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Sample records for self-control diet concerns

  1. Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters' perceived diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Hartmann, Christina

    2016-12-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Adriaanse, Marieke; Vohs, K.D.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component

  3. PRESENT DAY CONCERNS ON DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of women at pregnancy and delivery is known to provide basis for normal healthy growth and development of their children. Deficiency of animal proteins, vegetable fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (as b-carotine, А, Е, С, В2, В6, В12, folic acid, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, chrome, selenium, iodine and other microelements have been shown in the studies of actual diets of pregnant and nursing mothers in different regions of Russia, which was conducted by scientific research institute of nutrition, Russian academy of medical sciences. Methods of diet improvement to correct macro- and micronutrient deficiency in pregnant and nursing mothers, including use of specialized food products, are taken up in the article.Key words: diet, pregnant mothers, nursing mothers, nutritive support.

  4. Pharmacology and biochemistry undergraduate students' concern for a healthy diet and nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Spexoto, Maria Claudia; Garcia Ferin, Giovana; Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana Alvares

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the concern for a healthy diet and the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate students of a pharmacology and biochemistry program and their associations with the variables of interest. This cross-sectional study administered the Nutrition Knowledge Scale and the How is your diet? questionnaire to 381 students. The associations between concern for a healthy diet and nutrition knowledge and between these two factors and the demographic variables were measured by the chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. The significance level was set at 5%. The mean age of the students was 20.6 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.7) years; 78.2% were female students; their mean body mass index was 22.6 (SD = 3.7) kg/m²; and 73.5% had an appropriate body mass index-related nutritional status. Most students fell within the category "pay attention to your diet" (77.1%) and "moderate nutrition knowledge" (79.7%). Concern for a healthy diet was significantly associated with program year (p = 0.024), socioeconomic class (p = 0.012), and physical activity (p Concern for a healthy diet was not associated with nutrition knowledge (p = 0.808). Physically inactive, first-year students from socioeconomic class B (US$ 1,046 - 1,872) were less concerned with a healthy diet. Such concern was not related to the students' nutrition knowledge. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Taking stock of self-control: A meta-analysis of how self-control affects a wide range of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, D.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.; Finkenauer, C.; Stok, M.; Baumeister, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Given assertions of the theoretical, empirical, and practical importance of self-control, this meta-analytic study sought to review evidence concerning the relationship between dispositional self-control and behavior. The authors provide a brief overview over prominent theories of self-control,

  6. Low trait self-control predicts self-handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Knee, C Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Past research has shown that self-handicapping stems from uncertainty about one's ability and self-presentational concerns. The present studies suggest that low dispositional self-control is also associated with self-handicapping. In 3 studies (N = 289), the association between self-control and self-handicapping was tested. Self-control was operationalized as trait self-control, whereas self-handicapping was operationalized as trait self-handicapping in Study 1 (N = 160), self-reported self-handicapping in Study 2 (N = 74), and behavioral self-handicapping in Study 3 (N = 55). In all 3 studies, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that low self-control predicts self-handicapping, independent of self-esteem, self-doubt, social desirability, and gender. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chronic inhibition, self-control and eating behavior: test of a 'resource depletion' model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Hagger

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1 aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72 categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2 aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83 classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition. Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating

  8. Understanding parent concerns about children's diet, activity and weight status: an important step towards effective obesity prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Bowen, Jane; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Golley, Rebecca; Noakes, Manny

    2010-08-01

    To identify parents' concerns and attitudes towards children's diets, activity habits and weight status. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing administration of a 37-item survey. Data were weighted for parental education level. Descriptive results are presented, and comparisons are made by the age, gender and parental characteristics of the child. Online research panel of Australian parents. A total of 1202 randomly selected parents of children aged 2-16 years, broadly representative of the Australian population. Parents were concerned about their child's education (reported by 35 % of respondents), child's health and well-being (25 %), and violence, drugs and alcohol (20 %). Concern about nutrition was indicated by 14 % of respondents and concern about fitness/exercise was indicated by 3 % of the sample. Factors perceived as making a healthy diet difficult to achieve for their child were child resistance (89 %), the availability of healthy food (72 %), a busy lifestyle (67 %) and the influence of food advertising (63 %). Ninety-two per cent of parents thought that it was realistic for their child to be active for at least 1 h/d, with 75 % of parents feeling that it was realistic for their child to have less than 2 h recreational screen time per d. Despite this, common barriers to achieving the activity guidelines were lack of time, weather and keeping children occupied. Insights into parental concerns from the current study may be useful in guiding development of interventions to improve children's nutrition and physical activity habits by framing messages in a way that are most likely to resonate with parents.

  9. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  10. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  11. Effortless self-control : A novel perspective on response conflict strategies in trait self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, Marleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344390365; de Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    Self-control is of invaluable importance for well-being. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, we introduce a new perspective on self-control, including the notion of effortless self-control, and a focus on self-control success rather than failure. We propose that effortless

  12. Conservatism predicts lapses from vegetarian/vegan diets to meat consumption (through lower social justice concerns and social support).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Earle, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Lapses from vegetarian and vegan (i.e., veg*n) food choices to meat consumption are very common, suggesting that sustaining veg*nism is challenging. But little is known about why people return to eating animals after initially deciding to avoid meat consumption. Several potential explanatory factors include personal inconvenience, meat cravings, awkwardness in social settings, or health/nutrition concerns. Here we test the degree to which political ideology predicts lapsing to meat consumption. Past research demonstrates that political ideology predicts present levels of meat consumption, whereby those higher in right-wing ideologies eat more animals, even after controlling for their hedonistic liking of meat (e.g., Dhont & Hodson, 2014). To what extent might political ideology predict whether one has lapsed from veg*n foods back to meat consumption? In a largely representative US community sample (N = 1313) of current and former veg*ns, those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism exhibited significantly greater odds of being a former than current veg*n, even after controlling for age, education, and gender. This ideology-lapsing relation was mediated (i.e., explained) by those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism: (a) adopting a veg*n diet for reasons less centered in justice concerns (animal rights, environment, feeding the poor); and (b) feeling socially unsupported in their endeavor. In contrast, factors such as differential meat craving or lifestyle inconvenience played little mediational role. These findings demonstrate that ideology and justice concerns are particularly relevant to understanding resilience in maintaining veg*n food choices. Implications for understanding why people eat meat, and how to develop intervention strategies, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  14. Exercising self-control increases approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-07-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior--betting on low-stakes gambles--that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.

  15. Self-Control and the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-control is a skill that children need to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Brain regions essential to self-control are immature at birth and develop slowly throughout childhood. From ages 3 to 6 years, as these brain regions become more mature, children show improved ability to control impulses, shift their attention flexibly,…

  16. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  17. Individual differences in self-reported self-control predict successful emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lena M; Dörfel, Denise; Steimke, Rosa; Trempler, Ima; Magrabi, Amadeus; Ludwig, Vera U; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine; Walter, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Both self-control and emotion regulation enable individuals to adapt to external circumstances and social contexts, and both are assumed to rely on the overlapping neural resources. Here, we tested whether high self-reported self-control is related to successful emotion regulation on the behavioral and neural level. One hundred eight participants completed three self-control questionnaires and regulated their negative emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging using reappraisal (distancing). Trait self-control correlated positively with successful emotion regulation both subjectively and neurally, as indicated by online ratings of negative emotions and functional connectivity strength between the amygdala and prefrontal areas, respectively. This stronger overall connectivity of the left amygdala was related to more successful subjective emotion regulation. Comparing amygdala activity over time showed that high self-controllers successfully maintained down-regulation of the left amygdala over time, while low self-controllers failed to down-regulate towards the end of the experiment. This indicates that high self-controllers are better at maintaining a motivated state supporting emotion regulation over time. Our results support assumptions concerning a close relation of self-control and emotion regulation as two domains of behavioral control. They further indicate that individual differences in functional connectivity between task-related brain areas directly relate to differences in trait self-control. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  20. Regulatory accessibility and social influences on state self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Hoyle, Rick H

    2010-02-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals' state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-control leads to increases in state self-control and thinking of others with bad trait or state self-control leads to decreases in state self-control. Study 5 provides evidence that the salience of significant others influences both regulatory accessibility and state self-control. Combined, these studies suggest that the effects of social influences on state self-control occur through multiple mechanisms.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control : Assessing Self-Control with the ASEBA Self-Control Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Yayouk E; Dolan, Conor V.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Finkenauer, Catrin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182572382

    This study used a theoretically-derived set of items of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop the Achenbach Self-Control Scale (ASCS) for 7-16 year olds. Using a large dataset of over 20,000 children, who are enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register, we demonstrated the

  2. Gender differences and typical nutrition concerns of the diets of preschool children - the results of the first stage of an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2017-12-19

    Nutrition in children has an important influence on health both in childhood and adulthood. Actions aimed at improving children's nutrition are essential, not only to the children and their families, but also to the whole society. The aim of the study was to present the results of nutrient intake before starting a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme, to investigate gender differences in nutrient intake and to discuss whether the preschoolers' nutrient intake is similar to the intake of their peers from other countries. Nutrient intake was estimated from seven-day weighed food records kept by parents and preschool staff individually for 122 4-6-year-old children who attended two preschools in Piła, north-western Poland. Nutrient intake was calculated using Dieta 4.0 computer programme including water intake and intake of nutrients from dietary supplements. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics computer programme, version 21.0, according to gender. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences (reference number 886/08). Boys, in comparison to girls, were found to have statistically significantly higher intakes of total protein, total protein per kg of body weight, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, available carbohydrates, lactose, sucrose, total water, vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin B 2 , vitamin B 12 , vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Statistically significantly higher percentage of girls than boys had intakes of vitamin E below AI. Gender was a significant factor of nutrient intake in the studied preschool children. The main nutritional concerns in the studied preschoolers' diets, irrespective of gender, are typical of the diets of preschool children from various parts of Europe and indicate the need to work out common nutritional strategies to improve preschoolers' nutrition across Europe to reduce future burden of diet-related diseases to the

  3. Determinants of Justification and Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivetz, Ran; Zheng, Yuhuang

    2006-01-01

    The authors propose that people use 2 routes in justifying self-gratification: 1st through hard work or excellence (entitlement) and the 2nd through the attainment of vices without depleting income. This framework was tested using real tasks and choices adopted from prior research on self-control. The results indicate that (a) higher effort and…

  4. Does Self-Control Training Improve Self-Control? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Frankenbach, Julius; Job, Veronika; Loschelder, David D

    2017-11-01

    Self-control is positively associated with a host of beneficial outcomes. Therefore, psychological interventions that reliably improve self-control are of great societal value. A prominent idea suggests that training self-control by repeatedly overriding dominant responses should lead to broad improvements in self-control over time. Here, we conducted a random-effects meta-analysis based on robust variance estimation of the published and unpublished literature on self-control training effects. Results based on 33 studies and 158 effect sizes revealed a small-to-medium effect of g = 0.30, confidence interval (CI 95 ) [0.17, 0.42]. Moderator analyses found that training effects tended to be larger for (a) self-control stamina rather than strength, (b) studies with inactive compared to active control groups, (c) males than females, and (d) when proponents of the strength model of self-control were (co)authors of a study. Bias-correction techniques suggested the presence of small-study effects and/or publication bias and arrived at smaller effect size estimates (range: g corrected = .13 to .24). The mechanisms underlying the effect are poorly understood. There is not enough evidence to conclude that the repeated control of dominant responses is the critical element driving training effects.

  5. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern-guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Health-based guidance values, such as the ADI, use chemical-specific data to determine the highest intake that would be without significant adverse health effects. A threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a level of intake predicted to be without adverse effects based on the toxicity of structurally related compounds. The main advantage of the use of TTCs is that the risk of low exposures can be evaluated without the need for chemical-specific animal toxicity data. TTCs have been used for many years for screening the safety of packaging migrants by the FDA in the USA, and of flavoring substances, by the JECFA. A recent reassessment of the use of TTCs, organized by ILSI Europe, has developed a decision tree which allows a systematic approach to the evaluation of low levels of diverse chemicals in food. The decision tree incorporates a series of increasing TTC values into a step-wise approach. Potentially genotoxic carcinogens are considered first, based on the presence of known structural alerts. Aflatoxin-like, azoxy- and nitroso-compounds are removed from consideration because they are the most potent, and a practical TTC could not be established. Other compounds with structural alerts for genotoxicity are allocated a TTC of 0.15 μg/person per day. Compounds without structural alerts for genotoxicity are evaluated based on chemical structure and intake using a series of TTC values derived by the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the 5th percentile of the distribution of NOAELs from chronic studies on compounds sharing similar structural characteristics

  6. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  8. Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    vanDellen, Michelle R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2009-01-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals’ state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-contro...

  9. Social Identity and Self-Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Opler, Marvin

    1962-01-01

    .... By this we mean that if psychopathological states are the concern of social psychiatry as they are the concern of any branch of psychiatry we must begin with the character of such states at least...

  10. Use of self-controlled designs in pharmacoepidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, J.; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Self-controlled observational study designs, such as the case-crossover design and the self-controlled case series, are reviewed, and their respective rationale, strengths and limitations are compared. Although no single design is generally superior to the others, they share the trait of being...... robust towards confounders that are stable over time. The self-controlled designs can be particularly useful when using secondary healthcare data for pharmacoepidemiological research and might be useful in screening for adverse drug effects. The main limitations of self-controlled designs...

  11. Behavior Self-Control and the Contract Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study to determine the success of university students' behavioral self-control projects. Results indicate that the teaching of self-control principles is easily integrated into personal adjustment classes and can have lasting effects on students' coping skills. (KC)

  12. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. 2014 Copyright © 2014, CRISA Publications SELF-CONTROL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was measured by the Brief Self-control Scale. Self-reported ... Key words:Alcohol consumption, Botswana, self-control, self-regulation, undergraduate students .... alcohol-related harm. One may ..... a belief that it is acceptable to drink dur-.

  14. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  15. A brief measure of social media self-control failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Jie; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Kerkhof, Peter

    People often fail in controlling their social media use when it conflicts with other goals and obligations. To facilitate research on understanding social media self-control failures, we constructed a brief social media self-control failure (SMSCF)-scale to assess how often social media users give

  16. Tricky treats: how and when temptations boost self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore how and when temptations boost self-control. More specifically, we aimed to a) replicate and extend previous findings showing that temptations yield enhanced self-control on cognitive as well as behavioral measures; b) examine the role of

  17. The self-control consequences of political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Joshua J; Chambers, John R; Hirt, Edward R; Otto, Ashley S; Kardes, Frank R; Leone, Christopher

    2015-07-07

    Evidence from three studies reveals a critical difference in self-control as a function of political ideology. Specifically, greater endorsement of political conservatism (versus liberalism) was associated with greater attention regulation and task persistence. Moreover, this relationship is shown to stem from varying beliefs in freewill; specifically, the association between political ideology and self-control is mediated by differences in the extent to which belief in freewill is endorsed, is independent of task performance or motivation, and is reversed when freewill is perceived to impede (rather than enhance) self-control. Collectively, these findings offer insight into the self-control consequences of political ideology by detailing conditions under which conservatives and liberals are better suited to engage in self-control and outlining the role of freewill beliefs in determining these conditions.

  18. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  19. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A Comparison of Traditional and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Parks, Donald H.

    1979-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of counterconditioning and self-control models of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted and nontargeted anxieties. Treatments were equally effective in reducing and maintaining reduction of targeted anxiety, debilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  1. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization effectively reduced debilitating test anxiety and increased facilitating test anxiety. Follow-up demonstrated maintenance of debilitating test anxiety reduction. Subjects receiving treatment had significantly higher psychology grades. (Author)

  2. TEACHING SELF-CONTROL WITH QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially sh...

  3. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sleep deprivation, low self-control, and delinquency: a test of the strength model of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Barnes, J C; Hay, Carter

    2015-02-01

    Recent work provides evidence that sleep deprivation is positively related to delinquency. In this study, we draw on Baumeister and colleagues' strength model of self-control to propose an explanation for this association. Specifically, we argue that low self-control is the construct that bridges the relationship between sleep deprivation and delinquency. To test the proposed model, we examine survey data drawn from a longitudinal multi-city cohort study of adolescents who were followed from birth through age 15 (N = 825; 50% female; 82% non-Hispanic white, 59% two-parent nuclear family). The results from regression models using latent factors indicate: sleep deprivation is positively related to low self-control; low self-control is positively related to delinquency; and the relationship between sleep deprivation and delinquency is indirect and operates through low self-control. Impressively, these relationships emerged when accounting for potential background sources of spuriousness, including neighborhood context, depressive symptoms, parenting practices, unstructured socializing with peers, and prior delinquency. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  6. The sum of friends’ and lovers’ self-control scores predicts relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vohs, K.D.; Finkenauer, C.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    What combination of partners' trait self-control levels produces the best relationship outcomes? The authors tested three hypotheses-complementarity (large difference in trait self-control scores), similarity (small difference in self-control scores), and totality (large sum of self-control

  7. Teaching Self-Control with Qualitatively Different Reinforcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration…

  8. Self-control and alcohol consumption among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the relationship between self-control and alcohol consumption among students at the University of Botswana, and was entrenched within the socialcognitive theory of self-regulation. Data were collected from 135 undergraduate students (42.2% female, 57.8% male) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD ...

  9. On the temperature control in self-controlling hyperthermia therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahyar, E-mail: ebrahimi_m@mehr.sharif.ir

    2016-10-15

    In self-controlling hyperthermia therapy, once the desired temperature is reached, the heat generation ceases and overheating is prevented. In order to design a system that generates sufficient heat without thermal ablation of surrounding healthy tissue, a good understanding of temperature distribution and its change with time is imperative. This study is conducted to extend our understanding about the heat generation and transfer, temperature distribution and temperature rise pattern in the tumor and surrounding tissue during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. A model consisting of two concentric spheres that represents the tumor and its surrounding tissue is considered and temperature change pattern and temperature distribution in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. After describing the model and its governing equations and constants precisely, a typical numerical solution of the model is presented. Then it is showed that how different parameters like Curie temperature of nanoparticles, magnetic field amplitude and nanoparticles concentration can affect the temperature change pattern during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. The model system herein discussed can be useful to gain insight on the self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia while applied to cancer treatment in real scenario and can be useful for treatment strategy determination. - Highlights: • Temperature change pattern in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. • The model system herein can be useful for treatment strategy determination. • In the work described herein, emphasis is on the effect of low Curie temperature. • If the equilibrium temperature can be tuned appropriately, the stay time will be infinite.

  10. The Intergenerational Transmission of Low Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a vast line of literature showing that antisocial behaviors and personality traits are transmitted across generational lines. Given the ascendancy of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime, it is somewhat surprising that no research has examined whether levels of self-control are passed from parent to child. The authors examine…

  11. On the temperature control in self-controlling hyperthermia therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Mahyar

    2016-01-01

    In self-controlling hyperthermia therapy, once the desired temperature is reached, the heat generation ceases and overheating is prevented. In order to design a system that generates sufficient heat without thermal ablation of surrounding healthy tissue, a good understanding of temperature distribution and its change with time is imperative. This study is conducted to extend our understanding about the heat generation and transfer, temperature distribution and temperature rise pattern in the tumor and surrounding tissue during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. A model consisting of two concentric spheres that represents the tumor and its surrounding tissue is considered and temperature change pattern and temperature distribution in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. After describing the model and its governing equations and constants precisely, a typical numerical solution of the model is presented. Then it is showed that how different parameters like Curie temperature of nanoparticles, magnetic field amplitude and nanoparticles concentration can affect the temperature change pattern during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. The model system herein discussed can be useful to gain insight on the self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia while applied to cancer treatment in real scenario and can be useful for treatment strategy determination. - Highlights: • Temperature change pattern in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. • The model system herein can be useful for treatment strategy determination. • In the work described herein, emphasis is on the effect of low Curie temperature. • If the equilibrium temperature can be tuned appropriately, the stay time will be infinite.

  12. Self-Control and Academic Performance in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honken, Nora; Ralston, Patricia A.; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Self-control has been related to positive student outcomes including academic performance of college students. Because of the critical nature of the first semester academic performance for engineering students in terms of retention and persistence in pursuing an engineering degree, this study investigated the relationship between freshmen…

  13. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  14. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents’ smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yoo, Seunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents’ smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction). We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk. Methods We used the 2013 n...

  15. Exploring the association between television advertising of healthy and unhealthy foods, self-control, and food intake in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with unhealthy food intake (all β ≥ .16, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .10, p advertising and self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  17. A transformational product to improve self-control strength: The Chocolate Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Flavius; Hassenzahl, Marc; Laschke, Matthias; Diefenbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and evenoverworking. While the field of persuasive technologies explicitly searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it more or less neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an interactive device to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A longitudinal, control-group, field study showed the machine to increase self-control str...

  18. Effortless inhibition: habit mediates the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; Gillebaart, Marleen; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negativel...

  19. An Inductorless Self-Controlled Rectifier for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaohua; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-11-19

    This paper presents a high-efficiency inductorless self-controlled rectifier for piezoelectric energy harvesting. High efficiency is achieved by discharging the piezoelectric device (PD) capacitance each time the current produced by the PD changes polarity. This is achieved automatically without the use of delay lines, thereby making the proposed circuit compatible with any type of PD. In addition, the proposed rectifier alleviates the need for an inductor, making it suitable for on-chip integration. Reported experimental results show that the proposed rectifier can harvest up to 3.9 times more energy than a full wave bridge rectifier.

  20. An Inductorless Self-Controlled Rectifier for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high-efficiency inductorless self-controlled rectifier for piezoelectric energy harvesting. High efficiency is achieved by discharging the piezoelectric device (PD capacitance each time the current produced by the PD changes polarity. This is achieved automatically without the use of delay lines, thereby making the proposed circuit compatible with any type of PD. In addition, the proposed rectifier alleviates the need for an inductor, making it suitable for on-chip integration. Reported experimental results show that the proposed rectifier can harvest up to 3.9 times more energy than a full wave bridge rectifier.

  1. Self-control program in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L W

    1981-06-01

    In a pilot study utilizing self-control techniques for the purpose of modifying the cue-reactive eating habits of obese patients, three subjects maintained a continuous weight loss throughout the first year of treatment. Techniques included goal setting, self-monitoring, brief delay and self-confrontation prior to eating unauthorized food and direct observation of oneself in a mirror when eating unauthorized food. All patients are expected to remain in treatment for the foreseeable future with no termination of the program despite apparent success with regard to control of their feeding disturbance. The rationale for this approach is discussed.

  2. A Stitch in Time: Strategic Self-Control in High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; White, Rachel E.; Matteucci, Alyssa J.; Shearer, Annie; Gross, James J.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that self-control is critical to academic success. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the diverse strategies students use to implement self-control or how well these strategies work. To address these issues, the author conducted a naturalistic investigation of self-control strategies (Study 1) and 2…

  3. How College Students Understand Their Self-Control Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliburn Allen, Cara; Glanzer, Perry

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown the importance of the positive benefits of high-levels of self-control for both individuals and society. Yet, we know only a limited amount about how college students understand and apply self-control. This qualitative study examined how a national sample of 75 students defined self-control, whether or not they believed…

  4. Tales of two self-control scales: Relations with Five-Factor and HEXACO traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; van Gelder, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the Five-Factor and HEXACO personality correlates of two common self-control constructs - Tangney self-control and Grasmick self-control - and their relations with delinquency. In both a student and a community sample, conscientiousness (mainly the prudence facet) was the most

  5. Children's and Teachers' Perspectives on Children's Self-Control: The Development of Two Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Compared parallel scales of children's self-control developed for teachers and children. Self-control ratings by teachers and children related to naturalistic observations and to teacher ratings of frustration tolerance and acting-out/aggressive problems. Teachers' ratings of self-control related to IQ and achievement. Supported the validity of…

  6. Two Self-Control Procedures in the Reduction of Targeted and Nontargeted Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Compared effects of relaxation as self-control and a self-control variant of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted (test anxiety) and nontargeted anxieties with those of wait-list and no-treatment expectancy controls. Groups given relaxation as self-control and modified desensitization reported less debilitating test anxiety than…

  7. A Self-Control Versus a Counterconditioning Paradigm for Systematic Desensitization: An Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Michael D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the traditional counterconditioning paradigm and a self-control paradigm of systematic desensitization. College students reporting high test anxiety and indicating interest in receiving treatment were assigned to counterconditioning, self-control, or wait-list control conditions. As predicted, self-control procedures…

  8. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  9. Is low self-control associated with violence among youths in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ozden; Köksoy, Onur

    2009-04-01

    Self-control theory is tested in relation to violence on a sample of university students in Turkey. The primary findings indicate support for the theory net of the impacts of strain, deterrence, differential association, social bonding, and routine activity theories: The greater the low self-control, the greater the violence. No subdimensions of self-control have consistent significant impacts on violence. Most high-opportunity measures have positive impacts on violence. Interaction effects occur only among subdimensions of self-control and opportunity variables. Social class and age are significant even when low self-control measures were controlled.

  10. Going Concern eller Concerned Going

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraszuk, Anni; Hartmann, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?......Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?...

  11. Effects of Trait Self-Control on Response Conflict About Healthy and Unhealthy Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-12-01

    Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age  = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age  = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of motivation, glucose and self-control in the antisaccade task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Kelly

    Full Text Available Research shows that self-control is resource limited and there is a gradual weakening in consecutive self-control task performance akin to muscle fatigue. A body of evidence suggests that the resource is glucose and consuming glucose reduces this effect. This study examined the effect of glucose on performance in the antisaccade task - which requires self-control through generating a voluntary eye movement away from a target - following self-control exertion in the Stroop task. The effects of motivation and individual differences in self-control were also explored. In a double-blind design, 67 young healthy adults received a 25g glucose or inert placebo drink. Glucose did not enhance antisaccade performance following self-control exertion in the Stroop task. Motivation however, predicted performance on the antisaccade task; more specifically high motivation ameliorated performance decrements observed after initial self-control exertion. In addition, individuals with high levels of self-control performed better on certain aspects of the antisaccade task after administration of a glucose drink. The results of this study suggest that the antisaccade task might be a powerful paradigm, which could be used as a more objective measure of self-control. Moreover, the results indicate that level of motivation and individual differences in self-control should be taken into account when investigating deficiencies in self-control following prior exertion.

  13. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Parental Self-Control and the Development of Male Aggression in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Test of Self-Control Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meldrum, Ryan C.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Dekovic, Maja

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have evaluated associations between parenting practices, adolescent self-control, and adolescent antisocial behavior. Yet, few studies have examined associations between these constructs in early childhood or examined the extent to which both maternal and paternal self-control

  15. Lessons learned from trait self-control in well-being : Making the case for routines and initiation as important components of trait self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Denise De; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    It seems common knowledge that trait self-control helps people to achieve the things they find important in their lives by not being distracted by immediate pleasures and temptations. Initial evidence suggests that trait self-control is important in wellbeing as well, with people high in

  16. Why are people with high self-control happier? The effect of trait self-control on happiness as mediated by regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Tracy T L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371747546; Gillebaart, Marleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344390365; Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; De Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    Background: While self-control has often been related to positive outcomes in life such as higher academic achievements and better health, recent insights reveal that people with high trait self-control (TSC) may even experience greater life satisfaction or happiness. Objective: The current study

  17. The role of self-control strength in the development of state anxiety in test situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C; Bertrams, A

    2013-06-01

    Self-control strength may affect state anxiety because emotion regulation is impaired in individuals whose self-control strength has been temporarily depleted. Increases in state anxiety were expected to be larger for participants with depleted compared to nondepleted self-control strength, and trait test anxiety should predict increases in state anxiety more strongly if self-control strength is depleted. In a sample of 76 university students, trait test anxiety was assessed, self-control strength experimentally manipulated, and state anxiety measured before and after the announcement of a test. State anxiety increased after the announcement. Trait test anxiety predicted increases in state anxiety only in students with depleted self-control strength, suggesting that increased self-control strength may be useful for coping with anxiety.

  18. Self-control with urinalysis in juvenile diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, J; Svensson, P G

    1979-11-01

    Urinary glucose excretion reflects the blood glucose levels and is therefore recommended and used as a relevant and practical method for self-control in juvenile diabetes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attitudes of diabetic children and their parents towards such daily urinalysis. In 1975 69 juvenile diabetics 6--18 years old and their parents were studied and three years later another 69 patients were added. Standardized interviews and questionnaires were used. Only 3 out of 138 patients refused to test their urine regularly and to write down their results in the diary. The results indicate that a great majority of the patients and the parents easily accept the self-testing method and regard it as a valuable tool in the management of the disease. Almost nobody experienced the urine tests as a psychological problem.

  19. Bridgman's concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns

  20. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  1. Dietary self-control influences top-down guidance of attention to food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Dolmans, Dirk; Humphreys, Glyn W; Rutters, Femke

    2015-01-01

    Motivational objects attract attention due to their rewarding properties, but less is known about the role that top-down cognitive processes play in the attention paid to motivationally relevant objects and how this is affected by relevant behavioral traits. Here we assess how thinking about food affects attentional guidance to food items and how this is modulated by traits relating to dietary self-control. Participants completed two tasks in which they were presented with an initial cue (food or non-food) to either hold in working memory (memory task) or to merely attend to (priming task). Holding food items in working memory strongly affected attention when the memorized cue re-appeared in the search display. Tendency towards disinhibited eating was associated with greater attention to food versus non-food pictures in both the priming and working memory tasks, consistent with greater attention to food cues per se. Successful dieters, defined as those high in dietary restraint and low in tendency to disinhibition, showed reduced attention to food when holding food-related information in working memory. These data suggest a strong top-down effect of thinking about food on attention to food items and indicate that the suppression of food items in working memory could be a marker of dieting success.

  2. Dietary self-control influences top-down guidance of attention to food cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne eHiggs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivational objects attract attention due to their rewarding properties, but less is known about the role that top-down cognitive processes play in the attention paid to motivationally relevant objects and how this is affected by relevant behaviour traits. Here we assess how thinking about food affects attentional guidance to food items and how this is modulated by traits relating to dietary self-control. Participants completed two tasks in which they were presented with an initial cue (food or non-food to either hold in working memory (memory task or to merely attend to (priming task. Holding food items in working memory strongly affected attention when the memorized cue re-appeared in the search display. Tendency towards disinhibited eating was associated with greater attention to food versus non-food pictures in both the priming and working memory tasks, consistent with greater attention to food cues per se. Successful dieters, defined as those high in dietary restraint and low in tendency to disinhibition, showed reduced attention to food when holding food-related information in working memory. These data suggest a strong top-down effect of thinking about food on attention to food items and indicate that the suppression of food items in working memory could be a marker of dieting success.

  3. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents' smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents' smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction. We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk.We used the 2013 national survey on internet usage and utilization data from the National Information Agency of Korea. Information on exposure and covariates included self-reported experience of domestic violence and parental addiction, sociodemographic variables, and other variables potentially related to smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was estimated using a smartphone addiction proneness scale, a standardized measure developed by national institutions in Korea.Adolescents who had experienced domestic violence (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23-2.45 and parental addiction (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24-3.27 were found to be at an increased risk for smartphone addiction after controlling for all potential variables. Furthermore, on classifying adolescents according to their level of self-control and friendship quality the association between domestic violence and parental addiction, and smartphone addiction was found to be significant in the group with adolescents with lower levels of self-control (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.68-4.90 and OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.34-2.83 and friendship quality (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41-3.85 and OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.64.Our findings suggest that family dysfunction was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. We also observed that self-control and friendship quality act as protective factors against adolescents' smartphone addiction.

  4. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents' smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yoo, Seunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents' smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction). We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk. We used the 2013 national survey on internet usage and utilization data from the National Information Agency of Korea. Information on exposure and covariates included self-reported experience of domestic violence and parental addiction, sociodemographic variables, and other variables potentially related to smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was estimated using a smartphone addiction proneness scale, a standardized measure developed by national institutions in Korea. Adolescents who had experienced domestic violence (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23-2.45) and parental addiction (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24-3.27) were found to be at an increased risk for smartphone addiction after controlling for all potential variables. Furthermore, on classifying adolescents according to their level of self-control and friendship quality the association between domestic violence and parental addiction, and smartphone addiction was found to be significant in the group with adolescents with lower levels of self-control (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.68-4.90 and OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.34-2.83) and friendship quality (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41-3.85 and OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26-2.64). Our findings suggest that family dysfunction was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. We also observed that self-control and friendship quality act as protective factors against adolescents' smartphone addiction.

  5. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents’ smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yoo, Seunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents’ smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction). We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk. Methods We used the 2013 national survey on internet usage and utilization data from the National Information Agency of Korea. Information on exposure and covariates included self-reported experience of domestic violence and parental addiction, sociodemographic variables, and other variables potentially related to smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was estimated using a smartphone addiction proneness scale, a standardized measure developed by national institutions in Korea. Results Adolescents who had experienced domestic violence (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23–2.45) and parental addiction (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24–3.27) were found to be at an increased risk for smartphone addiction after controlling for all potential variables. Furthermore, on classifying adolescents according to their level of self-control and friendship quality the association between domestic violence and parental addiction, and smartphone addiction was found to be significant in the group with adolescents with lower levels of self-control (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.68–4.90 and OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.34–2.83) and friendship quality (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41–3.85 and OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26–2.64). Conclusion Our findings suggest that family dysfunction was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. We also observed that self-control and friendship quality act as protective factors against adolescents’ smartphone addiction. PMID:29401496

  6. Trust and self-control: The moderating role of the default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Evans

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent dual-process theories, interpersonal trust is influenced by both impulsive and deliberative processes. The present research explores the determinants of deliberative trust, investigating how trust decisions are affected by the availability of cognitive resources. We test the interaction of two relevant factors: self-control (the ability to exert mental control over one's behavior and the default response (a preselected option that requires minimal or no effort. Past research has shown that self-control has extensive effects on social behavior and decision making. Here, we report that the effect of self-control on trust depends on the default. Across two studies, we find no direct link between self-control and trust. Instead, self-control affects trust indirectly by influencing the level of effort in decision making. Poor self-control (due to experimental depletion or trait-based differences predicts adherence to the default---the response that requires the least effort.

  7. Parenting, self-control, and the gender gap in heavy drinking: the case of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkovar, Ekaterina V; Broidy, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Drawing on Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory linking parenting to deviant behavior via development of self-control, the authors assess the association between parenting styles, self-control ability, and frequent alcohol use separately for males and females. The authors' findings from a random sample of 440 Russian respondents provide mixed support for self-control theory. Contrary to the theory, but in line with extant research, the authors failed to uncover significant gender differences in childhood upbringing or establish a strong link between parenting techniques and self-control. Furthermore, whereas parental upbringing appears to increase the likelihood of frequent drinking among men, self-control does not mediate this relationship but rather acts as an independent predictor of men's alcohol abuse. Finally, the relatively modest contribution of self-control differences to the gender gap in frequent drinking suggests that higher alcohol consumption among men likely stems from alternative, possibly context-embedded factors.

  8. Examining the relationship between religiosity and self-control as predictors of prison deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Kent R; Copes, Heith; Tewksbury, Richard; Dabney, Dean A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between religiosity and crime has been the subject of much empirical debate and testing over the past 40 years. Some investigators have argued that observed relationships between religion and crime may be spurious because of self-control, arousal, or social control factors. The present study offers the first investigation of religiosity, self-control, and deviant behavior in the prison context. We use survey data from a sample of 208 recently paroled male inmates to test the impact of religiosity and self-control on prison deviance. The results indicate that two of the three measures of religiosity may be spurious predictors of prison deviance after accounting for self-control. Participation in religious services is the only measure of religiosity to significantly reduce the incidence of prison deviance when controlling for demographic factors, criminal history, and self-control. We conclude with implications for future studies of religiosity, self-control, and deviance in the prison context.

  9. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  10. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are inevitably part of daily life, the current dissertation aimed to gain a deeper understanding of low self-control states and how they affect performance. Critically, we worked with, rather than agains...

  11. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates. Keywords: Health warnings, Dietary decision making, Self-control, Electroencephalogram, EEG, N1, P3, LPP

  12. Self-Control of Haptic Assistance for Motor Learning: Influences of Frequency and Opinion of Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Camille K.; Tseung, Victrine; Carnahan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Studies of self-controlled practice have shown benefits when learners controlled feedback schedule, use of assistive devices and task difficulty, with benefits attributed to information processing and motivational advantages of self-control. Although haptic assistance serves as feedback, aids task performance and modifies task difficulty, researchers have yet to explore whether self-control over haptic assistance could be beneficial for learning. We explored whether self-control of haptic assistance would be beneficial for learning a tracing task. Self-controlled participants selected practice blocks on which they would receive haptic assistance, while participants in a yoked group received haptic assistance on blocks determined by a matched self-controlled participant. We inferred learning from performance on retention tests without haptic assistance. From qualitative analysis of open-ended questions related to rationales for/experiences of the haptic assistance that was chosen/provided, themes emerged regarding participants’ views of the utility of haptic assistance for performance and learning. Results showed that learning was directly impacted by the frequency of haptic assistance for self-controlled participants only and view of haptic assistance. Furthermore, self-controlled participants’ views were significantly associated with their requested haptic assistance frequency. We discuss these findings as further support for the beneficial role of self-controlled practice for motor learning. PMID:29255438

  13. Strategic action or self-control? Adolescent information management and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Maria S

    2018-05-01

    Recent scholarship has begun to challenge the prevailing view that children are passive recipients of parental socialization, including the common belief that parental disciplinary practices are central to explaining adolescent problem behaviors. This research shows that children exert a significant influence over parents via information management, or the degree to which children disclose information about their behavior to parents. Despite the incorporation of child information management into contemporary models of parenting, significant theoretical and empirical concerns cast doubt on its utility over classic parent-centered approaches. The current paper addresses these concerns and adjudicates between disparate definitions of adolescent information management in two ways. First, it provides a theoretically grounded definition of information management as agentic behavior. Second, it specifies a model that tests definitions of secret keeping as agentic against a non-agentic definition of secret keeping supplied by criminological theories of self-control. The model is estimated with three four-wave cross-lagged panel models, which disentangle the interrelationships between parenting, child concealment of information, and child problem behavior in a sample of high risk youth. The results offer support for a definition of concealment as strategic and self-regarding, and have implications for research on delinquency, parent-child interactions, and child agency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Grasman

    Full Text Available This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis. With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses.

  15. Self-Controlled Feedback for a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-controlled augmented feedback enhances learning of simple motor tasks. Thereby, learners tend to request feedback after trials that were rated as good by themselves. Feedback after good trials promotes positive reinforcement, which enhances motor learning. The goal of this study was to investigate when naïve learners request terminal visual feedback in a complex motor task, as conclusions drawn on simple tasks can hardly be transferred to complex tasks. Indeed, seven of nine learners stated to have intended to request feedback predominantly after good trials, but in contrast to their intention, kinematic analysis showed that feedback was rather requested randomly (23% after good, 44% after intermediate, 33% after bad trials. Moreover, requesting feedback after good trials did not correlate with learning success. It seems that self-estimation of performance in complex tasks is challenging. As a consequence, learners might have focused on certain movement aspects rather than on the overall movement. Further studies should assess the current focus of the learner in detail to gain more insight in self-estimation capabilities during complex motor task learning.

  16. Attitudes towards self-control with urinalysis in juvenile diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, J; Svensson, P G

    1980-01-01

    Urinary glucose excretion reflects the blood glucose levels and is therefore recommended and used as a relevant and practical method for self-control in juvenile diabetes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attitudes of of diabetic children and their parents towards such daily urinalysis. In 1975 69 juvenile diabetics 6-18 years old and their parents were studied and three years later another 69 patients were added. Still a year later 31 of the children were studied again. Standardized interviews, questionnaires and a special attitude test were used. The results indicate that a great majority of the patients and the parents accept the self-testing method and regard it as a valuable tool in the management of the disease. Almost nobody experienced the urine tests as a psychological problem. As urinalysis has become established as a self-evident part of the treatment, the attitudes have become even more positive among a growing number of patients. Parallel to this feeling of usefulness the patients are honest and the urine tests thus give reliable information.

  17. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  18. Report of North-Rhine Westphalia's Land Government about the decision of the diet of July 10, 1986, concerning the transition to an energy supply system without nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    In response to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the diet of the Land North-Rhine Westphalia has taken the governmental declaration of the Land's prime minister as a basis for its discussions on June 4th and July 10th, 1986, about the hazards of nuclear power and the feasibility of energy supply without nuclear power. The decision taken by the diet on July 10th, 1986 calls upon the Land Government to 'inform the diet by mid-1987 about the means and methods and the time schedule envisaged for backing out of nuclear energy utilisation'. The report in hand deals with the technical feasibility and the effects of a nuclear power plant shut-off on the energy supply situation in the Land, with the legal framework, supervisory competences in the Land, the energy policy to be pursued by the Land government, and with the necessity to reach a new national consensus on energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Food product health warnings promote dietary self-control through reductions in neural signals indexing food cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Daniel H; Summerell, Patrick; Ng, Alyssa; Dixon, Helen; Murawski, Carsten; Wakefield, Melanie; Bode, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions. Existing research into the efficacy of these intervention strategies has predominantly employed self-report and population level measures, and little evidence exists to support the contention that these measures counteract food cue reactivity at the time of decision making. Using a dietary self-control priming paradigm, we demonstrated that brief exposure to food product health warnings enhanced dietary self-control. Further, we analysed electroencephalographic correlates of selective attention and food cue evoked craving (N1, P3, LPP) to show that health warning exposure reduced the automatic appetitive response towards palatable food cues. These findings contribute to existing evidence that exogenous information can successfully prime latent goals, and substantiate the notion that food product health warnings may provide a new avenue through which to curb excessive energy intake and reduce rising obesity rates.

  20. Environmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  1. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  2. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  3. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely

    2014-02-01

    Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Can Vegetarian Diet Reverse Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease that continues to grow. However, the incurable nature of the disease is questioned within the scientific community. The author examines the work of two experts concerning the cure of diabetes by a vegetarian diet.

  5. The effect of self-control on attentional bias for alcohol cues in male heavy drinkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vohs, K.D.; Engels, R.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional bias for alcohol cues increases craving and subsequent alcohol consumption. Override processes can be used to disengage attention from alcohol cues. This requires self-control and implies that depletion of self-control would impair the ability to disengage attention from alcohol cues.

  6. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Wood, Chantelle; Stiff, Chris; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2010-01-01

    According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as "ego depletion". A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes,…

  7. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling…

  8. Unable to resist temptation : How self-control depletion promotes unethical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gino, F.; Schweitzer, M.; Mead, N.L.; Ariely, D.

    2011-01-01

    Across four experimental studies, individuals who were depleted of their self-regulatory resources by an initial act of self-control were more likely to “impulsively cheat” than individuals whose self-regulatory resources were intact. Our results demonstrate that individuals depleted of self-control

  9. Too tired to tell the truth : Self-control resource depletion and dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, N.L.; Baumeister, R.F.; Gino, F.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Ariely, D.

    2009-01-01

    The opportunity to profit from dishonesty evokes a motivational conflict between the temptation to cheat for selfish gain and the desire to act in a socially appropriate manner. Honesty may depend on self-control given that self-control is the capacity that enables people to override antisocial

  10. The relationship between self-control and health: The mediating effect of avoidant coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Adriel; Vandellen, Michelle R; Banks, Jonathan B

    2011-08-01

    Trait self-control is related to a number of positive outcomes, including mental health, interpersonal success, academic success and health-related behaviours. This study sought to explore the relationships between self-control, reports of mental and physical health symptoms and coping styles. The results revealed that higher self-control was related to fewer mental and physical health symptoms and less avoidance coping. There was not a significant relationship between self-control and problem-focused or emotion-focused coping styles. Further, the relationships between self-control and mental and physical health outcomes were partially mediated by avoidance coping style. Specifically, the data suggest lower self-control is associated with unhealthy coping strategies (avoidance coping), which in turn are associated with worse mental health outcomes and greater reports of physical health symptoms. Thus lower trait self-control can serve as an indicator, suggesting circumstances in which individuals' tendencies to engage in unhealthy coping strategies are increased. These findings add to a growing body of literature underscoring the importance of trait self-control.

  11. A temporary deficiency in self-control: Can heightened motivation overcome this effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Claire L; Crawford, Trevor J; Gowen, Emma; Richardson, Kelly; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2017-05-01

    Self-control is important for everyday life and involves behavioral regulation. Self-control requires effort, and when completing two successive self-control tasks, there is typically a temporary drop in performance in the second task. High self-reported motivation and being made self-aware somewhat counteract this effect-with the result that performance in the second task is enhanced. The current study explored the relationship between self-awareness and motivation on sequential self-control task performance. Before employing self-control in an antisaccade task, participants initially applied self-control in an incongruent Stroop task or completed a control task. After the Stroop task, participants unscrambled sentences that primed self-awareness (each started with the word "I") or unscrambled neutral sentences. Motivation was measured after the antisaccade task. Findings revealed that, after exerting self-control in the incongruent Stroop task, motivation predicted erroneous responses in the antisaccade task for those that unscrambled neutral sentences, and high motivation led to fewer errors. Those primed with self-awareness were somewhat more motivated overall, but motivation did not significantly predict antisaccade performance. Supporting the resource allocation account, if one was motivated-intrinsically or via the manipulation of self-awareness-resources were allocated to both tasks leading to the successful completion of two sequential self-control tasks. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Relationship between Self-Control and Facebook Use: Case of CEIT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    This is an explanatory mixed-method study that analyzes the relationship between the variables of students' self-control and Facebook usage. TIME's online Facebook calculator and the Brief Self-Control Scale are used for data collection. The research participants are 60 students in a department of computer education and instructional technology…

  13. Social proof in the supermarket : Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; De Vet, Emely; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Veltkamp, Martijn; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  14. Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Vet, de E.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Fennis, B.M.; Veltkamp, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  15. Health on Impulse : When Low Self-Control Promotes Healthy Food Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.

    Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  16. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  17. Effortless inhibition: Habit mediates the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; Kroese, Floor M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Gillebaart, Marleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344390365; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test

  18. Effortless Inhibition: Habit Mediates the Relation Between Self-Control and Unhealthy Snack Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eAdriaanse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negatively associated with unhealthy snack consumption and unhealthy snacking habits. As hypothesized, the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack intake was mediated by habit strength. Self-control was not associated with fruit consumption or fruit consumption habits. These results provide the first evidence for the notion that high self-control may influence the formation of habits and in turn affect behavior. Moreover, results imply that self-control may be particularly influential in case of inhibiting unhealthy food intake rather than promoting healthy food intake.

  19. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are

  20. The development of Self-control of Cognitive Activity in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernokova T.E.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.

  1. Two Procedures for Relaxation as Self-Control in the Treatment of Communication Apprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Payne, Dennis M.

    1977-01-01

    An in vivo procedure for relaxation as self-control and a procedure for self-control modification of desensitization were compared to a no-treatment control. Results showed modified desensitization, compared to the control, significantly decreased communication anxiety and fear of negative evaluation and significantly increased assertiveness.…

  2. Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization: 15 Months Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Michaels, Ann C.

    1981-01-01

    A 15-month follow-up study found that anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups continued to report significantly less debilitating test anxiety than the control group. Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups also reported significantly less nontargeted anxiety than controls on both measures of…

  3. Low Self-Control and the Victim-Offender Overlap: A Gendered Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexon, Jamie L; Meldrum, Ryan C; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    The overlap between victimization and offending is well documented. Yet, there have been fewer investigations of the reasons underlying this relationship. One possible, but understudied, explanation lies with Gottfredson and Hirschi's arguments regarding self-control. The current study adds to this line of inquiry by assessing whether low self-control accounts for the victim-offender overlap in a sample of young adults and whether self-control accounts for the observed overlap similarly across gender. Results from a series of bivariate probit regression models indicate that low self-control is positively related to both victimization and offending. However, only among males does low self-control account for a substantive portion of the victim-offender overlap. Limitations of the study and implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Self-control and credit-card use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Phylis M; Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between self-control and credit-card use with a convenience sample of 165 traditional-age college students of whom 69 (42%) were women. Students' self-control was measured on Grasmick, et al.'s Self-control Scale, which has six subscales, one of which is Impulsivity. Comparisons were made between those students who paid their cards off each month, called convenience users, and those who carried a monthly balance forward on scores on total self-control and impulsivity, and number of credit cards possessed. A significant difference in self-control scores was found between these two groups and also for mean impulsivity scores. Significantly fewer credit cards were possessed by students who paid their cards off each month than by those who carried a monthly balance.

  5. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  6. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  7. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  8. Decomposing Self-Control:Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eSteimke

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1 to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2 to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters E or F presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1 the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of

  9. Decomposing Self-Control: Individual Differences in Goal Pursuit Despite Interfering Aversion, Temptation, and Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimke, Rosa; Stelzel, Christine; Gaschler, Robert; Rothkirch, Marcus; Ludwig, Vera U.; Paschke, Lena M.; Trempler, Ima; Kathmann, Norbert; Goschke, Thomas; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report. The final sample consisted of 116 participants. The task required participants to identify target letters “E” or “F” presented at a cued target location while the distractors were presented. Behavioral and eyetracking data were obtained during the performance of the task. High task performance was encouraged via monetary incentives. In addition to the attentional self-control task, self-reported self-control was assessed and participants performed a color Stroop task, an unsolvable anagram task and a delay of gratification task using chocolate sweets. We found that aversion, temptation, and neutral distraction were associated with significantly increased error rates, reaction times and gaze pattern deviations. Overall task performance on our task correlated with self-reported self-control ability. Measures of aversion, temptation, and distraction showed moderate split-half reliability, but did not correlate with each other across participants. Additionally, participants who made a self-controlled decision in the delay of gratification task were less distracted by temptations in our task than participants who made an impulsive choice. Our individual differences analyses suggest that (1) the ability to endure aversion, resist temptations and ignore neutral distractions are independent of each

  10. Nudging Our Way to a Healthier Population: The Effect of Calorie Labeling and Self-Control on Menu Choices of Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine

    2017-08-01

    Emerging adults are among those in the United States with concerning rates of overweight and obesity, putting them at risk for chronic diseases. One proposed intervention to address these issues across populations is to require that chain restaurants and similar establishments provide nutrition information, such as calorie labels, on menu items. This study therefore aims to examine the effect of menu calorie labeling and self-control on food and beverage choices of emerging adults. Results of a between-subjects experiment (n = 179) revealed that calorie labeling increased the likelihood of choosing lower calorie food and beverage options. Moreover, calorie labeling only led to selecting a lower calorie food option among those with high self-control, but not among those with low self-control. This moderating effect was not revealed for beverage choice. Public health practitioners and policymakers should consider intervention approaches that address other drivers of choice, such as self-control, in addition to nutrition information.

  11. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  12. Childhood self-control and unemployment throughout the life span: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Only one small sin: How self-construal affects self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Janina; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Past research has shown that self-construal can influence self-control by reducing interdependent people's impulsivity in the presence of peers. We broaden these findings by examining the hypothesis that an interdependent (vs. independent) self-construal fosters self-control even in the absence of peers and for non-impulsive decisions. We further explore whether this effect could be mediated by the more interrelated (vs. isolated) processing style of interdependent (vs. independent) people. Such an interrelated (vs. isolated) processing style of temptations makes the impact of a single temptation more salient and can thereby increase self-control. Study 1 demonstrated that more interdependent participants show more self-control behaviour by refraining from chocolate consumption to secure a monetary benefit. Studies 2a and 2b highlighted a link between self-construal and trait self-control via the processing of temptations. Study 3 suggested that an interrelated (vs. isolated) perspective on temptations could mediate the effect of (primed) self-construal on self-control. Taken together, self-construal shapes self-control across various decision contexts. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Relation between working memory and self-control capacity in participants with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is activated in situations which require active control of directing attention, processing information and making it available for a short time. Its content is limited in capacity and changes with regard to the context of a performed activity. Self-control is the capacity of a voluntary conscious effort to persist in achieving a previously set goal. The aim of this research was to determine the relation of verbal and visuospatial aspects of working memory with self-control skills in persons with mild intellectual disability (ID. The sample included 40 participants 8-12 years of age (M=10.65, SD=1.19. Memorizing a Maze task, adapted for participants with ID, was used to determine the capacity of visuospatial aspect of working memory. Memorizing Animals task was used to assess verbal aspect of working memory, and Self-Control Rating Scale was used to determine the acquisition level of self-control skills. It was determined that verbal aspects of working memory were significantly related to the acquired level of self-control skills (p=0.002. There was no significant relation between the results of tasks assessing the capacity of visuospatial working memory and the success on the scale assessing self-control capacity (p=0.089. The relation between self-control and verbal aspect of working memory may be explained by close links between using speech and applying self-regulation strategies.

  15. Mother, father, and adolescent self-control and adherence in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy Hughes; Crochiere, Rebecca; Cueto, Carrie; Wiebe, Deborah J; Berg, Cynthia A

    2017-06-01

    This study explored whether shared self-control across a family system, including adolescent, mother, and father self-control, as well as the interaction of mother and father self-control, was associated with ease of completing adherence tasks and the completion of adherence behaviors related to the Type 1 diabetes (T1D) regimen. One hundred thirty-seven adolescents (M = 13.48 years), mothers, and fathers completed a self-report measure of self-control, while adolescents also self-reported on ease of completing adherence tasks and the frequency with which they completed adherence tasks. Higher adolescent, mother, father, and the interaction of mother and father self-control were each associated with greater adolescent perceptions of ease of completing adherence tasks. Also, greater adolescent perception of ease of adherence mediated the association of higher adolescent, father, and the interaction of mother and father self-control on more frequent adherence behaviors. The results are consistent with the idea that family members may share the load of self-control within the family system. The results point to the importance of assessing and intervening within the entire family system to support improved quality of life and better adherence to the medical regimen in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  17. Self-control, future orientation, smoking, and the impact of Dutch tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The pronounced discrepancy between smokers' intentions to quit and their smoking behavior has led researchers to suggest that many smokers are time inconsistent, have self-control problems, and may benefit from external efforts to constrain their consumption. This study aims to test whether self-control and future orientation predict smoking levels and to identify if these traits modify how cigarette consumption responds to the introduction of tobacco control measures. A sample of Dutch adults (N = 1585) completed a measure of self-control and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS) in 2001 and indicated their tobacco consumption each year from 2001 to 2007. In 2004, a workplace smoking ban and substantial tax increase on tobacco was introduced in the Netherlands. To identify the potential impact of these tobacco control measures we examined whether participants smoked or were heavy smokers (20 + cigarettes per day) each year from 2001 to 2007. Participants with high self-control and CFCS scores showed lower rates of smoking across the seven year period of the study. The 2004 smoking restrictions were linked with a subsequent decline in heavy smoking. This decline was moderated by self-control levels. Those with low self-control showed a large reduction in heavy smoking whereas those with high self-control did not. The effects were, however, temporary: many people with low self-control resumed heavy smoking 2-3 years after the introduction of the tobacco restrictions. The immediate costs which national tobacco control measures impose on smokers may assist smokers with poor self-control in reducing their cigarette consumption.

  18. Passion, Trait Self-Control, and Wellbeing: Comparing Two Mediation Models Predicting Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Walid

    2017-01-01

    Research has found that passion and trait self-control represented key determinants of wellbeing. Yet, no study to date has attempted to investigate the mediating influences of trait self-control and passion for accounting for the relationships between passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (dependent variable). Using different frameworks, such as the dualistic model of passion and the neo-socioanalytic theory, the present study proposed two mediation models, considering either trait self-control (model 1) or passion (model 2) as the mediating variable. Five hundred nine volunteers from the United States (326 females and 183 males; M age = 31.74, SD age = 11.05, from 18 to 70 years old), who reported being passionate about a specific activity (e.g., fishing, swimming, blogging; M passion = 5.94, SD passion = 0.89), answered questionnaires assessing harmonious and obsessive passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing (measured through hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing scales). Preliminary analyses revealed that both models were significant ( model 1: absolute GoF = 0.366, relative GoF = 0.971, outer model GoF = 0.997, inner model GoF = 0.973, R 2 = 18.300%, p passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing, and no relationships of obsessive passion with trait self-control and wellbeing. Mediation analyses revealed that trait self-control significantly mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and wellbeing (i.e., partial mediation, VAF = 33.136%). Harmonious passion appeared to significantly mediate the positive effect of trait self-control on wellbeing; however, the size of the mediating effect indicated that (almost) no mediation would take place (i.e., VAF = 11.144%). The present study is the first to examine the relationships between passion, trait self-control, and wellbeing, and supports the view that trait self-control and harmonious passion represent not only adaptive and powerful constructs, but also key determinants of wellbeing. Implications for

  19. The relationship between self-control and altruism in the light of discounting literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiński Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of literature on delay discounting, potential mechanisms of relations between self-control and altruism are considered. The discussed possibilities are: cause-and-effect relationship (self-control enabling sacrificing immediate benefits caused by selfish behaviour in favor of future benefits associated with altruism, e.g. reciprocation, common mechanism (ability to learn behavioural patterns covering longer time periods, role of intelligence as a factor related both to self-control and altruism, and role of psychological distance (the idea of extended self and construal level theory. Relations between described perspectives are pointed out, and directions for further research are suggested.

  20. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  1. Self-control and academic performance: Two field studies on university citizenship behavior and counterproductive academic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....

  2. Is It Really Self-Control? Examining the Predictive Power of the Delay of Gratification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Tsukayama, Eli; Kirby, Teri A.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation tests whether the predictive power of the delay of gratification task (colloquially known as the “marshmallow test”) derives from its assessment of self-control or of theoretically unrelated traits. Among 56 school-age children in Study 1, delay time was associated with concurrent teacher ratings of self-control and Big Five conscientiousness—but not with other personality traits, intelligence, or reward-related impulses. Likewise, among 966 preschool children in Study 2, delay time was consistently associated with concurrent parent and caregiver ratings of self-control but not with reward-related impulses. While delay time in Study 2 was also related to concurrently measured intelligence, predictive relations with academic, health, and social outcomes in adolescence were more consistently explained by ratings of effortful control. Collectively, these findings suggest that delay task performance may be influenced by extraneous traits, but its predictive power derives primarily from its assessment of self-control. PMID:23813422

  3. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Convergent Validity of Self-Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kern, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    There is extraordinary diversity in how the construct of self-control is operationalized in research studies. We meta-analytically examined evidence of convergent validity among executive function, delay of gratification, and self- and informant-report questionnaire measures of self-control. Overall, measures demonstrated moderate convergence (rrandom = .27 [95% CI = .24, .30]; rfixed = .34 [.33, .35], k = 282 samples, N = 33,564 participants), although there was substantial heterogeneity in the observed correlations. Correlations within and across types of self-control measures were strongest for informant-report questionnaires and weakest for executive function tasks. Questionnaires assessing sensation seeking impulses could be distinguished from questionnaires assessing processes of impulse regulation. We conclude that self-control is a coherent but multidimensional construct best assessed using multiple methods. PMID:21643479

  5. Stress and adult smartphone addiction: Mediation by self-control, neuroticism, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hea-Young; Kim, Dai Jin; Park, Jae Woo

    2017-12-01

    This study employed descriptive statistics and correlation analysis to examine the influence of stress on smartphone addiction as well as the mediating effects of self-control, neuroticism, and extraversion using 400 men and women in their 20s to 40s followed by structural equation analysis. Our findings indicate that stress had a significant influence on smartphone addiction, and self-control mediates the influence of stress on smartphone addiction. As stress increases, self-control decreases, which subsequently leads to increased smartphone addiction. Self-control was confirmed as an important factor in the prevention of smartphone addiction. Finally, among personality factors, neuroticism, and extraversion mediate the influence of stress on smartphone addiction. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Matter of Low Self-Control? Exploring Differences Between Child Pornography Possessors and Child Pornography Producers/Distributers Using Self-Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Shelly L; Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the demographic and background characteristic differences between those arrested for child pornography (CP) possession (only), or CP production/distribution, or an attempted or completed sexual exploitation of a minor (SEM) that involved the Internet in some capacity within the context of self-control theory using data from the second wave of the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (N-JOV2). Results indicate few demographic similarities, which thereby suggest these are largely heterogeneous groupings of individuals. Results also indicate CP producers/distributers engaged in a greater number of behaviors indicative of low self-control compared with CP possessors. Specifically, offenders arrested for CP production/distribution were more likely to have (a) had problems with drugs/alcohol at the time of the crime and (b) been previously violent. In contrast, the only indicator of low self-control that reached statistical significance for CP possessors was the previous use of violence. Moreover, in contrast to CP producers/distributers, full-time employment and marital status may be important factors to consider in the likelihood of arrest for CP possessors, which is congruent with the tenets of self-control theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes:The Importance of Motivation and Self - Control Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Jordalen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory (SDT framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16 to 20 years of age consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified, and controlled (introjected and amotivation regulations in association

  8. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordalen, Gro; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies ( N = 199; female n = 72; 16-20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes' self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes' quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the

  9. A Study of the Effect of Self-control on Academic Procrastination Behavior in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 正

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-regulated factors and academic procrastination behavior in college students. The factors examined were Locus of control(LOC) on belief level and Reformative and Redressive Self-control and external self-control on behavioral levels. 298 college students were asked to respond to 3 scales, which were LOC scale, RRS scale, and academic procrastination scale. Main results was as follows: 1. There were significant negative rela...

  10. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  11. Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinha; Hong, Hyeongi; Lee, Jungeun; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims College students experiencing stress show tendencies to procrastinate and can develop Internet addiction problems. This study investigated the structural relationship between time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?377) residing in South Korea completed the following questionnaires: the Pathological Internet Use Behavior Symptom Scale for Adults, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Self-Control Rat...

  12. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  13. Self-Control and Academic Performance: Two Field Studies on University Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Academic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed that students' self-control impacts university…

  14. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.; Kroese, F.M.; Fennis, Bob; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to

  15. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, S.; Lacourly, G.; Garnier, A.; Cresta, M.; Lombardo, E.

    1968-01-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [fr

  16. Explaining the relationship between religiousness and substance use: self-control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Carter, Evan C; McCullough, Michael E; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D; Nezlek, John B

    2014-08-01

    Religiousness is reliably associated with lower substance use, but little research has examined whether self-control helps explain why religiousness predicts lower substance use. Building on prior theoretical work, our studies suggest that self-control mediates the relationship between religiousness and a variety of substance-use behaviors. Study 1 showed that daily prayer predicted lower alcohol use on subsequent days. In Study 2, religiousness related to lower alcohol use, which was mediated by self-control. Study 3 replicated this mediational pattern using a behavioral measure of self-control. Using a longitudinal design, Study 4 revealed that self-control mediated the relationship between religiousness and lower alcohol use 6 weeks later. Study 5 replicated this mediational pattern again and showed that it remained significant after controlling for trait mindfulness. Studies 6 and 7 replicated and extended these effects to both alcohol and various forms of drug use among community and cross-cultural adult samples. These findings offer novel evidence regarding the role of self-control in explaining why religiousness is associated with lower substance use.

  17. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggeser, Birgit J; Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2017-01-01

    In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling). We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task). Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity) did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  18. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit J. Voggeser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling. We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task. Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  19. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-control over combined video feedback and modeling facilitates motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Phillip G; Aiken, Christopher A; Laughlin, David D; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    Allowing learners to control the video presentation of knowledge of performance (KP) or an expert model during practice has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Aiken, Fairbrother, & Post, 2012; Wulf, Raupach, & Pfeiffer, 2005). Split-screen replay features now allow for the simultaneous presentation of these modes of instructional support. It is uncertain, however, if such a combination incorporated into a self-control protocol would yield similar benefits seen in earlier self-control studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of self-controlled split-screen replay on the learning of a golf chip shot. Participants completed 60 practice trials, three administrations of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and a questionnaire on day one. Retention and transfer tests and a final motivation inventory were completed on day two. Results revealed significantly higher form and accuracy scores for the self-control group during transfer. The self-control group also had significantly higher scores on the perceived competence subscale, reported requesting feedback mostly after perceived poor trials, and recalled a greater number of critical task features compared to the yoked group. The findings for the performance measures were consistent with previous self-control research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinha; Hong, Hyeongi; Lee, Jungeun; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims College students experiencing stress show tendencies to procrastinate and can develop Internet addiction problems. This study investigated the structural relationship between time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 377) residing in South Korea completed the following questionnaires: the Pathological Internet Use Behavior Symptom Scale for Adults, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Self-Control Rating Scale, and the Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The sample variance–covariance matrix was analyzed using AMOS 20.0. Results Time perspective had a direct effect on self-control and an indirect effect on Internet use and procrastination. In addition, self-control affected procrastination and Internet use. Conclusions Individuals with a present-oriented time perspective tend to evidence poorer self-control, increasing the likelihood of procrastination and Internet addiction. Individuals with a future-oriented time perspective, on the other hand, tend to have stronger self-control, decreasing their risk of procrastination and Internet addiction. PMID:28494615

  2. Inhibitory self-control moderates the effect of changed implicit food evaluations on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-07-01

    The current study used a modified implicit association test (IAT) to change implicit evaluations of unhealthy snack food and tested its effects on subsequent consumption. Furthermore, we investigated whether these effects were moderated by inhibitory self-control. A sample of 148 women (17-25 years) motivated to manage weight through healthy eating completed an IAT intervention, and pre- and post-intervention IATs assessing implicit evaluations of unhealthy food. The intervention IAT trained participants to pair unhealthy food stimuli with either positive or negative stimuli. A task disguised as a taste-test was used to assess consumption of unhealthy snack foods. Inhibitory self-control was measured using a self-report scale. As predicted, the implicit evaluation of unhealthy food became more negative from pre- to post-training among participants in the food negative pairing condition; however, there was no corresponding change in the food positive pairing condition. The effect of the training on snack consumption was moderated by inhibitory self-control with only participants low in inhibitory self-control having lower snack intake following the food negative training. This finding is consistent with dual-process models of behaviour which predict that self-control capacity renders impulses less influential on behaviour. Furthermore, it suggests that an intervention that retrains implicit food evaluations could be effective at reducing unhealthy eating, particularly among those with low inhibitory self-control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does cost-benefit analysis or self-control predict involvement in two forms of aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John; Fernández-Fuertes, Andrés A; Thanzami, Van Lal

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to assess the relative association between physical aggression and (1) self-control and (2) cost-benefit assessment, these variables representing the operation of impulsive and reflective processes. Study 1 involved direct and indirect aggression among young Indian men, and Study 2 physical aggression to dating partners among Spanish adolescents. In Study 1, perceived benefits and costs but not self-control were associated with direct aggression at other men, and the association remained when their close association with indirect aggression was controlled. In Study 2, benefits and self-control showed significant and independent associations (positive for benefits, negative for self-control) with physical aggression at other-sex partners. Although being victimized was also correlated in the same direction with self-control and benefits, perpetration and being victimized were highly correlated, and there was no association between being victimized and these variables when perpetration was controlled. These results support the theory that reflective (cost-benefit analyses) processes and impulsive (self-control) processes operate in parallel in affecting aggression. The finding that male adolescents perceived more costs and fewer benefits from physical aggression to a partner than female adolescents did is consistent with findings indicating greater social disapproval of men hitting women than vice versa, rather than with the view that male violence to women is facilitated by internalized patriarchal values. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinha; Hong, Hyeongi; Lee, Jungeun; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims College students experiencing stress show tendencies to procrastinate and can develop Internet addiction problems. This study investigated the structural relationship between time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 377) residing in South Korea completed the following questionnaires: the Pathological Internet Use Behavior Symptom Scale for Adults, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Self-Control Rating Scale, and the Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The sample variance-covariance matrix was analyzed using AMOS 20.0. Results Time perspective had a direct effect on self-control and an indirect effect on Internet use and procrastination. In addition, self-control affected procrastination and Internet use. Conclusions Individuals with a present-oriented time perspective tend to evidence poorer self-control, increasing the likelihood of procrastination and Internet addiction. Individuals with a future-oriented time perspective, on the other hand, tend to have stronger self-control, decreasing their risk of procrastination and Internet addiction.

  5. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  6. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  7. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of public social context on self-control: depletion for neuroticism and restoration for impression management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-03-01

    The present study explores the role of personality in moderating the effect of public social context on self-control. The authors predicted that in public settings neuroticism would be associated with ego-depletion effects and individual differences in impression management (IM) would be associated with restoration effects. Three experiments supported the hypothesis. In Study 1 neuroticism was associated with impaired self-control and IM was associated with enhanced self-control following an initial phase of working on a simple task in public (vs. in private). Study 2 replicated and extended these results to other domains of self-control. Study 3 explored whether public social context can cancel out early depletion effects. In this study, depleted participants engaged in a task that required self-control either alone or in public. As expected, the public settings were associated with restored self-control resources mostly among high IM individuals. Implications for self-control, neuroticism, and IM are discussed.

  9. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  10. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  12. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescents' self-control, and alcohol use: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that parental rules about alcohol are important in curbing adolescents' alcohol use. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which the direct link between alcohol-specific parenting and alcohol use is obtained. In this study, we investigated the mediating effect of adolescent self-control on the relationship between alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' drinking behavior and whether this mediation effect depends on the level of quality of communication. A total of 883 adolescents participated in this longitudinal study at ages 13, 14, and 15 years. Strict rules predicted lower rates of drinking, but no direct effect of the quality of communication on adolescents' alcohol use was found. A higher level of self-control was related to lower rates of drinking in adolescents. The indirect effect of rules about alcohol through adolescents' self-control was statistically significant, yet only in adolescents with high qualitative parent-child communication about alcohol. In adolescents with low quality of parent-child communication, self-control was not related to drinking. These findings imply that strict rule setting in combination with qualitative parent-child communication is an important target for prevention. In addition, findings point at the importance of high qualitative parent-child communication for adolescents' motivation to engage in self-control to avoid drinking.

  13. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  14. Self-Control Strength Depletion Reduces Self-Efficacy and Impairs Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.

  15. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  16. The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joo; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Taeyun; Kim, Se Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to "at-risk" populations for online game addiction. A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (ponline game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the "at-risk" population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.

  17. A test of positive affect induction for countering self-control depletion in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J

    2012-03-01

    The self-control strength model posits that exerting self-control on one task, such as resisting temptations, will deplete self-control and impair subsequent self-regulatory performance, such as controlling smoking. The current study examined interventions designed to replenish depleted self-control strength to prevent tobacco use by inducing positive affect. In a 2 × 2 design, 200 participants were randomized to either (1) resist eating from a plate of desserts (high temptation) or from a plate of raw vegetables (low temptation) and then (2) undergo a positive or neutral affect induction. Two inductions were compared (video vs. writing technique). Participants were then given a 10-min recess. Whether or not participants smoked during the recess, assessed by self-report and biochemical verification, served as the primary dependent variable. The interaction between depletion and exposure group was significant, Wald's χ² = 9.66, df = 3, p desserts, 65.5% to 85% smoked if they were in the neutral video or writing conditions versus 10.5% in the positive affect video group. Positive affect elicited with a video was able to counteract the detrimental effects of self-control depletion on smoking behavior, while writing exercises were associated with smoking. Implications for tobacco cessation intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern1 At the time of the study, Anne Flint was employed at the Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Flint

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS, and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS.To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI, smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings.We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98 and men (80, aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.19 and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.15. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001 and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01. Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p < 005 and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005. Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings.Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern

  19. Using imagery to identify and characterise core beliefs in women with bulimia nervosa, dieting and non-dieting women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Kate; Cooper, Myra

    2007-12-01

    Women with bulimia nervosa (BN), dieters and non-dieting control participants were questioned about spontaneous imagery linked to concern with food and eating, weight and shape. The downward arrow technique was used to access any associated negative or core beliefs, which were examined for belief, distress and content. A semi-structured interview with open and closed questions was used. Negative self (core) beliefs were successfully accessed, and responses to the interview items had good test-retest and good inter-rater reliability. Patients with BN reported significantly more negative self (core) beliefs than those in the other two groups. Only a very small number of core beliefs about other people or the world in general were reported. Emotional belief ratings appeared to be higher overall than rational belief ratings. Patient's negative self-beliefs contained themes of "self-value", followed by "failure", "self-control" and "physical attractiveness", in descending order of frequency. The findings are discussed in relation to existing research, and implications for cognitive theories of bulimia nervosa and clinical practice are briefly discussed.

  20. Religiousness and aggression in adolescents: The mediating roles of self-control and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Smith, Colin Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Although people have used religion to justify aggression, evidence suggests that greater religiousness corresponds with less aggression. We explored two explanations for the religion-aggression link. First, most major religions teach self-control (e.g., delaying gratification, resisting temptation), which diminishes aggression. Second, most major religions emphasize compassionate beliefs and behavior (i.e., perspective taking, forgiveness, a broader love of humanity) that are incompatible with aggression. We tested whether self-control and compassion mediated the relationship between religion and aggression (direct and indirect) in a longitudinal study of 1,040 adolescents in the United States. Structural equation analyses revealed that self-control and compassion together completely mediated the religion-aggression relationship for both types of aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bifurcation Regulations Governed by Delay Self-Control Feedback in a Stochastic Birhythmic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhidan; Ning, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    We aim to investigate bifurcation behaviors in a stochastic birhythmic van der Pol (BVDP) system subjected to delay self-control feedback. First, the harmonic approximation is adopted to drive the delay self-control feedback to state variables without delay. Then, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and stationary probability density function (SPDF) for amplitude are obtained by applying stochastic averaging method. Finally, dynamical scenarios of the change of delay self-control feedback as well as noise that markedly influence bifurcation performance are observed. It is found that: the big feedback strength and delay will suppress the large amplitude limit cycle (LC) while the relatively big noise strength facilitates the large amplitude LC, which imply the proposed regulation strategies are feasible. Interestingly enough, the inner LC is never destroyed due to noise. Furthermore, the validity of analytical results was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics.

  2. An effect of immediate reinforcement and delayed punishment, with possible implications for self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R

    1984-12-01

    Behavior said to show self-control occurs virtually always as an alternative to behavior that produces conflicting consequences. One class of such consequences, immediate reinforcement and delayed punishment, is especially pervasive. Three experiments are described in which an effect of immediate reinforcement and delayed punishment is demonstrated. The results suggest that when immediate reinforcement and delayed punishment are imminent, the reinforcer alone controls the organism's behavior (in other words the organism behaves "impulsively"). The key to self-control, therefore, may be the acquisition of a large number of avoidance behaviors relevant to reinforcers that are correlated with delayed punishment. Human self-control may indeed involve such a process but undoubtedly involves others as well.

  3. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering ‘how’ questions, a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering ‘why’ questions promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering “why” (high-level construal vs. “how” (low-level construal questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2. Participants exposed to “why” questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1, showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2, and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2 compared with participants exposed to “how” questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  5. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  6. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering "why" (high-level construal) vs. "how" (low-level construal) questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants exposed to "why" questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1), showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2), and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2) compared with participants exposed to "how" questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  7. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  8. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian

    2012-01-01

    of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents...... the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper....

  9. Overriding "doing wrong" and "not doing right": validation of the Dispositional Self-Control Scale (DSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Gar, Danit; Sagiv, Lilach

    2014-01-01

    We present the Dispositional Self-Control (DSC) Scale, which reflects individuals' tendency to override 2 types of temptations, termed doing wrong and not doing right. We report a series of 5 studies designed to test the reliability and validity of the scale. As hypothesized, high DSC predicts distant future orientation and low DSC predicts deviant behaviors such as aggression, alcohol misuse, and aberrant driving. DSC also predicts task performance among resource-depleted participants. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DSC Scale could be a useful tool toward further understanding the role of personality in overcoming self-control challenges.

  10. Introduction of self-control of enterprise information system through accounting documentation process of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.О. Volskа

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to determining the possibility of implementing self-control of an enterprise information system, describing the criteria for building an information system in an enterprise that will be self-organized and capable of self-analysis. The article considers the concept of self-control, its main criteria as well as the possibility of implementing the self-control in the information system of the enterprise. The current study provides the definition of intelligent information systems and how to use expert knowledge in them. The article presents the place of the self-control (in terms of its organization at the enterprise in the economic activity of the enterprise and its correlation with internal control; as a result, it is suggested to consider the self-control of the information system as the unit included in the methods of internal control. The paper carries out the comparison of the response to the error in the information system under the usual control (from the subject of the control to the person and the self-control, that made it possible to determine the latter as the method of preventing errors, that is, real-time control during the data entry in the information system of the enterprise. It is proposed to divide the control mechanisms in the information system into informational (protection of the information system from a technical point of view and special (accounting, legal, technological, etc.. The special control mechanisms of the information system should initially be formed by the experts of the relevant profile and who should present them in the form of algorithms for preventing any possible errors that will allow IT-professionals to describe them at the software level and implement one of the criteria for self-control of the information system, namely, a self-examination. The article proposes to implement the self-control at the input of the information system, when entering the data of the primary documents

  11. Self-control and problematic mobile phone use in Chinese college students: the mediating role of mobile phone use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Zhaocai; Zhao, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Background With the popularity of mobile phones, problematic mobile phone use is getting increasing attention in recent years. Although self-control was found to be a critical predictor of problematic mobile phone use, no study has ever explored the association between self-control and mobile phone use patterns as well as the possible pathway how self-control affects problematic mobile phone use. Methods Four hundred sixty-eight college students were randomly selected in this study. Data were...

  12. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  13. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills

  14. Protection of Aboriginal diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A [Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region, Sydney (Australia)

    1989-05-01

    One aspect of public concern about uranium mining in Australia has centred on possible harm to humans, particularly Aboriginal people arising from the release of radionuclides into the environment. A dose assessment model was developed based on the dispersion of radionuclides in water, their bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals and the diet of the critical group. Of the diet components, the consumption of freshwater mussels, fish and water lilies gives rise to greater than 90% of the total exposure. On the bases of modelling dose estimates, showing which variables are more significant in the estimation of radiation exposure resulting from release of water from Ranger, limits have been deducted from the maximum annual quantity of radionuclides that can be added to Magela Creek waters without causing members of this community to be exposed to significant amounts of radiations. 2 figs., ills.

  15. Self-control and early adolescent antisocial behavior: A longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kemp, R.A.T.; Vermulst, A.A.; Finkenauer, C.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Overbeek, G.; Rommes, E.W.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a three-wave longitudinal study that investigates the relationship between self-control and aggressive and delinquent behavior of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consists of 1,012 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.3) in their first year of secondary education.

  16. An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Control and Cyber Victimization in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Adem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cyber bullying is a new phenomenon which adversely affects young people. Exposure to the cyber bullying can negatively affect the mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the predictive effect of self-control on cyber victimization in adolescents. Research Methods: The study group was composed of 353 Turkish secondary school…

  17. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  18. Biofeedback for Developing Self-Control of Tension and Stress in One's Hierarchy of Psychological States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell

    1985-01-01

    Describes six stage hierarchial patterns in the development of self-control through biofeedback. The stages include Skeletal and Striated Muscle Tension; Visceral Involvement-Anxiety Neuroses; Chronic Physiological Dysfunctioning; Decision Making Competency; Twilight Learning-Permissive Concentration; and Autogenic Feedback Training. (BL)

  19. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E.; Willoughby, Brian L. B.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the links of religiousness with health, well-being, and social behavior may be due to religion's influences on self-control or self-regulation. Using Carver and Scheier's (1998) theory of self-regulation as a framework for organizing the empirical research, the authors review evidence relevant to 6 propositions: (a) that religion can…

  20. Processes linking parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness and adolescent substance use: Monitoring and self-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45% female) who were interviewed at ages 10–16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents’ religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents’ religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents’ religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes. PMID:23975353

  1. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  2. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  3. Interactive Effects of Emotional Dissonance and Self-Control Demands on Burnout, Anxiety, and Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two specific sources of stress at work have recently received increasing attention in organizational stress research: emotional dissonance (ED) and self-control demands (SCDs). Both theoretical arguments and experimental findings in basic research strongly suggest that ED and different SCDs draw on a common limited regulatory resource.…

  4. Assessing Self-Control Training in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…

  5. The Effects of a Concurrent Task on Human Optimization and Self Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Thompson, Caitlin; Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Memory deficits have been shown to hamper decision making in a number of populations. In two experiments, participants were required to select one of three alternatives that varied in reinforcer amount and delay, and the effect of a concurrent task on a behavioral choice task that involved making either an impulsive, self-controlled, or optimal…

  6. How Babies Begin to Develop Self-Control in the First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Brenda Jones

    2012-01-01

    Brenda Jones Harden, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Human Development, University of Maryland, College Park, describes how young children develop the capacity to modulate their emotions and behavior in the first years of life. A child's basic temperament has an impact on self-control, but temper tantrums are a normal part of child…

  7. The Hunger Games : Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Tracy T.L.; Kroese, Floor M.; Fennis, Bob M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless,

  8. Evidence for a Heritable Brain Basis to Deviance-Promoting Deficits in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Hicks, Brian M; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Classic criminological theories emphasize the role of impaired self-control in behavioral deviancy. Reduced amplitude of the P300 brain response is reliably observed in individuals with antisocial and substance-related problems, suggesting it may serve as a neurophysiological indicator of deficiencies in self-control that confer liability to deviancy. The current study evaluated the role of self-control capacity - operationalized by scores on a scale measure of trait disinhibition - in mediating the relationship between P300 brain response and behavioral deviancy in a sample of adult twins ( N =419) assessed for symptoms of antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 brain response. As predicted, greater disorder symptoms and higher trait disinhibition scores each predicted smaller P300 amplitude, and trait disinhibition mediated observed relations between antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 response. Further, twin modeling analyses revealed that trait disinhibition scores and disorder symptoms reflected a common genetic liability, and this genetic liability largely accounted for the observed phenotypic relationship between antisocial-addictive problems and P300 brain response. These results provide further evidence that heritable weaknesses in self-control capacity confer liability to antisocial/addictive outcomes and that P300 brain response indexes this dispositional liability.

  9. Behavior Modification of Studying Through Study Skills Advice and Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of two behavioral self-control procedures as additions to the typical treatment for college students' study behavior--study skills advice. Predicted self-monitoring would be an effective treatment addition to study skills advice and study skills advice would be superior to the control groups. Results supported…

  10. Teaching Self-Control to Small Groups of Dually Diagnosed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Holcomb, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    A study used a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to six adults with mental retardation. At baseline, participants chose an immediate smaller reinforcer rather than a larger delayed reinforcer. Progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in participants selecting larger delayed…

  11. Teaching Self-Control to Dually Diagnosed Deaf Students: Promising Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lonny W.

    1985-01-01

    Three pilot studies suggested that deaf multiply disabled students (ages 15-18) can learn and implement self-control strategies while becoming more independent and engaging in more age-appropriate prosocial behavior. Use of the skills was maintained and appeared to generalize to other school and nonschool environments. (CL)

  12. Using a Self-Control Training Procedure To Increase Appropriate Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.; Binder, Lisa M.; Manthey, Sharon; Sigman, Connie; Zdanowski, Darlene M.

    1998-01-01

    A study evaluated teaching a technique for self-control to three adults with developmental disabilities. Concurrent fixed-duration/progressive-duration reinforcement schedules were introduced in which both smaller and larger reinforcers were available immediately. When progressively increasing delays were introduced for the larger reinforcer,…

  13. An empirical test of self-control theory in Roma adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vazsonyi, A. T.; Ksinan Jiskrova, G.; Ksinan, A. J.; Blatný, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, March 01 (2016), s. 66-76 ISSN 0047-2352 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Roma * Romani * Self-control * Cross-cultural * Deviance * Parenting Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2016

  14. Moral disengagement moderates the effect of violent video games on self-control, cheating and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbiadini, A.; Riva, P.; Andrighetto, L.; Volpato, C.; Bushman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Violent video games glorify and reward immoral behaviors (e.g., murder, assault, rape, robbery, arson, motor vehicle theft). Based on the moral disengagement theory, we predicted that violent games would increase multiple immoral behaviors (i.e., lack of self-control, cheating, aggression),

  15. Investigating Friendship Quality: An Exploration of Self-Control and Social Control Theories' Friendship Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, John H., IV; Krohn, Marvin D.; Gibson, Chris L.; Stogner, John M.

    2012-01-01

    While associations with deviant peers are well understood to impact individual development, less is understood about the relationship between friendship quality and delinquency. Two criminological theories--social control theory and self-control theory--are able to offer an explanation for the latter relationship. Social control and self-control…

  16. Social relations model analyses of perceived self-control and trust in families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükcan Tetik, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Siersema, M.; Vander Heyden, K.; Krabbendam, L.

    2015-01-01

    How do people know which family member is trustworthy? In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that people use their perception of a family member's self-control as an indicator of his or her trustworthiness. Eighty-four Dutch families consisting of 2 parents and 2 children completed

  17. Self-control and debt: evidence from data on credit counselling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena; Nurcan, N. A.

    -, č. 504 (2010), s. 1-35. ISBN 1471-0498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : quasi-hyperbolic discounting * self-control * households’ repayment difficulties * debt management plans * smokers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.economics.ox.ac.uk/research/WP/pdf/paper504.pdf

  18. The revising of the Tangney Self-Control Scale for Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Alexander; Bi, Chongzeng; Xiao, Ying-Ying; Ybarra, Oscar

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have characterized self-control as a vital psychological variable that helps explain various problems. Tangney's Self-Control Scale (SCS) is a self-report measurement to assess individual differences in traits of self-control. It has gained popularity in social and psychological science research. In China, there are a few Chinese-version scales measuring general self-control, which can be applied to college students. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate: (a) the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Tangney's SCS using confirmatory factor analysis, and (b) whether higher scores on the scale correlated with positive outcomes in China. The final sample in this study consisted of 371 Chinese college students aged 17-23 years. The Full SCS and Brief SCS were both found to have a reasonable fitness, which also had satisfactory internal consistencies and a high correlation. Higher scores on the SCS correlated with higher self-esteem, extraversion, better harmony in interpersonal relationships and an appropriate anger expression, less impulsiveness, and state and trait anger. The test-retest reliability was confirmed in two additional samples. Tangney's SCS could be used in China. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. The role of implicit affective responses and trait self-control in ego resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buczny, Jacek; Layton, Rebekah L.; Muraven, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Exertion of self-control requires reliance on ego resources. Impaired performance typically results once those resources have been depleted by previous use. Yet the mechanism behind the depletion processes is little understood. Beliefs, motivation, and physiological changes have been implicated, yet

  20. Violence against Men as Moderated by Couple’s Self-Control Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Buriánek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we adhere to the view that the boundaries between common couple or situational violence and criminal act in the sense of the legal definition of the domestic violence are not totally sharp. The key thesis of general theory of crime (Gottfredson, 2005 about the importance of self-control we can develop so that the reasonable selfcontrol can act as a protective factor on the side of the men as victims of intimate partner violence. Our question is whether the individual characteristics of both actors do not create specific composition (configuration, which operates in the form of conflicts, or may encourage the emergence of IPV. For good reasons, however, we think more about the mediation role of these self-control configurations. We can justify it by the assumption that higher self-control in the case of men can support the state in which the victim is overestimating his own potential and manifested even patronizing attitude towards the offender. Our 5 item typology reconstructed for a representative sample of Czech men (N = 1001 demonstrates some special effects of asymmetric configurations. On the other side the calamity configuration based on the lack of self-control on both sides appears still as the most risky. The level of victimization of men seems to be similar if compared to women and their chance to solve the problem is limited due to some specific reasons which are discussed as well.

  1. Self-control trumps work motivation in predicting job search behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, Pieter E.; de Ridder, Denise T D; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; van der Lippe, T.; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Current labor market entrants face an increasingly challenging job search process. Effective guidance of job seekers requires identification of relevant job search skills. Self-control (i.e., the ability to control one's thoughts, actions, and response tendencies in view of a long-term goal, such as

  2. Dysfunction of Self-Regulation and Self-Control in Facebook Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, Facebook has become one of the most popular communication tools. With its increasing popularity, a new phenomenon connected with extensive use has appeared: namely, Facebook intrusion. The answer to the question of who is prone to become addicted still remains open. This study aimed to explore whether insufficient self-control and self-regulation resources in Facebook users are related to Facebook addiction. The participants in the study were 284 people. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, Action Control Scale, and the Multitasking Scale were used. We found that dysfunctional self-control system can be related to Facebook addiction. An insufficient self-control and low level of failure-related action orientation are those psychological characteristics that put Facebook users "at-risk" of Facebook addiction. The study reveals a picture showing that those Facebook users who are able to resist an impulse or temptation, are more self-disciplined, and do not focus on negative emotions are less likely to develop Facebook addiction. The obtained findings may serve as a basis for prevention programs for people at risk of Facebook addiction.

  3. Self-control conflict in the eating domain : A cognitive, affective, and behavioral perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, D.

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes we are tempted to do one thing (e.g., order the burger) but know we should do another (e.g., choose a healthier alternative). Such self-control conflicts, moments in which an impulse and a higher order goal are in conflict, are pervasive in everyday life. They are at the heart of the

  4. The Effect of Self-Control on Unit and Item Nonresponse in an Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Melde, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In "A General Theory of Crime", Gottfredson and Hirschi dispute whether valid self-report data can be collected among respondents lacking self-control. This research tests this argument by examining two processes that undermine the validity of self-report data: unit and item nonresponse. Specifically, this research addresses two questions: Within…

  5. Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: The role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.

  6. Parenting and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems: The role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.

  7. Self-Controlled Practice Enhances Motor Learning in Introverts and Extroverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda, Jr.; Tani, Go

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Method: Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys…

  8. Importance of Hierarchy Content in the Self-Control of Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfried, Marvin R.; Goldfried, Anita Powers

    1977-01-01

    Using speech anxiety as the target behavior, this study compared two self-control desensitization procedures. Speech-anxious community residents (N=42) volunteered for participation in the program and were seen within a group context for a total of seven therapy sessions. No differential effectiveness was found between the two desensitization…

  9. Comparison of Relaxation as Self-control and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Arden L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation as self-control and desensitization were compared to a wait-list control in reduction of rest and other anxieties. Active treatments differed significantly from the control treatment. Subjects in both treatments reported less debilitating test anxiety, whereas desensitization subjects showed greater facilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  10. Mindless resistance to persuasion : Low self-control fosters the use of resistance-promoting heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L; Fennis, Bob

    2017-01-01

    In our consumer society, people are confronted on a daily basis with unsolicited persuasion attempts. The present research challenges the prevailing view that resisting persuasion is more likely to fail when consumers have low self-control. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that impaired

  11. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  12. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individualism-Collectivism, Social Self-Control and Adolescent Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Bennett, Brooke L; Regmi, Sakshi; Idrisov, Bulat; Galimov, Artur; Akhmadeeva, Leila; Sussman, Steve

    2018-06-07

    Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i.e., social self-control). As such, the study is rooted in theories of the role of culture in developing self-regulation. Participants were high school students (N = 716) from the Bashkirtostan Republic of the Russian Federation. Adolescents from the Russian Federation tend to show high prevalence of cigarette smoking and binge drinking. People of the Russian Federation in general are traditionally collectivist in orientation, although increased globalization and post-Soviet capitalism may indicate high individualist values in younger generation Russians. Using path analysis we found that in addition to having direct effects, higher individualism indirectly affected substance use and risky sexual behavior through social self-control and negative life events. Higher collectivism was found to have a direct protective effect on risky sexual behavior and a direct effect on social self-control. However, collectivism was not found to have indirect effects on substance use or risky sexual behavior. Higher individualism appears to function as a risk factor for adolescent problem behavior and this relationship may be mediated by lower social self-control. Culturally-tailored prevention programs utilizing the individualism-collectivism framework may benefit from addressing social self-control.

  14. Prospective associations of social self-control with drug use among youth from regular and alternative high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ping

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the one year prospective associations between adolescent social self-control and drug outcomes (cigarette use, alcohol use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use among adolescents from regular and continuation high schools. In our previous cross-sectional study, poor social self-control was found to be associated with higher drug use, controlling for 12 personality disorder categories. In this study, we attempted to find out (a whether lack of social self-control predicted drug use one year later, and (b whether drug use at baseline predicted social self-control one year later. Methods We surveyed 2081 older adolescents from 9 regular (N = 1529 and 9 continuation (alternative (N = 552 high schools in the Los Angeles area. Data were collected at two time points in an interval of approximately 1 year. Results Past 30-day cigarette smoking, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use at baseline were found to predict lower social self-control at follow-up, controlling for baseline social self-control and demographic variables. The effect of problem drug use as a one-year predictor of social self-control was found to be moderated by school type (regular or continuation high school, such that the relationship was significant for continuation high school students only. Conversely, social self-control was found to predict past 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use, controlling for baseline drug use and demographic variables. For alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use outcomes, school type was not found to moderate the effects of social self-control, though an interaction effect was found regarding cigarette smoking. Social self-control was a significant predictor of cigarette use only at regular high school. Conclusion The results indicate that social self-control and drug use share a reciprocal relationship. Lack of social self-control in adolescents seems to

  15. More than Resisting Temptation: Beneficial Habits Mediate the Relationship between Self-Control and Positive Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across six studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a five-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits three months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and two objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits--perhaps more so than effortful inhibition--are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. PMID:25643222

  16. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; Duckworth, Angela L

    2015-09-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across 6 studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a 5-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits 3 months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and 2 objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits-perhaps more so than effortful inhibition-are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  18. Self-control with spiking and non-spiking neural networks playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Chris; Banfield, Gaye; Cleanthous, Aristodemos

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as choosing a large delayed reward over a small immediate reward, while precommitment is the making of a choice with the specific aim of denying oneself future choices. Humans recognise that they have self-control problems and attempt to overcome them by applying precommitment. Problems in exercising self-control, suggest a conflict between cognition and motivation, which has been linked to competition between higher and lower brain functions (representing the frontal lobes and the limbic system respectively). This premise of an internal process conflict, lead to a behavioural model being proposed, based on which, we implemented a computational model for studying and explaining self-control through precommitment behaviour. Our model consists of two neural networks, initially non-spiking and then spiking ones, representing the higher and lower brain systems viewed as cooperating for the benefit of the organism. The non-spiking neural networks are of simple feed forward multilayer type with reinforcement learning, one with selective bootstrap weight update rule, which is seen as myopic, representing the lower brain and the other with the temporal difference weight update rule, which is seen as far-sighted, representing the higher brain. The spiking neural networks are implemented with leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with learning based on stochastic synaptic transmission. The differentiating element between the two brain centres in this implementation is based on the memory of past actions determined by an eligibility trace time constant. As the structure of the self-control problem can be likened to the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD) game in that cooperation is to defection what self-control is to impulsiveness or what compromising is to insisting, we implemented the neural networks as two players, learning simultaneously but independently, competing in the IPD game. With a technique resembling the precommitment effect, whereby the

  19. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  20. Opportunities, Rational Choice, and Self-Control: On the Interaction of Person and Situation in a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…

  1. Believe you can and you will : The belief in high self-control decreases interest in attractive alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Pronk, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we examined the effects of self-control beliefs on relationship protective behavior. We hypothesized that providing participants with feedback on their level of self-control would help them shield their relationship from attractive alternatives. Study 1 showed that

  2. Self-controlled video feedback on tactical skills for soccer teams results in more active involvement of players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J.J.; Oudejans, Raôul R.D.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that self-controlled feedback is beneficial for learning motor tasks, and that learners prefer to receive feedback after supposedly good trials. However, to date all studies conducted on self-controlled learning have used individual tasks and mainly relatively simple skills.

  3. The Development of Self-Control from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade: The Effects of Neuropsychological Functioning and Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Jamie M.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of research has reported significant associations between children's levels of self-control and a variety of academic and behavioural outcomes. As a result, studies have begun to investigate the factors involved in the development of self-control. The current study builds on this body of research and examines the extent to which…

  4. Where There Is a Way, Is There a Will? The Effect of Future Choices on Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma; Dhar, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Choices often involve self-control conflicts such that options that are immediately appealing are less desirable in the long run. In the current research, the authors examine how viewing such a choice as one of a series of similar future choices rather than as an isolated decision decreases the preference for items requiring self-control. The…

  5. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  6. Self-control predicts exercise behavior by force of habit, a conceptual replication of Adriaanse et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Adriaanse, Marieke A.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study suggests that habits play a mediating role in the association between trait self-control and eating behavior, supporting a notion of effortless processes in trait self-control (Adriaanse et al., 2014). We conceptually replicated this research in the area of exercise behavior,

  7. Believe you can and you will: The belief in high self-control decreases interest in attractive alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Pronk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we examined the effects of self-control beliefs on relationship protective behavior. We hypothesized that providing participants with feedback on their level of self-control would help them shield their relationship from attractive alternatives. Study 1 showed that

  8. Not doing bad things is not equivalent to doing the right thing: distinguishing between inhibitory and initiatory self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, D.T.D.; de Boer, Benjamin; Lugtig, P.J.; Bakker, A.B.; van Hooft, E.A.J.

    The present study investigated whether a conceptual distinction between two components of self-control (inhibitory and initiatory self-control) is empirically valid. To that purpose, a series of confirmative factor analyses were employed in two samples (total N = 577), providing support for a

  9. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral approach or inhibition, mediates the relationship between stress and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with poor self-control. Individual differences in impulsivity and other behavioral tendencies may influence the relationship of stress with self-control, although this possibility has not been examined to date. The present research investigated whether cumulative stress is associated with poor self-control, and whether this relationship is mediated by impulsivity, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition in men and women. A community sample of 566 adults (319 women and 247 men) was assessed on the Cumulative Adversity Interview, Brief Self-control Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System Scale (BIS/BAS). Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques. In the total sample, the effects of cumulative stress on self-control were mediated by impulsivity. Neither behavioral inhibition nor behavioral approach mediated the association between cumulative stress and self-control in the total sample. Results were similar when men and women were considered separately, with impulsivity, but not behavioral inhibition or approach, mediating the association between cumulative stress and self-control. Impulsive individuals might benefit preferentially from interventions focusing on stress management and strategies for improving self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-control and child abuse potential in mothers with an abuse history and their preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henschel, S.; de Bruin, M.; Möhler, E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether physically and sexually abused mothers display lower levels of self-control, whether this explains their higher tendency to abuse their own children, and if this results in lower levels of self-control among their children. In a cross-sectional study, 40 abused and 47 matched,

  11. Marriage as a training ground: Examining change in self-control and forgiveness over the first four years of marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, T.M.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Iliás, M.; Finkenauer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Do partners’ levels of self-control and forgiveness change over the course of marriage? Based on the idea that marriage may function as a training ground for these vital relationship abilities, we hypothesized that people increase their levels of self-control and forgiveness over time and that these

  12. Will Not Want: Self-Control Rather than Motivation Explains the Female Advantage in Report Card Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Mastronarde, Andrew J.; Patrick, Sarah D.; Zhang, Jinghui; Druckman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Girls earn better grades than boys, but the mechanism explaining this gender difference is not well understood. We examined the relative importance of self-control and motivation in explaining the female advantage in grades. In Study 1, we surveyed middle school teachers and found they judged girls to be higher in both school motivation and self-control. In Studies 2 and 3—using self-reported motivation and teacher- and/or parent-reported self-control, and quarterly and final grades obtained from school records—we find that self-control, but not school motivation, helps to explain the gender gap in academic performance. In these studies, girls appeared to be more self-controlled than boys, but—contrary to teacher judgments in Study 1—did not appear to be more motivated to do well in school. PMID:25883522

  13. Self-control, self-regulation, and doping in sport: a test of the strength-energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin K; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Dimmock, James A; Donovan, Robert J; Keatley, David A; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-04-01

    We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes' behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or "doping." Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a "lollipop" decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the "lollipop" protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.

  14. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy TL; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise TD

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to promote better consumption choices. Results indicate that consumers low in self-control especially benefited and selected more healthy choices when marketed as “scarce” (Study 1), and that a demand (vs supply) scarcity heuristic was most effective in promoting utilitarian products (Study 2) suggests low self-control involves both an enhanced reward orientation and increased tendency to conform to descriptive norms. PMID:28070377

  15. Ego depletion in sports: highlighting the importance of self-control strength for high-level sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure. The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of ego depletion in the field of sports and exercise and to discuss the recent research and controversies surrounding it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L.; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F.; Campbell, W. Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem’s moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications—suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks. PMID:22611304

  17. The Mediating Effect of Self-Control on Parenting and Delinquency: A Gendered Approach With a Multinational Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R; Updegrove, Alexander H

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to clarify the relationships between parenting techniques, low self-control, and juvenile delinquency in Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime while controlling for alternative explanations of delinquency. We relied on a sample of 35,511 adolescent students from 31 countries from the International Self-Report Delinquency 2 Study. Results indicate that parenting exhibits a direct effect on adolescents' violence perpetration and property offending, and that while self-control weakens the strength of this relationship, it fails to fully mediate it. Males reported lower levels of self-control, exposure to poorer parenting techniques, and higher rates of violence perpetration and property offending. The relationship between parenting, self-control, and juvenile delinquency was similar for females and males. These results provide evidence that parenting has important implications for adolescents' involvement in delinquency above and beyond its influence on their level of self-control.

  18. Electrophysiological indices of response inhibition in a Go/NoGo task predict self-control in a social context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Nash

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that response inhibition-a core executive function-may subserve self-regulation and self-control. However, it is unclear whether response inhibition also predicts self-control in the multifaceted, high-level phenomena of social decision-making. Here we examined whether electrophysiological indices of response inhibition would predict self-control in a social context. Electroencephalography was recorded as participants completed a widely used Go/NoGo task (the cued Continuous Performance Test. Participants then interacted with a partner in an economic exchange game that requires self-control. Results demonstrated that greater NoGo-Anteriorization and larger NoGo-P300 peak amplitudes-two established electrophysiological indices of response inhibition-both predicted more self-control in this social game. These findings support continued integration of executive function and self-regulation and help extend prior research into social decision-making processes.

  19. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandellen, Michelle; Knowles, Megan L; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Sabet, Raha F; Campbell, W Keith; McDowell, Jennifer E; Clementz, Brett A

    2012-03-01

    In the current paper, the authors posit that trait self-esteem moderates the relationship between social rejection and decrements in self-control, propose an information-processing account of trait self-esteem's moderating influence and discuss three tests of this theory. The authors measured trait self-esteem, experimentally manipulated social rejection and assessed subsequent self-control in Studies 1 and 2. Additionally, Study 3 framed a self-control task as diagnostic of social skills to examine motivational influences. Together, the results reveal that rejection impairs self-control, but only among low self-esteem individuals. Moreover, this decrement in self-control only emerged when the task had no social implications-suggesting that low self-esteem individuals exert effort on tasks of social value and are otherwise preoccupied with belonging needs when completing nonsocial tasks.

  20. Self-controlled video feedback on tactical skills for soccer teams results in more active involvement of players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2018-02-01

    Many studies have shown that self-controlled feedback is beneficial for learning motor tasks, and that learners prefer to receive feedback after supposedly good trials. However, to date all studies conducted on self-controlled learning have used individual tasks and mainly relatively simple skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine self-controlled feedback on tactical skills in small-sided soccer games. Highly talented youth soccer players were assigned to a self-control or yoked group and received video feedback on their offensive performance in 3 vs. 2 small-sided games. The results showed that the self-control group requested feedback mostly after good trials, that is, after they scored a goal. In addition, the perceived performance of the self-control group was higher on feedback than on no-feedback trials. Analyses of the conversations around the video feedback revealed that the players and coach discussed good and poor elements of performance and how to improve it. Although the coach had a major role in these conversations, the players of the self-control group spoke more and showed more initiative compared to the yoked group. The results revealed no significant beneficial effect of self-controlled feedback on performance as judged by the coach. Overall, the findings suggest that in such a complex situation as small-sided soccer games, self-controlled feedback is used both to confirm correct performance elements and to determine and correct errors, and that self-controlled learning stimulates the involvement of the learner in the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a self-control training procedure to increase appropriate behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, M R; Hayes, L J; Binder, L M; Manthey, S; Sigman, C; Zdanowski, D M

    1998-01-01

    The present study evaluated a technique for teaching self-control and increasing desirable behaviors among adults with developmental disabilities. Results showed that when participants were initially given the choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, all participants repeatedly chose the smaller reinforcer. Concurrent fixed-duration/progressive-duration reinforcement schedules then were introduced in which initially both the smaller and larger reinforcer...

  2. Teaching self-control to small groups of dually diagnosed adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, M R; Holcomb, S

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to two groups of dually diagnosed adults. When given a choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, both groups chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline. During treatment, progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in both groups selecting larger delayed reinforcers. The results are discussed with respect to increas...

  3. Self-controlled learning: The importance of protecting perceptions of competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete eChiviacowsky

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies examining the role of self-controlled feedback have shown that learners ask for feedback after what they believe was a good rather than poor trial. Also, trials on which participants request feedback are often more accurate than those without feedback. The present study examined whether manipulating participants’ perception of good performance would have differential effects on learning. All participants practiced a coincident-anticipation timing task with a self-controlled feedback schedule during practice. Specifically, they were able to ask for feedback after 3 trials in each of 3 10-trial practice blocks. While one group (Self-30 was told that an error of 30 ms or less would be considered good performance, another group (Self-4 was informed that an error of 4 ms or less would be considered a good trial. A third, self-control group (Self did not receive any information about what constituted good performance. The results showed that participants of all groups asked for feedback primarily after relatively good trials. At the end of practice, both the Self-30 and Self groups demonstrated greater perceived competence and self-efficacy than the Self-4 group. The Self-30 and Self groups also performed with greater accuracy and less variability on retention and transfer tests (non-dominant hand one day later. The present findings indicated that the typical learning benefits of self-controlled practice can be thwarted by depriving learners of the opportunity of experiencing competence through good performance. They add to the accumulating evidence of motivational influences on motor learning.

  4. Dysfunction of Self-Regulation and Self-Control in Facebook Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    B?achnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, Facebook has become one of the most popular communication tools. With its increasing popularity, a new phenomenon connected with extensive use has appeared: namely, Facebook intrusion. The answer to the question of who is prone to become addicted still remains open. This study aimed to explore whether insufficient self-control and self-regulation resources in Facebook users are related to Facebook addiction. The participants in the study were 284 people. The Facebook Intrusion Quest...

  5. Dietary self-control influences top?down guidance of attention to food cues

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, Suzanne; Dolmans, Dirk; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Rutters, Femke

    2015-01-01

    Motivational objects attract attention due to their rewarding properties, but less is known about the role that top–down cognitive processes play in the attention paid to motivationally relevant objects and how this is affected by relevant behavioral traits. Here we assess how thinking about food affects attentional guidance to food items and how this is modulated by traits relating to dietary self-control. Participants completed two tasks in which they were presented with an initial cue (foo...

  6. An approximate analysis of the diffusing flow in a self-controlled heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, D.; Yen, H. H.

    1973-01-01

    Constant-density two-dimensional axisymmetric equations are presented for the diffusing flow of a class of self-controlled heat pipes. The analysis is restricted to the vapor space. Condensation of the vapor is related to its mass fraction at the wall by the gas kinetic formula. The Karman-Pohlhausen integral method is applied to obtain approximate solutions. Solutions are presented for a water heat pipe with neon control gas.

  7. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  8. Effectiveness of Self-Control Training on Quality of Life Dimensions in Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeel Soleimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder that leads patients to avoid any kind of activities. Since different factors are involved in migraine incidence and its triggers, so drugs are used to prevent or treat it are so variable. Also, combined medications are used to relieve migraine. This study examined the effectiveness of self-control training on quality of life in patients with migraine. Materials and Methods: Statistic population of this study included all migraine patients in Ardabil in 2014(Estimation: N=1150 that 40 patients were selected by convenience sampling. Demographic and disease information questionnaire and quality of life questionnaire (SF-36 were used to collect data in clinical centers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA was used to analyze data, because present research was a experimental and clinical trial with pre-test and post-test with control group. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between mean in quality of life in migraine patients and control subjects. It means that physical health and mental health of quality of life was different between control and experimental groups after self- control training. Conclusion: Self-control training can be used to enhance quality of life in migraine patients. These results have important and effective applications in the treatment of migraine patients. Generally, specialists of clinical centers can use this method alongside other treatment interventions.

  9. Everyday temptations: an experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Baumeister, Roy F; Förster, Georg; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2012-06-01

    How often and how strongly do people experience desires, to what extent do their desires conflict with other goals, and how often and successfully do people exercise self-control to resist their desires? To investigate desire and attempts to control desire in everyday life, we conducted a large-scale experience sampling study based on a conceptual framework integrating desire strength, conflict, resistance (use of self-control), and behavior enactment. A sample of 205 adults wore beepers for a week. They furnished 7,827 reports of desire episodes and completed personality measures of behavioral inhibition system/behavior activation system (BIS/BAS) sensitivity, trait self-control, perfectionism, and narcissistic entitlement. Results suggest that desires are frequent, variable in intensity, and largely unproblematic. Those urges that do conflict with other goals tend to elicit resistance, with uneven success. Desire strength, conflict, resistance, and self-regulatory success were moderated in multiple ways by personality variables as well as by situational and interpersonal factors such as alcohol consumption, the mere presence of others, and the presence of others who already had enacted the desire in question. Whereas personality generally had a stronger impact on the dimensions of desire that emerged early in its course (desire strength and conflict), situational factors showed relatively more influence on components later in the process (resistance and behavior enactment). In total, these findings offer a novel and detailed perspective on the nature of everyday desires and associated self-regulatory successes and failures. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Kristine Fiksdal; Skjærvø, Ingeborg; Ravndal, Edle; Clausen, Thomas; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2018-01-05

    Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors, with a particular focus on perceived self-control. A cross-sectional study including substance users (n = 548; mean age 34 years; 27% women) entering treatment at 21 different treatment-centers across Norway, interviewed between December 2012 and April 2015. Symptoms of mental distress were assessed with Global Symptom Index (GSI) score. Adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multinomial logistic regression. More than half of the participants in both treatment groups reported mental distress (GSI) above clinical cut-off. The use of alcohol and exposure to violence were associated with increased likelihood of high GSI for both patient groups. Also, lower perceived self-control was related to high GSI in both treatment groups. Symptoms of mental distress were equally common among patients entering OMT and those entering other inpatient SUD treatment, even if the patients differed on a number of clinical characteristics. Use of alcohol and exposure to violence were associated with more mental distress in both groups. Perceived self-control also appeared to be important when explaining symptoms of mental distress among these SUD patients.

  11. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office.

  12. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  13. Aerobic exercise as a potential way to improve self-control after ego-depletion in healthy female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling eZou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control.Methods: 45 healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 minutes for a period of five weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of five weeks. Before and after the five-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT (with and without a distraction component. Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant, possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  14. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Methods: Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population. PMID:27148113

  15. Boys' serotonin transporter genotype affects maternal behavior through self-control: a case of evocative gene-environment correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pener-Tessler, Roni; Avinun, Reut; Uzefovsky, Florina; Edelman, Shany; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-02-01

    Self-control, involving processes such as delaying gratification, concentrating, planning, following instructions, and adapting emotions and behavior to situational requirements and social norms, may have a profound impact on children's adjustment. The importance of self-control suggests that parents are likely to modify their parenting based on children's ability for self-control. We study the effect of children's self-control, a trait partially molded by genetics, on their mothers' parenting, a process of evocative gene-environment correlation. Israeli 3.5-year-old twins (N = 320) participated in a lab session in which their mothers' parenting was observed. DNA was available from most children (N = 228). Mothers described children's self-control in a questionnaire. Boys were lower in self-control and received less positive parenting from their mothers, in comparison with girls. For boys, and not for girls, the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene predicted mothers' levels of positive parenting, an effect mediated by boys' self-control. The implications of this evocative gene-environment correlation and the observed sex differences are discussed.

  16. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  18. SCHOOL VIOLENCE AMONG ARAB ADOLESCENTS IN ISRAEL AND ITS RELATION TO SELF-CONTROL SKILLS AND SOCIAL SUPPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Qutaiba; Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the author used a cross-sectional design to assess the association between the tendency toward school violence, on the one hand, and self-control, social support, and sex, on the other, among 148 Arab-Israeli adolescents in schools in northern Israel. Standard questionnaires on violence, self-control, and social support were administered. In line with expectations, self-reported violence was significantly associated with males, as well as low scores on self-control and social support.

  19. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  20. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  1. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  2. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  3. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  4. If you are able to control yourself, I will trust you: the role of perceived self-control in interpersonal trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Francesca; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2011-05-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that perception of others' self-control is an indicator of their trustworthiness. The authors investigated whether, in interactions between strangers as well as in established relationships, people detect another person's self-control, and whether this perception of self-control, in turn, affects trust. Results of 4 experiments supported these hypotheses. The first 2 experiments revealed that participants detected another person's trait of self-control. Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that participants also detected the temporary depletion of another person's self-control. Confirming the authors' predictions, perceived trait and state self-control, in turn, influenced people's judgment of the other person's trustworthiness. In line with previous research, these findings support the positive value of self-control for relationships and highlight the role of perceived self-control for the development of a fundamental relationship factor: trust. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Concerned with computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Andersen, Mads Lund; Jensen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on a particular matter of concern within computer gaming practices: the concern of being or not being a gamer. This matter of concern emerged from within our collective investigations of gaming practices across various age groups. The empirical material under scrutiny...... was generated across a multiplicity of research projects, predominantly conducted in Denmark. The question of being versus not being a gamer, we argue, exemplifies interesting enactments of how computer game players become both concerned with and concerned about their gaming practices. As a collective...... of researchers writing from the field of psychology and inspired by neo-materialist theories, we are particularly concerned with (human) subjectivity and processes of social and subjective becoming. Our empirical examples show that conerns/worries about computer games and being engaged with computer game...

  6. Reduced Self-Control after 3 Months of Imprisonment; A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Meijers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prison can be characterized as an impoverished environment encouraging a sedentary lifestyle with limited autonomy and social interaction, which may negatively affect self-control and executive function. Here, we aim to study the effects of imprisonment on self-control and executive functions, and we report the change in neuropsychological outcome after 3 months of imprisonment.Materials and Methods: Participants were 37 male inmates in a remand prison in Amsterdam, Netherlands, who completed six tests of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery in the first week of arrival. Participants were retested after 3 months of imprisonment. Change in performance was tested using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test.Results: After 3 months of imprisonment, risk taking significantly increased (measured as an increase in the proportion of available points used for betting and attention significantly deteriorated (measured as increased variability in reaction times on a sustained attention task, with large to medium effect sizes. In contrast, planning significantly improved (measured with a task analog to the Tower of London with a medium effect size.Discussion: Our study suggests that 3 months of imprisonment in an impoverished environment may lead to reduced self-control, measured as increased risk taking and reduced attentional performance. This is a significant and societally relevant finding, as released prisoners may be less capable of living a lawful life than they were prior to their imprisonment, and may be more prone to impulsive risk-taking behavior. In other words, the impoverished environment may contribute to an enhanced risk of reoffending.

  7. The Effects of Initial Self-Control Exertion and Subsequent Glucose Consumption on Search Accuracy by Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Holly C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have suggested that canine self-control is sensitive to fatigue and that an initial act of behavioral inhibition (sit-stay 10 min relative to a control condition (cage 10 min can deplete self-control, increase risk-taking, and reduce subsequent persistence on a puzzle task. Glucose, but not a calorie-free placebo drink has been shown to replenish this depletion. The current study sought to complement and extend these findings by examining whether initial exertion of self-control would also affect canine working memory as measured by search accuracy on a subsequently administered invisible displacement rotation task. The results evidenced that initial self-control exertion (relative to the control condition resulted in poorer search accuracy. The consumption of glucose did not have a replenishing effect. If anything, glucose was associated with poorer search accuracy.

  8. A comparison of the effects of brief rules, a timer, and preferred toys on self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control.

  9. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF BRIEF RULES, A TIMER, AND PREFERRED TOYS ON SELF-CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control. PMID:23060664

  10. Too dog tired to avoid danger: self-control depletion in canines increases behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; DeWall, C Nathan; Pattison, Kristina; Molet, Mikaël; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether initial self-control exertion by dogs would affect behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat. Dogs were initially required to exert self-control (sit still for 10 min) or not (caged for 10 min) before they were walked into a room in which a barking, growling dog was caged. Subject dogs spent 4 min in this room but were free to choose where in the room they spent their time. Approaching the unfamiliar conspecific was the predisposed response, but it was also the riskier choice (Lindsay, 2005). We found that following the exertion of self-control (in comparison with the control condition), dogs spent greater time in proximity to the aggressor. This pattern of behavior suggests that initial self-control exertion results in riskier and more impulsive decision making by dogs.

  11. Comparison of Individualized Covert Modeling, Self-Control Desensitization, and Study Skills Training for Alleviation of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gina; Johhson, Suzanne Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Individualized covert modeling and self-control desensitization substantially reduced self-reported test anxiety. However, the individualized covert modeling group was the only treatment group that showed significant improvement in academic performance. (Author)

  12. Estrategia socioeducativa de autorregulación de la agresividad Socio-educative strategy of aggressiveness self-controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Ynerarity Castro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching students to self-controlling their performance is an essential task of Special Pedagogy due to its role in shaping personality, particularly self-appraising, independence, self-control and self-awareness, usually affected in students with special educative needs. This paper refers essential features characterizing aggressive behavior and lack of self-control and proposes a socio-educative strategy to allow students to achieve self-control. The reliability of the proposed socio-educative strategy was assessed by means of workshops in postgraduate activities; research methods include constructing a corresponding framework, observation, interviewing and control experiments. The improvement in self-monitoring aggressiveness proved the effectiveness of the proposal.

  13. Estrategia socioeducativa de autorregulación de la agresividad Socio-educative strategy of aggressiveness self-controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Ynerarity Castro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching students to self-controlling their performance is an essential task of Special Pedagogy due to its role in shaping personality, particularly self-appraising, independence, self-control and self-awareness, usually affected in students with special educative needs. This paper refers essential features characterizing aggressive behavior and lack of self-control and proposes a socio-educative strategy to allow students to achieve self-control. The reliability of the proposed socio-educative strategy was assessed by means of workshops in postgraduate activities; research methods include constructing a corresponding framework, observation, interviewing and control experiments. The improvement in self-monitoring aggressiveness proved the effectiveness of the proposal.

  14. Overview: clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other self-control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D H

    1982-03-01

    In 1977 the American Psychiatric Association called for a critical examination of the clinical effectiveness of meditation. The author provides a review of the literature bearing on clinical and physiological comparisons of meditation with other self-control strategies. He begins by providing a definition of mediation and then cites the literature comparing mediation with such self-regulation strategies as biofeedback, hypnosis, and progressive relaxation. He pays particular attention to the "uniqueness" of mediation as a clinical intervention strategy a well as the adverse effects of meditation. Finally, he offers suggestions and guidelines for future research.

  15. Information content of neural networks with self-control and variable activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Amari, S.I.; Dominguez Carreta, D.R.C.; Massolo, G.

    2001-01-01

    A self-control mechanism for the dynamics of neural networks with variable activity is discussed using a recursive scheme for the time evolution of the local field. It is based upon the introduction of a self-adapting time-dependent threshold as a function of both the neural and pattern activity in the network. This mechanism leads to an improvement of the information content of the network as well as an increase of the storage capacity and the basins of attraction. Different architectures are considered and the results are compared with numerical simulations

  16. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Micucci, Antonia; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual's reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins' performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed.

  17. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  18. The management of psoriasis through diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gleison Duarte,1 Luan Oliveira Barbosa,2 Maria Elisa A Rosa11Dermatology Division, Alergodermoclin, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 2Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública Salvador, Bahia, BrazilAbstract: Diet is an important factor in the management of several dermatological diseases, such as dermatitis herpetiformis, acne vulgaris, gout, phrynoderma, pellagra, psoriasis, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. New concepts have emerged concerning the influence of diet on psoriasis. For example, diet has an adjuvant role in the management of several cardiovascular comorbidities that exhibit a higher-than-expected prevalence in psoriatic patients. Functional foods, such as yellow saffron and fish oil, may exert favorable effects on immune and cardiovascular functions. A gluten-free diet may promote significant clinical and histologic improvement. Folate supplementation may induce clinical improvement of psoriasis, but side effects may also occur. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower prevalence of psoriasis, and vegetarian diets were associated with clinical improvement. Additionally, many drug-diet interactions (retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine must be considered in patients with psoriasis. Therefore, in addition to current nutritional advice given to psoriasis patients, further studies are necessary in the role of diet in psoriasis therapy.Keywords: diet, lifestyle, psoriasis, recommendations, supplementation

  19. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  20. Art as Social Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  1. Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345

  2. Personal Conflict Impairs Performance on an Unrelated Self-Control Task: Lingering Costs of Uncertainty and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquist, Jessica L; Baumeister, Roy F; McGregor, Ian; Core, Tammy J; Benjamin, Ilil; Tice, Dianne M

    2018-01-01

    People have the ability to make important choices in their lives, but deliberating about these choices can have costs. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that writing about conflicted personal goals and values (conflict condition) would impair self-control on an unrelated subsequent task as compared to writing about clear personal goals and values (clarity condition). Personal conflict activates the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Hirsh, Mar, & Peterson, 2012), which may make it harder for participants to successfully execute self-control. In this large ( N =337), pre-registered study participants in the conflict condition performed worse on anagrams than participants in the clarity condition, and the effect of condition on anagram performance was mediated by a subjective uncertainty measure of BIS activation. This suggests that BIS activation leads to poor self-control. Moreover, given that conflict is inherent in the exercise of self-control, results point to BIS activation as a mechanism for why initial acts of self-control impair self-control on subsequent, unrelated tasks.

  3. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  4. Eating on impulse: Implicit attitudes, self-regulatory resources, and trait self-control as determinants of food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  6. Rethinking Social Desirability Scales: From Impression Management to Interpersonally Oriented Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad

    2010-05-01

    Social desirability (specifically, impression management) scales are widely used by researchers and practitioners to screen individuals who bias self-reports in a self-favoring manner. These scales also serve to identify individuals at risk for psychological and health problems. The present review explores the evidence with regard to the ability of these scales to achieve these objectives. In the first part of the review, I present six criteria to evaluate impression management scales and conclude that they are unsatisfactory as measures of response style. Next, I explore what individual differences in impression management scores actually do measure. I compare two approaches: a defensiveness approach, which argues that these scales measure defensiveness that stems from vulnerable self-esteem, and an adjustment approach, which suggests that impression management is associated with personal well-being and interpersonal adjustment. Data from a wide variety of fields including social behavior, affect and well-being, health, and job performance tend to favor the adjustment approach. Finally, I argue that scales measuring impression management should be redefined as measures of interpersonally oriented self-control that identify individuals who demonstrate high levels of self-control, especially in social contexts. © The Author(s) 2010.

  7. AN EXPLANATION OF THE CYBERCRIME VICTIMISATION: SELF-CONTROL AND LIFESTILE/ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Ilievski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to examine the causes of cybercrime victimisation, to highlight limitations of the existing cybercrime victimisation etiological studies and provide guidance for further research. The general findings are reported on the basis of a review of previous empirical studies. In addition to minor deficiencies, elements of self-control and lifestyle/routine activity theory together can be applied to the study of cybercrime victimisation. On the basis of the review of existing research, six main conclusions have been drawn. The limitation of the current research is that examines only the causes of cybercrime victimisation through the application of self-control and lifestyle/routine activity theory as the most useful for this purpose. Future research should take into account all the conclusions discussed in the paper and test new or other existing victimological theories for the purpose of better explaining cybercrime victimisation. This study contributes to improved etiological exploration of cybercrime victimisation and, consequently, to the creation of effective measures to prevent it.

  8. Religious orientation, low self-control, and deviance: Muslims, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox-, and "Bible Belt" Christians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanjšek, Rudi; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Using adolescent samples from four cultures, the current study tested whether effects by religiosity on deviance varied by the nature of religiosity (intrinsic versus extrinsic) and by the cultural context (Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Slovenia, and the U.S.). Results indicated: a) that not every type of religiosity has a buffering effect on deviance - if one's religiousness is predominately instrumental (i.e. extrinsic), then its inhibiting effect is weak or does not exist; b) that the effect of intrinsic religiosity seemed more pronounced in the two surroundings that expressed the highest mean religiosity (U.S., Bosnia & Herzegovina) although results from follow-up analysis (Z-tests) largely supported a cultural invariance hypothesis. In addition, the intrinsic religiosity-deviance link was moderated by low self-control in each sample, except the Slovenian one. Finally, results indicated that low self-control only partially mediated the religiosity-deviance link. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian; Wang, Minghao; Bilberg, Arne; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    High relapse rate is one of the most prominent problems in addiction treatment. Alcohol Resilience Treatment (ART), an alcohol addiction therapy, is based on Cue Exposure Treatment, which has shown promising results in preliminary studies. ART aims at optimizing the core area of relapse prevention, and intends to improve patients' capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper.

  10. Why self-controlled feedback enhances motor learning: Answers from electroencephalography and indices of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Kirk F; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Dyke, Ford B; Godwin, Maurice M; Leiker, Amber M; Thompson, Andrew G; Buchanan, Taylor L; Miller, Matthew W

    2015-10-01

    It was tested whether learners who choose when to receive augmented feedback while practicing a motor skill exhibit enhanced augmented feedback processing and intrinsic motivation, along with superior learning, relative to learners who do not control their feedback. Accordingly, participants were assigned to either self-control (Self) or yoked groups and asked to practice a non-dominant arm beanbag toss. Self participants received augmented feedback at their discretion, whereas Yoked participants were given feedback schedules matched to Self counterparts. Participants' visual feedback was occluded, and when they received augmented feedback, their processing of it was indexed with the electroencephalography-derived feedback-related negativity (FRN). Participants self-reported intrinsic motivation via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) after practice, and completed a retention and transfer test the next day to index learning. Results partially support the hypothesis. Specifically, Self participants reported higher IMI scores, exhibited larger FRNs, and demonstrated better accuracy on the transfer test, but not on the retention test, nor did they exhibit greater consistency on the retention or transfer tests. Additionally, post-hoc multiple regression analysis indicated FRN amplitude predicted transfer test accuracy (accounting for IMI score). Results suggest self-controlled feedback schedules enhance feedback processing, which enhances the transfer of a newly acquired motor skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cosmetic Concerns Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J

    2018-01-01

    Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  13. Development of a healthy New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    Summary: Many of the diseases today are diet‐related, and recommendations for a healthy diet are one of the main challenges for public health today. At the same time, concern for the environment and the planet's health has developed to be an equally important challenge, and the circumstances call...... to define and test a New Nordic Diet (NND). The hypothesis is that an optimal diet composition, based on healthy, palatable meals, may not only contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain, obesity, and other health disorders, but may also improve quality of life, learning ability, and mental...

  14. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  15. Existential concerns about death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...

  16. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  17. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  18. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Tusche, Anita; Manoharan, Nicolas; Hutcherson, Cendri; Hare, Todd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2018-06-04

    Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that employed a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices. Within this dataset, we found that individual differences in gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) predicted regulatory success. We extended and confirmed these initial findings by predicting regulatory success out of sample and across tasks in a second dataset requiring participants to apply a different regulation strategy that entailed distancing from cravings for unhealthy, appetitive foods. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical markers in the vmPFC and dlPFC generalized to different forms of dietary regulation strategies across participant groups. They provide novel evidence that structural differences in neuroanatomy of two key regions for valuation and its control, the vmPFC and dlPFC, predict an individual's ability to exert control in dietary choices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dieting involves regulating food choices in order to eat healthier foods and fewer unhealthy foods. People differ dramatically in their ability to achieve or maintain this regulation, but it is unclear why. Here, we show that individuals with more gray matter volume in the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are better at exercising dietary self-control. This relationship was observed across four different studies examining two different forms of dietary

  19. The role of self-control and self-esteem and the impact of early risk factors among violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Gunda; Schneider, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Research on the role of self-esteem and self-control among violent offenders has so far yielded inconsistent findings. Certain factors, such as an adverse upbringing, foster development of delinquent behaviour, but it is less clear how this is mediated. Little is known about the interrelationship between self-control and self-esteem or factors that influence them. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relevance of self-esteem and self-control as distinct characteristics of violent offenders, and of their interrelationship with biographical risk factors for violence. Data were obtained from interviews and psychological testing with 101 incarcerated violent male offenders. These violent men showed higher body-related self-esteem compared with a general population sample. There were no offence-specific differences for self-control. Self-esteem was associated with self-control on binary testing, but, when entered into a regression analysis with attention and cognitive factors together with established early childhood risk factors, only the variable 'family problems' was independently related to self-control. The findings stress the complex interrelation between self-control, self-esteem and early childhood risk factors for antisocial behaviour. The combination of low social self-esteem, high body-related self-esteem and history of parenting problems characterising the violent offenders raises testable questions about whether high body-related self-esteem and violence are means of compensating for low social self-esteem with origins in parental neglect, inconsistent or harsh discipline. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  1. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  2. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Self-Control, Self-Management and Entrepreneurship in Brazilian Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Bendassolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creative entrepreneurship has gained ground in recent years with the advent of creative industries. The capabilitiesto set targets and individually self-regulate have been indicated as predictors of entrepreneurship. This study aims to identify validity characteristics of a self-regulation scale and to test if score differences are related to whether or not one is an entrepreneur, personalcharacteristics, or the activity sector. A total of 596 professionals from creative industries in Brazil participated in this study. The self-control and self-management scale (SCMS has been applied; it has been translated and adapted to Portuguese. Cross-validation analysis has been done. The results support the three-factor structure of the scale. Entrepreneurs tended to indicate higher means in the self-evaluation factor than non-entrepreneurs. Activity sector, gender and schooling demonstrated a significant difference in the self-monitoring factor.

  4. [Microbiological verification of a self control plan for a hospital food service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, I; Pennino, F; Crispino, M

    2006-01-01

    During the past years, it has been an increment of food related infectious diseases. In order to avoid micro biological food contamination, adherence to good manufacturing is required through control measures of food safety practices. Updated national and European regulations underline the need to apply the HACCP system, overcoming the old concept of sample control on the end user product. This work shows results of microbiological controls made along the whole productive chain. Measurements are made using biomolecular techniques (PFGE) in order to assess the management of the micro biological risk of the self control plan applied to a hospital food service of Naples. The use of the PFGE applied on some micro-organisms gram negative potentially pathogen, underlines the circulation, continued in time, of these micro-organisms within the cooking area. In addition, cross contamination between several matrixes of samples has been detected.

  5. Official criteria for diagnostics of diabetes mellitus, normoglycemia and glycemic self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kaminskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the questions of diagnostics of diabetes mellitus (DM and early violations of carbohydrate metabolism. Venous plasma was underlined to be the only commonly accepted standard for blood glucose determination for prediabetes and diabetes mellitus diagnosis. In the third world countries (including Ukraine peripheral (capillary plasma of blood can be used for self-control and diagnostics of prediabetes and DM as their fasting values correspond to those of venous plasma and do not require revaluation. While using portable glucometers for carbohydrate violations diagnostics postprandial glucose value and after meal should be estimated in conversion. Normoglycemia is glucose concentration in venous plasma from 3.9 mmol/l (ADA criteria to 6.0 mmol/l (WHO criteria.

  6. What makes gambling cool? Images of agency and self-control in fiction films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Michael; Rantala, Varpu

    2015-03-01

    The study is a qualitative film analysis. It seeks to determine the semiotic and cinematic structures that make gambling appealing in films based on analysis of 72 film scenes from 28 narrative fiction films made from 1922 to 2003 about gambling in North American and West European mainstream cinema. The main game types include card games, casino games, and slot machines. The theme of self-control and competence was identified as being central to gambling's appeal. These images are strongly defined by gender. The study was funded by ELOMEDIA, financed by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture as well as the Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies. The limitations of the study are noted.

  7. The relationship between trait self-control, consideration for future consequence and organizational citizenship behavior among Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Dou, Kai; Tang, Zhi-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is important to the development of an organization. Research into factors that foster OCB and the underlying processes are therefore substantially crucial. The current study aimed to test the association between trait self-control and OCB and the mediating role of consideration for future consequence. Four hundred and ninety-four Chinese employees (275 men, 219 women) took part in the study. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures online that assessed trait self-control, tendencies of consideration of future consequence, and organizational citizenship behavior. Path analysis was conducted and bootstrapping technique (N = 5000), a resampling method that is asymptotically more accurate than the standard intervals using sample variance and assumptions of normality, was used to judge the significance of the mediation. Results of path analysis showed that trait self-control was positively related to OCB. More importantly, the "trait self-control-OCB" link was mediated by consideration of future consequence-future, but not by consideration of future consequence-immediate. Employees with high trait self-control engage in more organizational citizenship behavior and this link can be partly explained by consideration of future consequence-future.

  8. Religiosity, self-control, and virginity status in college students from the “Bible Belt”: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Jenkins, Dusty D

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of college students (N = 904) from the "Bible Belt," this study examines the effect of religiosity and self-control on late adolescents' delay in initiating sexual intercourse or oral sex. Findings from logistic regressions provide evidence that for each one unit increase in self-control, the odds of a male remaining a virgin or of delaying oral sex increased by a factor of 1.82 and 2.84, respectively, while for females, the odds of not engaging in oral sex increased by a factor of 1.67. In addition to the effect of self-control, a one unit increase in religiosity results in the odds of a male remaining a virgin by a factor of 3.86 and 3.30, respectively. For females the odds are increased by a factor of 4.13 and 2.60, respectively. Mediation tests also provided evidence that self-control mediated the effects by religiosity on both dependent measures. Thus, both religiosity and self-control independently and additively function as key social control mechanisms that promote late adolescent health.

  9. Smartphone Addiction and School Life Adjustment Among High School Students: The Mediating Effect of Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, YoungJin; Lee, Kyunghee

    2018-05-08

    Previous studies have reported associations among smartphone addiction, school adjustment, and self-control. However, the causal relationship between smartphone addiction and school adjustment has not been clearly demonstrated. The current study examined the association between smartphone addiction and school adjustment and investigated the mediating effect of self-control in this association. A total of 790 students from five high schools in Daegu City, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete a self-diagnostic smartphone addiction scale and validated Korean version of a self-control scale. Among at-risk students, self-control did not mediate the relation between smartphone addiction and school adjustment; among those not at risk, there was a partial mediating effect. To improve school adjustment among high school students, prevention of smartphone addiction seems important. Smartphone addiction could be managed by strengthening self-control to promote healthy use of smartphones. The current results can serve as groundwork for the development of programs to improve school adjustment among high school students. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Self-controlled learning benefits: exploring contributions of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation via path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.

  11. Poor self-control and harsh punishment in childhood prospectively predict borderline personality symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-08-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2,450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  14. Dietary self-control is related to the speed with which attributes of healthfulness and tastiness are processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nicolette; Hutcherson, Cendri; Harris, Alison; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    We propose that self-control failures, and variation across individuals in self-control abilities, are partly due to differences in the speed with which the decision-making circuitry processes basic attributes, such as tastiness, versus more abstract attributes, such as healthfulness. We tested these hypotheses by combining a dietary-choice task with a novel form of mouse tracking that allowed us to pinpoint when different attributes were being integrated into the choice process with temporal resolution at the millisecond level. We found that, on average, tastiness was processed about 195 ms earlier than healthfulness during the choice process. We also found that 13% to 39% of observed individual differences in self-control ability could be explained by differences in the relative speed with which tastiness and healthfulness were processed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Endometriosis, dysmenorrhea and diet--what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbaek, Agnete; Knudsen, Ulla B

    2007-01-01

    between diet and endometriosis/dysmenorrhea was performed. Data on diet and endometriosis were limited to four trials of which two were animal studies. The articles concerning human consumption found some relation between disease and low intake of vegetable and fruit and high intake of vegetarian...... between diet and endometriosis/dysmenorrhea was performed. Data on diet and endometriosis were limited to four trials of which two were animal studies. The articles concerning human consumption found some relation between disease and low intake of vegetable and fruit and high intake of vegetarian....... Further research is recommended on both subjects.ke of vegetarian polyunsaturated fat, ham, beef and other red meat. Results concerning fish intake were not consistent. Eight trials of different design, with a total of 1097 women, investigated the relationship between diet and dysmenorrhea. Intake of fish...

  16. The Role of Self-control and Grit in Domains of School Success in Students of Primary and Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Oyanedel, Juan C; Torres, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Self-control and grit have become two of the most important variables that explain success in different aspects of people's daily life (Duckworth and Gross, 2014). Self-control promotes delayed gratification and directly influences thoughts, emotions, and impulses. On the other hand, grit enhances the achievement of goals through perseverance even before extreme external circumstances. Since both constructs are related, examining them together is compelling, as long as the different nuances that characterize each are taken into account. Two structural equation models (SEM) were conducted to observe the effect of self-control and grit on a more specific indicator of academic success (academic self-efficacy) and a more general indicator of school experience (satisfaction with school). Methods: The first model comprises 5,681 primary students ( M = 9.05; SD = 0.79), and the second 10,017 secondary students ( M = 14.20; SD = 1.04) from Lima, Peru. In both models, the influence of grit and self-control on school satisfaction was observed when taking self-efficacy as a mediator variable. Results: The results show that grit and self-control have strong associations in both primary and secondary students. When estimating the covariance of both constructs, grit is related with academic-self efficacy at both educational stages, but only to satisfaction with school in secondary students. On the contrary, self-control shows a significant relationship with school satisfaction only in primary education. In turn, self-efficacy shows a mediating effect between grit and school satisfaction. After calculating the invariance of the models, differences are observed by gender in the relationships between variables. Conclusion: The results indicate that both constructs are strongly interrelated. Regarding the associations with the indicators of academic success, a need for timely interventions specific to each educational stage is observed.

  17. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  18. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  19. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  20. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  1. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one...... will stress dietary factors in European children as one major aspect of the complex aetiology of childhood obesity, and offer a broader comment on the role of contemporary food systems. Results: Parental socioeconomic status, children’s media consumption and current arketing strategies employed by the food...... industry were associated with a low-quality diet and unhealthy food intake in European children. Conclusion: Present evidence calls for policy interventions to facilitate healthy diets of European children and adolescents. Prevention strategies for childhood obesity should address upstream factors...

  2. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  3. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  4. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  5. Healthy diet: Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-08-01

    To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the psychological interventions that have been designed to promote healthy diet. A systematic review of the psychological literature on healthy diet. Our findings suggest that consumers have a relatively poor understanding of a healthy diet. The literature also demonstrates that there is poor evidence on the health protective effects of single foods or nutrients. We further show that low SES is the single consistent risk factor for not adhering to a healthy diet. Our review of the literature on determinants demonstrates that intentions, habits, self-regulatory skills, and the social and physical environment are the most important determinants of a healthy diet, which are in turn amenable to change by intervention strategies with varying levels of effectiveness. Educational interventions generally show a limited effect on practising a healthy diet whereas interventions targeting habitual behaviour and/or the physical environment seem more promising. In view of the large number of people who are concerned about their diets and make attempts to change their dietary patterns, we conclude that it is crucial to gain a better understanding of both the automatic and environmental influences that are responsible for people not acting upon their good intentions for diet change.

  6. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  7. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  8. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  9. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  10. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  11. Markets for Collective Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José; Pallesen, Trine

    Despite the recent fall-out of finance, confidence in the market does not seem to be diminishing, but, on the contrary, market mechanisms are becoming key instruments to deal with core contemporary collective concerns, including global warming, education, environmental pollution, supply of energy......, quality of education, poverty and health care (Mirowski 2013). Recent research within STS has started to focus on such kind of arrangements and in this presentation we will critically engage with this literature. Our main results are twofold. On the one hand, we recognize there are important conceptual...... tools already available - such as 'matters of public concern' (Marres 2007) and 'hybrid forums' (Callon et al. 2001; Callon 2009)- that help in framing the particularity of these arrangements. On the other hand, previous STS-market research notions developed mostly in the field of finance studies cannot...

  12. Concern for older parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, E.; Spink, T.; Cookson, B.; Tenera, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the last half decade, regulatory expectations of the procurement process for nuclear commercial-grade safety-related materials have increase. The changes have been driven by concern for fraudulent or misrepresented parts and the loss of original equipment manufacturers. The industry responded to these concerns by developing improved procurement programs that changed how parts were specified and received and provided for verification of attributes that were critical to the successful performance of safety functions(s). Like its counterparts, Duquesne Light Company (DLCo), Beaver Valley power station began applying these enhanced requirements to procurements initiated after January 1, 1990, in response to the Nuclear Management and Resources Council initiative on dedication. Procurements prior to this data were not subject to the new requirements

  13. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  14. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  15. Career Concerns in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Pechlivanos, Lambros

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how changes in the commitment power of a principal affect cooperation among agents who work in a team. When the principal and her agents are symmetrically uncertain about the agents' innate abilities, workers have career concerns. Then, unless the principal can commit herself to long-term wage contracts, an implicit sabotage incentive emerges. Agents become reluctant to help their teammates. Anticipating this risk, and in order to induce the desired level of cooperation, the pr...

  16. IMPORTANT CONCERN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINTEA (ANGHEL LUCICA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of probabilities, uncertainties and risks has concerned society since ancient times. By probability we can see the possible realization of an act or event under certain conditions. Uncertainty is caused by emotional status of the decision maker due to more subjective factors or to the knowledge to achieve an objective. Risk is a combination of the two elements characterized by a possible description of probabilities under insecurity uncertainty conditions.

  17. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  18. What does Islam say about dieting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir

    2014-08-01

    Dieting is very important to maintain a healthy and peaceful life. Today, most of the health problems are related with dieting. Thus, the modern health science recommends a number of suggestions regarding dieting for better health such as learning the five basic food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat); eating three times a day; decreasing the amount of fat; increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains; including an adequate amount of iron; and avoiding excessive rich food, salt, sugar, and fat. Religion can also play a vital role for our good health and lifestyle. The main concern of this paper was to present an analytical justification regarding what Islam as a religion advocates about dieting along with the modern food and nutrition sciences.

  19. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  20. Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: examining the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime to South Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youngoh; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Limited studies have examined whether self-control fully mediates the effect of parenting on deviant behavior beyond Western cultures. Using a sample of 882 South Korean middle and high schools students, this article examines the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument about the role of parenting in self-control theory in the context of Asian culture. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggest the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency hold in South Korean culture: Parenting has only an indirect effect through self-control on delinquency. The findings of multigroup SEM, however, indicate that gender differences exist in the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency. This study provides support for cultural invariance of self-control theory but suggests that more studies examining gender differences and interaction between gender and race in the theory are required. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. diet, bowel motility, faeces composition and colonic cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-07-20

    Jul 20, 1970 ... The commonness of colonic cancer in privileged popula- tions compared with ... salient differences in environmental factors concern diet. physical activity .... how well known are the risk factors for coronary heart disease; yet ...

  2. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students

    OpenAIRE

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would ...

  3. The efficacy of herbal therapy on quality of life in patients with breast cancer: self-control clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yi Eliza Wong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lai Yi Eliza Wong1, Chun Kwok Wong2, Ping Chung Leung3, Wei Kei Christopher Lam41Assistant Professor, Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 2Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 3Director, Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5/F, School of Public Health Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, NT, Hong Kong; 4Chairman, Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1/F, Clinical Sciences Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, NT, Hong KongBackground: Mounting evidence indicates that herbal therapy is effective in alleviating anxiety, lessening cancer treatment-related side-effects, and facilitating rehabilitation. This is the first trial to examine the herbal therapy of combined yunzhi and danshen on quality of life among breast cancer patients.Methods: A multicenter, longitudinal, and self-control study was used. Eighty-two breast cancer patients were given combined yunzhi and danshen capsules for six months on a daily basis. Data collection including quality of life, vitality status and adverse effects were taken.Results: Results showed a significant improvement in physical function, role-physical, role-emotion and health transition (P < 0.05. Patients also reported less fatigue, better quality of sleep, better appetite, more regular bowel movements and more stable emotions (P < 0.05. As far as side-effects were concerned, only mild discomforts including sore throat (13.4% and dry mouth (9.8% were recorded.Conclusion: The findings add clinical evidence to support the beneficial effects of herbal therapy on quality of life and vitality status in breast cancer patients. Therefore, herbal therapy has a potentially important role to play in managing psychological distress in cancer patients. This study also suggests that herbal therapy is clinically acceptable and can be used safely with breast cancer

  4. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  5. The Personality of a “Good Test Taker”: Self-Control and Mindfulness Predict Good Time-Management When Taking Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Osgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Much prior research has linked trait self-control and trait mindfulness with improved performance on overall academic metrics such as GPA. The present research expands on this literature by linking self-control, mindfulness, and closely related personality constructs to differences in the way students manage their time while taking exams. Students at two large public universities (total n = 362 completed scale measures of self-control, mindfulness, and their use of time when taking timed examinations. The results suggest that trait self-control (r = .174 and trait mindfulness (r = .311 are statistically significant predictors of effective time management while taking timed exams.

  6. Out of control!? How loss of self-control influences prosocial behavior: the role of power and moral values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Joosten

    Full Text Available Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people's level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees.

  7. Risk Perception of HIV/AIDS and Low Self-Control Trait: Explaining Preventative Behaviors Among Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Safooreh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shirzadi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of developed countries there are progressive trend about HIV/AIDS and its’ aspects of transmission in the low socio-economic societies. The aim of this was to explain the youth's behavior in adopting HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors in a sample of Iranian university students by emphasizing on fear appeals approaches alongside examining the role of self-control trait for explaining adoption on danger or fear control processes based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Methods: A sample of 156 randomly selected university students in Jolfa, Iran was recruited in a predictive cross-sectional study by application of a researcher-designed questionnaire through self-report data collection manner. Sexual high risk behaviors, the EPPM variables, self-control trait, and general self-efficacy were measured as theoretical framework. Results: Findings indicated that 31.3% of participants were in the fear control process versus 68.7% in danger control about HIV/AIDS and also the presence of multi-sex partners and amphetamine consumption amongst the participants. Low self-control trait and low perceived susceptibility significantly were related to having a history of multi-sex partners while high level of self-efficacy significantly increased the probability of condom use. Conclusion: Findings of the study were indicative of the protective role of high level of self-control, perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy factors on youth's high-risk behaviors and their preventative skills as well. PMID:26573026

  8. Bell's palsy and influenza(H1N1) pdm09 containing vaccines: A self-controlled case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnans, L. (Leonoor); C. Dodd (Caitlin); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAn association between AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine and the occurrence of Bell's palsy was found in a population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden. To evaluate this association in a different population, we conducted a self-controlled case series in a primary health

  9. Parental behavioral and psychological control and problematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: the mediating role of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Self-Control as a Personality Resource: Assessment and Associations with Performance, Persistence and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeeva T.O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-control is one’s ability to control one’s own behavior and emotional expression, to react to external events in a deliberate manner, and to interrupt actions motivated by undesirable impulses or affects. We present two studies aimed to validate a Russian-language version of the 13-item Brief Self-Control Scale by J.P. Tangney, R.F. Baumeister and A.L. Boone in samples of employees (N=591 and students (N=328. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-dimensional structure. The scale shows high internal consistency (alpha 0,79-0,84 and predictable associations with self-report and objective indicators of current and future academic and work performance. Self-control is positively associated with positive functioning (i.e., intrinsic motivation, goal-setting, persistence, conscientiousness, hardiness, productive coping strategies, optimistic attributional style, self-efficacy, emotional stability, and subjective well-being. These associations hold when social desirability is controlled. The results suggest that self-control is an important personality and motivational resource which results in higher performance and psychological well-being.

  11. Effects of Self-Control, Social Control, and Social Learning on Sexting Behavior among South Korean Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…

  12. Pathways to Adolescents' Flourishing: Linking Self-Control Skills and Positivity Ratio through Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on the ability to experience a high ratio of positive to negative emotions in 807 Israeli adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (50% girls). While considering possible gender differences, we tested a model positing that adolescents' self-control skills would link to their positivity ratio and indirectly through perceived social…

  13. Multiple Facets of Self-Control in Arab Adolescents: Parallel Pathways to Greater Happiness and Less Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Ronen, Tammie; Agbaria, Qutaiba; Orkibi, Hod; Hamama, Liat

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of dramatic change that necessitates using skills and strengths to reduce physical aggression and increase happiness. This study examined the multiple facets of self-control skills in achieving both goals simultaneously, in a sample of 248 Arab adolescents in Israel. We conceptualized and tested a new multi-mediator model…

  14. Out of Control!? How Loss of Self-Control Influences Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Power and Moral Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Anne; van Dijke, Marius; Van Hiel, Alain; De Cremer, David

    2015-01-01

    Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people’s level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees. PMID:26024380

  15. I Need to use my Mobile: The Influence of Self-Control and Ego Depletion on Smartphones Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Camou Viacava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of different levels of self-control and ego depletion, on the temptation to use smartphones. The research consisted of two phases, the first a qualitative exploratory research study and the second conclusive quantitative research. On the exploratory phase seven interviews were conducted, demonstrating not only that individuals viewed the use of cell phones / smartphones as part of their lives, but also as a temptation. In the second phase was collected a sample of 134 undergraduate students by a survey using structured observation to check the influence of self-control and ego depletion in the use of smartphones (temptation, during an exam simulation (main goal. As results, it was found that as lower the students’ self-control was, more they used their cellphones during the simulated exam. The more worn-out (ego depletion, their grades were worse in this simulation. Yet, it was found that the greater it was the self-control, it was be able to minimize the effects of ego depletion over the number of times students used their phones and, their grades were better on the simulated exam.

  16. Standardization of the Self Control and Self-Management Skills Scale (SCMS) on the Student of University of Najran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Marwan Saleh; Bani-Abduh, Yahya Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to standardize self-control and self-management skills (SCMS), Mezo 2009 , on students in the university of Najran And to identify the psychometric properties of the scale in the Arab Environment the society of Najran University student by taking a number of Procedures (Validity and reliability of the Scale ) and to get the Arabic…

  17. Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoskun, Muhammet Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt self-control and self-management scale (SCMS) developed by Mezo into Turkish and to test it considering gender and academic achievement variables. The scale was translated from English to Turkish for linguistic validity and then this scale was translated into English using back translation. The original and…

  18. The Connection between Environmental Attitude-Behavior Gap and Other Individual Inconsistencies: A Call for Strengthening Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María

    2017-01-01

    What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…

  19. Adrenal hormones before and after venography during adrenal venous sampling: a self-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yuya; Matsui, Seishi; Omura, Masao; Makita, Kohzoh; Obara, Alfonso W D; Moriya, Nobukazu; Nishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    A stress reaction involving increased adrenal hormone release occurs when starting adrenal venous sampling (AVS). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of single shot venography on adrenal hormone production during AVS. This was a prospective self-controlled study. We enrolled 54 consecutive patients (21 men, 33 women; mean age 52 ± 11 years) with primary aldosteronism who underwent AVS from May 2014 to February 2015. Under non-stimulated conditions, blood samples were obtained from a common trunk of the left adrenal vein before and after single shot venography. The initial plasma aldosterone and cortisol concentration (PAC and PCC) were compared with those measured after venography for each patient. PAC and PCC were slightly but significantly decreased between before and after venography (after log transformation 2.12 ± 0.73 vs 2.07 ± 0.72, P = 0.00066, 1.89 ± 0.52 vs 1.83 ± 0.53, P = 0.00031, respectively). During non-stimulated left AVS, adrenal hormone secretion was slightly but significantly decreased after venography, similar to the normal time-related stress reaction. Venography did not increase the adrenal hormone secretion.

  20. Curing "moral disability": brain trauma and self-control in Victorian science and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillace, Brandy L

    2013-12-01

    While, historically, the disabled body has appeared in literature as "monstrous," burgeoning psychological theories of the Victorian period predicated an unusual shift. In a culture of sexual anxiety and fears of devolution and moral decay, the physically disabled and "weak" are portrayed as strangely free from moral corruption. Unlike the cultural link between deviance and disability witnessed in the medical literature and eugenic approach to generation, authors of narrative fiction-particularly Charles Dickens, but Wilkie Collins, Charlotte Yonge, and others as well-portray disabled characters as "purified," and trauma itself as potentially sanitizing. This present paper argues that such constructions were made possible by developments in the treatment of insanity. "Curing 'Moral Disability': Brain Trauma and Self-Control in Victorian Fiction," examines the concept of trauma-as-cure. Throughout the Victorian period, case studies on brain trauma appeared in widely circulated journals like the Lancet, concurrently with burgeoning theories about psychological disturbance and "moral insanity." While not widely practiced until the early twentieth century, attempts at surgical "cures" aroused curiosity and speculation-the traumatic event that could free sufferers from deviance. This work provides a unique perspective on representations of disability as cure in the nineteenth century as a means of giving voice to the marginalized, disabled, and disempowered.

  1. Neural congruence between intertemporal and interpersonal self-control: Evidence from delay and social discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul F; Yi, Richard; Spreng, R Nathan; Diana, Rachel A

    2017-11-15

    Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks. Both forms of discounting appear to draw on common neurocognitive mechanisms, regardless of whether choices involve intertemporal or interpersonal outcomes. We also observed neural profiles differentiating between high and low discounters. High discounters were well characterized by increased medial temporal lobe and limbic activity. In contrast, low discount rates were associated with activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. This pattern may reflect biological mechanisms underlying behavioral heterogeneity in discount rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Adam Aiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allowing learners to control some aspect of instructional support (e.g., augmented feedback appears to facilitate motor skill acquisition. No studies, however, have examined self-controlled (SC video feedback without the provision of additional attentional cueing. The purpose of this study was to extend previous SC research using video feedback about movement form for the basketball set shot without explicitly directing attention to specific aspects of the movement. The SC group requested video feedback of their performance following any trial during the acquisition phase. The yoked (YK group received feedback according to a schedule created by a SC counterpart. During acquisition participants were also allowed to view written instructional cues at any time. Results revealed that the SC group had significantly higher form scores during the transfer phase and utilized the instructional cues more frequently during acquisition. Post-training questionnaire responses indicated no preference for requesting or receiving feedback following good trials as reported by Chiviacowsky and Wulf (2002, 2005. The nature of the task was such that participants could have assigned both positive and negative evaluations to different aspects of the movement during the same trial. Thus, the lack of preferences along with the similarity in scores for feedback and no-feedback trials may simply have reflected this complexity. Importantly, however, the results indicated that SC video feedback conferred a learning benefit without the provision of explicit additional attentional cueing.

  3. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  4. Disrupting intergenerational continuity in harsh parenting: Self-control and a supportive partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Conger, Kathi J

    2017-10-01

    Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (Generation 3 [G3]). Several adaptive systems fundamental to human resilience attenuate intergenerational continuity in harshness. G2 parents were relatively less harsh to G3 children (notwithstanding a history of harshness from G1) when G2's romantic partner (a) communicated positively with G2 and (b) had a good relationship with G3, and (c) when G2 was high on self-control. Interventions that target all of these protective factors may not only break but also reverse the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment.

  5. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  6. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  7. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-27

    from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  9. Concerned for Humanity club

    CERN Multimedia

    Concerned for humanity club

    2010-01-01

    Join the Comité International de Soutien à Adlène Hicheur Since October 8, 2009 our colleague Adlène Hicheur, a French-Algerian physicist working in LHCb has been arrested and then held in a French prison under suspicion of terrorism linked with AQMI. No material proof has been presented, only exchanges of messages on some forum sites suspected of Islamism have been mentioned. Adlène has continuously denied any link with AQMI and lives in a Kafkaesque situation since 14 mois. His lawyer has several times asked for his release and these requests have been turned down. As Adlène’s colleagues, we have been chocked by his arrest and are deeply concerned by the prolongation of his detention for his future in particle physics, even if he will be recognized innocent. Few Concerned-club members and colleagues have created an International committee to support Adlène in his defense presently having 65 members. We invite you t...

  10. The Firepower of Work Craving: When Self-Control Is Burning under the Rubble of Self-Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojdylo

    Full Text Available Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regulatory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive working. Work-addicted individuals' strong persistence and self-discipline with respect to work-related activities suggest strong skills in volitional action control. However, their inability to disconnect from work implies low volitional skills. How can work-addicted individuals have poor and strong volitional skills at the same time? To answer this paradox, we elaborated on the relevance of two different volitional modes in work craving: self-regulation (self-maintenance and self-control (goal maintenance. Four hypotheses were derived from Wojdylo's work craving theory and Kuhl's self-regulation theory: (H1 Work craving is associated with a combination of low self-regulation and high self-control. (H2 Work craving is associated with symptoms of psychological distress. (H3 Low self-regulation is associated with psychological distress symptoms. (H4 Work craving mediates the relationships between self-regulation deficits and psychological distress symptoms at high levels of self-control. Additionally, we aimed at supporting the discriminant validity of work craving with respect to work engagement by showing their different volitional underpinnings. Results of the two studies confirmed our hypotheses: whereas work craving was predicted by high self-control and low self-regulation and associated with higher psychological distress, work engagement was predicted by high self-regulation and high self-control and associated with lower symptoms of psychological distress. Furthermore, work styles mediated the relationship between volitional skills and symptoms of psychological distress. Based on these new

  11. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S; Lacourly, G; Garnier, A; Cresta, M; Lombardo, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)

  12. Global environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  13. Aesthetics of Concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line Marie

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, several artists turned  their  practices  towards  the  subject  of  disaster  support.  Drawing on the philosophy of Bruno Latour, I argue that these artistic practices come  to articulate and  represent the multitude of concerns interwoven with disaster.  ...

  14. Influenza vaccination and risk of stroke: Self-controlled case-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Zahid; Coupland, Carol; Siriwardena, Niroshan

    2015-10-05

    Stroke may be triggered by respiratory infections, including influenza. Influenza vaccination could therefore reduce risk of stroke. Previous studies of this association have shown conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether influenza vaccination was associated with reduced risk of stroke. We used a self-controlled case series design. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to extract records of patients aged 18 years or over recorded with stroke (fatal or non-fatal) from September 2001 to May 2009. Statistical modelling with conditional Poisson regression was employed to compute incidence rate ratios (IRR). The incidence rate of stroke in fixed time periods after influenza vaccination was compared with the incidence rate during a baseline period. There were 17,853 eligible individuals who received one or more influenza vaccinations and experienced a stroke during the observation period. The incidence of stroke was significantly reduced in the first 59 days following influenza vaccination compared with the baseline period. We found reductions of 55% (IRR 0.45; 95% CI 0.36-0.57) in the first 1-3 days after vaccination, 36% (0.64; 0.53-0.76) at 4-7 days, 30% (0.70; 0.61-0.79) at 8-14 days, 24% (0.76; 0.70-0.84) at 15-28 days and 17% (0.83; 0.77-0.89) at 29-59 days after vaccination. Early vaccination between 1 September and 15 November showed a greater reduction in IRR compared to later vaccination given after mid-November. Influenza vaccination is associated with a reduction in incidence of stroke. This study supports previous studies which have shown a beneficial association of influenza vaccination for stroke prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Briki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE and trait self-control (TSC were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB. However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE, controlled MPE (C-MPE, and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS. Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30, who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation and C-MPE (full mediation with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = .935; absolute GoF = .330; relative GoF = .942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%. Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.

  16. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  17. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP. Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854 aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52; participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS, the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS. In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use. We analyzed the data in three steps: (1 identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2 deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN, and (3 computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female, weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  18. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  19. Ego depletion and attention regulation under pressure: Is a temporary loss of self-control strength indeed related to impaired attention regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englert, C.; Zwemmer, K.; Bertrams, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants' dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control

  20. Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and

  1. Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and

  2. A longitudinal study of self-control at the transition to secondary school: Considering the role of pubertal status and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-01

    Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The central governor model of exercise regulation teaches us precious little about the nature of mental fatigue and self-control failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eInzlicht

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-control is considered broadly important for many domains of life. One of its unfortunate features, however, is that it tends to wane over time, with little agreement about why this is the case. Recently, there has been a push to address this problem by looking to the literature in exercise physiology, specifically the work on the central governor model of physical fatigue. Trying to explain how and why mental performance wanes over time, the central governor model suggests that exertion is throttled by some central nervous system mechanism that receives information about energetic bodily needs and motivational drives to regulate exertion and, ultimately, to prevent homeostatic breakdown, chiefly energy depletion. While we admire the spirit of integration and the attempt to shed light on an important topic in psychology, our concern is that the central governor model is very controversial in exercise physiologists, with increasing calls to abandon it altogether, making it a poor fit for psychology. Our concerns are threefold. First, while we agree that preservation of bodily homeostasis makes for an elegant ultimate account, the fact that such important homeostatic concerns can be regularly overturned with even slight incentives (e.g., a smile renders the ultimate account impotent and points to other ultimate functions for fatigue. Second, despite the central governor being thought to take as input information about the metabolic needs of the body, there is no credible evidence that mental effort actually consumes inordinate amounts of energy that are not already circulating in the brain. Third, recent modifications of the model make the central governor appear like an all-knowing homunculus and unfalsifiable in principle, thus contributing very little to our understanding of why people tend to disengage from effortful tasks over time. We note that the latest models in exercise physiology have actually borrowed concepts and models from

  4. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. An interpolated activity during the knowledge-of-results delay interval eliminates the learning advantages of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-03-01

    The learning advantages of self-controlled knowledge-of-results (KR) schedules compared to yoked schedules have been linked to the optimization of the informational value of the KR received for the enhancement of one's error-detection capabilities. This suggests that information-processing activities that occur after motor execution, but prior to receiving KR (i.e., the KR-delay interval) may underlie self-controlled KR learning advantages. The present experiment investigated whether self-controlled KR learning benefits would be eliminated if an interpolated activity was performed during the KR-delay interval. Participants practiced a waveform matching task that required two rapid elbow extension-flexion reversals in one of four groups using a factorial combination of choice (self-controlled, yoked) and KR-delay interval (empty, interpolated). The waveform had specific spatial and temporal constraints, and an overall movement time goal. The results indicated that the self-controlled + empty group had superior retention and transfer scores compared to all other groups. Moreover, the self-controlled + interpolated and yoked + interpolated groups did not differ significantly in retention and transfer; thus, the interpolated activity eliminated the typically found learning benefits of self-controlled KR. No significant differences were found between the two yoked groups. We suggest the interpolated activity interfered with information-processing activities specific to self-controlled KR conditions that occur during the KR-delay interval and that these activities are vital for reaping the associated learning benefits. These findings add to the growing evidence that challenge the motivational account of self-controlled KR learning advantages and instead highlights informational factors associated with the KR-delay interval as an important variable for motor learning under self-controlled KR schedules.

  6. Evaluation of diet quality of the elderly and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Duarte, Maria Sônia Lopes; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies suggest healthy dietary patterns are associated with risk reduction and better control of various chronic diseases. However, few Brazilian studies have focused on evaluating the quality of the elderly diet and its relationship with diseases. This study aimed to estimate the association between diet quality and socioeconomic factors, health and nutrition of the elderly. This is a cross-sectional population-based study whose target population were non-institutionalized elderly residents in the city of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, health conditions, lifestyle and food consumption variables were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. The quality of the diet was assessed by the revised Healthy Eating Index classified into tertiles, considering the first tertile as "Poor diet quality," the second as 'Intermediate diet quality' and the third as "Better diet quality." To identify factors independently associated with diet quality model, the works used multinomial logistic regression. In the results of the multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with "better diet quality" included female gender, higher education, history of one to five medical visits in the past year, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the use of polypharmacy. Our results show that most seniors need to improve the quality of their diet and those of male gender with no or little education, and those who do not seek medical services constitute the group that needs attention concerning the measures to improve the quality of their diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Hypocaloric diet and normocaloric diet in outpatient treatment in a group of children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, C; Damonte, C; Pregliasco, P; Roggi, C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity, mostly in pediatric age, is of increasing concern because of the impact of overweight on health status in adult life. We have evaluated the impact of two regimens (balanced hypocaloric diet or balanced normocaloric diet) in a group of children ad adolescents. We have studied 260 patients seen at a community pediatric clinic. Of these, 45 overweight, 35 obese and 6 patients with normal weight were selected. The subjects were assigned to a hypocaloric balanced diet plus lifestyle changes or a normocaloric balanced diet plus lifestyle changes. In the obese patients on a hypocaloric diet, 64% of subjects remained in the "obese" category and 14% decided to shift to the "normocaloric diet". Also, the drop-out rate was 12%. In the obese patients on a normocaloric diet, 38% remained in the obese category, while 46% showed a reduction of their BMI to the "overweight" category. Moreover, the drop-out rate was lower (5%). These findings suggest that a more gentle approach to obesity/overweight in pediatric patients, with less restrictive nutritional interventions, could achieve a better compliance of the family, with a consistent reduction of overweight.

  8. Changing Efficacy of Wet Cupping Therapy in Migraine with Lunar Phase: A Self-Controlled Interventional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Ali Ramazan; Sunay, Didem

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood-letting with wet cupping therapy (WCT) in migraine treatment and to determine whether there was any difference according to the phase of the moon when the treatment was applied. Material/Methods This self-controlled study was conducted in Karabuk between 2014 and 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with migraine were enrolled in the study. Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), demographic characteristics, migra...

  9. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF BRIEF RULES, A TIMER, AND PREFERRED TOYS ON SELF-CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immedi...

  10. Adverse Events following 12 and 18 Month Vaccinations: a Population-Based, Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Deeks, Shelley; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Van Walraven, Carl; Potter, Beth K.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Keelan, Jennifer; Pluscauskas, Michael; Manuel, Doug

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines have distinct safety profiles, potentially causing systemic reactions one to 2 weeks after administration. In the province of Ontario, Canada, live MMR vaccine is currently recommended at age 12 months and 18 months. METHODS: Using the self-controlled case series design we examined 271,495 12 month vaccinations and 184,312 18 month vaccinations to examine the relative incidence of the composite endpoint of emergency room visits or hospital admissions in consecutive o...

  11. Comprehensive self-control training benefits depressed college students: A six-month randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueling; Zhao, Jiubo; Chen, Yu; Zu, Simeng; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-15

    Depressive disorder was associated with dysfunctional self-regulation. The current study attempted to design and test a comprehensive self-control training (CSCT) program with an overall emphasis on behaviral activation in depressed Chinese college students. Participants included 74 students who had diagnosed with major depression, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group (n=37), and control group (n=37). The intervention participants received an eight-week CSCT and four-month follow-up consolidation program, as compared to the control group who received only pre-post-and-follow-up measurements. All participants measured Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Self-control Scale (SCS) at three time points: baseline, post-training, and four-month follow-up. The dropout rates were 6 (8.1%) in the intervention group and 3 (4.1%) in the control group at the end of six-month intervention. The general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that comparing with the control group, the intervention group participants had more increase in their trait self-control score, at the meantime, their depressive symptoms had significantly improved. Univariate and logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with milder baseline depressive symptoms were more likely to benefit from CSCT interventions; depression improvement was also associated with the number of sessions attended. The main limitation was related to the small sample size which consisted of college students who were relatively young and well educated. The current study demonstrates that CSCT program could temporarily enhance self-control capacity as well as improve depressive symptoms; participants who are mildly to moderately depressed, and who could adhere to the training protocol are more likely to benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design, Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Overdependence Management System for the Self-Control of Smart Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Joon Lee; Mi Jung Rho; In Hye Yook; Seung-Ho Park; Kwang-Soo Jang; Bum-Joon Park; Ook Lee; Dong Kyun Lee; Dai-Jin Kim; In Young Choi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smartphone overdependence is a type of mental disorder that requires continuous treatment for cure and prevention. A smartphone overdependence management system that is based on scientific evidence is required. This study proposes the design, development and implementation of a smartphone overdependence management system for self-control of smart devices. Methods: The system architecture of the Smartphone Overdependence Management System (SOMS) primarily consists of four sessions ...

  13. Effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control: A case of Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Ahm Park; Mi-Hyang Park; Ji-Hye Shin; Bo Li; David Thomas Rolfe; Jong-Yeol Yoo; Stephen W. Dittmore

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction among adolescents has become a major social problem. Thus, more effective Internet addiction treatment programs through sports are required. This study tried to identify the relationship among sports participation, self-control, and Internet addiction among Korean adolescents. In total, 345 students (aged 15–18 years) from two middle schools and two high schools in South Korea were analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). ...

  14. Effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control: A case of Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Ahm Park

    2016-09-01

    SEM indicated a significant effect of sports participation on Internet addiction mediated by self-control. The results suggest the effectiveness of and need for sport and physical activity in Internet addiction treatment programs and for other addictions as well. Moreover, sports participation has a wider variety of psychological and physical benefits unlike intervention strategies or pharmacological treatments. Thus, the adoption of sports needs to be broadened from physical development to treating diverse psychological problems among adolescents.

  15. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety and trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Mehroof, M; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an ...

  16. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Checa,1,2 Mario Brassesco,2 Margalida Sastre,1 Manuel Gómez,2 Julio Herrero,3 Laura Marque,3 Arturo Brassesco,2 Juan José Espinós3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2Centro de Infertilidad y Reproducción Humana (CIRH, 3Centro de Reproducción Asistida Sagrada Familia, Clínica Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332 was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B or on day 20 (protocol C of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A. The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase and C (stimulation on luteal phase were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation. GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency

  17. Association of Bariatric Surgery With Risk of Infectious Diseases: A Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tadahiro; Hirayama, Atsushi; Faridi, Mohammad Kamal; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-10-15

    Although emerging data demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for infectious diseases, no study has investigated the relationship of bariatric surgery with the risk of infectious diseases among obese adults. We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using data from the State Emergency Department Database and State Inpatient Database of 3 US states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) from 2005 through 2011. We included obese adults who underwent bariatric surgery as an instrument of weight reduction. Primary outcomes were emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization for skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI), respiratory infection, intra-abdominal infection, or urinary tract infection (UTI). Among 56277 obese adults who underwent bariatric surgery, compared to presurgery months 13-24 as the reference period, the risk of ED visit or hospitalization in the 0- to 12-month postsurgery period decreased significantly for SSTI (aOR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .76-.95]) and respiratory infection (aOR, 0.82 [95% CI, .75-.90]) and remained significantly low in the 13- to 24-month postsurgery period (aORs, 0.77 [95% CI, .68-.86] and 0.75 [95% CI, .68-.82], respectively). By contrast, the risk increased significantly in the 0- to 12-month postsurgery period for intra-abdominal infection (aOR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.78-2.46]) and UTI (aOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.74-2.15]) and remained high in the 13- to 24-month postsurgery period (aORs, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.09-1.54] and 1.31 [95% CI, 1.17-1.47], respectively). We found a divergent risk pattern in the risk of 4 common infectious diseases after bariatric surgery. The risk of SSTI and respiratory infection decreased after bariatric surgery whereas that of intra-abdominal infection and UTI increased. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  19. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  20. Children's diets (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...

  1. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  2. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  3. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been widely studied and has many health benefits. Following this diet plan may help: Lower high blood pressure Reduce the ... more expensive than prepared foods. The diet is flexible enough to follow if you are vegetarian , vegan, or gluten-free .

  4. Reverse ego-depletion: Acts of self-control can improve subsequent performance in Indian cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Job, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    The strength model of self-control has been predominantly tested with people from Western cultures. The present research asks whether the phenomenon of ego-depletion generalizes to a culture emphasizing the virtues of exerting mental self-control in everyday life. A pilot study found that whereas Americans tended to believe that exerting willpower on mental tasks is depleting, Indians tended to believe that exerting willpower is energizing. Using dual task ego-depletion paradigms, Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c found reverse ego-depletion among Indian participants, such that participants exhibited better mental self-control on a subsequent task after initially working on strenuous rather than nonstrenuous cognitive tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found that Westerners exhibited the ego-depletion effect whereas Indians exhibited the reverse ego-depletion effect on the same set of tasks. Study 4 documented the causal effect of lay beliefs about whether exerting willpower is depleting versus energizing on reverse ego-depletion with both Indian and Western participants. Together, these studies reveal the underlying basis of the ego-depletion phenomenon in culturally shaped lay theories about willpower. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The dampening effect of employees' future orientation on cyberloafing behaviors: the mediating role of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heyun; Zhao, Huanhuan; Liu, Jingxuan; Xu, Yan; Lu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on reducing employees' cyberloafing behaviors have primarily examined the external control factors but seldomly taken individual internal subjective factors into consideration. Future orientation, an important individual factor, is defined as the extent to which one plans for future time and considers future consequences of one's current behavior. To explore further whether and how employees' future orientation can dampen their cyberloafing behaviors, two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between employees' future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The mediation effect of employees' objective and subjective self-control between them was also examined. In Study 1, a set of questionnaires was completed, and the results revealed that the relationship between employees' future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors was negative, and objective self-control mediated the relationship. Next, we conducted a priming experiment (Study 2) to examine the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between employees' future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The results demonstrated that employees' future-orientation dampened their attitudes and intentions to engage in cyberloafing, and subjective self-control mediated this dampening effect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  6. The dampening effect of employees’ future orientation on cyberloafing behaviors: the mediating role of self-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heyun; Zhao, Huanhuan; Liu, Jingxuan; Xu, Yan; Lu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on reducing employees’ cyberloafing behaviors have primarily examined the external control factors but seldomly taken individual internal subjective factors into consideration. Future orientation, an important individual factor, is defined as the extent to which one plans for future time and considers future consequences of one’s current behavior. To explore further whether and how employees’ future orientation can dampen their cyberloafing behaviors, two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The mediation effect of employees’ objective and subjective self-control between them was also examined. In Study 1, a set of questionnaires was completed, and the results revealed that the relationship between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors was negative, and objective self-control mediated the relationship. Next, we conducted a priming experiment (Study 2) to examine the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The results demonstrated that employees’ future-orientation dampened their attitudes and intentions to engage in cyberloafing, and subjective self-control mediated this dampening effect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:26483735

  7. Aggression and violence around the world: A model of CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M; Rinderu, Maria I; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for these large differences in aggression and violence within countries and around the world are lacking. Most extant explanations focus on the influence of average temperature as a factor that triggers aggression (The General Aggression Model), or the notion that warm temperature allows for more social interaction situations (Routine Activity Theory) in which aggression is likely to unfold. We propose a new model, CLimate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH), that helps us to understand differences within and between countries in aggression and violence in terms of differences in climate. Lower temperatures, and especially larger degrees of seasonal variation in climate, call for individuals and groups to adopt a slower life history strategy, a greater focus on the future (vs. present), and a stronger focus on self-control. The CLASH model further outlines that slow life strategy, future orientation, and strong self-control are important determinants of inhibiting aggression and violence. We also discuss how CLASH differs from other recently developed models that emphasize climate differences for understanding conflict. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and societal importance of climate in shaping individual and societal differences in aggression and violence.

  8. Low self-control and co-occurrence of gambling with substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-03-01

    Relatively little is known about gambling co-morbidity in Asian youth populations. The role of trait self-control in co-morbidity also remains under-explored in the gambling literature. This study examined the association between gambling, substance use and delinquency among Chinese adolescents, and the extent to which these forms of risk behavior are commonly predicted by low self-control. Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a stratified, random sample of 4,734 high school students aged 12-23 years in Hong Kong were analyzed. The prevalence of gambling pathology, frequency and attitudes showed statistically significant, positive and consistent relationships with tobacco use, alcohol use, and delinquent acts at the p delinquent involvement, even after controlling for the potential shared correlates of socioeconomic characteristics, parental monitoring and peer delinquency. Hence, the concept that gambling problems and strong receptivity to gambling are likely to be part of a general problem behavior syndrome is evinced cross-culturally among young people in a Chinese context. It may also be cost-effective to increase intervention efforts to improve the self-control deficit in adolescents, as this should reduce their gambling and concurrent problem behavior.

  9. A pre-registered naturalistic observation of within domain mental fatigue and domain-general depletion of self-control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Randles

    Full Text Available Self-control is often believed to operate as if it were a finite, domain-general resource. However, recent attempts to demonstrate this under transparent conditions have failed to yield positive results. In the current study, we monitor two groups of students (N1 = 8,867, N2 = 8,754 over separate 17-week intervals with 24-hour coverage, as they engage in voluntary learning and self-testing using an online program. We use daily behavior to assess whether time-of-day effects support domain-general theories of self-control. Additionally, we assess whether mental fatigue emerges within task during prolonged persistent effort. Results reveal within-task fatigue emerges within an hour on-task. However, there is a negligible effect on ability throughout the day. Additionally, time-of-day has no detrimental effect on motivation; rather there is a strong tendency to increase learning time at night. Results are consistent with theories indicating people lose motivation within a specific task, but at odds with theories that argue for a domain-general self-control resource.

  10. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-09-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.

  11. The dampening effect of employees’ future orientation on cyberloafing behaviors: The mediating role of self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyun eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on reducing employees’ cyberloafing behaviors have primarily examined the external control factors but seldomly taken individual internal subjective factors into consideration. Future orientation, an important individual factor, is defined as the extent to which one plans for future time and considers future consequences of one’s current behavior. To explore further whether and how employees’ future orientation can dampen their cyberloafing behaviors, two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The mediation effect of employees’ objective and subjective self-control between them was also examined. In Study 1, a set of questionnaires was completed, and the results revealed that the relationship between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors was negative, and objective self-control mediated the relationship. Next, we conducted a priming experiment (Study 2 to examine the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between employees’ future orientation and cyberloafing behaviors. The results demonstrated that employees’ future-orientation dampened their attitudes and intentions to engage in cyberloafing, and subjective self-control mediated this dampening effect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  12. Uncovering effects of self-control and stimulus-driven action selection on the sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Damen, Tom G E; Aarts, Henk

    2017-10-01

    The sense of agency refers to feelings of causing one's own action and resulting effect. Previous research indicates that voluntary action selection is an important factor in shaping the sense of agency. Whereas the volitional nature of the sense of agency is well documented, the present study examined whether agency is modulated when action selection shifts from self-control to a more automatic stimulus-driven process. Seventy-two participants performed an auditory Simon task including congruent and incongruent trials to generate automatic stimulus-driven vs. more self-control driven action, respectively. Responses in the Simon task produced a tone and agency was assessed with the intentional binding task - an implicit measure of agency. Results showed a Simon effect and temporal binding effect. However, temporal binding was independent of congruency. These findings suggest that temporal binding, a window to the sense of agency, emerges for both automatic stimulus-driven actions and self-controlled actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examination of the validity and reliability of the French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Foucart, Jennifer; Verbanck, Paul; Turel, Ofir

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to develop and to validate a French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). This instrument is usually applied as a unidimensional self-report measure for assessing trait self-control, which captures one's dispositional ability to resist short-term temptation in order to reach more valuable long-term goals. Data were collected from two independent samples of French-speaking individuals ( n 1 = 287; n 2 = 160). Results indicated that the French version of the BSCS can be treated as unidimensional, like the original questionnaire. Data also showed consistent acceptable reliability and reasonable test-retest stability. Acceptable external validity of constructs was supported by relationships with self-reported measures of impulsivity (UPPS), including urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance. Overall, the findings suggest that the average score of the French version of the BSCS is a viable option for assessing trait self-control in French speaking populations.

  14. Problematic Internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Yau, Yvonne H C; Chai, Jingxin; Guo, Jinhua; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Given the prevalence of Internet use among youth, there is concern that a subset of Internet-using youth may exhibit problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. The present study examines the association between problematic Internet use (PIU), demographic variables, and health-related measures among Chinese adolescents. Survey data from 1552 adolescents (male=653, mean age=15.43years) from Jilin Province, China, were collected. According to the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), 77.8% (n=1207), 16.8% (n=260), and 5.5% (n=85) showed adaptive, maladaptive, and problematic Internet use, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and family income per month differed between youth showing problematic and adaptive patterns of Internet use. Well-being, self-esteem, and self-control were related to severity of problematic Internet use, with greater severity typically associated with poorer measures in each domain. The findings that severity of problematic Internet use is associated with specific socio-demographic features and temperamental and well-being measures suggest that specific groups of youth may be particularly vulnerable to developing problematic Internet use. Early prevention/intervention programs targeting at-risk groups may help improve public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  16. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  17. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Concerns Boys Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Boys have pubertal concerns ... just part of growing up. Involuntary Erections During puberty, boys get erections spontaneously, without touching their penis ...

  18. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Concerns Girls Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Girls have pubertal concerns and worries, too, including: Breast Development Some girls ...

  19. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  20. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  1. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Animal experiments have demonstrated the possibility of producing lesions ... countries. Mortality statistics, hospital records and necropsy ... opportunity to study possible associations between diet .... risk of American men.".

  2. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  3. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the nutrients they need. Most vegetarians eat fewer calories than non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menu Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese ...

  4. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  5. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  6. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  7. Diet-induced impulsivity: Effects of a high-fat and a high-sugar diet on impulsive choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catherine C; Pirkle, Jesseca R A; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive choice is a common charactertistic among individuals with gambling problems, obesity, and substance abuse issues. Impulsive choice has been classified as a trans-disease process, and understanding the etiology of trait impulsivity could help to understand how diseases and disorders related to impulsive choice are manifested. The Western diet is a possible catalyst of impulsive choice as individuals who are obese and who eat diets high in fat and sugar are typically more impulsive. However, such correlational evidence is unable to discern the direction and causal nature of the relationship. The present study sought to determine how diet may directly contribute to impulsive choice. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure (high-fat, high-sugar, chow), the rats were tested on an impulsive choice task, which presented choices between a smaller-sooner reward (SS) and a larger-later reward (LL). Then, the rats were transferred to a chow diet and retested on the impulsive choice task. The high-sugar and high-fat groups made significantly more impulsive choices than the chow group. Both groups became more self-controlled when they were off the diet, but there were some residual effects of the diet on choice behavior. These results suggest that diet, specifically one high in processed fat or sugar, induces impulsive choice. This diet-induced impulsivity could be a precursor to other disorders that are characterized by impulsivity, such as diet-induced obesity, and could offer potential understanding of the trans-disease nature of impulsive choice.

  8. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  9. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  10. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Hypoglycemia Symptoms Improved with Diet Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Aucoin, Monique; Bhardwaj, Sukriti

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of ...

  11. [The risks and the promotion of self-control on nutritional health: morality, biopolitics and parrhesiastic critique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiel, Luis David; Ferreira, Marcos Santos; de Moraes, Danielle Ribeiro

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with proposals for self-care by means of self-control in the promotion of nutritional health, especially in the quest to avoid weight gain and the consumption of food that does not meet 'healthy food' guidelines. These initiatives present themselves as self-care strategies that are legitimated and enshrined in the context of nutritional heath, linked with moralistic modes on the current ways of leading our lives. The study's critical standpoint adopts a biopolitical approach and 'cynical parrhesia' as an argumentative line of reasoning, which is in line with Cynicism as a philosophical doctrine, subsequently developed by Michel Foucault in his studies on care of the self.

  12. Can Allowance, Personal Budgeting and Self Control as Mediating Role Manage Compulsive Buying Behavior Among College Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alce Mariani Labito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive Buying Behavior seemed to be increasing, especially among college students. The aim of this study was to explain some factors that influence compulsive buying behavior. This study involved 189 undergraduate students and data collected by distributing questionnaires. The result showed that allowance, personal budgeting, were related to compulsive buying behavior. The other results indicated that self-control was able to weaken the influence of allowance on compulsive buying behavior. Also, the outcome empirically showed that college students are knowledgeable with some alternative methods for overcoming compulsive buying behavior.

  13. Substance use pattern, self-control and social network are associated with crime in a substance-using population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaervø, Ingeborg; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Bukten, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Crime rates are high in substance-using populations; therefore, investigation of factors associated with crime in these populations is highly relevant. We describe crime prevalence and associations between crime, pattern of substance use and psychosocial factors, such as self-control and social network. This is a cross-sectional study including substance users (n = 549; mean age 34 years; 27% women) entering treatment at 21 treatment centres across Norway (December 2012 to April 2015). Data on demographics, substance use, psychosocial variables and crime in the 6 months prior to treatment were obtained through interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through logistic regression. Sixty-four percent of participants had committed crime in the 6 months prior to treatment. Of these, 93% committed income-generating crime. Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of having committed crime: use of stimulants (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.04-3.17), use of a higher number of different substances (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and spending most of their time with family or friends using addictive substances (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.10-5.16 and aOR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.32-3.73). Protective factors associated with decreased likelihood of committing crime were being older (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97) and having higher self-control (aOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97). Stimulant use, higher number of different substances used, lower self-control, primarily a substance-using social network and being younger were associated with crime in this substance-using population. Treatment clinics should consider these risk factors for crime, and suitable interventions should be implemented and evaluated. [Skjaervø I, Skurtveit S, Clausen T, Bukten A. Substance use pattern, self-control and social network are associated with crime in a substance-using population. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:245-252]. © 2016

  14. Telemedicine-guided, very low-dose international normalized ratio self-control in patients with mechanical heart valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koertke, Heinrich; Zittermann, Armin; Wagner, Otto; Secer, Songuel; Sciangula, Alfonso; Saggau, Werner; Sack, Falk-Udo; Ennker, Jürgen; Cremer, Jochen; Musumeci, Francesco; Gummert, Jan F

    2015-06-01

    To study in patients performing international normalized ratio (INR) self-control the efficacy and safety of an INR target range of 1.6-2.1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 2.0-2.5 for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or double valve replacement (DVR). In total, 1304 patients undergoing AVR, 189 undergoing MVR and 78 undergoing DVR were randomly assigned to low-dose INR self-control (LOW group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.8-2.8; MVR/DVR: 2.5-3.5) or very low-dose INR self-control once a week (VLO group) and twice a week (VLT group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.6-2.1; MVR/DVR: 2.0-2.5), with electronically guided transfer of INR values. We compared grade III complications (major bleeding and thrombotic events; primary end-points) and overall mortality (secondary end-point) across the three treatment groups. Two-year freedom from bleedings in the LOW, VLO, and VLT groups was 96.3, 98.6, and 99.1%, respectively (P = 0.008). The corresponding values for thrombotic events were 99.0, 99.8, and 98.9%, respectively (P = 0.258). The risk-adjusted composite of grade III complications was in the per-protocol population (reference: LOW-dose group) as follows: hazard ratio = 0.307 (95% CI: 0.102-0.926; P = 0.036) for the VLO group and = 0.241 (95% CI: 0.070-0.836; P = 0.025) for the VLT group. The corresponding values of 2-year mortality were = 1.685 (95% CI: 0.473-5.996; P = 0.421) for the VLO group and = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.62-13.60; P = 0.004) for the VLT group. Telemedicine-guided very low-dose INR self-control is comparable with low-dose INR in thrombotic risk, and is superior in bleeding risk. Weekly testing is sufficient. Given the small number of MVR and DVR patients, results are only valid for AVR patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. DC-pulsed voltage electrochemical method based on duty cycle self-control for producing TERS gold tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, V E; Kharintsev, S S; Salakhov, M Kh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified dc-pulsed low voltage electrochemical method in which a duty cycle is self tuned while etching. A higher yield of gold tips suitable for performing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements is demonstrated. The improvement is caused by the self-control of the etching rate along the full surface of the tip. A capability of the gold tips to enhance a Raman signal is exemplified by TERS spectroscopy of single walled carbon nanotubes bundle, sulfur and vanadium oxide

  16. The Relationship of Experiential Avoidance, Familial Emotional Atmosphere and Self-Control with Online Gaming Addiction in Bachelor Student of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Zandipayam; Iran davoudi; Mahnaz Mehrabizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: online game addiction is considered as a compulsive, excessive, uncontrollable and destructive physical and psychological behavior. With regard to the problem of persons with addiction to online gaming in the fields of experiential avoidance, families emotional atmosphere and self-control, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the relationship of experiential avoidance, families emotional atmosphere and self-control with online gaming addiction in t...

  17. The Effect of Identity Development, Self-Esteem, Low Self-Control and Gender on Aggression in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Morsünbül, Ümit

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression seems to be an extensive and serious problem among adolescents and emerging adults, negatively affecting both the victims and the offenders. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, a lot of factors affect aggression. In this study, five factors were examined: gender, life periods, identity formation, low self-control and self-esteem.   Purpose of the Study: The aim of the study is to examine the relations between identity dimensions, low self-control, self-esteem,...

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex does not enhance the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Carlsen, Anthony N; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2018-05-01

    A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules. Here, we investigated whether applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) would enhance the typically found benefits of learning a novel motor skill with a self-controlled KR schedule. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal task in one of four groups using a factorial combination of KR schedule (self-controlled vs. yoked) and tDCS (anodal vs. sham). Testing occurred on two consecutive days with spatial and temporal accuracy measured on both days and learning was assessed using 24-h retention and transfer tests without KR. All groups improved their performance in practice and a significant effect for practicing with a self-controlled KR schedule compared to a yoked schedule was found for temporal accuracy in transfer, but a similar advantage was not evident in retention. There were no significant differences as a function of KR schedule or tDCS for spatial accuracy in retention or transfer. The lack of a significant tDCS effect suggests that M1 may not strongly contribute to self-controlled KR learning advantages; however, caution is advised with this interpretation as typical self-controlled learning benefits were not strongly replicated in the present experiment.

  19. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-control predicts attentional bias assessed by online shopping-related Stroop in high online shopping addiction tendency college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaocai; Zhao, Xiuxin; Li, Cancan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of personality types (i.e., self-control, BAS/BIS) and online shopping addiction (OSA) behavior and to investigate whether high-OSA tendency individuals display attentional biases toward online shopping-related (OS-related) stimuli as well as the links between attentional bias and personality types. The study included 98 college students divided into three groups (i.e., high-, medium- and low-OSA) according to their OSA behavior. The personality types (i.e., self-control, BAS/BIS) and OSA behavior were investigated by questionnaires. The attentional bias was evaluated by the OS-related Stroop and dot-probe task (DPT) paradigms. OSA was positively predicted by time spent on online shopping per day and average consumption for online shopping monthly, and negatively by self-control. High-OSA individuals displayed significant attentional biases toward OS-related stimuli in the Stroop, but not DPT paradigm. Moreover, the attentional bias toward OSA-related stimuli in high-OSA individuals was negatively correlated with self-control. These findings demonstrated the critical role of self-control in OSA behavior and attentional bias to OS-related stimuli in high-OSA individuals, indicating that more importance should be attached to self-control for the clinical intervention of online shopping addiction in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between self-control, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Chinese employees: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Kai; Nie, Yan-Gang; Wang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that self-control is positively related to life satisfaction, but this association in Chinese employees and its underlying mechanism are less commonly investigated. In this preliminary study the relationships between self-control and life satisfaction and the mediating effect of job satisfaction were tested. Participants were 482 full-time employees (188 male, 294 female) from different cities in China. They answered self-report questionnaires online that assessed self-control, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Path analyses were conducted and bootstrap technique was used to judge the significance of the mediation. Self-control was positively related to both job and life satisfaction. More importantly, job satisfaction significantly mediated the association between self-control and life satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the size of the mediating effect between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Results of this preliminary study provide further evidence of the positive association between self-control and life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is found to mediate this relationship.

  2. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  3. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Eating in response to exercise cues: Role of self-control fatigue, exercise habits, and eating restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Identifying moderators of compensatory eating is important for understanding the failure of many people to lose weight in response to increased exercise levels. A previous study demonstrated that individuals shown action words (e.g., "active" or "go") were primed by these words to increase energy intake. Further studies have demonstrated that individual differences (e.g. differences in body mass) affect susceptibility to relevant priming cues. Based on these findings, this study examined individual differences, including exercise habits, tendencies toward compensatory eating, dietary restraint, and body mass that may serve as moderators of compensatory eating in the context of conceptual priming. A 2 × 2 design was utilized to analyze the effects of both priming and a self-control task on energy intake. Participants were presented with several snack foods under the guise of a taste test, with energy intake (kcal) during this taste test as the primary outcome variable. Results of this study indicate that, among those with higher baseline levels of exercise, lower energy intake was found for those exposed to exercise cues relative to those who did not receive these cues. In addition, the influence of the self-control fatigue condition was dependent on body mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organic food and health concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies based on stated behaviour suggest that consumption of organic food is part of a life style that involves healthy eating habits that go beyond shifting to organic varieties of the individual food products. However, so far no studies based on observed behaviour have addressed...... the relationship between organic purchases and diet composition. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gab using purchase data for a large sample of Danish households. Using a Tobit regression analysis, the diets of households with higher organic consumption were found to include more vegetables and fruits...... but less fat/confectionary and meat which is in accordance with the official Danish Dietary Recommendations. Moreover, higher organic budget shares were found among well-educated consumers in urban areas and clearly linked to a belief that organic products are healthier. No statistical relations were found...

  6. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  7. Maternal Methyl Supplemented Diets and Effects on Offspring Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. O'Neill

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for ASD in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health.

  8. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  9. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  10. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  11. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist (Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students' Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Among Iranian students, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement differed between male and female students. However, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, academic achievement, and type of student was not statistically significant. Although the results cannot demonstrate a causal relationship between video game use, video game addiction, and academic achievement, they suggest that high involvement in playing video games leaves less time for engaging in academic work.

  13. Predicting health-related quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a structural equation approach using the self-control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu-Ri; Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2017-11-09

    According to the self-control model, self-control works as a protective factor and a psychological resource. Although an understanding of the effect(s) of peripheral neuropathy on quality of life is important to healthcare professionals, previous studies do not facilitate broad comprehension in this regard. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the multidimensional assumptions of quality of life of patients with cancer, with focus on their self-control. A structural equation model was tested on patients with cancer at the oncology clinic of a university hospital where patients received chemotherapy. A model was tested using structural equation modeling, which allows the researcher to find the empirical evidence by testing a measurement model and a structural model. The model comprised three variables, self-control, health related quality of life, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Among the variables, self-control was the endogenous and mediating variable. The proposed models showed good fit indices. Self-control partially mediated chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and quality of life. It was found that the physical symptoms of peripheral neuropathy influenced health-related quality of life both indirectly and directly. Self-control plays a significant role in the protection and promotion of physical and mental health in various stressful situations, and thus, as a psychological resource, it plays a significant role in quality of life. Our results can be used to develop a quality of life model for patients receiving chemotherapy and as a theoretical foundation for the development of appropriate nursing interventions.

  14. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  15. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  16. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  17. DASH Diet: Reducing Hypertension through Diet and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include soy beans, collard greens and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond milk. Limit Saturated Fat A DASH diet is low in saturated fats, sodium and total fat. Studies have shown that a diet low in saturated ...

  18. Pregnancy eating attributes study (PEAS): a cohort study examining behavioral and environmental influences on diet and weight change in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Burger, Kyle; Faith, Myles; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive gestational weight gain poses a serious public health concern due to the contribution of these factors to increased risk of negative health outcomes for both mother and child. Scant intervention research has indicated moderate short-term improvement in maternal diet and gestational weight gain, with little evidence of long-term behavior change, in parallel with findings from interventions outside of pregnancy. Recent laboratory-based findings from neuroscience implicate aberrant reward processing of food at the brain level ("food reward sensitivity," the between-individual variation in the response to food stimuli) as a contributor to eating beyond energy needs. However, scant research has examined the influence of these processes on weight change in population-based settings, and the relevance of these processes to pregnancy-related weight change has not been explored. The purpose of the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (PEAS) is to examine the role of food reward sensitivity in maternal diet and weight change during pregnancy and postpartum. The study examines the interplay of food reward sensitivity with behavioral control, home food environment, and related aspects of eating behavior in the context of weight-related biomedical, psychosocial, genetic and behavioral factors including physical activity, stress, sleep and depression. Women of varying baseline weight status (n = 450) are enrolled early in pregnancy and followed, along with their infants, until 1 year postpartum. Assessments occur during each trimester of pregnancy, and postpartum at approximately 2 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. Maternal food reward, self-control, home food environment, eating behaviors, dietary intake, health behaviors, and anthropometrics are assessed along with maternal and infant clinical and biological data, infant anthropometrics, and feeding practices. Primary exposures of interest include food

  19. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  20. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  1. Ileostomy and your diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. People who have had an ileostomy can most often eat a normal diet. But some foods may cause problems. Foods that may ... Your pouch should be sealed well enough to ...

  2. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you will need to eat more protein. A high-protein diet with fish, poultry, pork, or eggs at every meal may be recommended. People on dialysis should eat 8 to 10 ounces (225 to 280 grams) of high-protein foods each day. Your provider or dietitian ...

  3. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  4. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  5. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  6. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie-diets.aspx . Accessed May 25, 2016. Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  7. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  8. Tolerating dissimilar other when primed with death: neural evidence of self-control engaged by interdependent people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Kashima, Emiko S; Moriya, Hiroki; Masui, Keita; Furutani, Kaichiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nomura, Michio

    2017-06-01

    Mortality salience (MS) has been shown to lead to derogation of others with dissimilar worldviews, yet recent research has shown that Asian-Americans who presumably adopt an interdependent self-construal (SC) tend to reveal greater tolerance after MS induction. In the present study, we demonstrated that Japanese individuals who are high on interdependent SC indeed show greater tolerance toward worldview-threatening other in the MS (vs control) condition, thus replicating the prior research. Extending this research, we also found that interdependent people's tolerance toward worldview-threatening other was mediated by increased activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the MS condition. These data suggested that when exposed to death-related stimuli, highly interdependent individuals may spontaneously activate their neural self-control system which may serve to increase tolerance toward others. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. The use of picture cues to establish self-control in the preparation of complex meals by mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J E; Rusch, F R; James, V L; Decker, P J; Trtol, K A

    1982-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of picture cues in establishing self-control in the completion of complex meals by mildly and moderately retarded adults. Three participants, who lived in nonsheltered residential settings, were trained to prepare five complex meals. Following a training baseline comprised of pre-instruction, instructional feedback, and trainers' presence, picture recipe cards were introduced in a multiple-baseline fashion. Rapid improvement in the ability of each participant to independently complete each meal when the picture recipe cards were used occurred. A return to baseline for one of the participants demonstrated further self-directed antecedent stimulus control of the picture recipe cards as an effective treatment procedure. A discussion of future areas of research is included.

  10. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG): association between its addiction, self-control and mental disorders among young people in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dinh Thai; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-01

    To explore the association between MMORPG addiction and mental health status, and between self-control ability and mental health status among young male MMORPG players in Hanoi, Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, 10 computer game rooms were randomly selected out of 77 in five communes in Hanoi. From these game rooms, 350 MMORPG players were purposively recruited as a study group, of whom 344 completed the questionnaire. In the same five communes, 344 non-players were selected as a control group. An online game addiction scale, a self-control scale and the Vietnamese SRQ-20 were used to measure the degree of MMORPG addiction, self-control ability and level of mental disorders. MMORPG players had significantly higher mental disorders scale scores than non-players (p MMORPG addiction scale scores and mental disorders scale scores (r = 0.730, p MMORPG addiction scale score and self-control scale score were considered the best predictors of a higher mental disorders scale score. Young, male MMORPG players with higher addiction scores were more likely to have higher mental disorders scale scores, and such mental status was negatively associated with the level of self-control in Hanoi, Vietnam. Closer attention should be paid to prevent mental disorders among MMORPG players.

  11. A multi-process model of self-regulation: influences of mindfulness, integrative self-knowledge and self-control in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Farhadi, Mehran; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-04-01

    Self-regulation presumably rests upon multiple processes that include an awareness of ongoing self-experience, enduring self-knowledge and self-control. The present investigation tested this multi-process model using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Integrative Self-Knowledge and Brief Self-Control Scales. Using a sample of 1162 Iranian university students, we confirmed the five-factor structure of the FFMQ in Iran and documented its factorial invariance across males and females. Self-regulatory variables correlated negatively with Perceived Stress, Depression, and Anxiety and positively with Self-Esteem and Satisfaction with Life. Partial mediation effects confirmed that self-regulatory measures ameliorated the disturbing effects of Perceived Stress. Integrative Self-Knowledge and Self-Control interacted to partially mediate the association of Perceived Stress with lower levels of Satisfaction with Life. Integrative Self-Knowledge, alone or in interaction with Self-Control, was the only self-regulation variable to display the expected mediation of Perceived Stress associations with all other measures. Self-Control failed to be implicated in self-regulation only in the mediation of Anxiety. These data confirmed the need to further examine this multi-process model of self-regulation. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: tests with studies of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Reduced self-control leads to disregard of an unfamiliar behavioral option: an experimental approach to the study of neuroenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Baumgarten, Franz; Brand, Ralf

    2013-12-06

    Neuroenhancement (NE), the use of psychoactive substances in order to enhance a healthy individual's cognitive functioning from a proficient to an even higher level, is prevalent in student populations. According to the strength model of self-control, people fail to self-regulate and fall back on their dominant behavioral response when finite self-control resources are depleted. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that ego-depletion will prevent students who are unfamiliar with NE from trying it. 130 undergraduates, who denied having tried NE before (43% female, mean age = 22.76 ± 4.15 years old), were randomly assigned to either an ego-depletion or a control condition. The dependent variable was taking an "energy-stick" (a legal nutritional supplement, containing low doses of caffeine, taurine and vitamin B), offered as a potential means of enhancing performance on the bogus concentration task that followed. Logistic regression analysis showed that ego-depleted participants were three times less likely to take the substance, OR = 0.37, p = .01. This experiment found that trying NE for the first time was more likely if an individual's cognitive capacities were not depleted. This means that mental exhaustion is not predictive for NE in students for whom NE is not the dominant response. Trying NE for the first time is therefore more likely to occur as a thoughtful attempt at self-regulation than as an automatic behavioral response in stressful situations. We therefore recommend targeting interventions at this inter-individual difference. Students without previous reinforcing NE experience should be provided with information about the possible negative health outcomes of NE. Reconfiguring structural aspects in the academic environment (e.g. lessening workloads) might help to deter current users.

  14. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: An experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMartínez-Iñigo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as

  16. Emotional self-control, coping with stress and psycho-physical well-being of prison officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental and physical health status is closely associated with the specific character of work in the structures of the uniformed services. The aim of the study was to examine how self-control, revealed strategies of coping with stress, sociodemographic factors differentiate the level of psychological and physical well-being of prison officers, and what is the predictor of psychological and physical well-being in this occupational group. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 75 prison officers working in the Prison Potulice Security Department. In the study the following tools were used: the questionnaire on “Psychosocial working conditions”, popular questionnaire on emotional intelligence (Popularny Kwestionariusz Inteligencji Emocjonalnej – PKIE, Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE and the questionnaire on sociodemographic variables. Results: A higher level of mental and physical well-being of the subjects was accompanied by a higher level of declared active coping and a lower level in the range of helplessness, avoidance, turn to religion and sense of humor. Regression analysis showed that the levels of emotional control, helplessness strategy and support seeking strategies are important predictors of physical well-being of the dependent variable. As regards the psychological well-being, significant predictors are: the levels of emocjoemotional control, sense of humor and support seeking. The value of the results is limited due to the methodology used to collect questionnaires. In our study a random trial was not used as the questionnaires were completed only by individuals interested in the subject under study. Conclusions: Knowledge about the specificity of the psychophysical characteristics of prison officers should be taken into account when designing the tools of occupational health promotion. Studies show an average low level of perceived well-being with a high level of self-control

  17. [Emotional self-control, coping with stress and psycho-physical well-being of prison officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Porażyński, Krzysztof; Goch, Aleksander; Kraszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Bułatowicz, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Mental and physical health status is closely associated with the specific character of work in the structures of the uniformed services. The aim of the study was to examine how self-control, revealed strategies of coping with stress, sociodemographic factors differentiate the level of psychological and physical well-being of prison officers, and what is the predictor of psychological and physical well-being in this occupational group. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a group of 75 prison officers working in the Prison Potulice Security Department. In the study the following tools were used: the questionnaire on "Psychosocial working conditions", popular questionnaire on emotional intelligence (Popularny Kwestionariusz Inteligencji Emocjonalnej--PKIE), Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE) and the questionnaire on sociodemographic variables. A higher level of mental and physical well-being of the subjects was accompanied by a higher level of declared active coping and a lower level in the range of helplessness, avoidance, turn to religion and sense of humor. Regression analysis showed that the levels of emotional control, helplessness strategy and support seeking strategies are important predictors of physical well-being of the dependent variable. As regards the psychological well-being, significant predictors are: the levels of emotional control, sense of humor and support seeking. The value of the results is limited due to the methodology used to collect questionnaires. In our study a random trial was not used as the questionnaires were completed only by individuals interested in the subject under study. Knowledge about the specificity of the psychophysical characteristics of prison officers should be taken into account when designing the tools of occupational health promotion. Studies show an average low level of perceived well-being with a high level of self-control. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3

  18. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of NOC Outcomes "Anxiety Level" and "Anxiety Self-Control" in a Portuguese Outpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia; Araújo, Odete Sofia Silva Lomba; Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Lluch Canut, María Teresa; Martins, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    To adopt the language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of "Anxiety level" and "Anxiety self-control" NOC outcomes in Portuguese adult patients. Methodological design. The final European Portuguese version of the NOC outcome "Anxiety level," composed by 16 indicators, proved excellent internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was forced to three factors. The NOC outcome "Anxiety self-control," composed of nine indicators, demonstrated a questionable internal consistency. EFA was forced to two factors. European Portuguese versions of the studied NOC outcomes proved to be tools with acceptable psychometric properties for evaluating anxiety in Portuguese patients. This study contributed to the development of NOC language and to the enrichment of nursing's body of knowledge. Adaptar a linguagem e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas dos resultados NOC "Nível de ansiedade" e "Autocontrolo da ansiedade" em utentes portugueses adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico. A versão portuguesa do resultado NOC "Nível de ansiedade", composta por 16 indicadores, apresentou uma excelente consistência interna. A análise fatorial exploratória (AFE) foi forçada a três dimensões. O resultado NOC "Autocontrolo da ansiedade", composto por nove indicadores, apresentou uma consistência interna questionável. A AFE foi forçada a duas dimensões. CONCLUSÕES: As versões portuguesas dos resultados NOC estudados são instrumentos com propriedades psicométricas aceitáveis para avaliar a ansiedade em utentes portugueses. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Este estudo contribuiu para o desenvolvimento da linguagem NOC e para enriquecer o corpo de conhecimento de Enfermagem. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  19. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  20. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner