in a thermally insulated hot interior (SiC and B 4 C) and removed by a separate He coolant, with exit temperature of 800 0 C. In the second option, the blanket is a thick graphite block structure (approximately 50 cm thickness) with SAP coolant tubes carrying He (50 atm) embedded deep within the graphite to minimize radiation damage. The neutron and gamma energy deposited in the graphite is radiated along internal slots and conducted through the graphite to the coolant tubes. To reduce surface evaporation above 2000 0 C, the blanket surface is radiatively cooled to a low temperature radiation sink, a bank of He cooled SAP tubes. Approximately 20 percent of the fusion energy is removed in this region, the remaining 80 percent in the primary graphite-aluminum blanket. Both blanket options are mounted on heavy Al backing plates, cooled by He, which are in turn supported from the fixed shield

  1. Low technology high tritium breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The main function of this low technology blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for INTOR operation with minimum first wall coverage. The INTOR first wall, blanket, and shield are constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components and dose equivalent after shutdown in the reactor hall. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power generation can be sacrificed to achieve the highest possible tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and developments and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. A set of blanket evaluation criteria has been used to compare possible blanket concepts. Six areas: performance, operating requirements, impact on reactor design and operation, safety and environmental impact, technology assessment, and cost have been defined for the evaluation process. A water-cooled blanket was developed to operate with a low temperature and pressure. The developed blanket contains a 24 cm of beryllium and 6 cm of solid breeder both with a 0.8 density factor. This blanket provides a local tritium breeding ratio of ∼2.0. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which eliminates the tritium buildup in the water by permeation and reduces the changes for water-breeder interaction. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  2. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled High Temperature Reactor - 15171

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, G.; Zou, Y.; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of thorium fuel in a pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative FLiBe (2LiF-BeF 2 ) salt temperature reactivity coefficient (TRC). Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tri-structural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle system for increasing heavy metal loading and decreasing excessive moderation. In order to analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared 2 refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern) and 2 kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite). This method has found that the feasible regions of breeding and negative FLiBe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% heavy metal loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, FLiBe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong 9 Be(n,2n) reaction and low neutron absorption of 6 Li (even at 1000 ppm) in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows good safety margins. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the very long irradiation time of the pebble fuel. (authors)

  3. Pulsed activation analyses of the ITER blanket design options considered in the blanket trade-off study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed activation calculations have been performed on two blanket options considered as part of the ITER home team blanket trade-off study. The objective was to compare the activity, afterheat and waste disposal rating (WDR) results of a composite blanket-shield design for the continuous operation approximation to a pulsed operation case to determine whether the differences are at most the duty factor as predicted by the two nuclide chain model. Up to a cooling period of 100 years, the pulsed activity and afterheat values were below the continuous oepration results and well within (except for one afterheat value) the maximum deviation predicted by the two nuclide chain model. No differences in the WDR values were noted as they are, to a large extent, based on long-lived nuclides which are insensitive to short-term changes in the operation history. (orig.)

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic research in fusion blanket engineering and metallurgical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.

    1991-11-01

    A review of recent research activities in liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (LM-MHDs) is presented in this article. Two major reserach areas are discussed. The first topic involves the thermomechanical design issues in a proposed tokamak fusion reactor. The primary concerns are in the magneto-thermal-hydraulic performance of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The second topic involves the application of MHD in material processing in the metallurgical and semiconductor industries. The two representative applications are electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of continuously cast steel and the Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth in the presence of a magnetic field. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., 136 refs

  5. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers

  6. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O) and lithium zirconate (Li 2 ZrO 3 ) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers

  7. Liquid metal blanket module testing and design for ITER/TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.; Finn, P.A.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1988-05-01

    A major goal for ITER is the testing of nuclear components to demonstrate the integrated performance of the most attractive concepts that can lead to a commercial fusion reactor. As part of the ITER/TIBER II study, the test program and design of test models were examined for a number of blanket concepts. The work at Argonne National Laboratory focused on self-cooled liquid metal blankets. A test program for liquid metal blankets was developed based upon the ITER/TIBER II operating schedule and the specific data needs to resolve the key issues for liquid metals. Testing can begin early in reactor operation with liquid metal MHD tests to confirm predictive capability. Combined heat transfer/MHD tests can be performed during initial plasma operation. After acceptable heat transfer performance is verified, tests to determine the integrated high temperature performance in a neutron environment can begin. During the high availability phase operation, long term performance and reliability tests will be performed. It is envisioned that a companion test program will be conducted outside ITER to determine behavior under severe accident conditions and upper performance limits. A detailed design of a liquid metal test module and auxiliary equipment was also developed. The module followed the design of the TPSS blanket. Detailed analysis of the heat transfer and tritium systems were performed, and the overall layout of the systems was determined. In general, the blanket module appears to be capable of addressing most of the testing needs. 8 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Assessment of First Wall and Blanket Options with the Use of Liquid Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Sawan, M.

    2005-01-01

    As candidate blanket concepts for a U.S. advanced reactor power plant design, with consideration of the time frame for ITER development, we assessed first wall and blanket design concepts based on the use of reduced activation ferritic steel as structural material and liquid breeder as the coolant and tritium breeder. The liquid breeder choice includes the conventional molten salt Li 2 BeF 4 and the low melting point molten salts such as LiBeF 3 and LiNaBeF 4 (FLiNaBe). Both self-cooled and dual coolant molten salt options were evaluated. We have also included the dual coolant leadeutectic Pb-17Li design in our assessment. We take advantage of the molten salt low electrical and thermal conductivity to minimize impacts from the MHD effect and the heat losses from the breeder to the actively cooled steel structure. For the Pb-17Li breeder we employ flow channel inserts of SiC f /SiC composite with low electrical and thermal conductivity to perform respective insulation functions. We performed preliminary assessments of these design options in the areas of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, safety, and power conversion system. Status of the R and D items of selected high performance blanket concepts is reported. Results from this study will form the technical basis for the formulation of the U.S. ITER test module program and corresponding test plan

  9. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-I through IV. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies. ARIES-1 investigated the use of SiC composite as the structural material to increase the blanket temperature and reduce the blanket activation. Li 2 ZrO 3 was used as the breeding material due to its high temperature stability and good tritium recovery characteristics. The ARIES-IV is a modification of ARIES-1. The plasma was in the second stability regime. Li 2 O was used as the breeding material to remove Zr. A gaseous divertor was used to replace the conventional divertor so that high Z divertor target is not required. The physics of ARIES-II was the same as ARIES-IV. The engineering design of the ARIES-II was based on a self-cooled lithium blanket with a V-alloy as the structural material. Even though it was assumed that the plasma was in the second stability regime, the plasma beta was still rather low (3.4%). The ARIES-III is an advanced fuel (D- 3 He) tokamak reactor. The reactor design assumed major advancement on the physics, with a plasma beta of 23.9%. A conventional structural material is acceptable due to the low neutron wall loading. From the radiation damage point of view, the first wall can last the life of the reactor, which is expected to be a major advantage from the engineering design and waste disposal point of view

  10. Surface condition effects on tritium permeation through the first wall of a water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.-S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Xu, Y.-P.; Liu, H.-D. [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Liu, F.; Li, X.-C.; Zhao, M.-Z.; Qi, Q.; Ding, F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Luo, G.-N., E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We investigate surface effects on T transport through the first wall. • We solve transport equations with various surface conditions. • The RAFMs walls w/and w/o W exhibit different T permeation behavior. • Diffusion in W has been found to be the rate-limiting step. - Abstract: Plasma-driven permeation of tritium (T) through the first wall of a water-cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket may raise safety and other issues. In the present work, surface effects on T transport through the first wall of a WCCB blanket have been investigated by theoretical calculation. Two types of wall structures, i.e., reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) walls with and without tungsten (W) armor, have been analyzed. Surface recombination is assumed to be the boundary condition for both the plasma-facing side and the coolant side. It has been found that surface conditions at both sides can affect T permeation flux and inventory. For the first wall using W as armor material, T permeation is not sensitive to the plasma-facing surface conditions. Contamination of the surfaces will lead to higher T inventory inside the first wall.

  11. Experimental study of MHD effects on turbulent flow of flibe simulant fluid in a circular pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Junichi; Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.; Satake, Shin-ichi; Yokomine, Takehiko

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of MHD turbulent pipe flow of Flibe simulant fluid have been conducted as a part of US-Japan JUPITER-II collaboration. Flibe is considered as a promising candidate for coolant and tritium breeder in some fusion reactor design concepts because of its low electrical conductivity compared to liquid metals. This reduces the MHD pressure drop to a negligible level; however, turbulence can be significantly suppressed by MHD effects in fusion reactor magnetic field conditions. Heat transfer in the Flibe coolant is characterized by its high Prandtl number. In order to achieve sufficient heat transfer and to prevent localized heat concentration in a high Prandtl number coolant, high turbulence is essential. Even though accurate prediction of the MHD effects on heat transfer for high Prandtl number fluids in the fusion environment is very important, reliable data is not available. In these experiments, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide is used as a simulant fluid for Flibe. This paper presents the experimental results obtained by flow field measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The PIV measurements provide 2-dimensional 2-velocity component information on the MHD flow field. The test section is a circular pipe with 89 mm inner diameter and 7.0 m in length, which is 79 times pipe diameter. This relatively large diameter pipe is selected in order to maximize the MHD effects measured by Hartmann number (Ha=BL(sigma/mu)1/2), and to allow better resolution of the flow in the near-wall region. The test section is placed under maximum 2 Tesla magnetic fields for 1.4m of the axial length. The hydrodynamic developing length under the magnetic field is expected to be 1.2 m. In order to apply PIV technique in the magnetic field condition, special optical devices and visualization sections were created. PIV measurements are performed for Re = 11600 with variable Hartmann numbers. The turbulence statistics of the MHD turbulent flow

  12. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  13. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  14. Economical and neutronic performance of HYLIFE-II with mixture of 90% flibe + 10% UF4 (or ThF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenalan, Sebahattin

    2004-01-01

    This work investigated the neutronics behavior and the economics of the HYLIFE-II reactor with ThF 4 and UF 4 , which produces an electrical power of 1 GW from the fusion power of 2.857 GW during the operation period of 30 years. The use of ThF 4 and UF 4 is realized by a mixture zone consisted of 90% flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ) and 10% fuel, instead of 100% flibe coolant. The mixture compositions are selected as 90% flibe + 10% UF 4 , 90% flibe + 10% ThF 4 and 90% flibe + 5% UF 4 + 5% ThF 4 . The capacity factor of the reactor is 0.75. The mixtures, with zone thickness of 65 cm were circulated with periods of 20.22, 19.89 and 20.11 s during the operation period of 30 years, respectively. In addition, for flibe + UF 4 , power stabilization by means of plutonium separation from the mixture was applied. The use of fuel materials in the HYLIFE-II reactor resulted in high energy production, sufficient tritium breeding, significant fissile fuel breeding and low radiation damage in the first wall. The average values of tritium breeding ratio over 30 years are between 1.08 and 1.12, higher than 1.0 indicating sufficient tritium breeding. Generally, the mixtures with ThF 4 show better performance than the mixture with UF 4 in terms of more energy production and significant fissile fuel breeding. The neutronic performance of the reactor increases with the operational period. However, the stabilization process performed after operation for 6 years causes all neutronic values to remain nearly constant during the followed operation time. At the 6th year of operation, the power production, which is ∼1540 MW(electric) at startup, reached the electrical power of 2 GW for flibe + UF 4 . The power production without the separation process reached ∼3500 MW(electric) for the mixtures with ThF 4 and ∼3000 MW(electric) for the mixture with UF 4 . At the end of the operation period, helium production values in the first wall, made of Hastelloy, are calculated as 590 ppm without the

  15. Fusion blanket testing in MFTF-α + T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility-α + T (MFTF-α + T) is an upgraded version of the current MFTF-B test facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and is designed for near-term fusion-technology-integrated tests at a neutron flux of 2 MW/m 2 . Currently, the fusion community is screening blanket and related issues to determine which ones can be addressed using MFTF-α + T. In this work, the minimum testing needs to address these issues are identified for the liquid-metal-cooled blanket and the solid-breeder blanket. Based on the testing needs and on the MFTF-α + T capability, a test plan is proposed for three options; each option covers a six to seven year testing phase. The options reflect the unresolved question of whether to place the research and development (R and D) emphasis on liquid-metal or solid-breeder blankets. In each case, most of the issues discussed can be addressed to a reasonable extent in MFTF-α+T

  16. Tritium Management In HCLL-PPCS Model AB Blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricapito, I.; Aiello, A.; Benamati, G.; Utili, M.; Ciampichetti, A.; Zucchetti, M.

    2006-01-01

    One the main issues in the HCLL blanket development for a prototype fusion reactor is the technical feasibility of the bred tritium processing system. The basis of such concern lies in the very low tritium-Pb17Li Sieverts' constant, as measured by different scientists in the past years. In the PPCS reactor 650 g/d of tritium must be generated in the breeding blanket while less than 1 g/y of tritium has to be released to the environment through the secondary cooling circuit. As a consequence, CPS (Coolant Purification System) plays a fundamental role because it has to keep at an acceptable level the tritium partial pressure in the primary HCS (Helium Cooling Circuit) limiting, therefore, the tritium environmental release through leakage and permeation into the secondary cooling circuit. On the other hand, the He mass flow-rate to be processed by CPS is linear with the tritium permeation rate from the breeder into HCS. Therefore, with the above mentioned low Sieverts' constant values and the consequent high tritium partial pressure in the liquid metal, the possibility to keep acceptable the CPS capacity depends on a highly efficient and stable performance of tritium permeation barriers, to be applied not only on the blanket cooling plates but also on the steam generator walls. However, the experimental results on the tritium permeation barriers under relevant operative conditions were so far quite disappointing. The new data on the Sieverts' constant achieved at ENEA CR Brasimone, one order of magnitude higher than those founding the past, have a big impact in relaxing the above mentioned requirements for the tritium management in PPCS model AB reactor. Besides presenting and discussing these recent experimental results, an updated assessment of the tritium permeation rate from the liquid breeder into HCS through the cooling plates and from HCS into the environment through the steam generators is given in this paper. The consequent new constraints in terms of tritium

  17. Assessment of the integration of a He-cooled divertor system in the power conversion system for the dual-coolant blanket concept (TW2-TRP-PPCS12D8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Kruessmann, R.; Malang, S.; Reimann, G.

    2002-12-01

    Application of a helium-cooled divertor together with the dual-coolant blanket concept is considered favourable for achieving a high thermal efficiency of the power plant due to its relatively high coolant outlet temperature. A new FZK He-cooled modular divertor concept with integrated pin arrays (HEMP) is introduced. Its main features and function are described in detail. The result of the thermalhydraulic analysis shows that the HEMP divertor concept has the potential of resisting, a heat flow density of at least 10-15 MW/m 2 at a reachable heat transfer coefficient of approx. 60 kW/m 2 K and a reasonable pumping power. Integration of this divertor concept into the power conversion system using a closed Brayton gas turbine system with three-stage compression leads to a net efficiency of the blanket/divertor cycle of about 43%. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of potential blanket concepts for a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.; Kelly, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation has been made of several different blanket concepts for use in a near-term Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR), whose main objective would be to produce a significant amount of fissile fuel while demonstrating the feasibility of the tokamak hybrid reactor concept. The desirability of a simple design using proven technology plus a proliferation resistant fuel cycle led to the selection of a low temperature and pressure water-cooled, zircaloy clad ThO 2 blanket concept to breed 233 U. The nuclear performance and thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the blanket were evaluated to arrive at a consistent design. The blanket was found to be feasible for producing a significant amount of fissile fuel even with the limited operating conditions and blanket coverage in the DTHR

  19. Objectives and status of EUROfusion DEMO blanket studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, L.V., E-mail: lorenzo.boccaccini@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Aiello, G.; Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Garching (Germany); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Forest, L. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hernandez, F.; Norajitra, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Porempovic, G. [Fuziotech Engineering Ltd (Hungary); Rapisarda, D. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sardain, P. [CEA/IRFM, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Vala, L. [Centrum výzkumu Řež, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Short description of the new Breeding Blanket Project in the EUROfusion consortium for the design of the EU PPPT DEMO: objectives. • Presentation of the design approach used in the development of the Breeding Blanket design: requirements. • Breeding Blanket design; in particular the four blanket concepts included in the study are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. • Auxiliary systems and related R&D programme: in particular the work areas addressed in the Project (Tritium Technology, Pb-Li and Solid Breeders Technology, First Wall Design and R&D, Manufacturing) are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. - Abstract: The design of a DEMO reactor requires the design of a blanket system suitable of reliable T production and heat extraction for electricity production. In the frame of the EUROfusion Consortium activities, the Breeding Blanket Project has been constituted in 2014 with the goal to develop concepts of Breeding Blankets for the EU PPPT DEMO; this includes an integrated design and R&D programme with the goal to select after 2020 concepts on fusion plants for the engineering phase. The design activities are presently focalized around a pool of solid and liquid breeder blanket with helium, water and PbLi cooling. Development of tritium extraction and control technology, as well manufacturing and development of solid and PbLi breeders are part of the programme.

  20. Water-cooled Pb-17Li test blanket module for ITER: impact of the structural material grade on the neutronic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vella, G.; Aiello, G.; Oliveri, E. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucl.; Fuetterer, M.A.; Giancarli, L. [CEA - Saclay, DRN/DMT/SERMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tavassoli, F. [CEA - Saclay, CEREM, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-10-01

    The water-cooled lithium lead (WCLL) DEMO blanket is one of the two EU lines to be further developed with the aim of manufacturing by 2010 a test blanket module for ITER (TBM). In this paper results of a 3D-Monte Carlo neutronic analysis of the TBM design are reported. A fully 3D heterogeneous model of the WCLL-TBM has been inserted into an existing ITER model accounting for a proper D-T neutron source. The structural material assumed for the calculations was martensitic 9% Cr steel code named Z 10 CDV Nb 9-1. Results have been compared with those obtained using MANET. The main nuclear responses of the TBM have been determined, such as detailed power deposition density, material damage through DPA and He and H gas production rate, radial distribution of tritium production rate and total tritium production in the module. The impact of using natural lithium on the TBM system operation has also been evaluated. (orig.) 13 refs.

  1. Activation analysis and waste management of China ITER helium cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.R., E-mail: hanjingru@163.co [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Chen, Y.X.; Han, R. [North China Electric Power University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Zhu-Xin-Zhuang, De-Wai, Beijing 102206 (China); Feng, K.M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Forrest, R.A. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Activation characteristics have been assessed for the ITER China helium cooled solid breeder (CH-HCSB) 3 x 6 test blanket module (TBM). Taking a representative irradiation scenario, the activation calculations were performed by FISPACT code. Neutron fluxes distributions in the TBM were provided by a preceding MCNP calculation. These fluxes were passed to FISPACT for the activation calculation. The main activation parameters of the HCSB-TBM were calculated and discussed, such as activity, afterheat and contact dose rate. Meanwhile, the dominant radioactivity nuclides and reaction channel pathways have been identified. According to the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) waste management strategy, the activated materials can be re-used following the remote handling recycling options. The results will provide useful indications for further optimization design and waste management of the TBM.

  2. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F. [comps.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  3. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report

  4. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  5. Improved modules for the blanket of RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elio, F.; Ioki, K.; Cardella, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes innovative design aspects that are considered to optimise the blanket modules for the reduced technical objective/reduced cost international thermonuclear experimental reactor. The blanket modules have a vertical straight profile facing the plasma, and the first wall is built in small and flat panels. Copper may be applied only in front of the first row of cooling passages. The radial cooling of the shield block avoids a complex by-pass at the back and opens up the possibility to use cast instead of forged steel. Slits in the shield block and in the first wall reduce the electromagnetic forces enough to allow the support of the modules on the vessel and the mechanical attachment of the first wall panels

  6. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union (EU) concerning the development of liquid metal breeder blankets for DEMO. After several years of studies on breeding blankets, two blanket concepts are presently considered, both using the eutectic Pb-17Li: the dual-coolant concept and the water-cooled concept. The analysis of such concepts has permitted to identify the experimental areas where further data are required. Tritium control and MHD-issues are, at present, the activities on which is devoted the greatest effort within the EU. (authors). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 39 refs

  7. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  8. ITER blanket module shield block design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, D.; Khomyakov, S.; Razmerov, A.; Strebkov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the alternative design of the shield block cooling path for a typical ITER blanket module with a predominantly sequential flow circuit. A number of serious disadvantages have been observed for the reference design, where the parallel flow circuit is used, which is inherent in the majority of blanket modules. The paper discusses these disadvantages and demonstrates the benefit of the alternative design based on the detailed design and the technological, hydraulic, thermal, structural and strength analyses, conducted for module no. 17

  9. System code assessment with thermal-hydraulic experiment to develop helium cooled breeding blanket for nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, S. B.; Park, I. W.; Park, G. C.; Lee, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    By considering the requirements for a DEMO-relevant blanket concept, Korea (KO) has proposed a He Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A performance analysis for the thermal-hydraulics and a safety analysis for an accident caused by a loss of coolant for the KO TBM have been carried out using a commercial CFD code, ANSYS-CFX, and a system code, GAMMA (GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis), which was developed by the Gas Cooled Reactor in Korea. To verify the codes, a preliminary study was performed by Lee using a single TBM First Wall (FW) mock-up made from the same material as tho KO TBM, ferritic martensitic steel, using a 6 MPa nitrogen gas loop. The test was performed at pressures of 11, 19, and 29 bar, and under various ranges of flow rate from 0.63 to 2.44kg/min with a constant wall temperature condition. In the present study, a thermal-hydraulic test was performed with the newly constructed helium supplying system, In which the design pressure and temperature were 9 MPa and 500 .deg. C, respectively. In the experiment, the same mock-up was used, and the test was performed under the conditions of 8 MPa pressure, 0.2 kg/s flow rate, which are almost same conditions of the KO TBM FW. One-side of the mock-up was heated with a constant heat flux of 0.5 MW/m 2 using a graphite heating system, KoHLT-2 (Korea Heat Load Test Facility-2). The wall temperatures were measured using installed thermocouples, and they show a strong parity with the code results simulated under the same test conditions

  10. Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Germán, E-mail: German.Perez@iter.org; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented.

  11. Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Germán; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented

  12. Design optimization of first wall and breeder unit module size for the Indian HCCB blanket module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, SHARMA; Paritosh, CHAUDHURI

    2018-04-01

    The Indian test blanket module (TBM) program in ITER is one of the major steps in the Indian fusion reactor program for carrying out the R&D activities in the critical areas like design of tritium breeding blankets relevant to future Indian fusion devices (ITER relevant and DEMO). The Indian Lead–Lithium Cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket concept is one of the Indian DEMO relevant TBM, to be tested in ITER as a part of the TBM program. Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder (HCCB) is an alternative blanket concept that consists of lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) as ceramic breeder (CB) material in the form of packed pebble beds and beryllium as the neutron multiplier. Specifically, attentions are given to the optimization of first wall coolant channel design and size of breeder unit module considering coolant pressure and thermal loads for the proposed Indian HCCB blanket based on ITER relevant TBM and loading conditions. These analyses will help proceeding further in designing blankets for loads relevant to the future fusion device.

  13. Impact analysis of the time trend of TBR and irradiation damage assessment of HCSB blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn; Chen, Hongli; Lv, Zhongliang; Pan, Lei; Zhang, Haoran; Shi, Wei

    2017-01-15

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is a test tokamak reactor to bridge the gap between ITER and future fusion power plants and to demonstrate generation of fusion power in China. In fusion power plants, tritium is generated from the reaction of neutron and Lithium. One of the missions of CFETR is the full cycle of tritium self-sufficiency. For the mission, a Helium Cooled Solid Breeder blanket (HCSB) was proposed for CFETR and its conceptual design has been carried out. In order to assess the capacity of the tritium breeding and irradiation damage of first wall of the HCSB blanket during the 8 years’ engineering test stage, this paper presents the time trend of TBR analysis and irradiation damage assessment of HCSB blanket based on the three-dimensional (3D) neutronics model which is created by McCad. In the 3D neutronics model, the outboard blanket on equatorial plane is described based on the detailed 3D engineering model. The calculations were performed by MCNP and FISPACT with FENDL/2.1 data library. The impact analysis of the thickness of coolant plates (CP) and the structural material content in CPs to the TBR is assessment.

  14. Effect of wall thickness and helium cooling channels on duct magnetohydrodynamic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MHD flows in ducts of different wall thickness compared with wall uniform. • Study of velocity, pressure distribution in ducts MHD flows with single pass of helium cooling channels. • Comparison of three types of dual helium cooling channels and acquisition of an option for minimum pressure drop. • A single short duct MHD flow in blanket without FCI has been simulated for pressure gradient analysis. - Abstract: The concept of dual coolant liquid metal (LM) blanket has been proposed in different countries to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DEMO reactor. In the system, helium gas and PbLi eutectic, separated by structure grid, are used to cool main structure materials and to be self-cooled, respectively. The non-uniform wall thickness of structure materials gives rise to wall non-homogeneous conductance ratio. It will lead to electric current distribution changes, resulting in significant changes in the velocity distribution and pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. In order to investigate the effect of helium channels on MHD flows, different methods of numerical simulations cases are carried out including the cases of different wall thicknesses, single pass of helium cooling channels, and three types of dual helium cooling channels. The results showed that helium tubes are able to affect the velocity distribution in the boundary layer by forming wave sharp which transfers from Hartmann boundary layer to the core area. In addition, the potential profile and pressure drop in the cases have been compared to these in the case of walls without cooling channel, and the pressure gradient of a simplified single short duct MHD flow in blanket shows small waver along the central axis in the helium channel position.

  15. Effect of wall thickness and helium cooling channels on duct magnetohydrodynamic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • MHD flows in ducts of different wall thickness compared with wall uniform. • Study of velocity, pressure distribution in ducts MHD flows with single pass of helium cooling channels. • Comparison of three types of dual helium cooling channels and acquisition of an option for minimum pressure drop. • A single short duct MHD flow in blanket without FCI has been simulated for pressure gradient analysis. - Abstract: The concept of dual coolant liquid metal (LM) blanket has been proposed in different countries to demonstrate the technical feasibility of DEMO reactor. In the system, helium gas and PbLi eutectic, separated by structure grid, are used to cool main structure materials and to be self-cooled, respectively. The non-uniform wall thickness of structure materials gives rise to wall non-homogeneous conductance ratio. It will lead to electric current distribution changes, resulting in significant changes in the velocity distribution and pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. In order to investigate the effect of helium channels on MHD flows, different methods of numerical simulations cases are carried out including the cases of different wall thicknesses, single pass of helium cooling channels, and three types of dual helium cooling channels. The results showed that helium tubes are able to affect the velocity distribution in the boundary layer by forming wave sharp which transfers from Hartmann boundary layer to the core area. In addition, the potential profile and pressure drop in the cases have been compared to these in the case of walls without cooling channel, and the pressure gradient of a simplified single short duct MHD flow in blanket shows small waver along the central axis in the helium channel position.

  16. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  17. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  18. Thermal-hydraulics design comparisons for the tandem mirror hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Yang, Y.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor (TMHR) is a cylindrical reactor, and the fertile materials and tritium breeding fuel elements can be arranged with radial or axial orientation in the blanket module. Thermal-hydraulics performance comparisons were made between plate, axial rod and radial rod fuel geometrices. The three configurations result in different coolant/void fractions and different clad/structure fractions. The higher void fraction in the two rod designs means that these blankets will have to be thicker than the plate design blanket in order to achieve the same level of nuclear interactions. Their higher structural fractions will degrade the uranium breeding ratio and energy multiplication factor of the design. One difficulty in the thermal-hydraulics analysis of the plate design was caused by the varying energy multiplication of the blanket during the lifetime of the plate which forced the use of designs that operated in the transition flow regime at some point during life. To account for this, an approach was adopted from Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) experience for the pressure drop calculation and the corresponding heat transfer coefficient that was used for the film drop thermal calculation. Because of the superior nuclear performance, the acceptable thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the mechanical design feasibility, the plate geometry concept was chosen for the reference gas-cooled TMHR blanket design

  19. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosswait, Kenneth Mitchell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  20. Overview of the TFTR Lithium Blanket Module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) is an approximately cubic module, about 80 cm on each side, with construction representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. Measurements of neutron transport and tritium breeding in the LBM will be made in irradiation programs first with a point-neutron source, and subsequently with the D-D and D-T fusion-neutron sources of the TFTR. This paper summarizes the objectives of the LBM program, the design, development and construction of the LBM, and progress in the experimental tests

  1. Feasibility study of LiF-BeF2 and chloride salts as blanket coolants for fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Y.

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of using molten salts, in particular, nonberyllium-bearing chloride salts, as blanket coolants for Tokamak fusion reactors has been examined for the nucleonic and thermal/hydraulic aspects. It is concluded that the chloride salts, i.e., LiCl--KCl, LiCl--PbCl 2 and LiCl--SnCl 2 , can be used as the blanket coolant for a static lithium metal blanket provided that large blanket thickness can be tolerated, along with the use of U-238 for neutron multiplication in the cases of LiCl--KCl or LiCl--SnCl 2 cooled blankets. However, to make the appraisal complete, the tritium recovery and corrosion problems must be examined extensively, based on data not yet at hand. As for LiF--BeF 2 , it is observed that although the salt mixture can be used for a single fluid blanket with satisfactory nuclear performance, careful attention should be paid to the cooling capability

  2. Pressurizing Behavior on Ingress of Coolant into Pebble Bed of Blanket of Fusion DEMO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daigo Tsuru; Mikio Enoeda; Masato Akiba

    2006-01-01

    Solid breeder blankets are being developed as candidate blankets for the Fusion DEMO reactor in Japan. JAEA is performing the development of the water cooled and helium cooled solid breeder blankets. The blanket utilizes ceramic breeder pebbles and multiplier pebbles beds cooled by high pressure water or high pressure helium in the cooling tubes placed in the blanket box structure. In the development of the blanket, it is very important to incorporate the safety technology as well as the performance improvement on tritium production and energy conversion. In the safety design and technology, coolant ingress in the blanket box structure is one of the most important events as the initiators. Especially the thermal hydraulics in the pebble bed in the case of the high pressure coolant ingress is very important to evaluate the pressure propagation and coolant flow behavior. This paper presents the preliminary results of the pressure loss characteristics by the coolant ingress in the pebble bed. Experiments have been performed by using alumina pebble bed (4 litter maximum volume of the pebble bed) and nitrogen gas to simulate the helium coolant ingress into breeder and multiplier pebble beds. Reservoir tank of 10 liter is filled with 1.0 MPa nitrogen. The nitrogen gas is released at the bottom part of the alumina pebble bed whose upper part is open to the atmosphere. The pressure change in the pebble bed is measured to identify the pressure loss. The measured values are compared with the predicted values by Ergun's equation, which is the correlation equation on pressure loss of the flow through porous medium. By the results of the experiments with no constraint on the alumina pebble bed, it was clarified that the measured value agreed in the lower flow rate. However, in the higher flow rate where the pressure loss is high, the measured value is about half of the predicted value. The differences between the measured values and the predicted values will be discussed from

  3. Test Blanket Working Group's recent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties

  4. Analysis of loss of electrical power with the CATHENA model of the blanket and first wall cooling loop for the SEAFP reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents the thermosyphoning analysis which was performed with the CATHENA network model of one of the blanket and first wall cooling loops of the SEAFP reactor design. This thermosyphoning analysis is similar to that reported in CFFTP-G--9355, Volume 4 except that a much larger decay power transient is used. Also, the pressurizer heaters are turned off following the loss of electrical power. This analysis is performed to assess the primary heat transport system behaviour for a complete loss of electrical power event (total loss of flow) and to estimate the rate of heatup of the in-core components. A description of the important aspects of the transient thermalhydraulic behaviour including coolant temperatures, circuit and sector flows, circuit pressure, pressurizer level and steam bleed flow, and first wall and blanket temperatures are provided. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs

  5. Tokamak power system studies at ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Evans, K. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    The following features, in particular, have been examined: (a) large aspect ratio (A ≅ 6), which may ease maintenance; (b) high beta (β ≥ 0.20) without indentation, which brings the maximum toroidal field down to about 6 to 7 T; (c) low toroidal current (I ≅ 4MA), which reduces the cost of the current drive and equilibrium field system; and (d) steady state operation with current density control via fast and slow wave current drive. The key to high beta operation with low toroidal current lies in utilizing second stability regime equilibria with the required current distributions produced by an appropriate selection of wave driver frequencies and power spectra. The ray tracing and current drive calculation is self-consistent with the actual magnetic fields they produce in the plasma. The impurity control activities in TPSS have emphasized the self-pumping concept as applied to using the entire first wall or ''slot'' limiters. The blanket design effort has emphasized liquid metal and Flibe concepts. The reference concept is a liquid lithium/vanadium, self-cooled configuration. Overall, there exists a number of major design improvements which will substantially improve the attractiveness of tokamak reactors

  6. Neutronics and activation of the preliminary reaction chamber of HiPER reactor based in a SCLL blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.juarez@upm.es [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier; Lopez-Revelles, A.J. [Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, José Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic study of a proposal of a reaction chamber for HiPER reactor. • Two options for the blanket size, thin and thick, are studied and compared. • The thin blanket performs better than the thick blanket. • The proposed Vacuum Vessel is unviable as lifetime component in both cases. • Likely solutions for the Vacuum Vessel lifetime extension are explored. -- Abstract: The HiPER reactor design is exploring different reaction chambers. In this study, we tackle the neutronics and activation studies of a preliminary reaction chamber based in the following technologies: unprotected dry wall for the First Wall, self-cooled lead lithium blanket, and independent low activation steel Vacuum Vessel. The most critical free parameter in this stage is the blanket thickness, as a function of the {sup 6}Li enrichment. After a parametric study, we select for study both a “thin” and “thick” blanket, with “high” and “low” {sup 6}Li enrichment respectively, to reach a TBR = 1.1. To help to make a choice, we compute, for both blanket options, in addition to the TBR, the energy amplification factor, the tritium partial pressure, the {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Po total activity in the LiPb loop, and the Vacuum Vessel thickness required to guarantee the reweldability during its lifetime. The thin blanket shows a superior performance in the safety related issues and structural viability, but it operates at higher {sup 6}Li enrichment. It is selected for further improvements. The Vacuum Vessel shows to be unviable in both cases, with the thickness varying between 39 and 52 cm. Further chamber modifications, such as the introduction of a neutron reflector, are required to exploit the benefits of the thin blanket with a reasonable Vacuum Vessel.

  7. LMFBR Blanket Physics Project progress report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, I.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Rasmussen, N.C.; Lanning, D.D.; Kaplan, I.

    1971-01-01

    This is the second annual report of an experimental program for the investigation of the neutronics of benchmark mock-ups of LMFBR blankets. Work was devoted primarily to measurements on Blanket Mock-Up No. 2, a simulation of a typical large LMFBR radial blanket and its steel reflector. Activation traverses and neutron spectra were measured in the blanket; calculations of activities and spectra were made for comparison with the measured data. The heterogeneous self-shielding effect for 238 U capture was found to be the most important factor affecting the comparison. Optimization and economic studies were made which indicate that the use of a high-albedo reflector material such as BeO or graphite may improve blanket neutronics and economics

  8. Detailed mechanical design and manufacturing study for the ITER reference breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchia, F.; Daenner, W.; Stefanis, L. de; Ferrari, M.; Gerber, A.; Mustoe, J.

    1998-01-01

    This papers relates on the detailed mechanical design, manufacturing feasibility and assembly analysis of a water-cooled solid breeding blanket concept, selected as the ITER reference design. This breeding blanket design is characterised by: i) pressurised water flowing inside flat steel panels for cooling of the internals; each panel is welded along its contour onto the first wall structure and to the rear shield plate after closure of the module (last assembly step). ii) Beryllium (neutronic multiplier) in the form of micro-spheres filling the volume between parallel flat coolant panels. iii) Breeder pebbles enclosed in rods, which form bundles and are themselves embedded inside the Beryllium micro-spheres. (authors)

  9. Computer aided design of operational units for tritium recovery from Li17Pb83 blanket of a DEMO fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, C.; Viola, A.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of tritium recovery from Li 17 Pb 83 blanket of a DEMO fusion reactor is analyzed with the objective of limiting tritium permeation into the cooling water to acceptable levels. To this aim, a mathematical model describing the tritium behavior in blanket/recovery unit circuit has been formulated. By solving the model equations, tritium permeation rate into the cooling water and tritium inventory in the blanket are evaluated as a function of dimensionless parameters describing the combined effects of overall resistance for tritium transfer from Li 17 Pb 83 alloy to cooling water, circulating rate of the molten alloy in blanket/recovery unit circuit and extraction efficiency of tritium recovery unit. The extraction efficiency is, in turn, evaluated as a function of the operating conditions of recovery unit. The design of tritium recovery unit is then optimized on the basis of the above parametric analysis and the results are herein reported and discussed for a tritium permeation limit of 10 g/day into the cooling water. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Tritium breeding blanket device of D-T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.

    1984-01-01

    This blanket device uses solid tritium breeding materials as those which include, in a known manner, near a neutron breeding plasma, a neutron multiplier medium and a tritium breeding medium, cooled by a cooling fluid circulation. This device is characterized by the fact that the association of the multiplier media and the tritium breeding media is realized by pellet alternated piling up of each of those both media, help in close contact on all their lateral surfaces [fr

  11. Conceptual design and testing strategy of a dual functional lithium-lead test blanket module in ITER and EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A dual functional lithium-lead (DFLL) test blanket module (TBM) concept has been proposed for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in China to demonstrate the technologies of the liquid lithium-lead breeder blankets with emphasis on the balance between the risks and the potential attractiveness of blanket technology development. The design of DFLL-TBM concept has the flexibility of testing both the helium-cooled quasi-static lithium-lead (SLL) blanket concept and the He/PbLi dual-cooled lithium-lead (DLL) blanket concept. This paper presents an effective testing strategy proposed to achieve the testing target of SLL and DLL DEMO blankets relevant conditions, which includes three parts: materials R and D and small-scale out-of-pile mockups testing in loops, middle-scale TBMs pre-testing in EAST and full-scale consecutive TBMs testing corresponding to different operation phases of ITER during the first 10 years. The design of the DFLL-TBM concept and the testing strategy ability to test TBMs for both blanket concepts in sequence and or in parallel for both ITER and EAST are discussed

  12. Experimental and analytical study on thermoelectric self cooling of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Astrain, D.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and studies the novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling, which can be introduced as the cooling and temperature control of a device using thermoelectric technology without electricity consumption. For this study, it is designed a device endowed with an internal heat source. Subsequently, a commonly used cooling system is attached to the device and the thermal performance is statistically assessed. Afterwards, it is developed and studied a thermoelectric self cooling system appropriate for the device. Experimental and analytical results show that the thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduced by 25-30% when the thermoelectric self cooling system is installed, and indicates the promising applicability of this technology to devices that generate large amounts of heat, such as electrical power converters, transformers and control systems. Likewise, it was statistically proved that the thermoelectric self cooling system leads to significant reductions in the temperature difference between the heat source and the environment, and, what is more, this reduction increases as the heat flow generated by the heat source increases, which makes evident the fact that thermoelectric self cooling systems work as temperature controllers. -- Highlights: → Novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling is presented and studied. → No extra electricity is needed. → Thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduces by 25-30%. → Increasing reduction in temperature difference between heat source and environment. → Great applicability to any device that generates heat and must be cooled.

  13. Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the first wall of CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Deng, Weiping; Ge, Zhihao; Li, Yuanjie

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Detailed numerical analysis of heat transfer in a water-cooling first wall was carried out based on the conceptual design of CFETR WCSB blanket. • Investigation of the influences of buoyancy effect and surface roughness on heat transfer in the water-cooling first wall was presented. • Analysis of the effect of the front wall thickness on temperature was carried out for the water-cooling first wall design. • Simulation results of two 1D CFD methods were evaluated by the 3D CFD data. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the first fusion reactor experiment project planned in China, is now being investigated in detail. Recently, a conceptual structural design of the Water-Cooled-Solid-Breeder (WCSB) blanket was proposed as one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR. In this research, based on the present design of the CFETR WCSB blanket, the heat transfer performance in the first wall (FW) under the pressurized water cooling condition was analyzed. The 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the maximal temperature of the FW will not exceed the limited temperature under normal or even higher heat flux condition. In addition, the effect of buoyancy on heat transfer is negligible under both conditions. The influence of roughness becomes increasingly important when the roughness height lies in the fully turbulent regime. The maximal temperature increases approximately linearly as the thickness of the front wall increases. It is also found that the heat flux and the local heat transfer coefficient are extremely non-uniform in the circumferential direction. Two 1D CFD methods are also evaluated by 3D CFD data, with the conclusion that both 1D results have some differences with the 3D data. The improved 1D method is more accurate than the former one. However, we ascertain that 1D methods should be used with caution for the water-cooling FW design.

  14. Fusion blankets for catalyzed D--D and D--He3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Blanket designs are presented for catalyzed D-D (Cat-D) and D-He 3 fusion reactors. Because of relatively low neutron wall loads and the flexibility due to non-tritium breeding, blankets potentially should operate for reactor life-times of approximately 30 years. Unscheduled replacement of failed blanket modules should be relatively rapid, due to very low residual activity, by operators working either through access ports in the shield (option 1) or directly in the plasma chamber (option 2). Cat-D blanket designs are presented for high (approximately 30%) and low (approximately 12%) β noncircular Tokamak reactors. The blankets are thick graphite screens, operating at high temperature to anneal radiation damage; the deposited neutron and gamma energy is thermally radiated along internal cavities and conducted to a bank of internal SiC coolant tubes (approximately 4 cm. ID) containing high pressure helium. In the D-He 3 Tokamak reactor design, the blanket consists of multiple layers (e.g., three) of thin (approximately 10 cm.) high strength aluminum (e.g., SAP), modular plates, cooled by organic terphynyl coolant

  15. Fusion blankets for catalyzed D--D and D--3He reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Blanket designs are presented for catalyzed D-D (Cat-D) and D-He 3 fusion reactors. Because of relatively low neutron wall loads and the flexibility due to non-tritium breeding, blankets potentially should operate for reactor life-times of approximately 30 years. Unscheduled replacement of failed blanket modules should be relatively rapid, due to very low residual activity, by operators working either through access ports in the shield (option 1) or directly in the plasma chamber (option 2). Cat-D blanket designs are presented for high (approximately 30%) and low (approximately 12%) β non-circular Tokamak reactors. The blankets are thick graphite screens, operating at high temperature to anneal radiation damage; the deposited neutron and gamma energy is thermally radiated along internal cavities and conducted to a bank of internal SiC coolant tubes (approximately 4 cm. ID) containing high pressure helium. In the D-He 3 Tokamak reactor design, the blanket consists of multiple layers (e.g., three) of thin (approximately 10 cm.) high strength aluminum (e.g., SAP), modular plates, cooled by organic terphenyl coolant

  16. Optimization of the first wall for the DEMO water cooled lithium lead blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, Julien, E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, Christian [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Maio, Pietro Alessandro [Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, Rosario [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Li Puma, Antonella; Morin, Alexandre [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Tincani, Amelia [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents the optimization of the first wall of the water cooled lithium lead DEMO blanket with pressurized water reactor condition and circular channels in order to find the best geometry that can allow the maximum heat flux considering design criteria since an estimate of the engineering limit of the first wall heat load capacity is an essential input for the decision to implement limiters in DEMO. • An optimization study was carried out for the flat first wall design of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead considering thermal and mechanical constraint functions, assuming T{sub inlet}/T{sub outlet} equal to 285 °C/325 °C, based on geometric design parameters. • It became clear that through the optimization the advantages of a waved First Wall are diminished. • The analysis shows that the maximum heat load could achieve 2.53 MW m{sup −2}, but considering assumptions such as a coolant velocity ≤8 m/s, pipe diameter ≥5 mm and a total first wall thickness ≤22 mm, heat flux is limited to 1.57 MW m{sup −2}. - Abstract: The maximum heat load capacity of a DEMO First Wall (FW) of reasonable cost may impact the decision of the implementation of limiters in DEMO. An estimate of the engineering limit of the FW heat load capacity is an essential input for this decision. This paper describes the work performed to optimize the FW of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket concept for DEMO fusion reactor in order to increase its maximum heat load capacity. The optimization is based on the use of water at typical Pressurised Water Reactors conditions as coolant. The present WCLL FW with a waved plasma-faced surface and with circular channels was studied and the heat load limit has been predicted with FEM analysis equal to 1.0 MW m{sup −2} with respect to the Eurofer temperature limit. An optimization study was then carried out for a flat FW design considering thermal and mechanical constraints assuming inlet and outlet

  17. Modeling of liquid-metal corrosion/deposition in a fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    A model has been developed for the investigation of the liquid-metal corrosion and the corrosion product transport in a liquid-metal-cooled fusion reactor blanket. The model describes the two-dimensional transport of wall material in the liquid-metal flow and is based on the following assumptions: (1) parallel flow in a straight circular tube; (2) transport of wall material perpendicular to the flow direction by diffusion and turbulent exchange; in flow direction by the flow motion only; (3) magnetic field causes uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layer and suppresses turbulent mass exchange; and (4) liquid metal at the interface is saturated with wall material. A computer code based on this model has been used to analyze the corrosion of ferritic steel by lithium lead and the deposition of wall material in the cooler part of a loop. Three cases have been investigated: (1) ANL forced convection corrosion experiment (without magnetic field); (2) corrosion in the MARS liquid-metal-cooled blanket (with magnetic field); and (3) deposition of wall material in the corrosion product cleanup system of the MARS blanket loop

  18. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}(FLiBe) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Guiqiu, E-mail: guiqiuzheng@gmail.com [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); He, Lingfeng [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Carpenter, David [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15–180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo{sub 2}C, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNi{sub x}) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  19. HIP technologies for fusion reactor blankets fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marois, G.; Federzoni, L.; Bucci, P.; Revirand, P.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of HIP techniques applied to the fabrication of fusion internal components for higher performances, reliability and cost savings are emphasized. To demonstrate the potential of the techniques, design of new blankets concepts and mock-ups fabrication are currently performed by CEA. A coiled tube concept that allows cooling arrangement flexibility, strong reduction of the machining and number of welds is proposed for ITER IAM. Medium size mock-ups according to the WCLL breeding blanket concept have been manufactured. The fabrication of a large size mock-up is under progress. These activities are supported by numerical calculations to predict the deformations of the parts during HIP'ing. Finally, several HIP techniques issues have been identified and are discussed

  20. High Temperature Fission Chamber for He- and FLiBe-cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Zane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, Dominic R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lance, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Roger G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warmack, Robert J. Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated candidate technologies for in-core fission chambers for high-temperature reactors to monitor power level via measurements of neutron flux from start-up through full power at up to 800°C. This research is important because there are no commercially available instruments capable of operating above 550 °C. Component materials and processes were investigated for fission chambers suitable for operation at 800 °C in reactors cooled by molten fluoride salt (FLiBe) or flowing He, with an emphasis placed on sensitivity (≥ 1 cps/nv), service lifetime (2 years at full power), and resistance to direct immersion in FLiBe. The latter gives the instrument the ability to survive accidents involving breach of a thimble. The device is envisioned to be a two-gap, three-electrode instrument constructed from concentric nickel-plated alumina cylinders and using a noble gas–nitrogen fill-gas. We report the results of measurements and calculations of the response of fill gasses, impurity migration in nickel alloy, brazing of the alumina insulator, and thermodynamic calculations.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of water cooled breeding blanket of K-DEMO using MARS-KS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Il Woong; Kim, Geon-Woo; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The thermal design of breeding blanket for the K-DEMO is evaluated using MARS-KS. • To confirm the prediction capability of MARS, the results were compared with the CFD. • The results of MARS-KS calculation and CFD prediction are in good agreement. • A transient simulation was carried out so as to show the applicability of MARS-KS. • A methodology to simulate the entire blanket system is proposed. - Abstract: The thermal design of a breeding blanket for the Korean Fusion DEMOnstration reactor (K-DEMO) is evaluated using the Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS-KS) code in this study. The MARS-KS code has advantages in simulating transient two-phase flow over computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. In order to confirm the prediction capability of the code for the present blanket system, the calculation results were compared with the CFD prediction. The results of MARS-KS calculation and CFD prediction are in good agreement. Afterwards, a transient simulation for a conceptual problem was carried out so as to show the applicability of MARS-KS for a transient or accident condition. Finally, a methodology to simulate the multiple blanket modules is proposed.

  2. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  3. Moving ring field-reversed mirror blanket design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, L.; Kessel, C.; Norman, J.; Schultz, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A blanket design for the Moving Ring Field-Reversed Mirror Reactor (MRFRM) is presented in this paper. The design emphasis is placed on minimizing the induced radioactivities in the first-wall, blanket and shield. To this end, aluminum-alloy was selected as the reference structural material, giving dose rates two weeks after shutdown that are 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than comparable steel structures. The aluminum first-wall is water-cooled and thermally insulated from the high temperature SiC-clad Li 2 O tritium breeding zone. A local tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 was obtained for the design. The tritium is extracted from the Li 2 O by the use of a small dry helium purge stream through the SiC tubes. About 1 ppM hydrogen is added to the helium purge stream to enhance the tritium recovery rate. Helium at 28 atmospheres pressure is circulated through the blanket and shield, with an outlet temperature of 850 0 C, which is coupled with an existing small size closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power conversion system. The spatial and temporal variations of the first-wall temperature caused by the translational movement of the plasma rings along the axis of the cylindrical reactor were evaluated. The after-heat cooling problems of the first-wall were also considered

  4. Li2O-pebble type tritium breeding blanket for fusion experimental reactor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Iida, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yoshihisa

    1984-01-01

    The fusion experimental reactor is the next stage device in Japan, which is planned to be constructed following the critical plasma experimental device JT-60 being constructed at present. The breeding blanket installed in nuclear fusion reactors is one of most important structures, and it is required to satisfy the fundamental performance of producing and continuously recovering tritium as the nuclear fusion fuel, and other requirement in good coordination. The Li 2 O pebble type breeding blanket that Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has examined is the concept for resolving the problems of the mass transfer and thermal stress cracking of Li 2 O, which are important in blanket design. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of this breeding blanket are discussed from the viewpoint of the breeding and continuous recovery of tritium, the ease of manufacture and the maintenance of soundness. The breeding blanket is composed of breeding region, tritium purge region, cooling region, plasma stabilizing conductors and blanket container. Li 2 O is excellent in its tritium breeding performance and heat conductivity. The functions required for the breeding blanket, the fundamental structure, the examples of breeding blanket concept, the selection of breeding blanket concept, the characteristics of Li 2 O pebble type blanket and its future prospect are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. Study on the temperature control mechanism of the tritium breeding blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changle; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Lei; Yao, Damao; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR) will demonstrate tritium self- sufficiency using a tritium breeding blanket for the tritium fuel cycle. The temperature control mechanism (TCM) involves the tritium production of the breeding blanket and has an impact on tritium self-sufficiency. In this letter, the CFETR tritium target is addressed according to its missions. TCM research on the neutronics and thermal hydraulics issues for the CFETR blanket is presented. The key concerns regarding the blanket design for tritium production under temperature field control are depicted. A systematic theory on the TCM is established based on a multiplier blanket model. In particular, a closed-loop method is developed for the mechanism with universal function solutions, which is employed in the CFETR blanket design activity for tritium production. A tritium accumulation phenomenon is found close to the coolant in the blanket interior, which has a very important impact on current blanket concepts using water coolant inside the blanket. In addition, an optimal tritium breeding ratio (TBR) method based on the TCM is proposed, combined with thermal hydraulics and finite element technology. Meanwhile, the energy gain factor is adopted to estimate neutron heat deposition, which is a key parameter relating to the blanket TBR calculations, considering the structural factors. This work will benefit breeding blanket engineering for the CFETR reactor in the future.

  6. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in manifolds of dual coolant lead lithium blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistrangelo, C., E-mail: chiara.mistrangelo@kit.edu; Bühler, L.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • MHD flows in model geometries of DCLL blanket manifolds. • Study of velocity, pressure distributions and flow partitioning in parallel ducts. • Flow partitioning affected by 3D MHD pressure drop and velocity distribution in the expanding zone. • Reduced pressure drop in a continuous expansion compared to a sudden expansion. - Abstract: An attractive blanket concept for a fusion reactor is the dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket where reduced activation steel is used as structural material and a lead lithium alloy serves both to produce tritium and to remove the heat in the breeder zone. Helium is employed to cool the first wall and the blanket structure. Some critical issues for the feasibility of this blanket concept are related to complex induced electric currents and 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena that occur in distributing and collecting liquid metal manifolds. They can result in large pressure drop and undesirable flow imbalance in parallel poloidal ducts forming blanket modules. In the present paper liquid metal MHD flows are studied for different design options of a DCLL blanket manifold with the aim of identifying possible sources of flow imbalance and to predict velocity and pressure distributions.

  7. Experimental investigation of biomimetic self-pumping and self-adaptive transpiration cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Xue; Huang, Gan; Zhu, Yinhai; Xu, Ruina; Liao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Taojie

    2017-09-01

    Transpiration cooling is an effective way to protect high heat flux walls. However, the pumps for the transpiration cooling system make the system more complex and increase the load, which is a huge challenge for practical applications. A biomimetic self-pumping transpiration cooling system was developed inspired by the process of trees transpiration that has no pumps. An experimental investigation showed that the water coolant automatically flowed from the water tank to the hot surface with a height difference of 80 mm without any pumps. A self-adaptive transpiration cooling system was then developed based on this mechanism. The system effectively cooled the hot surface with the surface temperature kept to about 373 K when the heating flame temperature was 1639 K and the heat flux was about 0.42 MW m -2 . The cooling efficiency reached 94.5%. The coolant mass flow rate adaptively increased with increasing flame heat flux from 0.24 MW m -2 to 0.42 MW m -2 while the cooled surface temperature stayed around 373 K. Schlieren pictures showed a protective steam layer on the hot surface which blocked the flame heat flux to the hot surface. The protective steam layer thickness also increased with increasing heat flux.

  8. Fuel balance in nuclear power with fast reactors without a uranium blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    General aspects related to replacing the uranium blanket of a lead-cooled fast reactor burning uranium-plutonium nitride fuel with a more efficient lead reflector are briefly discussed in the article. A study is very briefly summarized, which showed that a breeding ratio of about 1 and electric power of about 300 MW were achievable. A nuclear fuel balance is performed to estimate the increased consumption of uranium to produce power and the gains achievable by eliminating the uranium blanket. Elimination of the uranium blanket has the advantages of simplifying and improving the fast reactor and eliminating the production of weapons quality plutonium. 3 figs

  9. One- and two-dimensional heating analyses of fusion synfuel blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, J.S.K.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between one- and two-dimensional neutronics and heating analyses were performed on a Brookhaven designed fusion reactor blanket featuring synthetic fuel production. In this two temperature region blanket design, the structural shell is stainless steel. The interior of the module is a packed ball of high temperature ceramic material. The low temperature shell and the high temperature ceramic interior are separately cooled. Process steam (approx. 1500 0 C) is then produced in the ceramic core for the producion of H 2 and H 2 -based synthetic fuels by a high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process

  10. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored

  11. Comparison of the leading candidate combinations of blanket materials, thermodynamic cycles, and tritium systems for full scale fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The many possible combinations of blanket materials, tritium generation and recovery systems, and power conversion systems were surveyed and a comprehensive set of designs were generated by using a common set of ground rules that include all of the boundary conditions that could be envisioned for a full-scale commercial fusion power plant. Particular attention was given to the effects of blanket temperature on power plant cycle efficiency and economics, the interdependence of the thermodynamic cycle and the tritium recovery system, and to thermal and pressure stresses in the blanket structure. The results indicate that, of the wide variety of systems that have been considered, the most promising employs lithium recirculated in a closed loop within a niobium blanket structure and cooled with boiling potassium or cesium. This approach gives the simplest and lowest cost tritium recovery system, the lowest pressure and thermal stresses, the simplest structure with the lowest probability of a leak, the greatest resistance to damage from a plasma energy dump, and the lowest rate of plasma contamination by either outgassing or sputtering. The only other blanket materials combination that appears fairly likely to give a satisfactory tritium generation and recovery system is a lithium-beryllium fluoride-Incoloy blanket, and even this system involves major uncertainties in the effectiveness, size, and cost of the tritium recovery system. Further, the Li 2 BeF 4 blanket system has the disadvantage that the world reserves of beryllium are too limited to support a full-blown fusion reactor economy, its poor thermal conductivity leads to cooling difficulties and a requirement for a complex structure with intricate cooling passages, and this inherently leads to an expansive blanket with a relatively high probability of leaks. The other blanket materials combinations yield even less attractive systems

  12. Analysis of the WCLL European demo blanket concept in terms of activation and decay heat after exposure to neutron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Gediminas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative paper describes the activation and decay heat calculations for water-cooled lithium-lead performed part of the EURO fusion WPSAE programme and specifications in comparison to other European DEMO blanket concepts on the basis of using a three-dimensional neutronics calculation model. Results are provided for a range of decay times of interest for maintenance activities, safety and waste management assessments. The study revealed that water-cooled lithium-lead has the highest total decay heat at longer decay times in comparison to the helium-cooled design which has the lowest total decay heat. In addition, major nuclides were identified for water-cooled lithium-lead in W armour, Eurofer, and LiPb. In addition, great attention has been dedicated to the analysis of the decay heat and activity both from the different water-cooled lithium-lead blanket modules for the entire reactor and from each water-cooled lithium-lead blanket module separately. The neutron induced activation and decay heat at shutdown were calculated by the FISPACT code, using the neutron flux densities and spectra that were provided by the preceding MCNP neutron transport calculations.

  13. Development of an engineering-scale nuclear test of a solid-breeder fusion-blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Bohn, T.S.; Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Scott, A.J.; Watts, K.D.; Welch, E.C.

    1983-08-01

    As part of the Phase I effort on Program Element-II (PE-II) of the Office of Fusion Energy/Argonne National Laboratory First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program, a study has been performed to develop preconceptual hardware designs and preliminary test program descriptions for two fission-reactor-based tests of a water-cooled, solid-breeder fusion reactor blanket concept. First, a list of potentially acceptable reactor facilities is developed, based on a list of required reactor characteristics. From this set of facilities, two facilities are selected for study: the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and the Power Burst Facility (PBF). A test which employs a cylindrical unit cell of a solid-breeder fusion reactor blanket, with pressurized-water cooling is designed for each facility. The test design is adjusted to the particular characteristics of each reactor. These two test designs are then compared on the basis of technical issues and cost. Both tests can satisfy the PE-II mission: blanket thermal hydraulic and thermomechanical issues. In addition, both reactors will produce prototypical tritium production rates and profiles and release characteristics with little or no additional modifications

  14. First wall fusion blanket temperature variation - slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The first wall of a fusion blanket is approximated by a slab, with the surface facing the plasma subjected to an applied heat flux, while the rear surface is convectively cooled. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the early phases of heating as well as for large times are established. Analytical solutions for the temperature variation with time and space are derived. Numerical calculations for an aluminum and stainless steel slab are performed for a wall loading of 1 MW(th)/m 2 . Both helium and water cooling are considered. (Auth.)

  15. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the tritium breeding ratio of a DEMO fusion reactor with a helium cooled pebble bed blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunnenmann Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertainty analysis was performed for the tritium breeding ratio (TBR of a fusion power plant of the European DEMO type using the MCSEN patch to the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The breeding blanket was of the type Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB, currently under development in the European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT programme for a fusion power demonstration reactor (DEMO. A suitable 3D model of the DEMO reactor with HCPB blanket modules, as routinely used for blanket design calculations, was employed. The nuclear cross-section data were taken from the JEFF-3.2 data library. For the uncertainty analysis, the isotopes H-1, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, O-16, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, Cr-52, Fe-54, Fe-56, Ni-58, W-182, W-183, W-184 and W-186 were considered. The covariance data were taken from JEFF-3.2 where available. Otherwise a combination of FENDL-2.1 for Li-7, EFF-3 for Be-9 and JENDL-3.2 for O-16 were compared with data from TENDL-2014. Another comparison was performed with covariance data from JEFF-3.3T1. The analyses show an overall uncertainty of ± 3.2% for the TBR when using JEFF-3.2 covariance data with the mentioned additions. When using TENDL-2014 covariance data as replacement, the uncertainty increases to ± 8.6%. For JEFF-3.3T1 the uncertainty result is ± 5.6%. The uncertainty is dominated by O-16, Li-6 and Li-7 cross-sections.

  16. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  17. Cost study of the ESPRESSO blanket for a Tandem Mirror Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Hoffman, M.A.; Gaskins, T.

    1986-02-01

    A detailed cost study of the ESPRESSO blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Reactor (TMR) has been performed to complement the thermal-hydraulic parametric study and to help narrow down the choice of parameters for the final design. The ESPRESSO blanket consists of a number of structurally independent ring modules. Each ring module is made up of a number of mutually pressure-supporting canisters containing arrays of breeder tubes. Two separate helium coolant flows are used: a main flow to cool the tube bank and a cooler first wall flow

  18. Development of welding technologies for the manufacturing of European Tritium Breeder blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitevin, Y., E-mail: yves.poitevin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Aubert, Ph. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diegele, E. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Dinechin, G. de [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rey, J. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rieth, M. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rigal, E. [CEA Grenoble, DRT/DTH, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Weth, A. von der [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.-L. [European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Tavassoli, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference Tritium Breeder Blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both are using the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic EUROFER-97 steel as structural material and will be tested in ITER under the form of test blanket modules. The fabrication of their EUROFER structures requires developing welding processes like laser, TIG, EB and diffusion welding often beyond the state-of-the-art. The status of European achievements in this area is reviewed, illustrating the variety of processes and key issues behind retained options, in particular with respect to metallurgical aspects and mechanical properties. Fabrication of mock-ups is highlighted and their characterization and performances with respect to design requirements are reviewed.

  19. Development of Tokamak reactor system code and conceptual studies of DEMO with He Cooled Molten Li blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B.G.; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Yong Hi

    2007-01-01

    To develop the concepts of fusion power plants and identify the design parameters, we have been developing the tokamak reactor system code. The system code can take into account a wide range of plasma physics and technology effects simultaneously and it can be used to find design parameters which optimize the given figure of merits. The outcome of the system studies using the system code is to identify which areas of plasma physics and technologies and to what extent should be developed for realization of a given fusion power plant concepts. As an application of the tokamak reactor system code, we investigate the performance of DEMO for early realization with a limited extension from the plasma physics and technology used in the design of the ITER. Main requirements for DEMO are selected as: 1) to demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency, 2) to generate net electricity, and 3) for steady-state operation. The size of plasma is assumed to be same as that of ITER and the plasma parameters which characterize the performance, i.e. normalized β value, β N , confinement improvement factor for the H-mode, H and the ratio of the Greenwald density limit n/n G are assumed to be improved beyond those of ITER: β N >2.0, H>1.0 and n/n G >1.0. Tritium self-sufficiency is provided by the He Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) blanket with the total thickness of 2.5 m including the shield. With n/n G >1.2, net electric power bigger than 500 MW is possible with β N >4.0 andH>1.2. To access operation space for higher electric power, main restrictions are given by the divertor heat load and the steady-state operation requirements. Developments in both plasma physics and technology are required to handle high heat load and to increase the current drive efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  1. On the optimization of the first wall of the DEMO water-cooled lithium lead outboard breeding blanket equatorial module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G.; Chiovaro, P.; Forte, R.; Garitta, S.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The geometric optimization of the DEMO WCLL blanket module first wall has been performed, maximizing the heat flux it may safely undergo. • Attention has been focused on the FW flat concept endowed with square cooling channels. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the finite element method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Four optimized FW configurations have been found to safely withstand a heat flux up to 2 MW/m{sup 2} fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: Within the framework of EUROfusion R&D activities a research campaign has been carried out at the University of Palermo in order to investigate the thermo-mechanical performances of the DEMO water-cooled lithium lead (WCLL) breeding blanket first wall (FW). The research campaign has been mainly focused on the optimization of the FW geometric configuration in order to maximize the heat flux it may safely withstand fulfilling all the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical requirements foreseen by safety codes. Attention has been focused on the FW flat concept endowed with square cooling channels and the potential influence of its four main geometrical parameters on its thermo-mechanical performances has been assessed performing a parametric analysis by means of a qualified commercial finite element method code. A set of 5929 different FW geometric configurations has been considered and the thermal performances of each one of them have been numerically assessed in case it undergoes 26 different values of heat flux on its plasma-facing surface. The resulting 154154 thermal analyses have allowed to select those cases fulfilling the adopted thermal-hydraulic requirements, whose thermo-mechanical performances have been numerically assessed under both normal operation and over-pressurization steady state loading scenarios to check whether they met the mechanical requirements prescribed by the pertaining SDC-IC safety rules. Four

  2. On the optimization of the first wall of the DEMO water-cooled lithium lead outboard breeding blanket equatorial module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G.; Chiovaro, P.; Forte, R.; Garitta, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The geometric optimization of the DEMO WCLL blanket module first wall has been performed, maximizing the heat flux it may safely undergo. • Attention has been focused on the FW flat concept endowed with square cooling channels. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the finite element method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Four optimized FW configurations have been found to safely withstand a heat flux up to 2 MW/m"2 fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: Within the framework of EUROfusion R&D activities a research campaign has been carried out at the University of Palermo in order to investigate the thermo-mechanical performances of the DEMO water-cooled lithium lead (WCLL) breeding blanket first wall (FW). The research campaign has been mainly focused on the optimization of the FW geometric configuration in order to maximize the heat flux it may safely withstand fulfilling all the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical requirements foreseen by safety codes. Attention has been focused on the FW flat concept endowed with square cooling channels and the potential influence of its four main geometrical parameters on its thermo-mechanical performances has been assessed performing a parametric analysis by means of a qualified commercial finite element method code. A set of 5929 different FW geometric configurations has been considered and the thermal performances of each one of them have been numerically assessed in case it undergoes 26 different values of heat flux on its plasma-facing surface. The resulting 154154 thermal analyses have allowed to select those cases fulfilling the adopted thermal-hydraulic requirements, whose thermo-mechanical performances have been numerically assessed under both normal operation and over-pressurization steady state loading scenarios to check whether they met the mechanical requirements prescribed by the pertaining SDC-IC safety rules. Four

  3. Current design of the European TBM systems and implications on DEMO breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito; Calderoni, P. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [ENEA, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, Bo (Italy); Ghidersa, B. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y.; Pacheco, J. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Description of the Helium Cooling Systems of HCLL and HCPB-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the PbLi loop of HCLL-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the possible ROX (Return of Experience) from design and operation of the Test Blanket Systems. • Discussion on the DEBO relevancy of the main technologies adopted in the Helium Cooling Systems and PbLi loop. - Abstract: Europe is committed in developing the design of the two Test Blanket Systems (TBS) based on HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) breeding blanket (BB) concepts. The complexity of the TBS design comes not only from the innovative fabrication technologies and materials adopted for Test Blanket Modules (TBM) but also from the requirements and functions that the TBM ancillary systems have to satisfy and implement. Indeed, the main TBM ancillary systems, namely the Helium Cooling System, the Coolant Purification System and Tritium Extraction System, all belonging to the Safety Important Class (SIC), have to implement fundamental functions, like the transport of the surface and volumetric heat from the TBM to the heat sink, the extraction and processing of the tritium generated in the TBM, the confinement of radioactive inventory, the support to the investment protection and safety functions. On top of the full compliance with the ITER safety principles, the design of the TBM systems is focused on providing high operational reliability and availability not to jeopardize ITER program and, at the same time, also a good operational flexibility to make possible the achievement of the main TBM scientific objectives. This paper gives an overview of the design status of the HCLL and HCPB-TBM (ancillary) systems, updated to the conclusion of the conceptual design phase (CDR). The most relevant technologies, the still open points, the main issues related to the integration in ITER and last relevant results from the on

  4. The dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor concept with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.A., E-mail: das1990@uw.edu; Jarboe, T.R.; Morgan, K.D.; Pfaff, M.; Lavine, E.S.; Kamikawa, Y.; Hughes, M.; Andrist, P.; Marklin, G.; Nelson, B.A.

    2014-04-15

    A high-β spheromak reactor concept has been formulated with an estimated overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor concept utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt (FLiBe) blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER-developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this concept from the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%.

  5. Thermal analysis of a helium-cooled, tube-bank blanket module for a tandem mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A blanket module concept for the central cell of a tandem mirror reactor is described which takes advantage of the excellent heat transfer and low pressure drop characteristics of tube banks in cross-flow. The blanket employs solid Li 2 O as the tritium breeding material and helium as the coolant. The lithium oxide is contained in tubes arranged within the submodules as a two-pass, cross-flow heat exchanger. Primarily, the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic aspects of the blanket design study are described in this paper. In particular, the analytical model used for selection of the best tube-bank design parameters is discussed in some detail

  6. Thermal analysis of a helium-cooled, tube-bank blanket module for a tandem-mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.; Hoffman, M.A.; Johnson, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    A blanket module concept for the central cell of a tandem mirror reactor is described which takes advantage of the excellent heat transfer and low pressure drop characteristics of tube banks in cross-flow. The blanket employs solid Li 2 O as the tritium breeding material and helium as the coolant. The lithium oxide is contained in tubes arranged within the submodules as a two-pass, cross-flow heat exchanger. Primarily, the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic aspects of the blanket design study are described in this paper. In particular, the analytical model used for selection of the best tube-bank design parameters is discussed in some detail

  7. Rotating liquid blanket for a toroidal fusion reator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A novel blanket concept is presented for toroidal geometry in which many of the limitations imposed by a first wall are avoided by not having a first wall in the usual sense. The blanket consists of a rapidly rotating, low-vapor-pressure liquid that has a sharp boundary with the vacuum region. Nozzles inject ja continuous layer of cool liquid on the inner surface. The noncentricity of the plasma is maintained so that the plasma scrape-off region intersects the rotating liqid in a localized region. This noncentricity allows sufficient space so that the scrape-off plasma layer will not bombard the nozzles, whch penetrate through the rotating liquid. This liquid ''first wall'' is bombarded by the plasma, resulting in heat deposition, sputtering, and evaporation during the short time before the exposed liquid is covered by fresh, cool liquid from the nozzles. The advantages of this reactor concept appear to be very high wall loadings (speculated to be over 10 MW/m 2 ) and long component lifetime, both crucial economic factors. The nozzles are designed for easy replacement. The reactor's disatvantage is its enormous potential for plasma contamination by impurities. (orig.)

  8. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  9. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaa, J., E-mail: jarir.aktaa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  10. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  11. Tritium breeding optimization of Li4SiO4/Be/He/SS blankets for the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In previous tritium breeding optimization studies, we considered idealized, machine-independent blankets. The purpose of the present work is to investigate possibilities for maximizing tritium production in more realistic blankets. The Li 4 /SiO 4 /Be/He/SS blanket recently designed for the Next European Torus (NET) is used as the reference. The one-dimensional tritium breeding ratio calculated for this blanket is 1.38, promising tritium self-sufficiency even when the NET blanket is expected to have a coverage efficiency of 80%. A specific goal of the present study is to determine whether a NET-like device could be designed to be tritium self-sufficient when tritium production is limited to the outer blanket. If realizable, it might be possible to simplify the reactor design, significantly, make it more compact, and lower the cost

  12. Adaptation of the HCPB DEMO TBM as breeding blanket for ITER : Neutronic and thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Morellini, D.; Cerullo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Two breeding blanket are presently developed in Europe for the DEMO reactor: the first one, the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) uses a liquid breeder while the other , the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB), uses a solid breeder in form of pebble bed. The modules of these blankets, called Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be located in correspondence of the equatorial ports of ITER in order to be tested. ITER FEAT was designed with shielding blankets, therefore in the final stage of the experiment, in the foreseen tritium -deuterium operation phase, the tritium will be supplied to the reactor and not produced inside it. Since the production of tritium is of main importance for the feasibility of a nuclear fusion reactor, perhaps in the ITER final stage, the shielding blanket could be substituted by means of a breeding blanket. The geometry and composition of this breeding blanket would be, of course, similar to that of TBM which demonstrated to have the best performances. This paper illustrates a neutronic and thermal analysis of an hypothetical triziogen blanket for ITER FEAT made similar to a HCPB test module. The main aims of the performed analyses are to determine the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) considering different solid breeders (Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 ) with different enrichment in 6 Li and different structural materials (a 9%CRWVTa reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) or ceramic matrix composites like SiCf/SiC). The breeding blanket design is compared considering the highest value of TBR and the verification of the temperature constraints ( 550 o C for the steel, 950 o C for the breeder and 650 o C for the Beryllium). The neutronic analyses have been performed by means of MCNP-4C code and the thermal analyses using the MSC-MARC code. A TBR about equal 1 was obtained with a SiCf/SiC structural material and a Li 4 SiO 4 breeder. The performed analyses have to be considered preliminary and an academic exercise, nevertheless they could give

  13. Neutronics safety analysis in severe transients of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, S.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The conceptual design of the fusion-driven subcritical system FDS-I with the multifunctional subcritical dual-cooled waste transmutation (DWT) blanket proposed as a middle step toward the final application of fusion energy was presented previously. Safety is a key concern for the innovative conceptual system. The potential safety characteristic is expected as one of the advantages of FDS-I for the transmutation and incineration of nuclear waste compared with the critical reactor. With the intent of evaluating the inherent and passive safety features of FDS-I, the reactivity coefficients (e.g. the coolant density/void effect and the Doppler feedback), which are similar to those in critical reactors, and the kinetics quantities (e.g. neutron generation time and β eff ), which are influenced by the external neutron source of the source-driven system, are calculated and analyzed. In addition, the specific transient scenarios for FDS-I, which show the effects of the source power perturbation on the safety parameters, is presented

  14. Tritium transport in HCLL and WCLL DEMO blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Luigi [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS- C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Nicolotti, Iuri [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Zucchetti, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.zucchetti@polito.it [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Tritium inventories and tritium losses are the main output of the presented model for HCLL and WCLL. • A parametric study has been performed, to show the behavior of the two systems when certain parameters are changed, in order to minimize inventories and/or losses. • An improved design is needed, in order to reduce the radiological hazard related to tritium activity. According to test number 7, HCLL-BB could be able to have a tritium inventory of 33.05 g and losses of 19.55 Ci/d. • WCLL-BB shows a very low radiological risk, much lower than that suggested (inventory: 17.48 g, losses: 3.2 Ci/d). An ptimization study has been performed aiming to minimize the water flow rate for an upgraded design. • Both for HCLL and WCLL, the most critical parameters able to produce relevant variations in inventories and losses are the helium/water fraction, the CPS/WDS and the permeation reduction factors. - Abstract: The Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) Breeding Blankets are two of the four blanket designs proposed for DEMO reactor. The study of tritium transport inside the blankets is fundamental to assess their preliminary design and safety features. A mathematical model has been derived, in a new form making makes easier to determine the most critical components as far as tritium losses and tritium inventories are concerned, and to model the tritium performance of the whole system. Two cases have been studied, the former with tritium generation rate constant in time and the latter considering a typical pulsed operation for a time span of 100 h. Tritium inventories and tritium losses are the main output of the model. Tritium concentrations, inventories and losses are initially calculated and compared for the two blankets, in a reference case without permeation barriers or cold traps. A parametric study to show the behavior of the two systems when certain parameters are changed, in order to minimize inventories and

  15. Phase-IIC experiments of the JAERI/USDOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1992-12-01

    Neutronics experiments on two types of heterogeneous blankets have been performed as the Phase-IIC experiment of JAERI/USDOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics. The experimental system was used in the same geometry as the previous Phase-IIA series which was a closed geometry using neutron source enclosure of lithium carbonate. The heterogeneous blankets selected here are the beryllium edge-on and the water coolant channel assemblies. In the former the beryllium and lithium-oxide layers are piled up alternately in the front part of test blanket. In the latter, the three simulated water cooling channels are settled in the Li 2 O blanket. These are producing steep gradient of neutron flux around material boundary. The calculation accuracy and measurement method for these features is a key of interest in the experiments. The measurements were performed for tritium production rate and the other nuclear parameters as well as the previous experiments. This report describes the experimental detail and the results enough to use for the benchmark data for testing the data and method of design calculation of fusion reactors. (author)

  16. Fabrication of prototype mockups of ITER shielding blanket with separable first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaku, Yasuo; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2002-07-01

    Design of shielding blanket for ITER-FEAT applies the first wall which has the separable structure from the shield block for the purpose of radio-active waste reduction in the maintenance work and cost reduction in fabrication process. Also, it is required to have various types of slots in both of the first wall and the shield block, to reduce the eddy current for reduction of electro-magnetic force in disruption events. This report summarizes the demonstrative fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket with separable first wall performed for the shielding blanket fabrication technology development, under the task agreement of G 16 TT 108 FJ (T420-2) in ITER Engineering Design Activity Extension Period. The objectives of the demonstrative fabrication are: to demonstrate the comprehensive fabrication technique in a large scale component (e.g the joining techniques for the beryllium armor/copper alloy and copper alloy/SS, and the slotting method of the FW and shield block); to develop an improved fabrication method for the shielding blanket based on the ITER-FEAT updated design. In this work, the fabrication technique of full scale separable first wall shield blanket was confirmed by fabricating full width Be armored first wall panel, full scale of 1/2 shield block with poloidal cooling channels. As the R and D for updated cooling channel configuration, the fabrication technique of the radial channel shield block was also demonstrated. Concluding to the all R and D results, it was demonstrated successfully that the fabrication technique and optimized conditions in the results obtained under the task agreement of G 16 TT 95 FJ (T420-1) was applicable to the prototype of the separable first wall blanket module. Additionally, basic echo data of ultra-sonic test method (UT) was obtained to show the applicability of UT method for in tube access detection of defect on the Cu alloy/SS tube interface. (author)

  17. Comparative study of the more promising combinations of blanket materials, power conversion systems, and tritium recovery and containment systems for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1975-11-01

    The many possible combinations of blanket materials, tritium generation and recovery systems, and power conversion systems were surveyed first by reviewing the principal design studies that have been prepared and then by examining a comprehensive set of designs generated by using a common set of ground rules that included all of the boundary conditions that could be envisioned. The results indicate that, of the wide variety of systems that have been considered, by far the most promising employs lithium recirculated in a closed loop within a niobium blanket structure and cooled with boiling potassium or cesium. This approach gives the simplest and lowest cost tritium recovery system, the lowest pressure and thermal stresses, the simplest structure with the lowest probability of a leak, the greatest resistance to damage from a plasma energy dump, and the lowest rate of plasma contamination by either outgassing or sputtering. The only other blanket materials combination that appears fairly likely to give a satisfactory tritium generation and recovery system is an Li 2 BeF 4 -Incoloy blanket, and even this system involves major uncertainties in the effectiveness, size, and cost of the tritium recovery system. Further, the Li 2 BeF 4 blanket system has the disadvantage that the world reserves of beryllium are too limited to support a full-blown fusion reactor economy, its poor thermal conductivity leads to cooling difficulties and a requirement for a complex structure with intricate cooling passages, and this inherently leads to an expensive blanket with a relatively high probability of leaks. The other blanket materials combinations yield even less attractive systems

  18. Activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jieqiong; Yuan, Baoxin; Zou, Jun; Wu, Yican

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary studies of the activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of the multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor, i.e. Multi-Functional eXperimental Fusion Driven Subcritical system named FDS-MFX, were performed. The neutron flux of the FDS-MFX blanket was calculated using VisualBUS code and Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL) developed by FDS Team. Based on these calculated neutron fluxes, the activation properties of blanket materials were analyzed by the induced radioactivity, the decay heat and the contact dose rate for different regions of the FDS-MFX blanket. The safety and environment assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) strategy, which was developed in Europe, was applied to FDS-MFX blanket for the management of activated materials. Accordingly, the classification and management strategy of activated materials after different cooling time were proposed for FDS-MFX blanket

  19. Thermal comfort and safety of cotton blankets warmed at 130°F and 200°F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia A; Cooper, Susan K; Krogh, Mary L; Morse, Elizabeth C; Crandall, Craig G; Winslow, Elizabeth H; Balluck, Julie P

    2013-12-01

    In 2009, the ECRI Institute recommended warming cotton blankets in cabinets set at 130°F or less. However, there is limited research to support the use of this cabinet temperature. To measure skin temperatures and thermal comfort in healthy volunteers before and after application of blankets warmed in cabinets set at 130 and 200°F, respectively, and to determine the time-dependent cooling of cotton blankets after removal from warming cabinets set at the two temperatures. Prospective, comparative, descriptive. Participants (n = 20) received one or two blankets warmed in 130 or 200°F cabinets. First, skin temperatures were measured, and thermal comfort reports were obtained at fixed timed intervals. Second, blanket temperatures (n = 10) were measured at fixed intervals after removal from the cabinets. No skin temperatures approached levels reported in the literature that cause epidermal damage. Thermal comfort reports supported using blankets from the 200°F cabinet, and blankets lost heat quickly over time. We recommend warming cotton blankets in cabinets set at 200°F or less to improve thermal comfort without compromising patient safety. Copyright © 2013 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress in fusion reactors blanket analysis and evaluation at CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Carre, F.; Chevereau, G.; Doutriaux, D.

    1986-09-01

    In the frame of the recent CEA studies aiming at the development, evaluation and comparison of solid breeder blanket concepts in view of their adaptation to NET, the evaluation of specific questions related to the first wall design, the present paper examines first the performances of a helium cooled toroidal blanket design for NET, based on innovative Beryllium/Ceramics breeder rod elements. Neutronic and thermo-mechanical optimisation converges on a concept featured by a breeding capability in excess of 1.2, a reasonnable pumping power of 1% and a narrow breeder temperature range (470+-30 deg C of the breeder), the latter being largely independent of the power level. This design proves naturally adapted to ceramic breeder assigned to very strict working conditions, and provides for any change in the thermal and heat transfer characteristics over the blanket lifetime. The final section of the paper is devoted to the evaluation of the heat load poloidal distribution and to the irradiation effects on first wall structural materials

  1. Experimental and numerical study of the pressure drop for ITER blanket shield block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Min-Su; Kim, Sawoong; Jung, Hun-Chea; Shim, Hee-Jin; Ahn, Hee-Jae

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The results of the experiment and the numerical analysis are compared. • The numerical analysis results are lower than the experimental results. • The margin of the pressure drop is suggested. - Abstract: The blanket shield block (SB) is located inside the ITER vacuum chamber, and the main function is to provide the thermal and nuclear shielding to the vacuum vessel and external components. The SB is foreseen to undergo a significant heat load which is a body load throughout the whole thickness of the SB under normal operation conditions. Therefore, the cooling configuration in SB should be designed very carefully based on the various experiences. The pressure drop in the cooling design is one of the most important factors to balance a water distribution of overall blanket cooling system. In order to verify the pressure drop characteristic and validate the design methodology of SB, experiment and numerical analysis are performed and compared their results. These results would be a benchmarking of the numerical results with experimental results to assess the gap between calculations and experiments.

  2. The Test Blanket Modules project in Europe: From the strategy to the technical plan over next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Orco, G. dell; Laesser, R.; Diegele, E.; Sundstroem, J.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    The testing of Breeding Blanket concepts in ITER is recognized as an essential milestone in the development of a future reactor ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, extraction of high grade heat and electricity production. Europe is currently developing two reference breeding blankets for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket which uses the eutectic Pb-15. 7 Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier, and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket which features lithiated ceramic pebbles (Li 4 SiO 4 or Li 2 TiO 3 ) as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both blankets are using the pressurized He technology for heat extraction (8 MPa, inlet/outlet temperature 300/500 o C) and a 9% CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material, the EUROFER. Referring to the so called '' fast-track '' EU scenario, those concepts are intended to be tested in ITER, getting the maximum of information required for launching the DEMO blanket design and construction after the first 10 years of ITER operation. For that, the EU has adopted a blanket testing strategy based on the development of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) that are expected to use DEMO relevant technologies and are designed for each ITER plasma phase to optimize the feedback and to avoid any impact on ITER availability. Following the decision on ITER construction, the EU has reviewed and detailed the fundamental elements for an implementation of the future EU TBMs Project aimed at delivering TBMs Systems to ITER under suitable schedule and acceptance standards. For that the following items have been analyzed in detail and are reported in the present paper: · Impact of the ITER environment (design, standards, schedule, operational scheme) on the TBM systems design and development plan · Project technical plan with focus on the next ten years up to the installation of the first TBMs in ITER · Project risk

  3. System engineering approach in the EU Test Blanket Systems Design Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, D.; Sardain, P.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Salavy, J.-F.; Cismondi, F.; Jourd'Heuil, L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the Test Blanket Systems demands diverse and comprehensive integration activities. Test Blanket Modules - Consortia of Associates (TBM-CA) applies the system engineering methods in all stages of the Test Blanket System (TBS) design integration. Completed so far integration engineering tasks cover among others status and initial set of TBS operating parameters; list of codes, standards and regulations related to TBS; planning of the TBS interfaces and baseline documentation. Most of the attention is devoted to the establishment the Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed Lead (HCPB) TBS configuration baseline, TBS break down into sub-systems, identification, definition and management of the internal and external interfaces, development of the TBS plant break down structure (PBS), establishment and management of the required TBS baseline documentation infrastructure. Break down of the TBS into sub-systems that is crucial for the further design and interfaces' management has been selected considering several options and using specific evaluation criteria. Process of the TBS interfaces management covers the planning, definition and description, verification and review, non-conformances and deviations, and modification and improvement processes. Process of interfaces review is developed, identifying the actors, input, activities and output of the review. Finally the relations and interactions of system engineering processes with TBM configuration management and TBM-CA Quality Management System are discussed.

  4. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  5. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility FBBF. Annual report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clikeman, F.M.

    1982-07-01

    This annual report contains a summmary of fission rate, spectra, and gamma-ray heating rate measurements made in the first blanket of the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility. The first blanket consisted of aluminum clad, natural UO 2 fuel rods with a secondary cladding of stainless steel or aluminum. The blanket was arranged in two concentric regions around the neutron source and converter regions. A neutron diffusion code, 2DB, and a Monte Carlo code, VIM, both using homogeneous cross section groups have been used to calculate the reaction rates. Calculated to experimental values for a number of important reactions are presented. A modified method of applying Bondarenko self-shielding factors to correct for the self shielding of resonance energy neutrons in aluminum, stainless steel and UO 2 has improved the agreement between the calculations and experiment, but does not account for all of the differences

  6. Evaluation of steam as a potential coolant for nonbreeding blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, H.C.; Misra, B.; Youngdahl, C.K.

    1978-01-01

    A steam-cooled nonbreeding blanket design has been developed as an evolution of the Argonne Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) studies. This blanket concept complete with maintenance considerations is to function at temperatures up to 650 0 C utilizing nickel-based alloys such as Inconel 625. Thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out in conjunction with thermal hydraulic analysis to determine coolant chennel arrangements that permit delivery of superheated steam at 500 0 C directly to a modern fossil plant-type turbine. A dual-cycle system combining a pressurized water circuit coupled with a superheated steam circuit can produce turbine plant conversion efficiencies approaching 41.5%

  7. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  8. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-01-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  9. MIT LMFBR blanket physics project progress report No. 7, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Work during the period was devoted primarily to a range of analytical/numerical investigations, including evaluation of means to improve external blanket designs, beneficial attributes of the use of internal blankets, improved methods for the calculation of heterogeneous self-shielding and parametric studies of calculated spectral indices. Experimental work included measurements of the ratio of U-238 captures to U-235 fissions in a standard blanket mockup, and completion of development work on the radiophotoluminescent readout of LiF thermoluminescent detectors. The most significant findings were that there is very little prospect for substantial improvement in the breeding performance of external blankets, but internal blankets continue to show promise, particularly if they are used in such a way as to increase the volume fraction of fuel inside the core envelope. An improved equivalence theorem was developed which may allow use of fast reactor methods to calculate heterogeneously self-shielded cross sections in both fast and thermal reactors

  10. A solid-breeder blanket and power conversion system for the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullis, R.; Clarkson, I.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-breeder blanket has been designed for a commercial fusion power reactor based on the tandem mirror concept (MARS). The design utilizes lithium oxide, cooled by helium which powers a conventional steam electric generating cycle. Maintenance and fabricability considerations led to a modular configuration 6 meters long which incorporates two magnets, shield, blanket and first wall. The modules are arranged to form the 150 meter long reactor central cell. Ferritic steel is used for the module primary structure. The lithium oxide is contained in thin-walled vanadium alloy tubes. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.25 and energy multiplication of 1.1 is predicted. The blanket design appears feasible with only a modest advance in current technology

  11. Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammers, Marjolein P M; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-10-26

    Acute peripheral pain is reduced by multisensory interactions at the spinal level [1]. Central pain is reduced by reorganization of cortical body representations [2, 3]. We show here that acute pain can also be reduced by multisensory integration through self-touch, which provides proprioceptive, thermal, and tactile input forming a coherent body representation [4, 5]. We combined self-touch with the thermal grill illusion (TGI) [6]. In the traditional TGI, participants press their fingers on two warm objects surrounding one cool object. The warm surround unmasks pain pathways, which paradoxically causes the cool object to feel painfully hot. Here, we warmed the index and ring fingers of each hand while cooling the middle fingers. Immediately after, these three fingers of the right hand were touched against the same three fingers on the left hand. This self-touch caused a dramatic 64% reduction in perceived heat. We show that this paradoxical release from paradoxical heat cannot be explained by low-level touch-temperature interactions alone. To reduce pain, we often clutch a painful hand with the other hand. We show here that self-touch not only gates pain signals reaching the brain [7-9] but also, via multisensory integration, increases coherence of cognitive body representations to which pain afferents project [10]. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  13. Liquid blanket MHD effects experimental results from LMEL facility at SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu; Pan Chuanjie; Liu Yong; Pan Chuanhong; Reed, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    The self-cooled /helium-cooled liquid metal blanket concept is an attractive ITER and DEMO blanket candidate as it has low operating pressure, simplicity, and a convenient tritium breeding cycle. But MHD pressure drop remains a key issue, especially in ducts with flow channel inserts (FCI), where the reduction in MHD pressure drop is difficult to predict with existing tools, and there are no available experimental data to check current predictions. To understand well various kinds of MHD effects, it is important for us to analyze and understand FCI effects. In this paper, we present measurements of the MHD effects due to off normal power shutdown, two-dimensional effects due to channel velocity profiles, three-dimensional effects caused by manifolds, and surface/bulk instability effects as a result of insulator coating imperfections. These results were collected from the Liquid Metal Experimental Loop (LMEL) facility at Southwestern Institute of Physics, China and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, US under an umbrella of the People's Republic of China/United States program of cooperation in magnetic fusion. Some results were observed for the first time, such as two dimensional effects and instabilities due to insulator coating imperfections. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: a uniform magnetic field volume of 80 x 170 x 740 mm and a maximum value of magnetic field, B 0 , of 2 Tesla. The mean flow velocity v 0 was measured with an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter (error of 1.2%); a Liquid-metal Electro-magnetic Velocity Instrument (LEVI) was provided by Argonne National Laboratory. The flow was driven by two Electro-magnetic (EM) pumps (6.5+11.6 m3/h); the operating temperature was 85 centigrade degree due to self-heating by the EM pump and friction of the fluid against the loop piping. Experimental parameters were: Hartmann number, M, up to 3500, velocity v 0 up to 1.2 m/s under magnetic field, and B 0 =1.95 Tesla

  14. Recent progress in safety assessments of Japanese water cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato

    2007-01-01

    Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module (WCSB TBM) is being designed by JAEA for the primary candidate TBM of Japan, and the safety evaluation of WCSB TBM has been performed. This reports presents summary of safety evaluation activities of the Japanese WCSB TBM, including nuclear analysis, source of RI, waste evaluation, occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and postulated initiating event (PIE). For the purpose of basic evaluation of source terms on nuclear heating and radioactivity generation, two-dimensional nuclear analysis has been carried out. By the nuclear analysis, distributions of neutron flux, tritium breeding ratio (TBR), nuclear heat, decay heat and induced activity are calculated. Tritium production is calculated by the nuclear analysis by integrating distributions of TBR values, as about 0.2 g-T/FPD. With respect to the radioactive waste, the induced activity of the irradiated TBM is estimated. For the purpose of occupational radiolysis exposure (ORE), RI inventory is estimated. Tritium inventory in pebble bed of TBM is about 3 x 10 12 Bq, and tritium in purge gas is about 3 x 10 11 Bq. FMEA has been carried out to identify the PIEs that need safety evaluation. PIEs are summarized into three groups, i.e., heating, pressurization and release of RI. PIEs of local heating are converged without any special cares. With respect to heating of whole module, two PIEs are selected as the most severe events, i.e., loss of cooling of TBM during plasma operation and ingress of coolant into TBM during plasma operation. With respect to PIEs about pressurization, the PIEs of pressurization of the compartment nearby the pipes of cooling system are evaluated, because rupture of the pipes result pressurization of such compartments, i.e., box structure of TBM, purge gas loop, TRS, VV, port cell and TCWS vault. Box structure of TBM is designed to withstand the maximum pressure of the cooling system. At other compartments

  15. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m 2 and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m 2 . Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma

  16. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  17. Pre-conceptual design study on K-DEMO ceramic breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Sung, E-mail: jspark@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sungjin; Im, Kihak; Kim, Keeman [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Thomas; Neilson, George [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A pre-conceptual design study has been carried out for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) tokamak featured by high magnetic field (B{sub T0} = 7.4 T), R = 6.8 m, a = 2.1 m, and a steady-state operation. The design concepts of the K-DEMO blanket system considering the cooling in-vessel components with pressurized water and a solid pebble breeder are described herein. The structure of the K-DEMO blanket is toroidally subdivided into 16 inboard and 32 outboard sectors, in order to allow the vertical maintenance. Each blanket module is composed of plasma-facing first wall, layers of breeding parts, shielding and manifolds. A ceramic breeder using Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with Be{sub 12}Ti as neuron multiplier is employed for study. MCNP neutronic simulations and thermo-hydraulic analyses are interactively performed in order to satisfy two key aspects: achieving a global Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) >1.05 and operating within the maximum allowable temperature ranges of materials.

  18. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  19. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  20. Experimental programme in support of the development of the European ceramic-breeder-inside-tube test-blanket: present status and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Roux, N.; Flament, T.; Anzidei, L.; ENEA, Frascati; Casadio, S.; Dell'orco, G.

    1992-01-01

    Four DEMO blanket classes are under investigation within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme. One of them is featured by the use of lithium ceramic breeder pellets contained inside externally helium cooled tubes. This paper summarizes the main achievements to date of the experimental programme supporting the development of this class of blanket. It also gives an outline of the areas of the breeder material, beryllium, tritium control, and thermomechanical tests, the future work envisaged for the 92-94 period. 53 refs

  1. Efficacy of Prewarming With a Self-Warming Blanket for the Prevention of Unintended Perioperative Hypothermia in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Charlotte; Vamosi, Marianne; Lauridsen, Jorgen T.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Unintended perioperative hypothermia (UPH) is a common and serious complication for patients undergoing anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of UPH and evaluate the efficacy of a self-warming blanket on the drop in core temperature and risk of UPH in patients...

  2. The preliminary thermal-hydraulic design of one superheated steam water cooled blanket concept based on RELAP5 and MELCOR codes - 15147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Water Cooled Blanket (WCB) is very important in the concept design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One concept design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 and MELCOR codes, which are mature and often used in nuclear engineering, are selected as simulation tools. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal-hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal models for RELAP5 and MELCOR are built for approximating the concept design. The superheated steam scheme is analyzed by two codes separately under different power levels. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. The results of two codes are compared and some advices are given. (authors)

  3. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate

  4. Preconceptual engineering design for the APT 3He Target/Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensink, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    A preconceptual engineering design has been developed for the 3 He Target/Blanket (T/B) System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This concept uses an array of pressure tubes containing tungsten rods for the neutron spallation source and 3 He gas contained in a metal tank and blanket tubes as the tritium production material. The engineering design is based on a physics model optimized for efficient tritium production. Principle engineering consideration were: provisions for cooling all materials including the 3 He gas; containment of the gas and radionuclides; remote handling; material compatibility; minimization of 3 He, D 2 O, and activated waste; modularity; and manufacturability. The design provides a basis for estimating the cost to implement the system

  5. Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang; Nie, Xingchen; Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).

  6. Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: lijia@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Nie, Xingchen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).

  7. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  8. Heating facility for blanket and performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hara, Shigemitsu

    1999-03-01

    A design and a fabrication of heating test facility for a mock-up of the blanket module to be installed in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been conducted to evaluate/demonstrate its heat removal performance and structural soundness under cyclic heat loads. To simulate surface heat flux to the blanket module, infrared heating method is adopted so as to heat large surface area uniformly. The infrared heater is used in vacuum environment (10{sup -4} Torr{approx}), and the lamps are cooled by air flowing through an annulus between the lamp and a cover tube made of quartz glass. Elastomer O rings (available to be used up to {approx}300degC) and used for vacuum seal at outer surface of the cover tube. To prevent excessive heating of the O ring, the end part of the cover tube is specially designed including the tube shape, flow path of air and gold coating on the surface of the cover tube to protect the O ring against thermal radiation from glowing tungsten filament. To examine the performance of the facility, steady state and cyclic operation of the infrared heater were conducted using a small-scaled shielding blanket mock-up as a test specimen. The important results are as follows: (1) Heat flux at the surface of the small-scaled mock-up measured by a calorimeter was {approx}0.2 MW/m{sup 2}. (2) A comparison of thermal analysis results and measured temperature responses showed that the small-scaled mock-up had good heat removal performance. (3) Steady state operation and cyclic operation with step response between the rated and zero powers of the infrared heater were successfully performed, and it was confirmed that this heating facility was well-prepared and available for the thermal cyclic test of a blanket module. (author)

  9. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  10. The TFTR lithium blanket module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bertone, P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; File, J.; Graumann, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approximately 80X80X80 cm cubic module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module, that will be installed on the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) in late 1986. The principal objective of the LBM Program is to perform a series of neutron transport and tritium-breeding measurements throughout the LBM when it is exposed to the TFTR toroidal fusion neutron source, and to compare these data with the predictions of Monte Carlo (MCNP) neutronics codes. The LBM consists of 920 2.5-cm diameter breeder rods constructed of lithium oxide (Li 2 O) pellets housed in thin-walled stainless steel tubes. Procedures for mass-producing 25,000 Li 2 O pellets with satisfactory reproducibility were developed using purified Li 2 O powder, and fabrication of all the breeder rods was completed in early 1985. Tritium assay methods were investigated experimentally using both small lithium metal samples and LBM-type pellets. This work demonstrated that the thermal extraction method will be satisfactory for accurate evaluation of the minute concentrations of tritium expected in the LBM pellets (0.1-1nCi/g)

  11. Structural analysis under the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1985-01-01

    Structural design procedures followed in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are briefly reviewed. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code, Section III, Code Case N47 has been used as a design guide. Its relevance to fusion reactor applications, however, is open to question and needs to be evaluated in the future. The primary structural problem encountered in tokamak blanket designs is the high thermal stress due to surface heat flux, with fatigue being an additional concern for pulsed systems. The conflicting requirements of long erosion life and high surface heat flux capability imply that some form of stress relief in the first-wall region will be necessary. Simplified stress and fatigue crack growth analyses are presented to show that the use of orthogonally grooved first wall may be a potential solution for mitigating the thermal stress problem. A comparison of three structural alloys on the basis of both grooved and nongrooved first-wall designs is also presented. Other structural problems encountered in tokamak designs include stresses due to plasma disruptions, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in liquid-metal-cooled systems. In particular, it is shown that the maximum stress in the side wall of a uniform duct generated by MHD pressure drop cannot be reduced by increasing the wall thickness or by decreasing the span. In contract to tokamak blankets, tandem mirror blankets are far less severely stressed because of a much lower surface heat flux, coolant pressure, and also because of their axisymmetric geometry. Both blankets, however, will require detailed structural dynamics analysis to verify their ability to withstand seismic loadings if the heavy 17Li-83Pb is used as a coolant

  12. Studies on steps affecting tritium residence time in solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1987-01-01

    For the self sustaining of CTR fuel cycle, the effective tritium recovery from blankets is essential. This means that not only tritium breeding ratio must be larger than 1.0, but also high recovering speed is required for the short residence time of tritium in blankets. Short residence time means that the tritium inventory in blankets is small. In this paper, the tritium residence time and tritium inventory in a solid blanket are modeled by considering the steps constituting tritium release. Some of these tritium migration processes were experimentally evaluated. The tritium migration steps in a solid blanket using sintered breeding materials consist of diffusion in grains, desorption at grain edges, diffusion and permeation through grain boundaries, desorption at particle edges, diffusion and percolation through interconnected pores to purging stream, and convective mass transfer to stream. Corresponding to these steps, diffusive, soluble, adsorbed and trapped tritium inventories and the tritium in gas phase are conceivable. The code named TTT was made for calculating these tritium inventories and the residence time of tritium. An example of the results of calculation is shown. The blanket is REPUTER-1, which is the conceptual design of a commercial reversed field pinch fusion reactor studied at the University of Tokyo. The experimental studies on the migration steps of tritium are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. SELF-CONVERGENCE OF RADIATIVELY COOLING CLUMPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yirak, Kristopher; Frank, Adam; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated regions of higher density populate the interstellar medium (ISM) on all scales-from molecular clouds, to the star-forming regions known as cores, to heterogeneous ejecta found near planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. These clumps interact with winds and shocks from nearby energetic sources. Understanding the interactions of shocked clumps is vital to our understanding of the composition, morphology, and evolution of the ISM. The evolution of shocked clumps is well understood in the limiting 'adiabatic' case where physical processes such as self-gravity, heat conduction, radiative cooling, and magnetic fields are ignored. In this paper, we address the issue of evolution and convergence when one of these processes-radiative cooling-is included. Numeric convergence studies demonstrate that the evolution of an adiabatic clump is well captured by roughly 100 cells per clump radius. The presence of radiative cooling, however, imposes limits on the problem due to the removal of thermal energy. Numerical studies which include radiative cooling typically adopt the 100-200 cells per clump radius resolution. In this paper, we present the results of a convergence study for radiatively cooling clumps undertaken over a broad range of resolutions, from 12 to 1536 cells per clump radius, employing adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in a two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry (2.5 dimensions). We also provide a fully three-dimensional simulation, at 192 cells per clump radius, which supports our 2.5 dimensional results. We find no appreciable self-convergence at ∼100 cells per clump radius as small-scale differences owing to increasingly resolving the cooling length have global effects. We therefore conclude that self-convergence is an insufficient criterion to apply on its own when addressing the question of sufficient resolution for radiatively cooled shocked clump simulations. We suggest the adoption of alternate criteria to support a statement of sufficient

  14. Analysis on small long life reactor using thorium fuel for water cooled and metal cooled reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik

    2009-01-01

    Long-life reactor operation can be adopted for some special purposes which have been proposed by IAEA as the small and medium reactor (SMR) program. Thermal reactor and fast reactor types can be used for SMR and in addition to that program the utilization of thorium fuel as one of the candidate as a 'partner' fuel with uranium fuel which can be considered for optimizing the nuclear fuel utilization as well as recycling spent fuel. Fissile U-233 as the main fissile material for thorium fuel shows higher eta-value for wider energy range compared with other fissile materials of U-235 and Pu-239. However, it less than Pu-239 for fast energy region, but it still shows high eta-value. This eta-value gives the reactor has higher capability for obtaining breeding condition or high conversion capability. In the present study, the comparative analysis on small long life reactor fueled by thorium for different reactor types (water cooled and metal cooled reactor types). Light water and heavy water have been used as representative of water-cooled reactor types, and for liquid metal-cooled reactor types, sodium-cooled and lead-bismuth-cooled have been adopted. Core blanket arrangement as general design configuration, has been adopted which consist of inner blanket region fueled by thorium oxide, and two core regions (inner and out regions) fueled by fissile U-233 and thorium oxide with different percentages of fissile content. SRAC-CITATION and JENDL-33 have been used as core optimization analysis and nuclear data library for this analysis. Reactor operation time can reaches more than 10 years operation without refueling and shuffling for different reactor types and several power outputs. As can be expected, liquid metal cooled reactor types can be used more effective for obtaining long life reactor with higher burnup, higher power density, higher breeding capability and lower excess reactivity compared with water-cooled reactors. Water cooled obtains long life core operation

  15. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO fusion reactor based on Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, José Ignacio; Herranz, Luis Enrique; Fernández, Iván; Cantizano, Alexis; Moratilla, Beatriz Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Fusion energy is one of the most promising solutions to the world energy supply. This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycles (S-CO 2 ) for low-temperature divertor fusion reactors cooled by helium (as defined by EFDA). Integration of three thermal sources (i.e., blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel) has been studied through proposing and analyzing a number of alternative layouts, achieving an improvement on power production higher than 5% over the baseline case, which entails to a gross efficiency (before self-consumptions) higher than 42%. In spite of this achievement, the assessment of power consumption for the circulating heat transfer fluids results in a penalty of 20% in the electricity production. Once the most suitable layout has been selected an optimization process has been conducted to adjust the key parameters to balance performance and size, achieving an electrical efficiency (electricity without taking into account auxiliary consumptions due to operation of the fusion reactor) higher than 33% and a reduction in overall size of heat exchangers of 1/3. Some relevant conclusions can be drawn from the present work: the potential of S-CO 2 cycles as suitable converters of thermal energy to power in fusion reactors; the significance of a suitable integration of thermal sources to maximize power output; the high penalty of pumping power; and the convenience of identifying the key components of the layout as a way to optimize the whole cycle performance. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of HCLL fusion reactor. • Low temperature sources have been successfully integrated with high temperature ones. • Optimization of thermal sources integration improves 5% the electricity production. • Assessment of pumping power with sources and sink loops results on 20% of gross power. • Matching of key parameters has conducted to 1/3 of reduction in heat

  16. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  17. Manufacturing of a HCLL cooling plate mock up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigal, E.; Dinechin, G. de; Rampal, G.; Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.

    2007-01-01

    The European DEMO blankets and associated Test Blanket Modules (TBM) are made of a set of components cooled by flowing helium at 80bar pressure. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is one of the very few processes that allow manufacturing such components exhibiting complex cooling channels. In HIP technology, the parts used to manufacture components with embedded channels are usually machined plates, blocks and tubes. Achievable geometries are limited in shape because it is not always possible to figure the channels by bent tubes. This occurs for example when channels present sharp turns, when the cross section of the channels is rectangular or when the rib between channels is so small that very thin tubes would be required. In these cases, bending is unpractical. The breeder unit cooling plates of the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket have eight 4 x 4.5 mm parallel channels that run following a double U scheme. Turns are sharp and the wall thickness is small (1mm), so the manufacturing process described above cannot be used. An alternative process has been developed which has many advantages. It consists in machining grooves in a base plate, then closing the top of the grooves using thin welded strips, and finally adding a plate by HIP. There is then no need for the use of tubes with associated bending and deformation issues. The final component contains welds, but it must be stressed out that these potentially brittle zones do not connect the channels to the external surface because they are covered by the HIPed plate. Furthermore, the welds are homogenised during the HIP operation and further heat treatments. This paper describes the design of a simplified cooling plate mock up and its fabrication using this so-called weld+HIP process. The thermal fatigue testing of this mock up is presented somewhere else in this conference. (orig.)

  18. Numerical model for the breakdown of a molecular F{sub 2} bubble in molten FLiBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, K., E-mail: kelvin.seto@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-dimensional numerical model of the breakdown for a fluorine bubble due to break-up and chemical reactions with dissolved UF{sub 4} and PuF{sub 4} in the molten salt reactor (MSR) volatilization process was developed. The results show that an initial bubble diameter of 4.0 cm would be required in order for it to reach the top of the volatilization reactor. Chemical reactions were found to be the primary cause of bubble breakdown. Physical characteristics (density and surface tension) were found to have a negligible effect on the breakdown process, as determined by a sensitivity analysis comparing molten Li to FLiBe. (author)

  19. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  20. Fusion reactor blanket-main design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, Yu.; Sidorov, A.; Danilov, I.

    1994-01-01

    The main function of the fusion reactor blanket is ensuring tritium breeding and radiation shield. The blanket version depends on the reactor type (experimental, DEMO, commercial) and its parameters. Blanket operation conditions are defined with the heat flux, neutron load/fluence, cyclic operation, dynamic heating/force loading, MHD effects etc. DEMO/commercial blanket design is distinguished e.g. by rather high heat load and neutron fluence - up to 100 W/cm 2 and 7 MWa/m 2 accordingly. This conditions impose specific requirements for the materials, structure, maintenance of the blanket and its most loaded components - FW and limiter. The liquid Li-Pb eutectic is one of the possible breeder for different kinds of blanket in view of its advantages one of which is the blanket convertibility that allow to have shielding blanket (borated water) or breeding one (Li-Pb eutectic). Using Li-Pb eutectic for both ITER and DEMO blankets have been considered. In the conceptual ITER design the solid eutectic blanket was carried out. The liquid eutectic breeder/coolant is suggested also for the advanced (high parameter) blanket

  1. Limitations on blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.

    1999-01-01

    The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)

  2. Conceptual design of Tritium Extraction System for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Nitti, F.S.; Aiello, A.; Ricapito, I.; Liger, K.; Demange, D.; Sedano, L.; Moreno, C.; Succi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER. ► Tritium extraction by gas purging, removal and transfer to the Tritium Plant. ► Conceptual design of TES and revision of the previous configuration. ► Main components: adsorption column, ZrCo getter beds and PERMCAT reactor. - Abstract: The HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM), developed in EU to be tested in ITER, adopts a ceramic containing lithium as breeder material, beryllium as neutron multiplier and helium at 80 bar as primary coolant. In HCPB-TBM the main function of Tritium Extraction System (TES) is to extract tritium from the breeder by gas purging, to remove it from the purge gas and to route it to the ITER Tritium Plant for the final tritium processing. In this paper, starting from a revision of the so far reference process considered for HCPB-TES and considering a new modeling activity aimed to evaluate tritium concentration in purge gas, an updated conceptual design of TES is reported.

  3. Thermal response of a pin-type fusion reactor blanket during steady and transient reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The thermal analysis of the blanket examines both the steady-state and transient reactor operations. The steady-state analysis covers full power and fractional power operation whereas the transient analysis examines the effects of power ramps and blanket preheat. The blanket configuration chosen for this study is a helium cooled solid breeder design. We first discuss the full power, steady-state temperature fields in the first wall, beryllium rods, and breeder rods. Next we examine the effects of fractional power on coolant flow and temperature field distributions. This includes power plateaus of 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% of full power. Also examined are the restrictions on the rates of power ramping between plateaus. Finally we discuss the power and time requirements for pre-heating the primary from cold iron conditions up to startup temperature (250 0 C)

  4. Neutronic analysis of a dual He/LiPb coolant breeding blanket for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, J.P.; Ogando, F.; Sanz, J.; Palermo, I.; Veredas, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.; Sedano, L.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design of a DEMO fusion reactor is being developed under the Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme: TECNO F US based on a He/LiPb dual coolant blanket as reference design option. The following issues have been analyzed to address the demonstration of the neutronic reliability of this conceptual blanket design: power amplification capacity of the blanket, tritium breeding capability for fuel self-sufficiency, power deposition due to nuclear heating in superconducting coils and material damage (dpa, gas production) to estimate the operational life of the steel-made structural components in the blanket and vacuum vessel (VV). In order to optimize the shielding of the coils different combinations of water and steel have been considered for the gap of the VV. The used neutron source is based on an axi-symmetric 2D fusion reaction profile for the given plasma equilibrium configuration. MCNPX has been used for transport calculations and ACAB has been used to handle gas production and damage energy cross sections.

  5. Impact of Blanket Configuration on the Design of a Fusion-Driven Transmutation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Guen Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A configuration of a fusion-driven transmutation reactor with a low aspect ratio tokamak-type neutron source was determined in a self-consistent manner by using coupled analysis of tokamak systems and neutron transport. We investigated the impact of blanket configuration on the characteristics of a fusion-driven transmutation reactor. It was shown that by merging the TRU burning blanket and tritium breeding blanket, which uses PbLi as the tritium breeding material and as coolant, effective transmutation is possible. The TRU transmutation capability can be improved with a reduced blanket thickness, and fast fluence at the first wall can be reduced.  Article History: Received: July 10th 2017; Received: Dec 17th 2017; Accepted: February 2nd 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Hong, B.G. (2018 Impact of Blanket Configuration on the Design of a Fusion-Driven Transmutation Reactor. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.65-70

  6. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  7. Self-similar collapse with cooling and heating in an expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shuji; Yoshida, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    We derive self-similar solutions including cooling and heating in an Einstein de-Sitter universe, and investigate the effects of cooling and heating on the gas density and temperature distributions. We assume that the cooling rate has a power-law dependence on the gas density and temperature, $\\Lambda$$\\propto$$\\rho^{A}T^{B}$, and the heating rate is $\\Gamma$$\\propto$$\\rho T$. The values of $A$ and $B$ are chosen by requiring that the cooling time is proportional to the Hubble time in order t...

  8. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou

    1998-01-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  9. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  10. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun, E-mail: guoyun79@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  11. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  12. Novel blanket design for ICTR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Conn, R.W.; Wolfer, W.G.; Larsen, E.N.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1978-01-01

    A novel blanket design for ICTRs is described. This blanket is used in SOLASE, the conceptual laser fusion reactor of the University of Wisconsin. The blanket to be described offers numerous advantages, including low cost, low weight, low induced radioactivity levels, the potential for hands-on maintenance, modular construction, low pressure, ability to decouple first wall and blanket coolant temperatures, adequate breeding, low tritium inventory and leakage, and sufficiently long life

  13. Tokamak power systems studies at ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Evans, K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A number of advances in plasma physics and engineering promise to greatly improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. The following features, in particular, are examined: (a) large aspect ratio (A ≅ 6), which may ease maintenance; (b) high beta (β ≥ 0.20) without indentation, which brings the maximum toroidal field down to about 7 T; (c) low toroidal current (I ≅ 5MA), which reduces the cost of the current drive and equilibrium field system; and (d) steady state operation with current density control via fast and slow wave current drive. The key to high beta operation with low toroidal current lies in utilizing second stability regime equilibria with the required current distributions produced by an appropriate selection of wave driver frequencies and power spectra. The ray tracing and current drive calculation is self-consistent with the actual magnetic fields produced in the plasma. In addition to matching desirable high-beta equilibria, this method is capable of producing a large variety of new equilibria, many of which look attractive. The impurity control activities in TPSS have emphasized the self-pumping concept as applied to using the entire first wall or ''slot'' limiters. The blanket design effort has emphasized liquid metal and Flibe concepts. The reference concept is a liquid lithium/vanadium, self-cooled configuration. Overall, there exists a number of major design improvements which will substantially improve the attractiveness of tokamak reactors

  14. Mirror reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Barmore, W.L.; Bender, D.J.; Doggett, J.N.; Galloway, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The general requirements of a breeding blanket for a mirror reactor are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) facility layout and blanket maintenance, (2) heat transfer and thermal conversion system, (3) materials, (4) tritium containment and removal, and (5) nuclear performance

  15. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Boccaccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ∼14 MW/m 2 . It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface

  16. Thermal hydraulic analyses of two fusion reactor first wall/blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the thermal hydraulic performance of two liquid lithium blanket concepts for tokamak-type reactors. In one concept lithium is circulated through 60-cm deep cylindrical modules oriented so that the module axis is parallel to the reactor minor radius. In the other concept helium carrying channels oriented parallel to the first wall are used to cool a 60-cm thick stagnant lithium blanket. Paralleling studies were carried out wherein the thermal and structural properties of the construction materials were based on those projected for either solution-annealed 316-stainless steel or vanadium-base alloys. The effects of limitations on allowable peak structural temperature, material strength, thermal stress, coolant inlet temperature, and pumping power/thermal power ratio were evaluated. Consequences to thermal hydraulic performance resulting from the presence of or absence of a divertor were also investigated

  17. Thermal hydraulic analyses of two fusion reactor first wall/blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the thermal hydraulic performance of two liquid lithium blanket concepts for tokamak-type reactors. In one concept lithium is circulated through 60-cm deep cylindrical modules oriented so that the module axis is parallel to the reactor minor radius. In the other concept helium carrying channels oriented parallel to the first wall are used to cool a 60-cm thick stagnant lithium blanket. Paralleling studies were carried out wherein the thermal and structural properties of the construction materials were based on those projected for either solution-annealed 316-stainless steel or vanadium-base alloys. The effects of limitations on allowable peak structural temperature, material strength, thermal stress, coolant inlet temperature, and pumping power/thermal power ratio were evaluated. Consequences to thermal hydraulic performance resulting from the presence of or absence of a divertor were also investigated

  18. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igitkhanov, Yu., E-mail: juri.igitkhanov@lhm.fzk.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bazylev, B.; Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boccaccini, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ∼14 MW/m{sup 2}. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  19. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Boccaccini, L.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ˜14 MW/m2. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  20. Re-analysis of HCPB/HCLL Blanket Mock-up Experiments Using Recent Nuclear Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Serikov, A.; Villari, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have re-analysed the two breeding blankets experiments performed previously in the frame of the European fusion program on two mock-ups of the European Helium-Cooled-Lithiium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed (HCPB) test blanket modules for ITER. The tritium production rate and the neutron and photon spectra measured in these mock-ups were compared with calculations using FENDL-3 Starter Library, release 4 and state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.0. The tritium production calculated for the HCPB mock-up underestimates the experimental result by about 10%. The result calculated with FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives slightly smaller tritium production by 2% than the one with FENDL-2.1. The difference attributes to the slight modification of the total and elastic scattering cross section of Be. For the HCLL experiment, all libraries reproduce the experimental results well. FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives better result both for the measured spectra and the tritium production compared to FENDL-2.1

  1. Thermo-mechanical characterization of ceramic pebbles for breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Aquaro, Donato; Scaletti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental activities to characterize the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Compression tests of pebbles. • Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of pebbles bed at different temperatures. • Experimental test with/without compression load. - Abstract: An open issue for fusion power reactor is to design a suitable breeding blanket capable to produce the necessary quantity of the tritium and to transfer the energy of the nuclear fusion reaction to the coolant. The envisaged solution called Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket foresees the use of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) or lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebble beds. The thermal mechanical properties of the candidate pebble bed materials are presently extensively investigated because they are critical for the feasibility and performances of the numerous conceptual designs which use a solid breeder. This study is aimed at the investigation of mechanical properties of the lithium orthosilicate and at the characterization of the main chemical, physical and thermo-mechanical properties taking into account the production technology. In doing that at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) of the University of Pisa adequate experiments were carried out. The obtained results may contribute to characterize the material of the pebbles and to optimize the design of the envisaged fusion breeding blankets.

  2. Experimental investigations of flow distribution in coolant system of Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, M.; Schlindwein, G., E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu; Meyder, R.; Kuhn, T.; Albrecht, O.; Zinn, K.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental investigations of flow distribution in HCPB TBM are presented. • Flow rates in channels close to the first wall are lower than nominal ones. • Flow distribution in central chambers of manifold 2 is close to the nominal one. • Flow distribution in the whole manifold 3 agrees well with the nominal one. - Abstract: This paper deals with investigations of flow distribution in the coolant system of the Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) for ITER. The investigations have been performed by manufacturing and testing of an experimental facility named GRICAMAN. The facility involves the upper poloidal half of HCPB TBM bounded at outlets of the first wall channels, at outlet of by-pass pipe and at outlets of cooling channels in breeding units. In this way, the focus is placed on the flow distribution in two mid manifolds of the 4-manifold system: (i) manifold 2 to which outlets of the first wall channels and inlet of by-pass pipe are attached and (ii) manifold 3 which supplies channels in breeding units with helium coolant. These two manifolds are connected with cooling channels in vertical/horizontal grids and caps. The experimental facility has been built keeping the internal structure of manifold 2 and manifold 3 exactly as designed in HCPB TBM. The cooling channels in stiffening grids, caps and breeding units are substituted by so-called equivalent channels which provide the same hydraulic resistance and inlet/outlet conditions, but have significantly simpler geometry than the real channels. Using the conditions of flow similarity, the air pressurized at 0.3 MPa and at ambient temperature has been used as working fluid instead of HCPB TBM helium coolant at 8 MPa and an average temperature of 370 °C. The flow distribution has been determined by flow rate measurements at each of 28 equivalent channels, while the pressure distribution has been obtained measuring differential pressure at more than 250 positions. The

  3. An evaluation of fast reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of different types of fast reactor radial blankets is presented. Included are blankets of fertile material UO 2 , THO 2 and Th-metal blankets of pure reflectors C, BeO, Ni and combinations of reflecting and fertile blankets. The results for 1000MWe cores indicate that there is no incentive to use other than fertile blankets. The most favorable fertile material is thorium due to the prospective higher price of U-233

  4. Investigation of heat treatment conditions of structural material for blanket fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents recent results of thermal hysteresis effects on ceramic breeder blanket structural material. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF) steel is the leading candidates for the first wall structural materials of breeding blankets. RAF steel demonstrates superior resistance to high dose neutron irradiation, because the steel has tempered martensite structure which contains the number of sink site for radiation defects. This microstructure obtained by two-step heat treatment, first is normalizing at temperature above 1200 K and the second is tempering at temperature below 1100 K. Recent study revealed the thermal hysteresis has significant impacts on the post-irradiation mechanical properties. The breeding blanket has complicated structure, which consists of tungsten armor and thin first wall with cooling pipe. The blanket fabrication requires some high temperature joining processes. Especially hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is examined as a near-net-shape fabrication process for this structure. The process consists of heating above 1300 K and isostatic pressing at the pressure above 150 MPa followed by tempering. Moreover ceramics pebbles are packed into blanket module and the module is to be seamed by welding followed by post weld heat treatment in the final assemble process. Therefore the final microstructural features of RAFs strongly depend on the blanket fabrication process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of thermal hysteresis corresponding to blanket fabrication process on RAFs microstructure in order to establish appropriate blanket fabrication process. Japanese RAFs F82H (Fe-0.1C-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.05Ta) was investigated by metallurgical method after isochronal heat treatment up to 1473 K simulating high temperature bonding process. Although F82H showed significant grain growth after conventional solid HIP conditions (1313 K x 2 hr.), this coarse grained microstructure was refined by the post HIP normalizing at

  5. Progress in design and analysis of the net water cooled liquid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danner, W.; Rieger, M.; Verschuur, K.A.; Vieider, G.; Casini, G.; Chazalon, M.; Libin, B.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Piana, R.

    1987-01-01

    The NET liquid breeder blanket was subjected to a major design revision and integrated in the new NET-DN machine configuration. In this paper briefly the most essential design features are summarized and some results from thermohydraulics and 1D as well as 3D neutronics analyses are presented. It is concluded that the performance meets well the requirements of NET but that the concept needs substantial improvement if applied to a reactor

  6. Status of fusion reactor blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1986-02-01

    The recent Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS), which was a comprehensive evaluation of fusion reactor blanket design and the status of blanket technology, serves as an excellent basis for further development of blanket technology. This study provided an evaluation of over 130 blanket concepts for the reference case of electric power producing, DT fueled reactors in both Tokamak and Tandem Mirror (TMR) configurations. Based on a specific set of reactor operating parameters, the current understanding of materials and blanket technology, and a uniform evaluation methodology developed as part of the study, a limited number of concepts were identified that offer the greatest potential for making fusion an attractive energy source

  7. Safety and environmental impact of the dual coolant blanket concept. SEAL subtask 6.2, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.; Dammel, F.; Gabel, K.; Jordan, T.; Schmuck, I.

    1996-03-01

    The European Union has been engaged since 1989 in a programme to develop tritium breeding blankets for application in a fusion power reactor. There are four concepts under development, namely two of the solid breeder type and two of the liquid breeder type. At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe one blanket concept of each line has been pursued so far with the so-called dual coolant type representing the liquid breeder line. In the dual coolant concept the breeder material (Pb-17Li) is circulated to external heat exchangers to carry away the bulk of the generated heat and to extract the tritium. Additionally, the heavily loaded first wall is cooled by high pressure helium gas. The safety and environmental impact of the dual coolant blanket concept has been assessed as part of the blanket concept selection excercise, a European concerted action, aiming at selecting the two most promising concepts for futher development. The topics investigated are: (a) Blanket materials and toxic materials inventory, (b) energy sources for mobilisation, (c) fault tolerance, (d) tritium and activation products release, and (e) waste generation and management. No insurmountable safety problems have been identified for the dual coolant blanket. The results of the assessment are described in this report. The information collected is also intended to serve as input to the EU 'Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion longterm Programme' (SEAL). The unresolved issues pertaining to the dual coolant blanket which would need further investigations in future programmes are outlined herein. (orig.) [de

  8. Numerical studies on the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the first wall inserted with the screw blade for water cooled ceramic breeder blanket of CFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kecheng; Ma, Xuebin; Cheng, Xiaoman; Liu, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced heat transfer and friction characteristics of the FW inserted with screw blade is investigated. • The screw blade structure optimization was done on the screw pitch and diameter. • Decreasing screw pitch and increasing screw diameter could further enhance heat transfer accompanied with increasing flow resistance. • Evaluate the overall enhanced heat performance by using the PEC value. - Abstract: The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket based on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) condition is one of the blanket candidates for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The first wall (FW) which plays an important part in the blanket design must remove the high heat flux radiated from plasma and nuclear heat deposition on the structure in any operating conditions. In this paper, the characteristics of enhanced heat transfer and friction for the FW with the inserted screw blade are studied by the numerical method. After the comparison between the numerical and experimental results, the standard k–ε turbulent model is selected to do the numerical calculation. The numerical results show that the peak temperature of RAFM steel could be reduced by decreasing screw pitch or increasing screw diameter, while accompanied with ascending flow resistance. Besides, among all of the chosen calculation cases compared with the smooth channel, the maximum value of temperature reduction is 10 °C under the conditions of heat flux of 0.5 MW/m"2 as well as screw pitch of 18 mm and screw diameter of 6 mm. The maximum increment ratio of the friction factor is 257% under the conditions of screw pitch of 10 mm and screw diameter of 4 mm. Furthermore, screw blade of 74 mm pitch and 4 mm diameter presents the highest overall performance evaluation criterion (PEC) value of 0.93 under Reynolds number of 270 000 conditions, and shows the best overall heat transfer enhancement performance.

  9. Numerical studies on the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the first wall inserted with the screw blade for water cooled ceramic breeder blanket of CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kecheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230037 (China); Ma, Xuebin; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced heat transfer and friction characteristics of the FW inserted with screw blade is investigated. • The screw blade structure optimization was done on the screw pitch and diameter. • Decreasing screw pitch and increasing screw diameter could further enhance heat transfer accompanied with increasing flow resistance. • Evaluate the overall enhanced heat performance by using the PEC value. - Abstract: The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket based on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) condition is one of the blanket candidates for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The first wall (FW) which plays an important part in the blanket design must remove the high heat flux radiated from plasma and nuclear heat deposition on the structure in any operating conditions. In this paper, the characteristics of enhanced heat transfer and friction for the FW with the inserted screw blade are studied by the numerical method. After the comparison between the numerical and experimental results, the standard k–ε turbulent model is selected to do the numerical calculation. The numerical results show that the peak temperature of RAFM steel could be reduced by decreasing screw pitch or increasing screw diameter, while accompanied with ascending flow resistance. Besides, among all of the chosen calculation cases compared with the smooth channel, the maximum value of temperature reduction is 10 °C under the conditions of heat flux of 0.5 MW/m{sup 2} as well as screw pitch of 18 mm and screw diameter of 6 mm. The maximum increment ratio of the friction factor is 257% under the conditions of screw pitch of 10 mm and screw diameter of 4 mm. Furthermore, screw blade of 74 mm pitch and 4 mm diameter presents the highest overall performance evaluation criterion (PEC) value of 0.93 under Reynolds number of 270 000 conditions, and shows the best overall heat transfer enhancement performance.

  10. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  11. A conceptual composite blanket design for the Tokamak type of thermonuclear reactor incorporating thermoelectric pumping of liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta Gupta, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual liquid lithium blanket design for the tokamak type of thermonuclear reactor put forward is a modification of the initial simple but novel design concept enunciated earlier that exploits the availability of suitably oriented magnetic fields and temperature gradients within the blanket to pump the liquid as has been shown feasible by laboratory model experiments. The modular construction of the blanket cells is retained but the earlier simple back to back double spiralling channel module is replaced by a composite unit of three radially nested layer-structures to optimise heat and tritium extraction from the blanket. The layer-structure at the first wall generates liquid lithium circulation by thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic forces and the segregated double spiralling channels serve as inlet-outlet driving devices. The outermost layer-structure is cooled by helium. Liquid lithium in the intermediate layer-structure is pumped at a very slow rate. The choice of the relative dimensional proportions of the three layer-structure and the channel cross-section, material property and the spiralling contour is of critical importance for the design. This paper presents the design data for a conceptual design of such a blanket with a 5000 MW (th) rating. (author)

  12. Development and qualification of functional materials for the EU Test Blanket Modules: Strategy and R and D activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, M., E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boccaccini, L., E-mail: lorenzo.boccaccini@inr.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Salavy, J.-F., E-mail: jfsalavy@cea.fr [CEA/Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Knitter, R., E-mail: regina.knitter@imf.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Materialforschung III, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moeslang, A., E-mail: anton.moeslang@imf.fzk.de [Institut Fuer Materialforschung I, FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Magielsen, A.J., E-mail: magielsen@nrg.eu [NRG Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hegeman, J.B.J. [NRG Petten, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Laesser, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference tritium breeder blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The paper reviews the current status of development and qualification of the EU TBMs functional materials; i.e. ceramic solid breeder materials, beryllium/beryllides multiplier materials and Lithium-Lead liquid metal breeder material Pb-15.7Li. For each functional material the main functional/performance requirements with key qualification issues, current status of the R and D activities and the EU development strategy are presented. In the development strategy major steps considered are listed pointing out importance of the 'Development/qualification/procurement plan', currently under elaboration, for definition of a roadmap of further activities aiming at delivery of qualified functional materials to be used in the European TBMs in ITER.

  13. Blanket and vacuum vessel design of the next tokamak. (Swimming pool type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Minato, A.; Kitamura, K.

    1983-01-01

    The structural design study of a reactor module for a swimming pool type reactor (SPTR) was conducted. Since pool water plays the role of radiation shielding in the SPTR, the module does not have a solid shield. It consists of tritium breeding blankets, divertor collector plates and a vacuum vessel. The object of this study is to show the reactor module design which has a simple structure and a sufficient tritium breeding ratio. A large coverage of the plasma chamber surface with tritium breeding blanket is essential in order to obtain a high tritium breeding ratio. A breeding blanket is also placed behind the divertor collector plate, i.e. in the upper and lower region, as well as in the outboard and inboard regions of the module. A concept in which the first wall is an integral part of the blanket is employed to minimize the thickness of structural and cooling material brazed in front of the breeding material (Li 2 O) and to enhance the tritium breeding capability. In order to simplify the module structure the vacuum vessel and breeding blanket is also integrated in the inboard region. One of the features inherent in the swimming pool type reactor is an additional external force on the vacuum vessel, namely hydraulic pressure. A detailed structural analysis of the vacuum vessel is performed. Divertor collector plates are assemblies of co-axial tubes. They minimize the electromagnetic force on the plate induced by the plasma disruption. A thermal and structural analysis and life time estimation of the first wall and divertor collector plates are performed. (author)

  14. High temperature blankets for non-electrical/electrical applications of fusion reactors: Progress report, July 15, 1983--November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribe, F.L.; Woodruff, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    We report a continuation of work done in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on design studies of the tandem-mirror fusion reactor (TMR) coupled to the General Atomic (GA) sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. During this report period the emphasis was on a solid-breeder gas cooled ''cannister'' blanket for TMR-based hydrogen production. This work was integrated with the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, coordinated by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The areas investigated by the two principal investigators and their students were the following: Plasma engineering of the TMR, including the magnets. Neutronics transport support for the synfuel blanket and shield. Completion of studies of the GA sulfur-iodine process. Under subcontract D.S. Rowe of Rowe and Associates worked with both UW and LLNL personnel on Mechanical design and thermal hydraulics of a high temperature, solid breeder blanket. 2 refs., 3 figs

  15. Feasibility study of a neutron activation system for EU test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion for Energy(F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Klix, Axel [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper summarizes the technical baseline and preliminary design of EU TBM Neutron Activation System, briefly describes the key components, and outlines the major integration challenges. - Abstract: The Neutron Activation System (NAS) for the EU Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) is an instrument that is proposed to determine the absolute neutron fluence and absolute neutron flux with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the corresponding Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). In the NAS activation probes are exposed to the ITER neutron flux for periods ranging from several tens of seconds up to a full plasma pulse length, and the induced gamma activities are subsequently measured. The NAS is composed of a pneumatic transfer system and a counting station. The pneumatic transfer system includes irradiation ends in TBMs, transfer pipes, return gas pipes, a transfer station with a distributor (carousel), and a pressurized gas driving system, while the counting station consists of gamma ray detectors, signal processing electronic devices, and data analyzing software for neutron source strength evaluation. In this paper, a brief description on the proposed TBM NAS as well as the key components is presented, and the integration challenges of TBM NAS are outlined.

  16. A ceramic breeder in a poloidal tube blanket for a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amici, A.; Anzidei, L.; Gallina, M.; Rado, V.; Simbolotti, G.; Violante, V.; Zampaglione, V.; Petrizzi, L.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual study of a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket for a tokamak reactor is presented. Tritium breeding capability together with system reliability are taken as the main design criteria. The blanket consists of tubular poloidal modules made of a central bundle of ceramic rods (γLiAlO 2 ) with a coaxial distribution of the inlet/outlet coolant flow (He) surrounded by a multiplier material (Be) in the form of bored bricks. The Be to γLiAlO 2 volume ratio is 4/1. The He inlet and outlet branches are cooling Be and γLiAlO 2 , respectively. A purge He flow running through small central holes of the ceramic rods is derived from the main flow. Under the typical conditions of a tokamak reactor (neutron wall load=2 MW/m 2 ), a full coverage tritium breeding ratio of 1.47 is achieved for the following design and operating parameters: outlet He temperature=570 0 C; inlet He temperature=250 0 ; total extracted power=2700 MW; He pumping power percentage=2%; minimum/maximum γLiAlO 2 temperature=400/900 0 C; maximum structural temperature=475 0 C; and maximum Be temperature=525 0 C. (orig.)

  17. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  18. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  19. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  20. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li 2 O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N 2 ) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li 2 O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue

  1. (D,T) Driven thorium hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Khan, S.; Sahin, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, a project has started, with the aim to establish the neutronic performance and the basic design of an experimental fusionfission (hybrid) reactor facility, called AYMAN, in cylinderical geometry. The fusion reactor will have to be simulated by a (D,T) neutron generator. Fissile and fertile fuel will have to surround the neutron generator as a cylinderical blanket to simulate the boundary conditions of the hybrid blanket in a proper way. This geometry is consistent with Tandem Mirror Hybrid Blanket design and with most of the ICF blanket designs. A similar experimental installation will become operational around 1984 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland known under the project LOTUS. Due to the limited dimensions of the experimental cavity of the LOTUS-hybrid reactor, the LOTUS blankets have to be designed in plane geometry. Also, the bulky form of the Haefely neutron generator of the LOTUS facility obliges one to design a blanket in the plane geometry. This results in a vacuum left boundary conditions for the LOTUS blanket. The importance of a reflecting left boundary condition on the overall neutronic performance of a hybrid blanket has been analyzed in previous work in detail

  2. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  3. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Breeding blanket for Demo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Giancarli, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme

  5. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorbom, B.N., E-mail: bsorbom@mit.edu; Ball, J.; Palmer, T.R.; Mangiarotti, F.J.; Sierchio, J.M.; Bonoli, P.; Kasten, C.; Sutherland, D.A.; Barnard, H.S.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Goh, J.; Sung, C.; Whyte, D.G.

    2015-11-15

    heat removal, and a tritium breeding ratio ≥ 1.1. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits an output blanket temperature of 900 K, single phase fluid cooling, and a high efficiency helium Brayton cycle, which allows for net electricity generation when operating ARC as a Pilot power plant.

  6. Comprehensive structural analysis of the HCPB demo blanket under thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic and radiation induced loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Norajitra, P.; Ruatto, P.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-01-01

    For the helium-cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Demo Development Program, a comprehensive finite element (FEM) structural analysis has been performed. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating conditions of an outboard blanket segment. On the basis of a three-dimensional model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal stresses caused by the temperature gradients in the blanket structure have been calculated. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions as well as an accidental over-pressurization of the blanket box have been accounted for. The stresses caused by a central plasma major disruption from an initial current of 20 MA to zero in 20 ms have been also taken into account. Radiation-induced dimensional changes of breeder and multiplier material caused by both helium production and neutron damage, have also been evaluated and discussed. All the above loads have been combined as input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) norms. (orig.)

  7. Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Gierszewski, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study have been designed for two blanket concepts. The TITAN-1 design uses a self-cooled liquid-lithium blanket. The TITAN-2 design uses a self-cooled aqueous-solution blanket, with lithium nitrate dissolved in the water for tritium breeding. Tritium inventory, release, and safety margins are within regulatory limits, at acceptable costs. Major issues for TITAN-1 are plasma-driven permeation, the need for a secondary coolant loop, tritium storage requirements, redundancy in the plasma exhaust system, and minimal isotopic distillation of the exhaust. TITAN-1 fuel cleanup, reprocessing, and air detritiation systems are described in detail

  8. Disruption problematics in segmented blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, Y.; Fantechi, S.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1994-01-01

    In Tokamaks, the hostile operating environment originated by plasma disruption events requires that the first wall/blanket/shield components sustain the large induced electromagnetic (EM) forces without significant structural deformation and within allowable material stresses. As a consequence there is a need to improve the safety features of the blanket design concepts satisfying the disruption problematics and to formulate guidelines on the required internal reinforcements of the blanket components. The present paper describes the recent investigations on blanket reinforcement systems needed in order to optimize the first-wall/blanket/shield structural design for next step and commercial fusion reactors in the context of ITER, DEMO and SEAFP activities

  9. Studies on Flat Sandwich-type Self-Powered Detectors for Flux Measurements in ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prasoon; Angelone, Maurizio; Döring, Toralf; Eberhardt, Klaus; Fischer, Ulrich; Klix, Axel; Schwengner, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Neutron and gamma flux measurements in designated positions in the test blanket modules (TBM) of ITER will be important tasks during ITER's campaigns. As part of the ongoing task on development of nuclear instrumentation for application in European ITER TBMs, experimental investigations on self-powered detectors (SPD) are undertaken. This paper reports the findings of neutron and photon irradiation tests performed with a test SPD in flat sandwich-like geometry. Whereas both neutrons and gammas can be detected with appropriate optimization of geometries, materials and sizes of the components, the present sandwich-like design is more sensitive to gammas than 14 MeV neutrons. Range of SPD current signals achievable under TBM conditions are predicted based on the SPD sensitivities measured in this work.

  10. Modeling and experiments on tritium permeation in fusion reactor blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. F.; Longhurst, G. R.

    The determination of tritium loss from helium-cooled fusion breeding blankets are discussed. The issues are: (1) applicability of present models to permeation at low tritium pressures; (2) effectiveness of oxide layers in reducing permeation; (3) effectiveness of hydrogen addition as a means to lower tritium permeation; and (4) effectiveness of conversion to tritiated water and subsequent trapping to reduce permeation. Theoretical models applicable to these issues are discussed, and results of experiments in two areas are presented; permeation of mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and conversion to tritiated water.

  11. Modeling and experiments on tritium permeation in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Issues are discussed that are critical in determining tritium loss from helium-cooled fusion breeding blankets. These issues are: (a) applicability of present models to permeation at low tritium pressures, (b) effectiveness of oxide layers in reducing permeation, (c) effectiveness of hydrogen addition as a means to lower tritium permeation, and (d) effectiveness of conversion to tritiated water and subsequent trapping as a means to reduce permeation. The paper discusses theoretical models applicable to these issues, and presents results of experiments in two areas: permeation of mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and conversion to tritiated water

  12. Thermal hydraulic and power cycle analysis of liquid lithium blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic and power cycle analyses were performed for the first-wall and blanket systems of tokamak-type fusion reactors under a typical set of design and operating conditions. The analytical results for lithium-cooled blanket cells show that with stainless steel as construction material and with no divertor present, the maximum allowable neutron wall loading is approximately 2 MW/m 2 and is limited by thermal stress criteria. With vanadium alloy as construction material and no divertor present, the maximum allowable neutron wall loading is approximately 8 MW/m 2 and is limited by an interplay of constraints imposed on the maximum allowable structural temperature and the minimum allowable coolant inlet temperature. With a divertor these wall loadings can be increased by from 40 to 90 percent. The cost of the vanadium system is found to be competitive with the stainless steel system because of the higher allowable structural temperatures and concomitant higher thermal efficiencies afforded by the vanadium alloys

  13. Blanket activation and afterheat for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed assessment has been made of the activation and afterheat for a Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) blanket using a two-dimensional model that included the limiter, the vacuum ducts, and the manifolds and headers for cooling the limiter and the first and second walls. Region-averaged, multigroup fluxes and prompt gamma-ray/neutron heating rates were calculated using the two-dimensional, discrete-ordinates code TRISM. Activation and depletion calculations were performed with the code FORIG using one-group cross sections generated with the TRISM region-averaged fluxes. Afterheat calculations were performed for regions near the plasma, i.e., the limiter, first wall, etc. assuming a 10-day irradiation. Decay heats were computed for decay periods up to 100 minutes. For the activation calculations, the irradiation period was taken to be one year and blanket activity inventories were computed for decay times to 4 x 10 5 years. These activities were also calculated as the toxicity-weighted biological hazard potential (BHP). 15 refs

  14. Tritium management and anti-permeation strategies for three different breeding blanket options foreseen for the European Power Plant Physics and Technology Demonstration reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Franza, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santucci, A.; Tosti, S. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three breeding blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

  15. Experimental investigation of MHD pressure losses in a mock-up of a liquid metal blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistrangelo, C.; Bühler, L.; Brinkmann, H.-J.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of a magnetic field on liquid metal flows in a scaled mock-up of a helium cooled lead lithium (HCLL) blanket. During the experiments pressure differences between points on the mock-up have been recorded for various values of flow rate and magnitude of the imposed magnetic field. The main contributions to the total pressure drop in the test-section have been identified as a function of characteristic flow parameters. For sufficiently strong magnetic fields the non-dimensional pressure losses are practically independent on the flow rate, namely inertia forces become negligible. Previous experiments on MHD flows in a simplified test-section for a HCLL blanket showed that the main contributions to the total pressure drop in a blanket module originate from the flow in the distributing and collecting manifolds. The new experiments confirm that the largest pressure drops occur along manifolds and near the first wall of the blanket module, where the liquid metal passes through small openings in the stiffening plates separating two breeder units. Moreover, the experimental data shows that with the present manifold design the flow does not distribute homogeneously among the 8 stacked boxes that form the breeding zone.

  16. Effect of nature convection on heat transfer in the liquid LiPb blanket for FDS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hongyan; Chen Hongli [Huaibei Coal Industry Teachers Coll. (China). Dept. of Physics; Zhou Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2007-07-01

    The He-cooled liquid LiPb tritium breeder (SLL) blanket concept is one of options of the blanket design of the fusion power reactor (FDS-II). The SLL blanket could be developed relatively easily with lower LiPb outlet temperature and slower LiPb flow velocity that allows the utilization of relatively mature material technology. The velocity of the liquid LiPb in the blanket is very slowly only in order to extract tritium. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer become very complex resulting from the differential heating of walls of the channels, especially adjacent to the First Wall (FW), and internal heat sources inside of the liquid LiPb. It is necessary to analyse the effect of the buoyancy-driven LiPb MHD flow on heat transfer in the channels with electrically and thermally conducting walls adjacent to the FW. The nature convection of the liquid LiPb, due to thermal diffusion, in the poloidal channel adjacent to the FW in the presence of the strong magnetic field of the SLL blanket has been considered and studied. The specially numerical MHD code based on the computational fluid dynamic software has been developed for analysis of the buoyancy-driven MHD flow. The properties of buoyantly convective flows have been investigated for various thermal boundary conditions. The numerical analysis was performed for the effect of nature convection on heat transfer of the liquid LiPb MHD flow in the poloidal channel in the SLL blanket. For the strong temperature gradient in the blanket and internal heat flux of Liquid LiPb, the three-dimensional temperature distributions of the LiPb, the FW and other walls have been given. Finally, The effect of the ratio of MHD buoyancy on the heat transfer characteristics of the LiPb flow have been calculated and presented. (orig.)

  17. Strong Electron Self-Cooling in the Cold-Electron Bolometers Designed for CMB Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, L. S.; Pankratov, A. L.; Gordeeva, A. V.; Zbrozhek, V. O.; Revin, L. S.; Shamporov, V. A.; Masi, S.; de Bernardis, P.

    2018-03-01

    We have realized cold-electron bolometers (CEB) with direct electron self-cooling of the nanoabsorber by SIN (Superconductor-Insulator-Normal metal) tunnel junctions. This electron self-cooling acts as a strong negative electrothermal feedback, improving noise and dynamic properties. Due to this cooling the photon-noise-limited operation of CEBs was realized in array of bolometers developed for the 345 GHz channel of the OLIMPO Balloon Telescope in the power range from 10 pW to 20 pW at phonon temperature Tph =310 mK. The negative electrothermal feedback in CEB is analogous to TES but instead of artificial heating we use cooling of the absorber. The high efficiency of the electron self-cooling to Te =100 mK without power load and to Te=160 mK under power load is achieved by: - a very small volume of the nanoabsorber (0.02 μm3) and a large area of the SIN tunnel junctions, - effective removal of hot quasiparticles by arranging double stock at both sides of the junctions and close position of the normal metal traps, - self-protection of the 2D array of CEBs against interferences by dividing them between N series CEBs (for voltage interferences) and M parallel CEBs (for current interferences), - suppression of Andreev reflection by a thin layer of Fe in the AlFe absorber. As a result even under high power load the CEBs are working at electron temperature Te less than Tph . To our knowledge, there is no analogue in the bolometers technology in the world for bolometers working at electron temperature colder than phonon temperature.

  18. LMFBR blanket physics project progress report No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Kaplan, I.; Supple, A.T.

    1973-01-01

    During the period covered by the report, July 1, 1972, through June 30, 1973, work was devoted to completion of experimental measurements and data analysis on Blanket Mockup No. 3, a graphite-reflected blanket, and to initiation of experimental work on Blanket Mockup No. 4, a steel-reflected assembly designed to mock up a demonstration plant blanket. Work was also carried out on the analysis of a number of advanced blanket concepts, including the use of high-albedo reflectors, the use of thorium in place of uranium in the blanket region, and the ''parfait'' or completely internal blanket concept. Finally, methods development work was initiated to develop the capability for making gamma heating measurements in the blanket mockups. (U.S.)

  19. ANL ITER high-heat-flux blanket-module heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.

    1992-02-01

    An Argonne National Laboratory facility for conducting tests on multilayered slab models of fusion blanket designs is being developed; some of its features are described. This facility will allow testing under prototypic high heat fluxes, high temperatures, thermal gradients, and variable mechanical loadings in a helium gas environment. Steady and transient heat flux tests are possible. Electrical heating by a two-sided, thin stainless steel (SS) plate electrical resistance heater and SS water-cooled cold panels placed symmetrically on both sides of the heater allow achievement of global one-dimensional heat transfer across blanket specimen layers sandwiched between the hot and cold plates. The heat transfer characteristics at interfaces, as well as macroscale and microscale thermomechanical interactions between layers, can be studied in support of the ITER engineering design effort. The engineering design of the test apparatus has shown that it is important to use multidimensional thermomechanical analysis of sandwich-type composites to adequately analyze heat transfer. This fact will also be true for the engineering design of ITER

  20. Relativistic Turbulence with Strong Synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self-Compton Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Many relativistic plasma environments in high-energy astrophysics, including pulsar wind nebulae, hot accretion flows onto black holes, relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, and giant radio lobes, are naturally turbulent. The plasma in these environments is often so hot that synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiative cooling becomes important. In this paper we investigate the general thermodynamic and radiative properties (and hence the observational appearance) of an optically thin relativistically hot plasma stirred by driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and cooled by radiation. We find that if the system reaches a statistical equilibrium where turbulent heating is balanced by radiative cooling, the effective electron temperature tends to attain a universal value θ = kT_e/m_e c^2 ˜ 1/√{τ_T}, where τT = neσTL ≪ 1 is the system's Thomson optical depth, essentially independent of the strength of turbulent driving and hence of the magnetic field. This is because both MHD turbulent dissipation and synchrotron cooling are proportional to the magnetic energy density. We also find that synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling and perhaps a few higher-order IC components are automatically comparable to synchrotron in this regime. The overall broadband radiation spectrum then consists of several distinct components (synchrotron, SSC, etc.), well separated in photon energy (by a factor ˜ τ_T^{-1}) and roughly equal in power. The number of IC peaks is checked by Klein-Nishina effects and depends logarithmically on τT and the magnetic field. We also examine the limitations due to synchrotron self-absorption, explore applications to Crab PWN and blazar jets, and discuss links to radiative magnetic reconnection.

  1. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed.

  2. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed

  3. Status of ITER blanket attachment design and related R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Khomiakov, S.; Calcagno, B.; Chappuis, Ph.; Dellopoulos, G.; Kolganov, V.; Merola, M.; Poddubnyi, I.; Raffray, R.; Raharijaona, J.J.; Ulrickson, M.; Zhmakin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER blanket attachment system went through a significant design upgrade and become basically compliant with specified design loads and required cyclic lifetime. • Upgrade of flexible supports allowed the doubling of cross sections of central bolts. Ceramic coatings were relocated to much larger areas on conical pairs screwed into shield blocks. • Key pads were relocated from keys of vacuum vessel into keyways of shield blocks and reshaped to enlarge areas of lateral interfaces with ceramic electro-insulating coatings. • Ceramic coatings are hidden between pads and enclosures in keyways with a purpose to minimize their wear rate, which depends on peak friction stress and cyclic sliding path. • Ceramic coatings to be verified by experiment, with several R and D aimed to collect statistically sufficient data on their reliability and durability in ITER relevant cyclic loading conditions. -- Abstract: Main function of the ITER blanket system [1–3] is to shield the vacuum vessel (VV) from nuclear radiation and thermal energy coming from the plasma. Blanket system consists of discrete blanket modules (BM). Each BM is composed of a first wall panel and a shield block (SB). The shield block is attached to the VV by means of four flexible supports and three or four shear keys, through key pads. All listed supports do have parts with ceramic electro-insulating coatings necessary to exclude the largest loops of eddy currents and restrict EM loads. Electrical connection of each SB to the VV is through two elastic electrical straps. Cooling water is supplied to each BM by one coaxial water connector. This paper summarizes the recent evolution of the blanket attachment system toward design solutions compatible with design loads and numbers of load cycles, and providing sufficient reliability and durability. This evolution was done in a frame of pre-defined external interfaces. The ongoing supporting R and D is also briefly described

  4. Blanket materials for DT fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the critical materials issues that must be considered in the development of a tritium breeding blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor that operates on the D-T-Li fuel cycle. The primary requirements of the blanket system are identified and the important criteria that must be considered in the development of blanket technology are summarized. The candidate materials are listed for the different blanket components, e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and neutron multiplier. Three blanket concepts that appear to offer the most potential are: (1) liquid-metal breeder/coolant, (2) liquid-metal breeder/separate coolant, and (3) solid breeder/separate coolant. The major uncertainties associated with each of the design concepts are discussed and the key materials R and D requirements for each concept are identified

  5. Helium Loop for the HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B. E.; Jin, X.; Meyder, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium loop for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) in ITER has been investigated with regard to the layout definition, selection of components, control, dimensioning and integration. This paper presents the status of development. The loop design for the HCPB-TBM in ITER will mainly base on the experience gained from Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) which is currently developed at the FZK for experiments under ITER relevant conditions. The ITER loop will be equipped with similar components like HELOKA and will mainly consist of a circulator with variable speed drive, a recuperator, an electric heater, a cooler, a dust filter and auxilary components e.g. pipework and valves. A Coolant Purification System (CPS) and a Pressure Control System (PCS) are foreseen to meet the requirements on coolant conditioning. To prepare a TBM for a new experimental campaign, a succession of operational states like '' cold maintenance '', '' baking '' and '' cold standby '' is required. Before a pulse operation, a '' hot stand-by '' state should be achieved providing the TBM with inlet coolant at nominal conditions. This operation modus is continued in the dwell time waiting for the successive pulse. A '' tritium out-gassing '' will be also required after several TBM-campaigns to remove the inventory rest of T in the beds for measurement purpose. The dynamic circuit behaviour during pulses, transition between different operational states as well as the behaviour in accident situations are investigated with RELAP. The main components of the loop will be accommodated inside the Tokamak Cooling Water System(TCWS)- vault from where the pipes require connection to the TBM which is attached to port 16 of the vacuum vessel. Therefore pipes across the ITER- building of about 110 m in length (each) are required. Additional equipment is also located in the port cell

  6. Blanket maintenance by remote means using the cassette blanket approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Induced radioactivity in the blanket and other parts of a fusion reactor close to the plasma zone will dictate remote assembly, disassembly, and maintenance procedures. Time will be of the essence in these procedures. They must be practicable and certain. This paper discusses the reduction of a complicated Tokamak reactor to a simpler assembly via the use of a vacuum building in which to house the reactor and the introduction in this new model of cassette blanket modules. The cassettes significantly simplify remote handling

  7. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k eff of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's

  8. Octalithium plumbate as breeding blanket ceramic: Neutronic performances, synthesis and partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colominas, S.; Palermo, I.; Abellà, J.; Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Sedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of a suitable configuration for the Li 8 PbO 6 breeding blanket design. ► Demonstration of the feasibility of Li 8 PbO 6 as a breeding material. ► Synthesis optimization in the Li 8 PbO 6 production. ► Characterization of Li 8 PbO 6 by X-ray phase analysis is discussed. - Abstract: A neutronic assessment of the performances of a helium-cooled Li 8 PbO 6 breeding blanket (BB) for the conceptual design of a DEMO fusion reactor is given. Different BB configurations have been considered in order to minimize the amount of beryllium required for neutron multiplication, including the use of graphite as reflector material. The calculated neutronic responses: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), power deposition in TF coils and power amplification factor, indicate the feasibility of Li 8 PbO 6 as breeding material. Furthermore, the synthesis and characterization of Li 8 PbO 6 by X-ray phase analysis are also discussed.

  9. Status of the European R and D on beryllium as multiplier material for breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Rabaglino, E.; Piazza, G.; Cardella, A.; Sannen, L.; Scibetta, M.; Laan, J. van der; Hegeman, J.B.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Within the international fusion community a variety of breeding blanket concepts are being considered, ranging from more conservative concepts to higher-risk concepts for fusion power reactors. In Europe, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of the two reference concepts which will also be tested as Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. In addition to the R and D for structural parts of the HCPB blanket, a considerable effort is devoted to the production and qualification of ceramic breeder and neutron multiplier (beryllium or beryllide) pebble beds. Since in the HCPB blanket pebbles made of lithium ceramics are foreseen, a high volume fraction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier to Li-based ceramic of about 4: l is needed. The typical loading conditions for beryllium are, with a neutron wall load of ∼12.5 MWa/m 2 and in ∼5 years lifetime: T min ∼300degC, T max ∼600-900degC, displacement damage ∼80 dpa, peak 4 He production ∼26000 appm and peak 3 H production ∼700 appm at the End-Of-Life. The behaviour of beryllium under irradiation is considered to be a key issue of the HCPB blanket, because of swelling due to helium bubbles and tritium retention. A large R and D programme on beryllium has been implemented in Europe, aimed at characterising and predicting the material behaviour before and under irradiation. An overview on experimental and modelling activities performed during the past 2 years is given with typical results on non-irradiated and irradiated Beryllium materials and pebble beds and the relevance of major results on future beryllium R and D is addressed. (author)

  10. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  11. Neutronic design of a Liquid Salt-cooled Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zwaan, S. J.; Boer, B.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    A renewed interest has been raised for liquid salt cooled nuclear reactors. The excellent heat transfer properties of liquid salt coolants provide several benefits, like lower fuel temperatures, higher coolant outlet temperatures, increased core power density and better decay heat removal. In order to benefit from the online refueling capability of a pebble bed reactor, the Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR) is proposed. This is a high temperature pebble-bed reactor with a fuel design similar to existing HTRs, but using a liquid salt as a coolant. In this paper, the selection criteria for the liquid salt coolant are described. Based on its neutronic properties, LiF-BeF 2 (FLIBE) was selected for the LSPBR. Two designs of the LSPBR were considered: a cylindrical core and an annular core with a graphite inner reflector. Coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to obtain the steady state power distribution and the corresponding fuel temperatures. Finally, calculations were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability in a protected loss-of-forced cooling accident. The maximum allowable power that can be produced with the LSPBR is hereby determined. (authors)

  12. Conceptual design of a Tokamak hybrid power reactor (THPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, F.; Imamura, Y.; Inoue, M.; Asami, N.; Kasai, M.; Yanagisawa, I.; Ida, T.; Takuma, T.; Yamaji, K.; Akita, S.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid tokamak reactor has been carried out to investigate the engineering feasibility and promising scale of a commercial hybrid reactor power plant. A tokamak fusion driver based on the recent plasma scaling law is introduced in this design study. The major parameters and features of the reactor are R=6.06 m, a=1.66 m, Ip=11.8 MA, Pf=668 MW, double null divertor plasma and steady state burning with RF current drive. The fusion power has been determined with medium energy multiplication in the blanket so as to relieve thermal design problems and produce electric power around 1000 MW. Uranium silicide is used for the fast fission blanket material to promise good nuclear performance. The coolant of the blanket is FLIBE and the tritium breeding blanket material is Li 2 O ceramics providing breeding ratio above unity

  13. Fusion-reactor blanket and coolant material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fusion reactor blanket and coolant compatibility tests are being conducted to aid in the selection and design of safe blanket and coolant systems for future fusion reactors. Results of scoping compatibility tests to date are reported for blanket material and water interactions at near operating temperatures. These tests indicate the quantitative hydrogen release, the maximum temperature and pressures produced and the rates of interactions for selected blanket materials

  14. Structural stability and self-healing capability of Er2O3 in situ coating on V-4Cr-4Ti in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhenyu; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo; Nagasaka, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    The in situ Er 2 O 3 insulating coating is under development for the self-cooled Li/V-alloy type fusion blanket. In this study, the structural stability and self-healing capability of the coating are investigated. Since the cracking in the coating was not observed after exposure when Li was removed with a weak lotion (liquid NH 3 ), the cracking observed in the previous studies is not a practical issue in a real blanket. The re-exposure of the coating in pure Li showed that the coating once formed in Li (Er) is thought to be stable in pure Li. Thus, coating has the possibility to be serviced in a Li environment without an Er supply. By prior exposure to Li (Er) at 873 K, the exhaustion of the oxygen storage in V-alloy substrate during exposure at 973 K could be delayed effectively. The self-healing capability of the coating was demonstrated by the examination with the re-exposing cracked coating in Li (Er)

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  16. Preliminary study of a blanket handling device and evaluation of the feasibility of eliminating the spread of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Djerassi, H.; Maupou, M.; Charruyer, P.; Salpietro, E.

    1988-01-01

    A study concerning progress and future development of the BLANKET HANDLING DEVICE of NET-DN tokamak and the related potentialities against contamination dispersal during handling of internal segments. To prevent the dust dispersion during the mantainance operations, there are three options: a Tight-Intermediate Containment (TIC), a Containment Transfer Unit (CTU) or the dust fixation on the internal components. The design of the BHD takes account of multivarious dimensioning requirements (geometrical and dimensional constraints, including characteristics of the segments and torus), environmental and operational constraints (safety, lifetime, maintainability, cooling of Blanket segments, containment). The possible solutions concerning protection of special devices, during handling and travelling, are discussed

  17. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  18. Workshop on cold-blanket research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The objective of the workshop was to identify and discuss cold-plasma blanket systems. In order to minimize the bombardment of the walls by hot neutrals the plasma should be impermeable. This requires a density edge-thickness product of nΔ > 10 15 cm -2 . An impermeable cold plasma-gas blanket surrounding a hot plasma core reduces the plasma wall/limiter interaction. Accumulation of impurities in this blanket can be expected. Fuelling from a blanket may be possible as shown by experimental results, though not fully explained by classical transport of neutrals. Refuelling of a reacting plasma had to be ensured by inward diffusion. Experimental studies of a cold impermeable plasma have been done on the tokamak-like Ringboog device. Simulation calculations for the next generation of large tokamaks using a particular transport model, indicate that the plasma edge profile can be controlled to reduce the production of sputtered impurities to an acceptable level. Impurity control requires a small fraction of the radial space to accomodate the cold-plasma layer. The problem of exhaust is, however, more complicated. If the cold-blanket scheme works as predicted in the model calculations, then α-particles generated by fusion will be transported to the cold outside layer. The Communities' experimental programme of research has been discussed in terms of the tokamaks which are available and planned. Two options present themselves for the continuation of cold-blanket research

  19. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  20. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  1. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galabert, Jose, E-mail: jose.galabert@f4e.europa.eu [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); Hopper, Dave [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom); Neviere, Jean-Cristophe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Nodwell, David [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); White, Gareth [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q{sub 2} Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  2. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabert, Jose; Hopper, Dave; Neviere, Jean-Cristophe; Nodwell, David; Pascal, Romain; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; White, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q_2 Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  3. Present development status of EUROFER and ODS-EUROFER for application in blanket concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: rainer.lindau@imf.fzk.de; Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rieth, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klimiankou, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Materna-Morris, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Alamo, A. [CEA-Saclay, SRMA/SMPX, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tavassoli, A.-A. F. [CEA-Saclay, SRMA/SMPX, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cayron, C. [CEA-Grenoble, DRT/DTEN/SMP/LS2M, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lancha, A.-M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense no. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense no. 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Baluc, N. [CRPP-EPFL, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schaeublin, R. [CRPP-EPFL, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Diegele, E. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Filacchioni, G. [ENEA CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00100 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Rensman, J.W. [NRG, MM and I, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schaaf, B. van der [NRG, MM and I, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lucon, E. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dietz, W. [MECS, Schoenenborner Weg 15, 51789 Lindlar (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    Within the European Union, the two major breeding blanket concepts presently being developed are the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), and the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) blankets. For both concepts, different conceptual designs are being discussed with temperature windows in the range 250-550 deg. C for conservative approaches based on reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels, and in the range 250-650 deg. C for more advanced versions, taking into account oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. As a final result of a systematic development of RAFM-steels in Europe, the 9% CrWVTa alloy EUROFER was specified and produced in an industrial scale with a variety of product forms. A large characterisation program is being performed including irradiation in materials test reactors between 60 and 450 deg. C ({<=}15 dpa), and in a fast breeder reactor at 330 deg. C up to 30 dpa. EUROFER is resistant to high temperature ageing, and the existing creep-rupture data ({approx}30,000 h, 450-600 deg. C) indicate long-term stability and predictability. The ODS variant of EUROFER shows superior tensile and creep properties compared to EUROFER. Applying a new production route has diminished the problem of lower ductility and inferior impact properties. A reliable joining technique for ODS and RAFM steels employing diffusion welding was successfully developed.

  4. Study on the thorium-based breeder with molten fluoride salt blanket in the Nuclear Hot Spring - 5420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, X.; Yingzhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Hot Spring (NHS) is an innovative reactor type featured by pool-type molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor core with the capability of natural circulation under full power operation. Except for the potential applications in power generation and high temperature process heat, thorium-based breeding is also a promising feature of the NHS. In order to take advantage of both the highly inherent safety and the on-line processing capability of fluid thorium-based fuels, a breeder design of NHS equipped with a blanket of molten salt with thorium fluoride outside the pebble-bed core is proposed in this work. For the purpose of keeping cleanness of the primary loop and blanket loop, both loops are isolated physically from each other, and the rapid on-line extraction of converted 233 Pa and 233 U is employed for the processing of blanket salt. The conversion ratio, defined as the ratio of converted 233 Pa and 233 U to the consumed fissile uranium in seed fuels, is investigated by varying the relevant parameters such as the circulation flux of blanket salt and the discharge burn-up of seed fuels. It is found that breeding can be achieved for the pure 233 U seed scheme with relatively low discharge burn-up and low blanket salt flux. However, the reprocessing for the HTGR fuels with TRISO particles has to be taken into account to ensure the breeding. (authors)

  5. Convertible shielding to ceramic breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-05-01

    Four concepts have been studied for the ITER convertible blanket: 1)Layered concept 2)BIT(Breeder-Inside-Tube)concept 3)BOT(Breeder-Out of-Tube)concept 4)BOT/mixed concept. All concepts use ceramic breeder and beryllium neutron multiplier, both in the shape of small spherical pebbles, 316SS structure, and H 2 O coolant (inlet/outlet temperatures : 100/150degC, pressure : 2 MPa). During the BPP, only beryllium pebbles (the primary pebble in case of BOT/mixed concept) are filled in the blanket for shielding purpose. Then, before the EPP operati